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MAN-11530-US001 Rev D00

Dual T1 Module for the MTT and xDSL Family of Products

Users Manual SSxDSL-8M

302 Enzo Drive San Jose, CA 95138


Dual T1 Module

Tel: 1-408-363-8000 Fax: 1-408-363-8313

WARNING Using the supplied equipment in a manner not specied by Sunrise Telecom may impair the protection provided by the equipment. CAUTIONS! Do not remove or insert the module while the test set is on. Inserting or removing a module with the power on may damage the module. Do not remove or insert the software cartridge while the test set is on. Otherwise, damage could occur to the cartridge.

End of Life Recycling and Disposal Information DO NOT dispose of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) as unsorted municipal waste. For proper disposal return the product to Sunrise Telecom. Please contact our local ofces or service centers for information on how to arrange the return and recycling of any of our products. EC Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive aims to minimize the impact of the disposal of electrical and electronic equipment on the environment. It encourages and sets criteria for the collection, treatment, recycling, recovery, and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

2010 Sunrise Telecom Incorporated. All rights reserved.

Disclaimer: Contents subject to change without notice.

SSxDSL-8

Dual T1 Table of Contents


1 Dual T1 Module....................................................................7 1.1 Dual T1 LEDs. ....................................................................7 1.2 Dual T1 Connector Panel...................................................9 2 Menus.................................................................................10 2.1 T1 Conguration...............................................................11 2.1.1 T1 Single Conguration.................................................11 2.1.2 T1 Dual Conguration. ...................................................16 2.2 Loopback & Span Control. ................................................18 2.2.1 CSU & NIU Control (DS1 Loopback).............................18 2.2.2 HDSL Span Control.......................................................22 2.2.2.1 Conguration..............................................................22 2.2.2.2 Loopback....................................................................23 2.2.2.3 HDSL Span Query. .....................................................26 2.2.3 Intelligent NE Control (Repeaters). ................................28 2.2.3.1 Teltrend Ofce & Line Repeaters. ...............................28 2.2.3.2 Westell Ofce & Line Repeaters. ................................28 2.2.3.3 Repeater Setup..........................................................28 2.3 Send Test Pattern.............................................................32 2.3.1 Standard Test Patterns..................................................32 2.3.2 User Test Patterns.........................................................34 2.4 Measurement Results. ......................................................36 2.4.1 Measurement Result Screens.......................................37 2.4.1.1 Summary Screen. .......................................................38 2.4.1.2 Line/BPV Screen........................................................39 2.4.1.3 Signal Screen.............................................................41 2.4.1.4 Alarm Screen. .............................................................42 2.4.1.5 Frame Screen.............................................................44 2.4.1.6 ESF-CRC-6 Screen....................................................46 2.4.1.7 Frequency Screen......................................................47 2.4.1.8 G.821/Logic Measurement Screen. ............................48 2.5 Other Measurements. .......................................................50 2.5.1 View Received Data......................................................50 2.5.2 Pulse Mask Analysis. .....................................................51 2.5.3 DDS Measurements......................................................52 2.5.3.1 Conguration & Send Pattern.....................................52 2.5.3.2 Loop Back Access......................................................53 2.5.3.3 Measurement Results. ................................................54 2.5.3.4 Send/Receive Control Codes.....................................55 2.5.4 Bridge Tap Detect..........................................................57 2.5.5 Quick Test I & II. .............................................................59 2.5.6 Propagation Delay.........................................................63
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2.6 VF Channel Menu. ............................................................64 2.6.1 VF Measurements.........................................................64 2.6.2 View Supervision...........................................................67 2.6.3 Dial/ SPRV Setup..........................................................68 2.6.4 Place/Receive Calls. ......................................................70 2.6.5 Call Analysis..................................................................72 2.6.6 Noise Measurement......................................................74 2.7 Protocol Testing................................................................75 2.7.1 GR-303 Analysis. ...........................................................75 2.7.1.1 Conguration..............................................................75 2.7.1.1.1 TMC Conguration. ..................................................75 2.7.1.1.2 EOC Conguration..................................................79 2.7.1.2 Start Tracer.................................................................81 2.7.1.3 View/Print Record.......................................................83 2.7.1.3.1 Temporary Record...................................................83 2.7.1.3.2 Stored Record.........................................................87 2.7.1.4 Statistics.....................................................................89 2.7.1.4.1 TMC Statistics.........................................................89 