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1 1.1 1 1.2 1 1.3 11.4 1 1.5 I 1.6
Introduction
Objcc~ivcs
Homomorphisms Properties of Homomorphisms The Isomorphism Theorems Sumnlary Solutions/Answers
1 . INTRODUCTION
In Unit 6 you studied about functions bctwecn groups that preserve the binary operation. You also saw how usef~~l they were lor 4t~ldying[lie structure of n group. In this unit we will discuss functions betweell rings whicli prcwrvc tlic Iivo binary operations. Such functions are called ring homomorphisms. You will see how homomorphisms allow us to investigate the algcbt.aic nature ol'a ring. If a homomorphism is a bijcclion, it is callcd an isomorphism. The role of isomorphisms in ring theory, as in group theory, is to idctitil'y algebr:~ically idelltical systems. That is why they are important. Wc will discuss then1 also. Finally, we will show you thc intcrrclatic~tlsl~ip between ring l~on~omorphisms, ideals and quotictit rings.
Objectives
After reading this unit, yo~tshoultl lie able to e check whether a function is a ring homomorphism or not; 0 obtain the kerncl arid image of any homomorphism; @ give exatnples of ring homomorphisms and isomorphisms; @ prove and use some properties of :I ring homomorphisn~; state, prove and apply the Fundamental Thcorcm c ~ Homomorphism f for rings.
Atlalogous to the notion of a group homa~not.phism,we have the concept of a ring homomorphism. Recall that a group hon~ornorphisnipreserves tlie group operation of its domain. So it is nat~lral to expect a ring homomorphism to preserve the ring structure of ils domain. Consider the fnllowing definition.
I
Definition : Let (RI, 1, . ) ant1 (R1, ) be two rings and f : R I R 2 be a lnap. Wc say that f is a ring homornorphisrn if f(a I b) = f(a) 4 f(b), and f(a . b) = f(a) . f(b) for all a, b in R I . Note that the a n d . occurring on the left hand sides of the ecluations in the definition above are defined on R I , while the and . occurring on the right hand sides are defined on R2.
+. .

+
+
So, we can say that f : R I
 Rz is a homomorphism if
i) the image of a sum is the sum of the images, and ii) the image of a product is the product of the images. Thus, the ring homolllorphism f i s also a group l~omomorphism from (RI, +) into (R2, +). Just as we did in Unit 6, before giving some examples of homomorphisms let us define the kernel and image of a hornomorphisin. As is to be expected, these definitions are aiialogous to ' the corresponding ones in Unit 6.
Now for sorhe exercises. Solution : For any m. f is called an epimorphism or an onto homomorphism.. m(mod 6)) = f(n(mod 6)) . f is a ring homomorphism. + + + Example 2 : Let s E N. . Kerl~=(xERII~~(x)=0] =. Thus. Ker i and Im i? / + . What are K e i IU . Note that {m f C_ R. What is Ker f! Solution : Firstly. E 1) If S is a subring of a ring R. Show that f is a ring Example 3 : Consider the map f : Z homomorphism. Example 1 : Let R be a ring. IR is a ring homomorphism. and then R: is called the homomorphic image of R I . In future we will use the term 'homomorphism' for 'rihg homomorphism'.. f(m(mod 6)). y E R. we would like tp make a remark about terminology. f(n(mod 6) m(mod 6)) = f((n m) (mod 6)) = (n rn) (mod 3) . You may remember that we also did this in the case of group hamomorphisms. What are . Now. Before discussing any more examples.given by f(m) = Efor all m E Z is a homomorph~sm. 1 \ ..