Diffusion in liquids - evidence for random particle movement in liquids:  If coloured crystals of e.g.

the highly coloured salt crystals of potassium manganate(VII) are dropped into a beaker of water and covered at room temperature. o Despite the lack of mixing due to shaking or convection currents from a heat source etc. the bright purple colour of the dissolving salt slowly spreads throughout all of the liquid but it is much slower than the gas experiment described above because of the much greater density of particles slowing the spreading due to close proximity collisions. o The same thing happens with dropping copper sulphate crystals (blue, so observable) or coffee granules into water and just leaving the mixture to stand. When pollen grains are viewed under a microscope they appear to 'dance around' when o illuminated with a light beam at 90 to the viewing direction. o This is because the pollen grains show up by reflected light and 'dance' due to the millions of random hits from the fast moving water molecules. o This phenomenon is called 'Brownian motion' after a botanist called Brown first described the effect (see gases above).  At any given instant of time, the hits will not be even all round the pollen grain, so they get a greater number of hits in a random direction.

DIFFUSION in Gases: The natural rapid and random movement of the particles in all directions means that gases readily ‘spread’ or diffuse.  The net movement of a particular gas will be in the direction from lower concentration to a higher concentration, down the so-called diffusion gradient.  Diffusion continues until the concentrations are uniform throughout the container of gases, but ALL the particles keep moving with their ever present kinetic energy! Diffusion is faster in gases than liquids where there is more space for them to move (experiment illustrated below ) and diffusion is negligible in solids due to the close packing of the particles. o Diffusion is responsible for the spread of odours even without any air disturbance e.g. use of perfume, opening a jar of coffee or the smell of petrol around a garage. o The rate of diffusion increases with increase in temperature as the particles gain kinetic energy and move faster. o Other evidence for random particle movement including diffusion :  When smoke particles are viewed under a microscope they appear to 'dance o around' when illuminated with a light beam at 90 to the viewing direction. This is because the smoke particles show up by reflected light and 'dance' due to the millions of random hits from the fast moving air molecules. This is called 'Brownian motion' (see below in liquids). At any given instant of time, the hits will not be even, so the smoke particle get a greater bashing in a random direction. o

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A two gaseous molecule diffusion experiment is illustrated above and explained below! A long glass tube (2-4 cm diameter) is filled at one end with a plug of cotton wool soaked in conc. hydrochloric acid sealed in with a rubber bung (for health and safety!). A similar plug of conc. ammonia solution is placed at the other end. The soaked cotton wool plugs will give off fumes of HCl and NH3 respectively,

e. moves faster than Mr(HCl) = 1 + 35.and if the tube is left undisturbed and horizontal. despite the lack of tube movement. Mr(NH3) = 14 + 1x3 = 17.5  AND that's why they meet nearer the HCl end of the tube!  So the experiment is not only evidence for molecule movement.g. ammonia and hydrogen chloride.  Explanation: What happens is the colourless gases. the greater the average speed of the molecules (but all gases have the same average kinetic energy at the same temperature).  Therefore the smaller the molecular mass. NO shaking to mix and the absence of convection. it is also evidence that molecules of different molecular masses move/diffuse at different speeds. .g.  ammonia + hydrogen chloride ==> ammonium chloride  NH3(g) + HCl(g) ==> NH4Cl(s)  Note the rule: The smaller the molecular mass. diffuse down the tube and react to form fine white crystals of the salt ammonium chloride. the faster the gas diffuses. hydrochloric acid tube end . a white 1 cloud forms about /3rd along from the conc.  e.5 = 36.  For a mathematical treatment see Graham's Law of Diffusion Diffusion is almost impossible in solids because the particles are too closely packed and strongly held together with no ‘empty space’ for particles to move through.

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