2.7.1.4.2 EOC Statistics.........................................................90 2.7.2 ISDN Primary Rate. .......................................................92 2.7.2.1 Test Conguration. ......................................................92 2.7.2.2 Call Control. ................................................................95 2.7.2.3 Protocol Analysis........................................................98 2.7.2.3.1 Filter. ........................................................................98 2.7.2.3.2 Live Tracer.............................................................101 2.7.2.3.3 Stored Messages. ..................................................103 2.7.2.3.3.1 Temporary Buffer................................................103 2.7.2.3.3.2 Stored Traces. .....................................................107 2.7.2.4 BERT and Results....................................................108 2.7.2.5 Backup D Channel Test............................................110 2.7.2.6 Other Parameters.....................................................111 2.7.3 SS7 Analysis...............................................................113 2.7.3.1 Conguration............................................................113 2.7.3.2 Filter Setup...............................................................114 2.7.3.2.1 SS7 Messages......................................................126 2.7.3.3 Capture Trace...........................................................130 2.7.3.4 View Trace................................................................131 2.7.3.4.1 Temporary Trace....................................................131 2.7.3.4.2 Stored Traces. ........................................................133 2.7.4 Frame Relay................................................................139 2.7.4.1 Frame Relay Conguration.......................................140 2.7.4.2 LMI Analysis.............................................................142 2.7.4.3 PING Test.................................................................144 2.7.4.4 FOX Test...................................................................148 2.7.4.5 Statistical Analysis. ...................................................151 2.7.5 SRAM Card Utility. .......................................................155
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2.8 Data Link Control. ...........................................................156 2.8.1 ESF Data Link Control. ................................................156 2.8.1.1 Monitor ESF Data Link BPM. ....................................156 2.8.1.2 Monitor PRM. ............................................................157 2.8.1.3 Transmit BPM...........................................................159 2.8.1.3.1 Select ESF Data Link BPM. ...................................161 2.8.1.4 Transmit PRM...........................................................163 2.8.2 SLC-96 Data Link Control.........................................165 2.8.2.1 Monitor Data Link.....................................................165 2.8.2.2 Send Message. .........................................................166 2.8.2.3 View Data Link SLC-96............................................168 2.9 Other Features Menu.....................................................169 2.9.1 MEAS Conguration....................................................169 2.9.2 Error Injection..............................................................171 2.9.3 View Test Record.........................................................173 2.10 CSU/NI Emulation........................................................175 2.10.1 CSU/NI Emulation, T1 Single Mode..........................175 2.10.2 CSU/NI Emulation, T1 Dual Mode.............................176 3 Applications.....................................................................179 3.1 T1 Applications...............................................................179 3.1.1 Accepting a New T1 Span...........................................179 3.1.2 Monitor an In-service Circuit. .......................................181 3.1.3 Looping a CSU or NI on a T1 Line..............................182 3.1.4 Stress Testing a T1 Line..............................................183 3.1.5 B8ZS/AMI Verication on a T1 Line.............................184 3.1.6 Checking for Frame Slips and Frequency Synch. ........185 3.1.7 Measuring Signal Level...............................................187 3.1.8 Checking DSX Wiring..................................................189 3.1.9 Observing Network Codes or Channel Data...............190 3.1.10 Monitoring a Voice Frequency Channel.....................192 3.1.11 Simple Talk/Listen. .....................................................193 3.1.12 Advanced Talk/Listen.................................................194 3.1.12.1 D4 Channel Bank Signaling Tables........................195 3.1.13 Send a Tone. ..............................................................199 3.1.14 SLC-96 Testing..........................................................200 3.1.14.1 SLC-96 Data Link Monitoring.................................202 3.1.14.2 Out-of-service SLC-96 Testing...............................203 3.1.15 In-Service Hitless Dual Drop & Insert THRU Testing.205 3.1.16 Fractional T1 Testing. .................................................208 3.1.16.1 Fractional T1 Circuits..............................................208 3.1.16.2 FT1 Circuit Acceptance Test Procedure.................210 3.1.16.3 Using a T-BERD Power Lid.....................................211 3.2 ISDN Applications. ..........................................................212 3.2.1 ISDN PRI Call Setup...................................................212
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3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6

Receiving a Call. ..........................................................213 ISDN PRI Monitoring...................................................214 Placing a Data Call and Running a BERT...................215 Placing a Second Call.................................................216 46B+2D Backup D-Channel Test.................................216