{x E R I x = 0 ) = {OJ Imllc = (Ilt(x) I x E R ] ={x ( x E R ] = R. Ker f = in(mod. 11. and I1c(xy) = xy = II{(X) 114~).is a surjection. m E Z. Then I14x y) = x y = 1 1 4 ~ ) I d y ) . . Therefore. bar denoting 'mod 6'. for any n.and Im IR? Solution : Let x. Show that the identity map J U is a ring homomorphism. Then i) t h e i m a g e o f f t o b e t h e s e t l m f = {f(x) I x E R I I . Show that the inclusion map i : S . If Im f = R2.R : i(x) = x is a homomorphism.R? be a ring homomorphism. . then S itself is a ring with the same and of R. Show that the map f : Z Z. Thus. Thus. f is a ring homomorphism. = n (mod 3) m(mod 3) = f(n (mod 6)) f(m(mod 6)) You can similarly show that f(n(mod 6) . Thus.  + + + .Elementary Ring Theory Definition : Let RI and R2 be two rings and f : R I we define . n Z3 : f(n (mod 6)) = n(mod 3).  + + + + + lo. Im f = (f(m) I m E Z ) =(iii 1 m E Z ) = z. Now let us loolc at some examples. and Ker f C_ R I . Ilt(xy) = xy = II$x) 1 1 4 ~ ) . f(m n) = m t n = m n = f(m) f(n). Obtain Ker f and Im f also.6) 1 n O(mod 3)) = in(mod 6) ) n E 32) = 31. showing that f is an epimorphism. . and f(mn) = iiiii = IG fi = f(m) f(n). ii) the kernel o f f to be the set Ker f = {x E R I I f(x) = 0 ) . I . and hence an epimorphism. Kerf = (m E Z ( f(m) = 6 1 = {m E Z ( m = 01 = (m E Z I m E 0 (mod s)) = sz. n E Z.
b E R under matrix adgition and ] Show that the map I : Z . . f is a ring homomorphism from @ (X) into @ (Y). f(1)) is a  . Kerf={AE @(X))AlnY= 4 ) . E6) + f i z . What are Ker p and Im p? . Does Y' E Ker f ? What is Im f ? Solution : For any A and B in B (X). E 5 . + I Example 6 : Consider the ring @ (X) o f Example 4 of Unit 9.B n Y = B. Example 5 : Consider the ring R = [ [i E]] a.> = (f(A)\ f(@) U(f(B) \f(A)) = f(A) A f(B). The following exercises will give you some more examples of homomorphisms. Solution: Note that f(n) = nI. NOW. take any B f 63 (Y). I. Now you can . . TOshow that @ (Y) C_ Im f. . 'We will show that f i's surjective. Show that the projection map P : A X B .) Is f : Z 122 : f(x) = 2x a homomorphism? Why?  Ring Hornomorph~sms 1 E 3) ' Note that using E 1 we know that f : 2 . y) = x is a homomorphism. Now. the zero element of B (Y) is 4 Therefore. 4(f + g) = (f + g) (112) = f(1/2) + g(1/2) = 4(fl + b is onllcd thc evi~lualion map . Show that the map 4 : C[O.7 (x)] Thus. m E 2 homomorphism.heck that f(n 4m) = f(n) f(m) and f(nm) = f(n) f(m) n. B E Im f. : . I] of all real valued continuous functions defined on the closed interval [O. p ]is a homomorphirm. Example 4 : Consider the ring C[O. and Ribe two rings. Im f = @ (Y). I].  n .Q (or R. Show that f is a homomorphism. Now. Thus.E 2) Let R . Define f : @ (X) @ (Y) by f(A) I= A n Y for all A in @ ( X ) . + Solution : Let f and g E C [0. YLEKerf. Thus. = f(A) f7 f(B).A : p(x.R X R : 4 homomorphism. Im f = {A n Y I A E 6.7 (X) and f(B) . and Thus. Also obtain Ker f and Im f. Therefore.Show that f is a homomorphism.h b n homomorphism? . I] . homomorphism. f is an onto homomorphism.Z + f i: ~ f(a + v 5 b ) = a .n is associative and commutative.] R : @(f) = f(1/2). ' So.13 : f(n) = [. 1s f : Z . Show that 4 is a homomorphism. f(A h B) = f((A\ B) U (B\ A))= ( ( A \ B ) u ( B \ A nu)) ' = ((A\B) n Y) U((&AY n Y) = ((A fl Y)\(B n y. where I is the identity matrix of order 2. 'hen B 5 6. since. (0 = (f(O). 11. Let Y be a nonempty subset of X . u ((B n Y)\(A n y. I] Then (f g) (x) = f(x) f g(x) and (fg) (x) = f(x) g(x) for all x E C[O. I E 4) Let A and B be two rings.I[ f 4(g).at some more examples. (This function is called the trivial homomorphism. 4 is a homomorphism. Define 4 : C[O.. Thus. f is a . and f(A B)= (A f l B) n Y = (A n B) n (Y n Y) = (A fl Y) f l (B n Y). Im f G &' (Y). Define f : R I R?: f(x) = 0. or C or Z + iZ)given by f(n) = n is a Now let us look.
