TABLE OF CONTENTS

• History of battery

Types of Batteries

• Lead acid battery used in cars • Battery specification • Major players in market • Locations

• How battery is made
• Raw material • Production Process • Technological process • Problems faced by industry

• Pricing
• Government Policies • Future prospects • Imports Exports • References

“BATTERY”
HISTORY OF THE BATTERY

The first battery was invented in 1800 by Alessandro Volta. In 1800, Alessandro Volta of Italy built the voltaic pile and discovered the first practical method of generating electricity. Constructed of alternating discs of zinc and copper, with pieces of cardboard soaked in brine between the metals, the voltic pile produced electrical current. The metallic conducting arc was used to carry the electricity over a greater distance. Alessandro Volta's voltaic pile was the first battery that produced a reliable, steady current of electricity.

Types of Batteries

• • • • • • •

Lead-acid battery,( most common type of battery in use today) Wet and Dry Cells Carbon-zinc cell Alkaline cell Nickel-cadmium cell Edison cell Mercury cell

LEAD-ACID BATTERY USED IN CARS & UPS A lead-acid battery is an electrical storage device that uses a reversible chemical reaction to store energy. It uses a combination of lead plates or grids and an electrolyte consisting

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of a diluted sulphuric acid to convert electrical energy into potential chemical energy and back again. IN PAKISTAN Atlas Battery is the first one to introduce UPS, CNG, Diesel & Rickshaw Batteries in Pakistan. Atlas battery was established in 1966. We see a lot of other companies that have entered into market today and Batteries industry has been a mass market. Local manufactures have start making batteries due to the current energy crisis, therefore Local as well as imported batteries are available now.

BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS • • • • • • • • Energy/weight 30-40 Wh/kg Energy/size 60-75 Wh/L Power/weight 180 W/kg Charge/discharge efficiency 50%-92% Energy/consumer-price 7(sld)-18(fld) Wh/US$ Self-discharge rate 3%-20%/month Cycle durability 500-800 cycles Nominal Cell Voltage 2.105 V

MAJOR PLAYERS IN PASKITAN 1. ATLAS BATTERY Brand = (AGS Battery) 2. EXIDE Pakistan Limited Brand = (EXIDE Battery) 3. Pakistan Accumulators Pvt Ltd 3

Brand = (Osaka Battery) (Volta Battery) LOCATIONS 1. ATLAS BATTERY Head Office & Factory Karachi: D-181, Central Avenue, S.I.T.E. , Karachi - 75730 Branches: Karachi PPI Building, Near sind Secretariat Building, Shahrah-e-kamal Ataturk, Karachi74200 Lahore Salam Chambers, 21 Link Mcleod Road, Lahore. Multan Azmat Wasti Road, Chowk Dera Adda, Multan. Rawalpindi 312-A , Kashmir Road, R. A. Bazaar, Rawalpindi Faisalabad 54-Chenab Market, Madina Town, Faisalabad: Sahiwal 64-V, Al - Hilal Building, Nishter Road, Sahiwal - 57000. Sukkur 1738/D, Husaini Road, Sukkur. Peshawar Mr. Ghayasuddin Qureshi 1st Floor, Zeenat Plaza, G.T. Road, Peshawar.

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2. EXIDE Pakistan Limited HEAD OFFICE :
40 K, Block - 6 P.E.C.H.S., Dr. Mahmood Hussain Rd, Off Shara-e-Faisal, Karachi - 75400

FACTORY & MARKETING DIVISION :
A / 45 Hill Street, P.O. Box, 3680, S.I.T.E., Karachi - 75700

3. Pakistan Accumulators Pvt Ltd Head Office Volta House, House # 2, Street # 63, Sector F-8/4, Islamabad , Pakistan. Factory Plot # 20,21,22 Phase III, Industrial Estate, Hattar, Distt Haripur N.W.F.P , Pakistan Branches: Rawalpindi Volta House 53/A Haider Road , Saddar Cantt, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Peshawar Volta House "VOLTA HOUSE" Flate # 6,7, Noor Plaza, Haji Camp, G.T Road Peshawar

Faisalabad

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Volta House National Hotel Shop # 23, Sargodha Road, FAISALABAD, Pakistan.

