inform • February 2004 • Volume 15 (2

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WHAT’S NEW SURFACTANTS & DETERGENTS 107
times you wash the glass in the automatic dishwasher. The problem, they say, has nothing to do with the dishwasher or your standards of cleanliness. And while the type of detergent you use may aggravate the dirty appearance, forces of fundamental science are more to blame. Researchers at Lehigh University have discovered that the milky band is actually a network of microscopic scratches that form as the glass is being manufactured. These cracks are not visible at the time of purchase, but repeated washings in the dishwasher cause the glass to dissolve slightly. This, in turn, causes the tiny cracks to spread and to scatter light, giving the glass what appears to be a recalcitrant swath of dirt or grime. The three-year study was funded by Unilever (London, England; Rotterdam, The Netherlands) and led by Himanshu Jain, Diamond Chair Professor of materials science and engineering at Lehigh. Jain’s coauthors on the Journal of the American Ceramics Society (JACS) paper were Anju Sharma, a Lehigh graduate student, and Joseph Carnali and Guillermo Lugo of Unilever Research U.S. in Edgewater, New Jersey. Jain began the study by assembling a variety of new, not-yet-washed wineglasses.“The as-received glassware appeared clear and transparent to the unaided eye,” he wrote in JACS (86:1669–1676, 2003). Upon closer examination with optical microscopy, however, he noticed “grooves and scratches of submicrometer size along the circumference of the bowl. “The existence of these microscopic surface defects, even before washing, suggests that they were created during the manufacturing process and/or subsequently to forming during handling,” the researchers wrote. After making this discovery, Jain and his colleagues washed the glasses for as many as 100 cycles in three detergent solutions ranging from benign to harsh. They observed that the glasses washed in the benign solution containing no sodium disilicate remained clear and transparent. In contrast, the glasses washed in solutions containing 0.7 g and 1.5 g of sodium disilicate per liter became visibly corroded around the center of the glass bowl, or “exactly where the scratches and grooves were found before the sample was washed,” the researchers

Henkel to buy Dial
Dial Corp. of Scottsdale, Arizona, the maker of Dial soap, Renuzit air fresheners, and Armour Star canned meats, is being acquired by Henkel KGaA for $2.9 billion in cash. The Düsseldorf, Germany-based company makes detergents, cosmetics, and adhesives. The deal, which was announced in midDecember and is expected to close by April 2004, will give Henkel a bigger foothold in North America and a portfolio of well-known brands. Henkel said it expects to sell later “a significant part of its minority holdings in Clorox Co. of Oakland, California, or Ecolab Inc. of St. Paul, Minnesota.” Dial headquarters will remain in Scottsdale, the companies said, and Dial chief executive Herb Baum will stay in his post for two years.

Scientists explain the ring around the glassware
Materials scientists at Lehigh University (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) have an explanation for the cloudy ring around glassware that seems to get worse, not better, the more

the creator of the perfume “looked for ingredients that would invoke brightness. which causes the preformed scratches on the glass to dissolve more quickly than the rest of the glass. or cloudy. Krinski said. worth E15. Louis. This may be due to the fact that. comfort. features the aroma of soy milk and soy nuts. adding that he has high hopes for a rapid commercialization of the product. Rather than working with traditional scents such as citrus or vanilla. In summary. The altered soy protein has undergone cationic modification and . dishes are washed at higher temperatures than in the United States. especially in Germany and The Netherlands. making it unique in its ability to interact with hydrophilic and hydrophobic additives in detergent formulations. Cognis said. and thus acquire the corroded. n Solae and Purdue to work on soy-based laundry additive AOCS member Bernie Tao was selected to work with The Solae Co. director of product development and new technology for Solae and creator of a laundry additive for detergent applications that the company has donated to Purdue (West Lafayette. The Bronze Award. the company decided to partner with a university in bringing the technology to market. “A detergent manufacturer has taken the first step. worth E10. Carnali also said washing the wineglasses by hand prevents the glass bowl from clouding.300). That is because these solutions cause all of the glass to dissolve at the same fast rate. Tao was chosen partly because of his contacts in industry. especially as the glass makes the transition from liquid to solid. The technology could be used with any other oilseed protein.” said Jain. says Jain. “Simply” includes all white flowers for brightness. adding “the nice thing about the technology using soy protein is its combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. he explained.” can be used in detergent applications for both the consumer and institutional and industrial markets. said the additive could be on the market as soon as 2005. KG (Düsseldorf. (St. Wineglass and dishwashing detergent companies receive more complaints in Europe than in the United States. Carnali said Unilever has made “subtle” changes in the composition of its dishwashing detergents as a result of the study in order to reduce the amount of the ingredients known to cause corrosion. and intimacy. and toasted soy nuts for intimacy. Most consumers who file complaints with automatic dishwashing machine manufacturers are using a mid-range dishwashing detergent. says Jain. In addition. says Jain.200). soy milk for comfort. or through the use of improved detergent formulations. “We are talking to several ingredient and detergent manufacturers. went to a team of researchers that developed a rheology modifier for water-based paints that is 30% more effective than existing rheology modifiers. Missouri) on a new soy protein-based laundry additive. George Fieg. and may break in the dishwasher before it takes on the telltale cloudy look of corrosion. Rolf Kawa.” Tao confirmed. the problem of corroded wineglasses is twofold.108 WHAT’S NEW SURFACTANTS & DETERGENTS noted. It can be mitigated either by controlling the manufacturing process. The resulting bowl is thinner but still transparent. who created an emollient that significantly improves the performance of skin. was given to Bettina Jackwerth.000 (about $18. inform • February 2004 • Volume 15 (2) Briefs l Cognis Deutschland GmbH & Co. Thomas Krinski. Germany) has awarded the creators of two new products the company’s Silver and Bronze Cognis Innovation Awards. according to the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. The multifunctional additive works not only as an antiredeposition agent but also can interact with fabric surfaces to form a protective layer. look. The Silver Award. Jain’s group found that the most aggressive dishwashing solutions do not cause the most visible scratching. he and Tao will explore potential applications in preventing dye transfer and as an additive in fabric softeners.” Because Solae works primarily with edible applications of soy proteins and has a limited number of industrial protein-based products. Glasses washed with the harsher solutions also became tinged with blue and other colors near the rim.and hair-care products. which enhances the problem. “Now it is the glass manufacturers’ turn to address this qualitycontrol issue. they said. Krinski noted. l Soy milk isn’t just for drinking anymore: “Simply. Ironically. Indiana).000 (around $12. after he and Tao tweak the technology and scale up the process.” a new perfume by Clinique. its creator said. and Thorsten Löhl.” the report said. Krinski said.

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