). Let us use Theorem 1 of Unit 10. then f'(1) is an ideal of R I and Ker f C_ f . I . 3 s E R I such that f(s) =: r.E R. f(b) E T 72f(a) .  " . Next.b E f .! j C 22. . Firstly. You know that 2 2 is an ideal of Z.e. Proof: Since f is a group homomorphism from (RI. Then rf(x) = f(s) f(x) = f(sx) E f(I).3 PROPERTIES OF HOMOMORPHISMS Let us start by listing some properties that show how a homomorphism preserves the structure of its domain. To finish the proof try E 9.  Now. Now.' ( ~ is ) a subring of R I . since sx E I. let a.) Theorem 2 : Let f : R I Rz be a ring homomorphism.' ( ~ ) . take any f(x) E f(1) and r E R?. If RI is with identity 1. let us look at direct and inverse images.'2 E 22. try E 8.f(x)Vx ER1.' ( ~ ) a . But. Proof: Here we will prove (a) and leave (b) to you (see E 9)! Firstly. The following result is only a restatement of Theorem 1 of Unit 6 . . Thus. But is i(2Z) (i. E 8) Prove (a) of Thebrem 2. Theorem 3 : Let f : R1 Rz be a ring homomorphism. . . We have the following result. E 7) Let f : R I R2 be an onto ring homomorphism.a) f(b) E T f(a . b) if T is a subring of R?..  * . all is not lost. To complete the proof of Theorem 2. For example. thcn f (I) is an ideal of R. 1. it is natural to expect an analogue of Theorem 2 for ideals. since I is a subring of R I .. Then a) if S is a subring of R I . Then a) f(0) = 0. f(1) is an ideal of R:.= .y E R I .. since T # 4 . 11.' ( ~and 3f'(~) is a subring.b) E T and f(ab) E T ) ab E f . Secondly. let us obtain some basic results about ring homomorphisms. we can apply Theorem 1 of Unit 6 to get the result. the hornomorphic 4 4 *2 image of an ideal need not be an ideal. f(1) is a subring of R:. 2 2 ) an ideal of 1 1 1 R? No.' ( ~ )Then . show that Rz is with identity f(1).  + + In the following exercise we ask you to prove another property of homomorphisms. i 32 . But consider the inclusion i : Z R : i(x) = x. . '  . Since f is surjective. a) Iff is surjective and I is an ideal of RI. (See Sec. Theorem 1 : Let f : RI R2 be a homomorphism from a ring R I into a ring Rz.and C) f ( ~ y) = f(x) .. f(S) is a subring of R?. b) If I is an ideal of Rz. f(a). Thus. Proof: We will prove (b) and leave the proof of (a) to you (see E 8). f .5 for the definition of an inverse image. b E f . bf subrings under homomorphisms.Elementary Ring Theory Having discussed many examples. b) f(.f(y) V X.f(b) E T and f(.x) = . . ) to (Rz. f" (T) # 4 . but 2.
