Images of Women in Early Buddhism and Christian Gnosticism Author(s): Karen Christina Lang Source: Buddhist-Christian Studies

, Vol. 2 (1982), pp. 94-105 Published by: University of Hawai'i Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1390077 . Accessed: 03/10/2013 06:47
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)r1i^ ' . ' i/.F .. 4. wearing the jewellery of a bodhisattva. From one of the Singhasaritemples. English translation copyright (c) 1964 by Holle Verlag GmbH.' . S .r.*e. From The Art of Buddhism by Dietrich Seckel. Inc. Germany.. P. ~d~~l. fI . Leyden. but has been personified as "the mother of all Buddhas" and here is sculptured as a female form with her hands in a teaching gesture. ' r* :. Used by permission of Crown Publishers. 1300 PRAJNAPARAMITA. l"'-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ r:s? -: g ?.. Approx. ai . Height 126 cm..: -~J. A.1.D. .XI' ?f .. Prajfnparamita ("the perfection of wisdom") is not only a spiritual ideal. sitting in meditation on a lotus.180. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 129. . Rijksmuseumvoor Volkenkunde.217 on Thu.. having a copy of the PrajnOapramita Scripture resting on a lotus by her shoulder..A il (I E ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~F~~~~~~~~iRi~~~~~~~~i. r -P "4 : 1..'ri?? Andesite. easternJava. ~ ~~~~~~r4~~~~~~~1_~.'r -s.

we must first examine the context in which these apparent misogynist statements occur.217 on Thu. and capable of entrapping others in the cycle of birth and death..from some of the earliest Mahayanasutras and the treatisesof the philosophers Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. Why should these negative attitudes towardswomen persist when we know that women actively supported and participated in the religious life of both Buddhist and Gnostic communities? To answerthis question. their writings vilified women's bodies as "impure" and "defective" by nature. They perceivedwomen as less rationalthan men and more susceptible to the weaknessesof the flesh.E.180.COMPARISONS Imagesof Women in Early Buddhism and Christian Gnosticism KarenChristinaLang Seattle. The material I have chosen to examine falls into four categories: (1) Buddhist and Gnostic myths about the fall of humanity. The texts selected for analysis include material from the third century B. wise.1. Two majorimages of women emerge from these Buddhist and Gnostic texts: (1) women as sensual. (2) Buddhist and Gnostic attitudes towards This content downloaded from 129. and (2) women as compassionate. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . These texts associatewomen with the body and all of its unpleasant functions. As a way of escaping the bondage of the human condition. Washington Though we tend to think of Easternand Western religions as separateand distinct traditions. compilation of Buddhist monks' and nuns' verses. the Theragathdand the Therigatha.C. In particular. In contrastto men. their ancient scripturesexhibit some remarkablesimilarities. and material from the Nag Hammadi collection of Gnostic texts. seductive. and capable of enlightening others and leading them towards the divine realm. the scripturesof both traditions prescribedasceticpractices. Liberation for women involved a transformation of the female body and a repudiation of their female nature.This paper is concerned primarilywith the shared attitudes of these ascetic authors towards women. composed between the first and third centuries C. the authors of early Buddhist and Christian Gnostic scripturessaw human beings as trapped by their insatiable appetite for sensual pleasuresin a cycle of birth and death.E. women were symbols of sensual mentality. written about the same time as the earlyMahayanaliterature.