3.3 SS7 Applications............................................................218 3.3.1 Monitoring Transmit/ Receive Links.............................218 3.4 Frame Relay Applications...............................................220 4 Reference.........................................................................221 4.1 T1 Transmission. .............................................................221 4.1.1 T1 Usage.....................................................................221 4.1.2 T1 Services. .................................................................221 4.1.3 DS1 Network Elements...............................................221 4.1.4 DS1 Standards............................................................224 4.1.5 DS1 Signal. ..................................................................224 4.1.6 T1 Framing..................................................................225 4.1.7 PCM. ............................................................................226 4.1.8 Switching.....................................................................227 4.1.9 Synchronization...........................................................228 4.1.10 Supervision. ...............................................................229 4.1.11 Addressing. ................................................................229 4.1.12 AIS and Yellow Alarms. .............................................230 4.1.13 Loopbacks.................................................................231 4.1.14 End-to-End Performance Monitoring.........................232 4.2 Troubleshooting and Fault Sectionalization....................233 4.2.1 Fault Sectionalization..................................................235 4.2.2 Bipolar Violations and Loss of Signal..........................236 4.2.3 Frame Bit, Bit, CRC-6, and C-Bit Parity Errors............236 4.2.4 AIS and Yellow Alarm..................................................237 4.2.5 FEBE or ESF PRM Errors...........................................238 5 Troubleshooting and Calibration. ...................................239 5.1 Troubleshooting..............................................................239 5.2 Calibration......................................................................240 5.3 Express Limited Warranty. ..............................................241 Index......................................................................................242

SSxDSL-8

1 Dual T1 Module 1.1 Dual T1 LEDs


The LEDs provide valuable information on the test sets current test mode. In module mode, the MODULE/xDSL LED is green. Figure 1 shows the LED panels.

Figure 1 Test Set LED Panels The LEDs described here are used by the module. Not all LEDs on the test set are used by the module. Note: If any LEDs are blinking, press HISTORY to clear MODULE (SSMTT) or xDSL (SSxDSL) Green: This indicates that the test set is in the module mode SIGNAL (SSMTT) or T1/E1 SIG (SSxDSL) This is active when in Dual T1 mode. Green: The test set is receiving a T1 signal on the line selected in the Test Conguration/LED panel. Red: The test set is NOT receiving a T1 signal as expected. FRAME This is active when the test set is in a framed test mode. It is active for one line only. In T1DUAL mode the line is selected in TEST CONFIGURATION-LED PANEL line: either LINE 1 or 2 can be selected. When the TEST MODE is T1 SINGL, the default is LINE 1 and cannot be changed.
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Green: The test set has achieved frame synchronization and the framing found on the received signal of the selected line matches the framing set in TEST CONFIGURATIONFRAMING. Red: The configured framing type is not found on the received signal of the line selected in TEST CONFIGURATION-FRAMING. This could indicate either a loss of framing on the received signal or a framing mismatch. PAT SYNC This is active when performing a BER test with a known test pattern. Red: No pattern synchronization or synchronization has been lost. Green: The test set has achieved pattern synchronization. This happens when the receiver of the line selected in TEST CONFIGURATION-RxDROP is receiving the same pattern as the one transmitted by the test set. Inactive: The test set has never achieved pattern synchronization or is in a mode (i.e, VF Channel Testing) that disables BER testing. BIT ERR This is active when performing a BER test with a known test pattern. Red: The test set is currently detecting a bit error on the receiver of the line selected in TEST CONFIGURATION-RxDROP. Blinking Red: The test set has previously detected bit errors on the receiver of the line selected in TEST CONFIGURATIONRxDROP, but currently, there are none. The following LEDs are active for one line only. In T1DUAL mode, this line is selected in TEST CONFIGURATION-LED PANEL: either LINE 1 or 2 can be selected. When the TEST MODE is T1SINGL, the default is LINE 1, and cannot be changed. AIS Red: The test set is currently detecting an AIS (all 1 signal without framing). Blinking Red: The test set previously detected an AIS on the line, but currently, there is none. ALARM Red: The test set is currently detecting an alarm condition. Blinking Red: The test set previously detected an alarm condition, but currently, there is none.

SSxDSL-8

ERRORS Red: The test set is currently detecting an error. This can be a framing bit, CRC-6 or other errors other than BPV or bit error. Blinking Red: The test set has previously detected errors, but currently, there is none. BPV/CODE Red: The test set is currently detecting a Bipolar Violation (BPV) or code error. Blinking Red: The test set has previously detected a Bipolar Violation (BPV) or code error, but currently, there is none.

1.2 Dual T1 Connector Panel


The Dual T1 module connector panel is shown in igure 2.