Thus. Our discussion so far is leading us to the following theorem.Ker f = f'(f(1)). Now 4 (f'(J)) = f(fI(~)) = J . n) is not onto.B : 4(l) = f(1). + + * + Now you may like to do an easy exercise. E 10) Let f : R S be an onto ring homomorphism. where I is an ideal of Z. I fF'(f(1)).. consider an epirnorphism f : R . b) Irn f is a subring df ~ . which you may have already realised from the examples you have studied so far.We have an analogous result for ring homomorphisms. I = f'([(I)) b) thenlapping 1 f(Q defines a onetoone correspondence between the set of ideals of R containing Ker f and the set of ideals of S. using E 10. In fact. Then a) if I is an ideal in R containing Ker f. then f(f?(~))= J. . Thus. 4 is onto : If J E B then fI (J) E A and Ker f C fI (J) by Theorem 3.Then f(x) E f(1). Then 2 . I + Ker f C_ f'(f(1)).e. Let us prove (b) now. Theorem 5 : Let f : R I . ' B Theorem ~ 3 you know that f(1) is an ideal of S and f'(f(1)) is an id al of R. We want to show that 4 is oneone and onto.  Proof : We have proved (a) in the discussion above. Show that if J is an ideal of S. then f'(f(1)) = I (since Kerf C_ I I Ker f = I). Find an ideal in Z X Z which is not of the form f(I).EUng Homomorphisms E 9) Prove (b) of Theorem 3.y) = 0.Z X Z : f(n) = (n. fl(f(1)) C_ I Ker f. =z. by (a). f(x) = f(y) for sdme y E I. And now let us look closely at the sets Ker f and Im f. c Let x E fF1(f(l)). I 4. E 11) Find the kernel of the homomorphism f:ZZ12:f(z) Also find the ideals of 2 1 2 . 4 is oneone : If 11and 1 2 are ideals in R containing Ker f. This tells us that if Ker f C_ I.Rzbe a ring homomorphism. Let us see whv. In Unit 6 we proved that iff : G I G2 is a group homomorphism then Ker f is a normal subgroup of G I and Im f is a subgroup of Gz. 4 is bijective. :. Let A be the set of ideals of R containing Ker f.  . NOW. and B be the set of ideals of S.i. Therefore. x . then $(ill = 4(1~) =3 ~ ( I I= ) f(1~) =s fl(f(11)) = fl(f(1z)) =3 11 = 12. : .S be an onto ring homomorphism. How are I and f'(f(1)) related? Clearly. Thus.  Theorem 4 : Let f : R . Then f(x . Define 4 : A .xEy+KerfC_I+Kerf.Can f'(f(T)) contain elements of R\I? Remember that Ker f C_ f'(f(1)) also. E 12) Show that the homomorphism f : Z .S and an ideal I in R . f'(f(1)) = I Ker f. Use this result for solving the following exercises. where f is a ring homomorphism.yEKerf.
and g : R2 . Proof : Let us define f : R . Then f(a bl = (a b) I = (a I) (b I) = f(a) f(b). + + + + + + + + + + + Thus. Before going to the theorem recall the definition of quotient rings from Unit 10. Let us see iff is a homomorphism. by Theorem 2(a). 7 ] is an ideal of 2%. b E R.R2. Theorem 7 : If I is an ideal of a ring R. In k t . +) into (Rz. f is a homomorphism. Then f is injective iff Ker f = (01. Thus.We are sure you find the following result quite unsurprising. let us prove a result analogous to Theorem 4 of Unit 6. and f(ab) = ab I = (a I) (b I) = f(a) f(b). ~ ( R Iis ) a subring of R2. Now. solve the following exercise. So. .R/I whose kernel is I. Can we always define a ring homomorphism whose domain is R and kernel is S? Why? Now let us look at the behaviour of the composition of homomorphisms. the theorem is proved.Elementary Ring Theory P~aoof: a) ~ i n c k (0) is an ideal of R2. then there exists a ring homomorphism f : R . + / Proof : f is injective iff f is an injective group homomorphism from (R I . given an ideal I of a ring R can we define a homoinorphism f so that Ker f = I? The following theorem answers this question. 'Thus. .R/I by f(a) = a I for all a E R. E 14) Let S be a subring of a ring R. Rz and R3 be rings and f : R I . For example. Ker f. Let us look a little more closely at the kernel of a homomorphism.RJ be ring homomorphisms. we have shown that Ker f is an ideal of R I . by Theorem 4 of Unit 6. Then their composition gof : R I R3 given by (goo (x) = g(f(x)) for all x E RI is a ring homomorphism.  The proof of this result is on the same. This result is very useful for showing that certain sets are ideals.. Using Theorem 6. For this take any a. Thus. our result is proved. But f'({o]) = Ker f. K e r f = { a € R J f(a)=O + I ] = ( a E R ( a + I = I ] ={a€RI ~ E I ] = I . Also note that the homomorphism f is onto.lines as the proof of the corresponding result in Unit 6. We call the homomorphism defined in the proof above the canonical (or natural) homomorphism from R onto R/I. namely. Theorem 8 : Let RI.R2 be a homomorphism. An injective homomorphism iscalled a nionomorphisrn. ). . This I is true iff Ker f = (01. b) Since RI is a subring of RI. F u r t h e r .I E 13) Which of the homomorphisms in Examples 16 are 1l? So far we have seen that given a ring homomorphism f : R . from Theorem 5 and Example 3 you can immediately say that ( n. we can obtain an ideal of R. Im f is a subring of R2.S. . by Theorem 3(b) we know that f'({o]) is an ideal of RI. Theorem 6 : Let f : R I . AS we go along you will see more examples of this use of Theorem 5. Try this simple exercise now. We leave it to you (see the following exercise).