and male/ female. corporeality. who fed only on joy. incorporeal. The desire and enjoyment that the awarenessof these sexual differences generated furtheracceleratedthe downfall. The Christianheresiologist Irenaeusin Adversus haerses attributes a similar myth to the Gnostics. a This content downloaded from 129.Yet the authorsof these texts are confrontedwith the imperfectworld of human beings. that is. culminated in the fallen state of humanity. and Cain was conceived.1.217 on Thu. asexuality/sexuality. sexual differencesappeared on their bodies.2 While none of the mythological accountsof the fall in the Nag Hammadi collection correspondsdirectly with the myth that Irenaeus recounts. and (4) the transformative power of feminine insight/wisdom.96 KARENCHRISTINALANG women's bodies. from possession of luminous.180. when beings ate that earth. it is important to note that the word which this text uses to denote the earth is feminine in gender (pathavi). BUDDHIST AND GNOSTIC MYTHS ABOUT THE FALL OF HUMANITY Buddhist and Gnostic scripturesassume the existence of a state of perfection that is stable. the divine realm of self-luminous and incorporealbeings. Tasting the earth. The earth formed a scum on the surfaceof the waters. inevitably began to disintegrate. and asexual.and sexualityprevail. They sated themselves with earthly food. The well-known correlationbetween the fecundity of the earth and the fertility of women would suggest that this is no grammaticalaccident. However. rest/motion. This myth relates that Adam and Eve once had bodies that were luminous and incorporealand that the act of eating the forbidden fruit led to their loss of the luminous divine substance and to their expulsion from heaven. life/death. the feminine.darkness. their bodies became dark and material. (3) transformationof women's bodies. and following on these sexual differencescame lust and sexual intercourse.and asexual natures to the possession of dark. light/darkness. Soon after they ate this earthlyfood. Both sets of "literary myths" reveal similar patterns of binary opposition. These beings' desire for earth and their enjoyment of her substancebrought about sexual differences. incorporeal. sexual intercoursefollowed.luminous. after a long period of time. Buddhist and Gnostic myths of the fall describe the development of dualistic distinctions: heaven/earth. After the fall. a realm in which impermanence. incorporeality/corporeality. they lost their luminosity and acquired corporeal bodies. elaborate myths were put forth to explain how the currentdegenerate state of humanity came about. The fall of humanity signifies the completion of a change in status. the aspectof these myths that most concernsus here is their tendency to associatethe fall with an awarenessof sexualityand the implication that the greatershareof the blame for the fall belongs to women (or the feminine). sexual natures. Consequently. a change from residence in heaven to residence on earth. corporeal. and. Accordingto an early Buddhist myth. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1In analyzing this myth.

provided for his amusement by his doting father.5Tasting the forbidden fruit. in St. succumbs to temptation and tempts Adam as well. and from his material body they create woman. creates the archons. since sexuality was involved in the fall. slobbering and snoring female musicians and dancers. to distracthim from his quest for enlightenment. accordingto another text entitled On the Orzgin of the World. associatethe act of eating from the tree of knowledge with the bestial transformationof the body and with the procreationof beasts by sexual intercourse. incorporeal. The monk Nagasamala describesa danc- This content downloaded from 129. Accordingto this text. who assist him in the creation of man. This created being. also fail Desire. In these legends. Delight. which have their parallels in Christian ascetic writings also. Voluptuous women again confront him years later on the eve of his enlightenment. the daughtersof the Buddha's evil adversary.These scripturesimply that.3 The woman. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and sexual.180. The Book of Thomas the Contender and The Gospel of Philip. Their use of women's bodies as metaphors for desire derivesfrom the example set by the legendaryaccountsof the Buddha's life. knowledge of sexual differences. as in the Buddhist myth of humanity's fall. an act initiated by the woman Eve. resulted in the fall. the event that decisively turns the young prince Siddhartha's thoughts awayfrom sensual pleasuresand towardsthe religious life is the sight of the sleeping.1. the fall occurs when the female power Sophia ("Wisdom") chooses to create a being on her own. and. These jealous archons conspire to make man's body material. Discontent. abstention from sexual pleasures will weaken the ties that bind humanity to the lower material world and thus enable seekers after enlightenment to ascend to the luminous state of perfection forfeited by their ancestors.and asexualnature into one that is now dark. BUDDHIST AND GNOSTIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN'S BODIES 97 The theme of liberation from the bondage of desire dominated the works of many Buddhist monks. with the result that "they saw that they were naked and they became enamored of one another. inspired much of the Buddhist misogynist statements. Antony's demons. Both the Buddhist and Gnostic accountsof the fall have in common the following sequence of events: a deliberate act of eating brings about the transformation of originally luminous.' 4 Other tractates. and sexual intercourseall are associatedwith humanity's present degeneratecondition. and Mara("Death"). for instance. Eve. This transformation. material. These tales of nocturnal temptation.in turn. brings about an awakening of sexual desire and the subsequent satisfaction of this desire through sexual intercourse.IMAGESOF WOMAN similar myth in the Apocryphon ofJohn speaks of the perfect.217 on Thu. divine realm from which a seriesof luminous beings emanate. sexual desire. in possession of a portion of his mother's light and power.