Figure 2 Dual T1 Connector Panel HANDSET You may connect the handset to the RJ-9 port for VF talk and listen functions. SPAN POWER This port is for future applications. L2-RX & L2-TX These jacks are used when T1 DUAL is selected in TEST CONFIGURATION. The L2-RX jack port can also be used as the reference frequency input in T1SINGL mode. L1-TX & L1-RX These jacks are used both for T1SINGL and T1DUAL access modes.

Dual T1 Module

2 Menus
Press the MODULE key to access the modules main menu. The modules menu tree is shown in the folowing figure.

Figure 3 Menu Tree


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2.1 T1 Conguration
A circuit is accessed by: 1. Conguring the TEST CONFIGURATION screen to correspond to the circuit. 2. Connecting the test set to the circuit. Note: Conguration is the most important part of the entire test procedure. If the items in the TEST CONFIGURATION screen are configured incorrectly, all measurement will be meaningless. To congure the module for DS1 testing: 1. From the DUAL T1 main menu, select TEST CONFIGURATION. 2. In the configuration window, select the TEST MODE, either T1 SINGL (F1) or T1 DUAL (F2). 2.1.1 T1 Singe Conguration

Figure 4 T1 Single Conguration Screen RxLVL-1 Options: TERM (F1), MONITOR (F2), BRIDGE (F3) Congure the receiver. TERM: Used to send and receive a T1 signal. It requires that the circuit be disrupted for testing. The received signal is terminated by the test set. It is not obtained through a monitor jack, and it can have up to 36 dB of cable transmission loss (this is a different kind of loss than the 20 dB of resistive loss provided by a DSX MON jack.). Note that if you plug into a DSX MON jack in TERM mode, the BPV/CODE LED will light. Use the MONITOR mode instead. If you plug into a DSX MON jack in TERM mode, the BPV/CODE LED will light. Use MONITOR mode instead.