In Unit 6 we discussed group isomorphisms and various results involving them. In particular. In this section we will do the same thing for rings. b) if go f is onto. That is. An isomorphism of a ring R onto itself is called an automorphism of R. So. Ring Homomorphisms E 15) Prove Theorem 8. then any ring isomorphic to R Imust have this property too. the first isomorphism theorem or the Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism for rings. Thus. iff is surjective.and iii) f is onto. then so is g. . Similarly. we say that R Iis isomorphic to R2. . then so is f. E 17) Use Theorem 8 to show that the function h : Z X Z a homomorphism.Im f. They will help you in becoming more familiar with isomorphisms. E 18) Which of the following functions are ring isomorphisms? c) f : C . ii) fis 1 . according to which the homomorphic image of a group G is isomorphic to a quotient group of G . E 16) In the situation of Theorem 8 prove that a) if gof is 1 . Ovetthere we proved the Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism for groups.1. namely. . a homomorphism that is bijective is an isomorphism. And now.  Try the following exercises now. .  11. the complex conjugate of z.S be a ring homomotphism. then R/Ker f S. P E 20) Show that the composition of isomorphisms is an isomorphism. Theorem 9 (The Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism) : Let f : R . let us start by defining a ring isomorphism.Z2defmed by h((n.RZbe a ring isomor hism.1. if RI is a ring with identity then it cannot be isomorphic to a ring without identity.Rzis called a ring isomorphism (or simply an isomorphism) if i) f is a ring homomorphism. Over here we would like to make the following remark.Rz is an isomorphism. Remark : Two rings are isomorphic if and only if they are algebraically identical. Thus. isomorphic rings must have exactly the same algebraic properties.4 THE ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS . E 19) Let 4 : R i . Then R X e r f . let us go back to Unit 6 for a moment. Then 4' : R2 R Iis a well defined function since (b is bijective. if the only ideals of R Iare (0)and itself. Now we will prove a similar result for rings. Show that (6.  . Definition : Let R Iand R2 be two rings. m)) = '6 is ~ Now let us see what the ring analogue of a group isomorphism is.C : f(z) = y. A function f : R I . Iff : R.is also an isomorphism.and denote it by R I R2.