I stood at the brothel's door. repudiate sexual intercoursenot only because the act defiles the body but because of its association with suffering."'0 Sexual intercourseand the birth of children were condemned as impediments to full participationin the religious life for both men and women.98 KARENCHRISTINALANG ing girl as being "like a snare of death spread out. "she exists suffering. Negative attitudes towardssexual intercourseand childbearing occur also in the Christian Gnostic scriptures. after laying out the snare.7 According to tradition."8 His disciple Aryadevaconcurs. based on the example set by the Buddha himself when he left behind his wife and son Rahula("Impediment") to take up the homeless life. Likea hunter. His censureof her led to her repentence and eventual entranceinto the orderof nuns. EarlyBuddhist scripturesrecommended celibacy and the renunciation of family life for both sexes. the birth of children.developed in the myth of the fall cited above.reviling men who lust afterwomen as being no better than dogs. Both Buddhist and Gnostic asceticscondemn sexual intercoursefor two reasons. Accostingfools.It is these activities of sexual intercourseand procreationthat Elaine Pagels suggestsJesus had in mind when he urged his disciples.'12 This tractate and others refer to sexual intercourse as "impure" and as "unclean rubbing. O monks."14 Buddhist and Gnostics alike share the notion that defilement and suffering ensue from passionate involvement with the material world. "As long as the soul keeps running about everywhere copulating with whomevershe meets and defiling herself. he comparesmen who delight in sexualpleasuresto wormswhich feed on filth. "Which two? Sexual intercourseand giving birth. her just deserts. deluded people lust for women. to "destroy the worksof femaleness" in The Dialogue of the Savior.180."13 Moreover."6 Nor is this negative appraisalof the charmsof women's bodies confined to monks. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for the nun Vimala says: I adorned this body.217 on Thu. the Gnostics. "so foolish."1The Paraphraseof Shem stresses the bestial nature of both sexual intercourseand childbirth: "For in the place where their darkness and their fire mixed with each other beasts were brought forth. Drawing upon the analogy between eating earth and enjoying sexual pleasures. any sex- This content downloaded from 129. These intemperate attackson the impurity of women's bodies and sexual intercoursecontinue in the worksof Mahayanamonks. First. "Just as a fool lusts for an ornamented pot of filth.1." Nagarjunasays. including MaryMagdalene. "Women die insatiableand indefatigable in respect to two things.9 The point of view presented in these worksperceiveswomen as bound by sexual intercourseand its result. painted well." The Exegesis on the Soul reports." the venerableKaccanasays. this particularnun had tried to ensnarethe elder Moggallana. like the Buddhists.