PRODUCTION CAPACITY
The production capacity of this industry is approximately 2.70 lakhs per month.

HOW A BATTERY IS MADE Batteries are made of five basic components:
• • •

A resilient plastic container. Positive and negative internal plates made of lead. Plate separators made of porous synthetic material. Electrolyte, a dilute solution of sulfuric acid and water, better known as battery acid. Lead terminals, the connection point between the battery and whatever it powers.

• •

RAW MATERIAL (LOCAL, IMPORTED)
The raw material used in the battery is all imported because the quality is the main factor. It is mainly imported from China.

PRODUCTION PROCESS The manufacturing process begins with the production of a plastic container and cover. Most automotive battery containers and their covers are made of polypropylene. For a typical 12 volt car battery, the case is divided into six sections, or cells, shaped somewhat like one row in an ice cube tray. The cover is dropped on and sealed when the battery is finished. The process continues with the manufacture of grids or plates from lead or an alloy of lead and other metals. A battery must have positive and negative plates to conduct a charge. 6

Next, a paste mixture of lead oxide which is powdered lead and other materials sulfuric acid and water is applied to the grids. Expander material made of powdered sulfates is added to the paste to produce negative plates. Inside the battery, the pasted positive and negative plates must be separated to prevent short circuits. Separators are thin sheets of porous, insulating material used as spacers between the positive and negative plates. Fine pores in the separators allow electrical current to flow between the plates while preventing short circuits. In the next step, a positive plate is paired with a negative plate and a separator. This unit is called an element, and there is one element per battery cell, or compartment in the container. Elements are dropped into the cells in the battery case. The cells are connected with a metal that conducts electricity. The lead terminals, or posts, are then welded on. The battery is then filled with electrolyte or battery acid a mixture of sulfuric acid and water, and the cover is attached. The battery is checked for leaks. The final step is charging, or finishing. During this step, the battery terminals are connected to a source of electricity and the battery is charged for many hours. When the battery is fully charged, it moves to another line where the case is cleaned, if necessary, and the labels are attached.

TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL The AGS brand has earned a high reputation as a quality product with latest Japanese technology, consistent in high level of performance and reliability. In order to keep pace with the technology advancement, the company has acquired the latest computerized assembly plant. The technology used by EXIDE Pakistan and Pakistan Accumulators (Pvt) Ltd is based on the technology of Chloride Group P.L.C. of U.K.

PROBLEM FACED BY THE INDUSTRY

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Prices of major raw materials required by battery industry such as refined lead and recycled lead have increase by 30% in the year 2005-06 due to increase in international prices of lead and export of recycled lead from Pakistan at highly under invoiced value. The unorganized sector which comprise of importers at under invoiced value are still enjoying sizeable share in the battery market which in return is posing threat to the organized sector and a big amount of revenue loss. The current energy crisis situation is also affecting the industry very badly. Demand is not being fulfilled by the industry.

PRICING
AGS, 12 volts, 100 Ah LED Acid Battery Price: Rs 4,000

So the price starts from Rs. 3500 (approximately).

GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND INCENTIVES Please Refer to the SMEDA Feasibility Attached.

FUTURE PROSPECTS (AFTER WTO) It is hoped that battery industry will continue to perform satisfactory, but the profitability will remain under pressure on account of increase in raw material prices i.e. lead. In view of overall improvement in the national economy operating performance of the automotive battery industry in the organized sector also improved during the year 200607. However, prices of major raw materials used by the battery industry such as lead and recycled lead have increased to all time high level. Increase in market competition will motivate the organization in better performance in future.

Imports and Exports Please Find Attached Summary
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REFERENCES
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_battery 2. inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbattery.htm 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car_battery 4. http://www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1011v2/css/h1011v2_62.htm 5. http://www.volta.com.pk/product.php?hdnTypeID=1 6. http://www.batterycouncil.org/LeadAcidBatteries/HowaBatteryisMade/tabid/107/ Default.aspx 7. http://www.vonwentzel.net/Battery/00.Glossary/index.html

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