Im $ = Im f. consider the projection map p : R I X R2 .is a homomorphism : Let x. Now..) As another example.i. p is an e~imorphism and Ker p = ( n 1 ii = 0 in Z. ii) Im 1. $ is well defined.To show this let x. i. + + iii) is 1 . are the same. . . Thus.e. so that f(x .Iz are distinct homomorphisms from Z onto itsV1fwith the same kernel.. b) = a. . . Also. (RI X R2)/R2 .. Try this exercise now. x . . is I .I :. .rroot : rlrstly. : p(n) = i. . note that K/Ker f is a well defined quotient ring since Ker f is an ideal of R.  As in the case of Theorem 8 of Unit 6...RI.I I + + + .y E I = Ker f 71f(x .e. (Note that we have often used the fact that Z/mZ and Z. where R I and R2 are rings.. . Thus. b) 1 b E R2 1. Therefore.A. Im 31 Im f. Z/mZ Z.is an isomorphism or not. . That is.y) = 0 f(x) = f(y) 3 *(x I) = *(y I). ) = mZ. Then p is onto and its kernel is ( (0.y) = 0. if x t I = y I then $(x I) = $(y I). ... let us put Ker f = I... i) I l . Note that this result says that f is the composition $0 q. (Note that this is not true for group homomorphisms. which is isomorphic to R2. is a ring homomorphism. Let us define t. x t I = y I ==+ x . (01. Im f Irn 5 .h(x I) for some x E R. we have shown that R/Ker 2.1m f. For convenience. + . So. y E R. i. you know that Iz and .e. Now let us see whether I l .. . and *((x + 1) (y + 1)) = $(XY + 1) = ~ ( x Y = ) f(x) f(y) = $(x + 1) $(y f 1) + + + + + + + Thus. x I = y I. This can be diagralnmatically shown as homomorphism : R R/I : ~ ( a =  + Let us look at some . Consider p : Z Z. is well defined. . + + + + + + * Thus. then m ! f = S and R/@r f S .  E 21) What does the Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism say in each of the Examples 1 to61 Let us now apply Theorem 9 to prove that any ring homomorphism from a ring R onto Z is uniquely determinedby its kernel. . iff is onto..y E Ker f = I. i.6 = Im f : Since $(x I) = f(x) E Im f U x E R._ Thus..:. So. Then f(x) = f(y).:$ I.) To prove this statement we need the following result. any element of Im f is of the form f(x) = l.where q is the canonical ) a I.. y E R such that $(x I) = t. R I : p(a. Then *((x I) (y I)) = *(x y + I) = f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) = $(x I) $(y I). . .examples of the use of the Fundamental Theorem. Therefore.. we can't have two different ring homomorphislns from R onto Z with the same kernel. we need to check that cC. In fact. .b : R/I S by $(x t I) = f(x). j ..b(y I).
the canonical maps r]r : R . : R . Corollary : Let R be a ring isomorphic.. then n is a positive integer. Iff and g are two isomorphisms from R onto Z.. O We will. Thus.. . . Since Ker f = Ker g. then f = g.f(n) = .'... f(n) = nf(1) n E 2.two applications of Theorem 9! They are analogous to Theorem 10 and 11 of Unit 6. 1) = f(m) f(1). . we have not finished with these functions. We are now in a position to prove the followi~lg result. its kernel and its image. The difinition of a ring homomorphism. 11. since f is a nontrivia1 homomorpliism. On the other hand. Show that (S I)/I = S / (S f7I). E 22) (Second isomorphism theorem) Let S be a subring and I be an ideal of a ring R. by the corollary above. since f is a homomorphism.e. The direct or inverse image of a subring under a homomorphism is a subring... i. Ring Homomorphisms.. Show Let us halt our discussion of homomorpl~ismshere and briefly recall what we have done in this unit. . This theocem has an important corollary.f = g. now give you a chance to prove.. Proof : The composition f.. Therefore.Z and ~h : R/Ker g . i.R/Ker g are the same since Ker f = Ker g.. along with several examples. $ 1= $ . Then n = 1 1 . R/I. . 1 (n times). 2. f(n) = f(1) f(1) .. Theorem 11 : Let R be a ring and f and g be homomorphisms from R onto Z such that Ker f = Ker g. Qfand Qgare isomorphisnls of the same ring onto Z. 1 f(1) (n times) = n f(1). + p E 23) (Third isomorphism theorem) Let I and J be ideals of a ring R such that J that I/J is an ideal of the ring R/J and that (R/J)/(I/J) =. to Z. Cancelling f(m) on both sides we get f(1) = 1. f(n) = n f(1) in this case too. f(m) # 0 for some m E Z. C I. . Then. Let n be a positive integer. Therefore. Also f(0) = 0 = Of( 1). We will be going back to them again and again in the future units.nf(l). Thus. Also. + + + + +  . Thus..e. i. Then f = g. Proof: By Theorem 9 we have isomorphisms $ 1 : R/Ker f . (1) * Now. Of course.e.Theoiem 10 : The only nontrivial ring homomorphism from Z into itself is I=. Therefore. if n is a negative integer.onto itself.g' is an isomorphism from Z. Therefore. 1. f = Iz. f(m) = f(m .. by Theorem 10.f : Z Z be a nontrivial homomorphism. fog' = Iz. f(n) = (n) f(l). f = Q1" Vf = Qg ?/g = g.. proof : Let . from (1') we see that f(n) = n V n E Z.R/Ker f and r].5 SUMMARY In this unit we have covered the following points..Z.