reverethe Buddha and his Teaching. The higher levels of existence. to "male" ones. be indifferent to her female body.180.1.''16 In another Mahayanasatra. and regardworldly life as being like an illusion or a dream. stinginess.IMAGESOF WOMAN ual contact with a woman's body defiles a man. have no evil thoughts. accept the precepts. abandon desire and wrong views. give up attachment to home and family. persist in the intention to seek enlightenment and the qualities of the Great Man. "and after her death and the breakingapartof her body.17 This content downloaded from 129. those associatedwith meditative trance. and a shift in attention from the stimuli given in sensory experience towards the noetic experience of meditative trance."'5 This passage and later ones in the early Mahayanaliterature claim that a woman's rebirth as a male is a prerequisitefor entranceinto heaven. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the pure lands. "She abandoned a woman's mentality and cultivated a man's mentality. those associated with sexual desires. further strengthening the ties to this imperfect world. make offerings to monks and brahmins. blissful. are pure. in which material form and sexual desire are absent. she was reborninto heaven.217 on Thu. Sakka'sworld. that is. Perfection of Insight in Eight ThousandLines (Astathe Buddha predicts that a goddess of the Ganges sahasrikaprajnaparamita). into fellowship with the thirty-threegods. The example of Gopika illustrates the early Buddhist belief that a woman must cultivate a "male" mind prior to entering heaven. into sonship with us. the lowest of all the multiple levels of existence. or for becoming a Buddha. be truthful. In the satra. The Buddha replies that a woman must avoid envy. TRANSFORMATION OF WOMEN'S BODIES 99 Defilement. slander no one. Arhat. sexual intercoursecan result in the birth of a child.in the world system called 'Delight'." the Discourse on Sakka's Questions (Sakkapatnasuttanta)relates. flattery. that is. Ascension to these pure realms is possible only after the rejection of sexual desire in favorof sexual abstinence. She agrees to these conditions and the Buddha then predicts that Visuddhisraddhaand her companions will be reborn in the Tusita heaven as men and attain Buddhahood. Second. will be reborn eventually as the Tathagata SuvargapuSpa ("Golden Flower"). and incessant motion characterizethe inferior realm of sexual desire. accordingto the Buddhist and Gnostic cosmologies. anger. and at rest. afterher death. The Buddha tells his favoritedisciple Ananda: "This goddess of the Ganges will change her female nature and acquirea male nature. suffering. Both Buddhist and Gnostic writersconsiderthis shift in attention as a transitionfrom "female" thought processes. the princess Visuddhisraddha("Pure Faith") asks the Buddha what a woman must do to transformher female body. But first she must undergo a change of sex. she will be rebornin the Buddha field of the Tathagata. Fully-Enlightened Buddha AkSobhya.

Fastingwill stop a woman's menstrual flow. conventionally held to be male or female. Zostrianos. resemblingyou males."21 He urges all people to "flee from the madness and bondage of femininity and choose for yourselvesthe salvationof masculinity. "Why haven't you changed your female body?" she retortsthat the femaleness of her body is untenable.the narrator how he was brought to "the first-appearing. for things are neither male nor female. recounts higher realms. She then performs an act of truth: If it is true that I will become a Buddha. Given the tendency in these Buddhist and Gnostic scripturesto associate women with imperfection.100 KARENCHRISTINALANG Other Mahayana sutrasassociatethe transformationof the female body with an act of truth. hisattva ManjusrIdiscuss the emptiness of all things. asceticism seems rooted in fear and disgust for women's bodily functions. for he has preparedus and made us into men. the sexual transformationunderscores the awarenessthat the terms "male" and "female" attach to forms. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In confirmationof the truth of her declaration. In many instances. sexual abstinence will prevent her from bearing This content downloaded from 129. In The Gospel of ThomasJesus says of Mary: I myself shall lead her in orderto make her male. so that she too may become a living spirit. the scripturesthen decreed that women must become men.1. according to The Gospel of Thomas. and greed.great. anger.180.18In this passage. male. consists of strengthening the intellectual part of the soul as it ascends to the of the text that bearshis name.' 22This tractateand others in the Nag Hammadi collection suggest that leaving behind the female nature entails a rejectionof the passions. desire. "23Ultimately.217 on Thu. When he asks. Yet entranceinto the Kingdom of Heaven. so that the male be not male nor the female female. the distinctions "male" and "female" do not apply. and hence a figurative ratherthan a literal transformation. perfect Mind. this transformationinvolved a transition in mental attitude from a preoccupationwith sexualityto a concernwith spirituality."20 This preparation.19 Maryherself tells the disciples in The Gospel of Marythat instead of weeping for the Saviorthey ought to "praise his greatness.However. ChristianGnostic scripturesalso indicate that entrance into heaven requires the transformationof females into males. that is. Foreverywoman who will make herself male will enter the Kingdom of Heaven. as the tractate Zostrianos suggests. comes "when you make the male and the female one and the same. jealousy. but which ultimately have no real immutable natureof their own.the requested transformation takes place. envy. The adoption of the masculine nature signifies an orientation towardsthe passionless state of perfection. even though ascetic practices do not literally make women into men. then may I now change into a man. In The Questions Concerningthe Daughter Sumati (Sumatithe precociouseight yearold daughter of a layman and the Boddarikaprccha).