'. and f(xy) = 0 = 0 . f(a) f(r) E I. fg( 1 = (f(O). Since a E fm'(l). p((a. f(1) is the identity of R:. i(x y) = x y = i(x) i(y). q5 is a homomorphism. For f. iii) f"(1) is an ideal of R for every ideal I of S. For any (a. I m p = l p(4. g E C [0. (c. ii) Ker f is an ideal of R. : . 0 = f(x). . since ab E S. xf(1) = x. bd) = ac = p(a. ii) Let a'. E A X B ) = { a ((a. : . f(S) is a subring of R2. 6. and 4(fg) = (fg(O).Elementary Ring Theory 3. f'(I) is a subring of RI. X B J = A. b)p(c. Since r . dl. .'. dl) = p(ac. This is true for any x E Rz. f( 1)) + MO). i. The proof and applications of the Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism which says that i f f : R S is a ring homomorphism. Again use Theorem 1 of Unit 10. b ) (a. Thus. + + + + + + + E 5) E 6) Yes. Then 3 a. f(x y) = 0 = 0 0 = f(x) f(y). since f is surjective. p((al b) (c. f(b) = b'. 3 r E R I such that f(r) = x.'. Now. 7. then i) Im f is a subring of S.. b d) = a c = p(a. f(r) f(1) = f(r). Keri=(x~S~i(x)=O]=(Oj Im i = (i(x) ( x E S ) = S + + + For any x. 6 = 2 4 ~ h u s f(2. We want to show thit ar E f'(I). y: E S . . you can check it. d).f(b) = f(a .  E 1) For x. g( 1)) = 4(f) 4(g). let a E f7'(1) and r E R I . Kerf = ( x E R I I f(x) = 0 ) = R I Im f = (Oj.  I I 4. d).b' = f(a) . The definition and examples of a ring isomorphism.'. Now a' . The composition of homomorphisms is a homomorphism. g(l)) = 4(f) 4(g). A homomorphism is injective iff its kernel is {O). f f(2) f(3). . and a'b' = f(a) f(b) = f(ab) E f(S). E 8) E 9) Since I is a subring of Rz.f(a) E I. i is a homomorphism.. f ( 2 . Iff : R S is'a ring'homomorphism. f ( 3 ) = 4 . . b ) E A .e.b) E f(S). B u t f ( 2 ) . b) p(c. f(y). b' E f(S). b) + (c. y E RI. + E 7) Let x E R?. since a . E A X B.3) . 1 = r. iv) iff is surjective. (f + g) (1)) = (f(O). b ) . 4(f + g) = ((f + g) (O).g(0)) (f( 11. b). 3 ) = f ( 6 ) = 12.b E S. f is not a homomorphism. Kerp = ( ( a b ) E A X B I a = O ) = ( O j X B . . d)) = p(a c. 5. f is a homomorphism. and i(xy) ='xy = i(x) i(y) . b E S such that f(a) = a'. then R/Ker f = Im f. then f(1) is an ideal of S. . I].'.