a term grammaticallyfeminine. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and. and delusion.180. The change of sex depicted in the early Mahayana literature also occurs because of insight. as being the "mother of all the Buddhas. as a sword.'26 She is described This content downloaded from 129. The mass of darknesspierced through Thus know. the creatorof Tathagatas. as in the passagefrom The Teachingsof Vimalakirti when the goddess uses her magical power to transformthe (Vimalakirtinirdefa) monk Sariputra so that he appearsin her form and she in his. the nun Soma takes aim at Mara. Arhats. When mind is well-concentrated. hatred." The Perfection of Insight in Eight Thousand Lines emphasizes her creative powers as a mother: "She is the mother. In reply to his taunt that a woman has just enough intelligence to test if rice is cooked by rolling it between her two fingers. she says: What could a woman's nature do to us. identical to those worn by monks. Fully Enlightened Buddhas. Insight into the truth that all things ultimately are the same. 0 Evil One. The early Buddhist scripturesdescribe insight as an understanding that searchesout and discerns the truth about the nature of things.IMAGESOF WOMAN children. Death.1. the defilements that bind beings to the cycle of birth and death.25 The Mahayanaperfection of insight literatureextolls the virtue of perfecting this insight. THE TRANSFORMATIVE POWER OF FEMININE INSIGHT/WISDOM 101 The acquisition of insight (panna. she cuts through lust. When knowledge remains In someone who has thorough insight Into the Teaching? Everywhere pleasureis destroyed.who had attempted to disrupt her meditative concentration. This literature personifies the perfection of insight as female. you are defeated. physically as well as mentally. the one who makes the world visible.217 on Thu. also contribute to the impressionthat women were expected to transformtheir female nature. Shaving off a woman's hair and enjoining her to wear shapeless garments. the revealerof omniscience. renders possible the transformationof women into men and men into women. resemble magical illusions. Her light casts out darkness.24 Insight here is the power that effects the transformationof mentality bound up with sensual desires and leaves in its place a mentality focused on spiritual attainment. and are thus empty of a true. nontransformable nature of their own. makes possible the transformationof women into men. prajan). Just as the Buddha drew out the arrowof intelligence and so defeated Maraand his armies.

and thereby escape death and reincarnation. of earthly food and sexual intercoursewith the appearanceof a dark." Her creative power and light pass on in diminished quantities to her offspring. she is refereed to as "mother of the living. The association. eternal Silence. Both Buddhist and Gnostic scripturesspeak of the power of insight/wisdom to transformmaterial bondage into spiritual freedom. A vision in the form of a woman appeared to Marcus and told him: "I wish to show you truth herself. and she followed it down into the region of chaos." "grace. reflecting the fact that the Greek term for wisdom (sophia) also is feminine in gender. Fasting and abstinence from sexual intercoursedemonstrated their contempt for the body and its appetites. motivates their quest for enlightenment. but they were patient. the masculine)from the body (that is. incorporeal. Wisdom's light illumines beings and makes possible their grasp of the truth." "she who was before all things. which enables the personwho holds fast to it to crosssafely over to the other shore. say that Wisdom felt compassionfor Adam and Eve and transmittedto them a portion of her light so that "they recognized that they were naked and knew the material nature of the body.nurturingmother.180. disassociatedthe mind (that is.28 The ChristianGnostic scripturesalso personify wisdom as female. When he arrogantlyproclaimshimself "God" and says:If anything else exists before me let it appear. recognizing that the body contained them only for awhile.And both traditionsdescribeinsight/wisdom in feminine terms as a creative.102 KARENCHRISTINALANG also as a sourceof light. she immediately "stretched forth her finger. and This content downloaded from 129. driving out the darknessbrought on by defilement and erroneousopinions."31 The mother saved what was her own: the particlesof light. She illumines the truth so that beings may ascend to the perfect luminous realm. wrecked in the middle of the ocean. materialbody led both traditionsto advocateasceticpractices. corporeality. The practice of meditation." Other Gnostics. "29 According to many Gnostic tractates. and introduced light into matter. for I have brought her down from above so that you may see her without a veil.1."30 Irenaeusrelates that the followers of Marcusand Valentinus prayed to the divine mother as "mystical. which the asceticwritersrecommend. The Gnostic texts attribute creative power to wisdom." and "incorruptible wisdom. accordingto his account.217 on Thu. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The early Buddhist and Christian Gnostic assumption that beings once were luminous. the feminine) and hence from darkness.developed in their myths of humanity's fall.and asexual. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . particles or seeds of light trapped within material bodies derive from the light of Wisdom which filtered down in the process of creation. and they knew that they bore the burden of death. and that this state of perfection can be regained.27The protective support of perfect insight is compared in this text to a plank from a ship.

for instance. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .217 on Thu. And taking their cues from these mythic associations. for they associate the enjoyment of a woman's sexuality with tasting the earth.the egalitarianmessage of Buddha and Christ contained in these scripturesthat did not deny to women participationin the religious life attractedmany women to Buddhist and Gnostic communities. despite the apparentmisogynist statements in some early Buddhist and Christian Gnostic scriptures. stable.IMAGESOF WOMAN sexual desire.in both traditions aided by feminine insight/wisdom." Nagarjuna. The mind's ascension to meditative trance states brought it into contact with the luminous. mediate the second set.and impurity led to these same qualities being applied analogously to women. in order to awakenthis insight/wisdom. This content downloaded from 129."32None of these writers believed that women had minds incapable of spiritual attainment. Consequently. incorporeal. Figure 1 illustratesthe structuralpatternsthat recurin Buddhist and Gnostic scriptures. The descent of a guide.corporeality. or its fruits.180.Buddhist and Gnostic writersutilized women as apt metaphorsfor the defects of this world. These myths show traces of the ancient observation that women's fertility parallels the fruitfulness of the earth. Although the asceticwritersof both traditionssymbolized the imperfections of this world by their descriptions of the impurities and defects of women's bodies. THEOTHER WORLD DIVINITY LIGHT LIFE INCORPOREALITY SILENCE REST PURITY SPIRITUALITY 103 MEDIATORS descent CHRIST BUDDHAS BODHISATTVAS ASCETICISM ascent THISWORLD HUMANITY DARKNESS DEATH CORPOREALITY SPEECH MOTION IMPURITY SEXUALITY male mentality inward turning -- female mentality outward turning Why should women be linked with sexuality and the other categoriesof this world? In part. The worksof the orthodox Christianwriters Tertullian and Irenaeus similarly indicate (although with disapproval) that women held important positions in the Gnostic community. they intended their condemnation to apply to all human bodies as being essentially "bags of dung.and asexualstate of perfection. bridges the first set of dualistic distinctions. Christ in the Christian Gnostic scriptures and the variousBuddhas and Bodhisattvasin the Buddhist scriptures. The ascetic practicesthat these spiritual guides advocate. reminds his male audience that "your own body is just as impure as the body of a woman.1. the answerlies in the Buddhist and Gnostic myths of humanity's fall from perfection. The Buddhist scriptures contain many examples of the spiritual attainments of lay women and nuns. The associationof earth with darkness. where they had the opportunity to study and to teach.