122. From Theorem 8 you know that g ~isfa homomorphism. E 21) Example 1 : R . E 14) No. f is I . Since Z is not an ideal of Q. For example. namely. E'17) 'h is the composite of the projection map p : Z X Z Z : p(n. the ideals of Z containing Ker fare all those nZ such that n 1 12. 4 2 .Both p and f a r e ring homomorphisms. t ! E l l ) Kerf={nEZInO(mod12))=12Z. 3 I 1 . Ker f C fI(l).   . Thus. for any ideal I of Z.R. f(y) E J. Thus. where y E f .f(y). : . For any ideal I of Z. x E J. 'nce f is surjective. 2 Z . E 13) The homomorphisms in Examples 1 and 5 . Thus. if x E Ker f.f(ar) E I.f(x + Y) = g(f(x + Y)) = g(f(x) + f(y)) = gof(x) C. . x = f(y) E f(f'(J)). Thus. 3Z12. b) Let x E RJ. x y = 4 ( r ) 4(s) = +(r s) and xy = 4(rs). Thus.. y E R2 and +'(x) = r. ar € fF'(1). Example 3 : Zb/[ 0.. Then you can easily prove that f is a n isomorphism. I .' ( ~ )i. Then y E fF1(x) .'. .6ZI? and {O].. Therefore.6) a) x E Ker f : . : . f'(1) is an ideal of R I . f(I) = I X I. .c) See the appendix of Unit 2 for properties of elements of C. the ideal Z X [O) of Z X Z is not of the form f(I). 3 Z . Then x = f(y).. i. ' Ring Homomorphi.3 j = Z3. 4'(y) = s. gl. y E R I . since g ~isf 1 . For the rest. Now. : . i. n E N. E: 1. Thus. x E f'(~).1. Thus. b) f is not a homomorphism. E 18) a) f is not onto. by Theorem 4(b) the ideals of Z I ?are Zlz. Example 2 : What we have just done above.1.e. J C f(f'(J)). TZ1:.ms E 10) Let x E f(f' (J)).E 15) For any x. : .e. Hence the result is proved. g is onto. Thus. and hence must be of the form nZ. f(fI(~))C J. Then x = q5(r) and y = 4(s). it can't be the kernel of any homomorphism from Q to another ring.'. 4' is a homomorphism. h is a ring tiomomorphism. 1) @ Im f. : ..e.and @'(xy) = rs = +'(x) Thus.f'(J). proceed as you did in E 12 of Unit 6 . let x E J. . m) = m and the map f : Z Z: : f(r) =r.and hence. You already know that it is bijective. +'(x y) = r s = 4'(x) q51(y). E 12) For example. take the subring Z of Q. I  . g(f(y)) = X. I I I E 19) Let x.e. then f(x) = 0 E I. Thus. I 1.Rz and g : R: R3bk ring isomorphisms.is a homomorphism. Z/sZ = Z. and gof(xy) = g(f(xy)) = g(f(x) f(y)) = guf(x) g4(y). 4" is an isomorphism. 6Z. Ker f = [O]. ' * f(x) = 0 *g ~ f ( x )= 0 4 x = 0. 3 y E R such that f(y) = x. Since gof is onto 3 y E R I such that g<lf(y)= x. Also. ZZ12. i.gl. you know that any ideal of Z is a subgroup of Z. Now. gllf. + + + + + + I E 20) Let f : R I . (0. Z. not an isomorphism.
I/J is an ideal o f R / J and (R/J)/(I/J) = R/I. f is surjective and Ker f = I/J. and f(xy) =. .+ + + + + As you did in Theorem 10 of Unit 6.R : f. Example 5 : Z [ nI I n E Z } Example 6 : @ (X)/Ker f @ (Y). Define f : S (S I)/1 : f(x) = x I. Thus. I] 1 f .= 0 ). y E S.(x) = r. Thus. (S t I)/I ie a wen defined ring. 11 (9 .R/I : f(r t J ) = r + I. r = 4(fr) E Im 4. it is an ideal of S 4 . As you did in Theorem 11 of Unit 6. you can check that f(x y) = f(x) f(y). : [O.Example 4 : Ker 4 = ( f E C[O. Then. Im 4 = R (because given any r E R we can define the constant function f. E 23) Define f : R/J .f(x) f(y) tf x. E 22) Since I is an ideal of R and I C S I. S/(S fl I) = (S t I)/I. Thus. = r. Thus. you can check that f is surjective and Ker f = S f l I. Then f.I. .) . you can check that f is well defined.
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