23-27. Catuhsataka 10. 131. p. 18. 36-37 for a summaryof this text. 318. 78: divannambhikkhavedhammanamatitto appativdnomdtugdmokdlarakaroti/ ca viydyanassa ca. 4. p. Thera-Theringtha. 189. 125: This content downloaded from 129. The Paraphrase ofShem 27. 1961) p. Women in Buddhism.20-25. p. 66-67. See Paul. See the Agatia suttanta in Digha. p. 24. 5. L. W. Astasdhasrikdprajadparamita. 131: vibhusetvaimam kayamsucittam baldlapannam vesidvdramhi luddo pdsam iv 'oddiya// atthasimt 8. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 13. See the translation of Adversus haereses Robert M.15-16. 1910).p. p. 15. ed. The Exegesison the Soul 131. 320. Lhalungpa. Thera-Therigdtha. no. Women in Buddhism. The Gospelof Thomas51. Gnosticism (New York: Harper& Brothers.180. "Changing the Female Body.. 130. p. 16. 1977). ed. Diana Paul compares this myth with the Biblical account of the fall in Women in Buddhism (Berkeley:Asian Humanities Press.51. pp. Carpenter(London: Pali Text Society. NHL. 29-31. HereafterabbreviatedNHL. T. p. NHL. 1885). 21. The ApocryphonofJohn 9. 9. 3. 26. 17. ed.29-31. NHL. Cf. katamesamdivannam methunasamdpattiyd 11. 12. ed.. NHL.... 201-211 for a translationof this story. Grant. p.217 on Thu. p. pp. 4. 1(1981). On the Origin of the World 119. E. Ibid. ed. NHL. 2.5-8. 14. 1960).1-10.19-20. 183. The Sakkapannasuttanta in Digha. Elaine Pagels. 224-232. The Book of Thomasthe Contender 139. 22. NHL. The Gnostic Gospels (New York: Random House." pp. L. 129-130: itthibhdvo no kim kayiracittamhi susamahite/ sammddhammam vipassato/ ndnamhi vattamdnamhi sabbatthavihata nandi tamokkhandopaddlito/ eva jndahipdpima nihato tvam asi antaka/ / 25. 33: "maccupdsam 7. (London: Pali Text Society.32-33. NHL. 121. 182-184. 181: pratilabhya itas cyutvd purusabhdvarm seyam dnandagangadevd bhagini strtbhavamvivartya aksobhyasya tathagatasyarhatab samyaksamtbuddhasyabuddhaksetre abhiratydm7lokadhdtdv upapatsyate/ Diana Paul translatesthe entire episode in Women in Buddhism. 1979). 1979) p. 392. pp. Ratndvali\I.1. Anguttara.J. "Changing the Female Body: Wise Women and the BodhisattvaCareer " The in Some Mahdratnakatsasatras.14-16. Schuster. ed. p. 1970) p. p. III. Ibid.2 and 4. II.5. 393. pp.. Vaidya(Darbhanga:The MithilaInstitute.25-23. 103-111.4 in The Nag HammadiLibrary (New York: Harper& Row. The Gospel ofMary 9.dn lokam uppannddevdnamtdvatimsdnam sahavyatamamhakamputattam ajjhuppagata. p.dBu ma rgs tshogs drug (Delhi: n. Carpenter(London: Pali Text Society. p. 85ff. 70: mi shes 'ga' zhzg migtsang ba'il l bum pa rgyanla chagspa Itar/ jig rten mi shes rmongs payis// bud med rnamsla de bzhin no// III. See Paul. Journal of the InternationalAssociation of Buddhist Studies 4.' 1966) p. 20. 1893) p. dBhu ma tsha f. NHL p. pp. p. 174. 22. NHL. Morris (London: Pali Text Society. The Gospel of Thomas37. I. 19. p. Hermann Oldenberg and RichardPischel. The Gospel ofPhilip 71.4a-b. P. Astasdhasrikdprajnapdramitd. See Nancy Schuster. R. Ibid. va odWitam. 23.104 NOTES KARENCHRISTINALANG 1. NHL. 143. NHL. 61. pp. ed. E. 472. 271: sd itthicittarp virdjetvd sugatim saggam purisacittam bhavetvd kdyassabhedd param mara. Zostrianos129. P.1-11. Rhys-Davids and J. pp. 6.

Gnosticism. 30. 28. RatnavalII. Gross(Missoula:ScholarsPress.217 on Thu. p. "Perfection of Wisdom: Mother of all Buddhas" in Beyond Androcentrism.IMAGESOF WOMAN eSahi matajanayitritathagatanamarhatamsamyaksambuddhanam/ asydbsarvajnataya darsayitri lokasyaca sardarsayitri/ See alsoJoanna Rogers Macy. Aftasahasrikdprajnaparamita. 29. Ibid. 143. See Pagels. Hypostasisofthe Archons 94. NHL. p. 56. Grant. The Gnostic Gospels.29-32. p.1. pp. 32.. p.180. 27. 3 Oct 2013 06:47:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1977). Rita M.ed. 31. 68. 50. pp. 158. 315-333.65ab: ji Itarbud medgzugs mi gtsang / / khyodkyi ranglus de dang 'dra// 105 This content downloaded from 129. 20.

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