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MONITOR: Used when a monitor measurement is made or when the signal is provided from the MON jack of a DSX, DS1 plug-in card, CSU, or NI. The DSX has isolated the MON signal from the live signal with a high impedance circuit. The transmitter is turned on and is sending the selected test pattern. This mode is useful because the DSX monitor jack protects the live signal from any possible disruptions caused by the testing process. It allows you to observe the line while the customer is actually using it and to see if there are any problems. Note that if this mode is selected when a 3 volt signal is received, the ERRORS LED will light. This happens when the test set is plugged into an OUT jack. In this case, TERM should be selected instead of MONITOR. In some cases, it may not be clear if the MON jack provides a bridged access or a 20 dB isolated monitor access. In this case, try BRIDGE rst to see if this works, if not then try MONITOR. BRIDGE: Similar to MONITOR mode, except the test set taps into a live, in-service, terminated DS1 signal with up to 36 dB cable loss. The test set applies isolation resistors to protect the circuit from a hit. Select this before clipping onto the live circuit. This will put the isolation resistors in place and ensure that the test set does not cause a hit on the circuit. If used on a DSXMON jack, there will be a total of 40 dB resistive isolation and the test set will likely report loss of signal. Also, in some cases it may not be clear if the monitor jack being used provides a bridged access or a 20 dB isolation monitor access. In this case, try BRIDGE first to see if this works, if not then try DSXMON. If BRIDGE mode is selected for a 3 volt signal from an OUT jack, then the ERRORS LED will light. Use TERM mode instead. FRAMING Options: ESF (F1), SF-D4 (F2), SLC-96 (F3), UNFRAME (F4) Select the framing type which is present on the T1 line. ESF: 24 frames are grouped together to form an Extended Super Frame. SF-D4: Simple Framing, 12 frames are grouped together. SLC-96: Introduced by AT&T and standardized by Bellcore. UNFRAME: No framing. A specific framing type should be chosen when: The circuit is provisioned for a specific type of framing. There is no T1 signal available when the test set is plugged in. The test set will be used with another test set that is already congured for auto framing. The test set will control the framing that is put on the T1 line.
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The test set will provide a signal to itself without first passing through network equipment which will force a specific framing. If the framing on the received signal does not match the framing specified in FRAMING, the test set will show a frame loss. If the received framing changes during the middle of a test, then frame loss will be reported. If no framing was present when the test set was first configured, but then framing appeared, you can force the test set to synch onto the framing by pressing the AUTO key on the keypad. CODING Options: B8ZS (F1) AMI (F2) Select the coding to be transmitted on the DS1 signal. B8ZS: Bipolar 8-Zero Substitution uses a bipolar violation substitution which guarantees the 12.5% average with a maximum number of 7 consecutive zeros. B8ZS coding is preferred, because it reduces transmission problems caused by AMI. AMI: Alternate Mark Inversion requires the terminal transmitting data to have at least a 12.5% average ones density and a maximum of 15 consecutive zeros. Note: It is not always possible to determine the line coding of a circuit. For instance, an all ones signal will mask the presence of B8ZS coding. Tx CLOCK Options: INTERN (F1), Rx-1 (F2), Rx-2 (F3) When THRU is selected for Tx SOURCE, the test set is forced to RX-1. INTERN: Internal timing should be used when: - An external frequency source is not available. - The test set will not be transmitting towards synchronized network equipment. - The test set will be supplying clock to the circuit to be tested, such as a hi cap T1 loop, PBX, or remote terminal of a digital loop carrier. - The 5 ppm accuracy of the internal clock is sufcient. - Most kinds of loopback testing is performed. RX-1: This should be used when plugging into a switch or other synchronous element, which requires the test set to be slave timed. Use RX-1 for placing a voice or data call into a switch or digital cross-connect system (DCS). This ensures that the signal will not slip and cause repetitive slips or stuffs, which destroy circuit integrity. However, using RX-1 in the wrong
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application, such as loopback testing, may cause a loss of signal. RX-2: This should be used to supply an external DS1 signal to the L2-RX jack in order to synchronize the signal coming out of L1-TX. RX-2 can be used as a reference clock for measuring frequency synchronization and clock slips. The L2-RX jack can even be used in SINGLE mode, but you should realize that you cannot control the receiver level of this jack. Tx SOURCE Options: PATTERN (F1), THRU (F2) Select the source of your DS1 test signal. PATTERN: Select this to transmit the selected DS1 test pattern in each time slot. The pattern is congured from the SEND TEST PATTERN screen. THRU: Select this to loop each of the incoming channels from the DS1 RX to TX without placing any test pattern on the line. Fractional T1: When Tx SOURCE is PATTERN and the TEST RATE is Nx64K the test set will generate a test pattern, as selected in SEND TEST PATTERN, on any of the selected channels. It will generate an IDLE CODE, 7F or FF, in the non-selected channels. When Tx SOURCE is THRU and the TEST RATE is Nx64K the test set will generate a test pattern, as selected in the SEND TEST PATTERN screen, on any of the selected channels. It will pass all of the non-selected channels through unaffected. An application for THRU mode is if you are experiencing problems on channels 1 through 3 of a channelized T1 line, you can test those channels hile the rest stay in service.

Figure 5 Timeslot Selection Screen


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TEST RATE Options: 1.544M (F1), Nx64K (F2), Nx56K (F3) Select the test rate. 1.544M for normal T1 and DS1 testing. Nx64K for fractional T1 testing, where the fractional circuit is any number of 64 kbps channels within the DS1. Nx56K where the fractional circuit is any number of 56 kbps channels within the DS1. In this case, the module will transmit a 1 in the eighth (least signicant) bit of each fractional T1 channel. If one of the fractional settings is selected, the Timeslot Selection screen shown in Figure 5 will appear (Nx64K or Nx56K). In this screen, you have two options for selecting the desired combination of channels: Press AUTO (F1), and the test set will automatically find a fractional T1 channel by looking for 7F idle code which indicates unused channels. Or select the exact channels to be tested yourself, by using the keypad arrow keys to select each desired channel, then press SELECT (F2). As you select the Receive time slots, the test set will fill in the corresponding Transmit side. To configure the Transmit side differently, use the keypad arrow keys to navigate to the desired Transmit time slots and press SELECT (F2). If you inadvertently select the wrong channel, select the channel to deselect and press UN-SEL (F3). Press CLR-ALL (F4) to deselect everything and start over again. Press ENTER when done. LBO 1 Options: 0 db, -7.5dB, -15 dB, -22.5 dB Select the Line Build Out you wish to appear on the transmitted T1 signal. 0 dB is used when: - The test set is plugged in at the front panel jack of a DSX, CSU equipment direction, NI equipment direction, channel bank, or other 3V test point. - There is 132 ft. or less cabling between the module and the DSX. - Under most conditions. -7.5 dB, -15 dB, or -22.5 dB is used when: - Transmitting toward the T1 span from a central office or customer premises and a 7.5 dB, 15 dB or 20 dB attenuator is not in series with the test set. - When the signal should be transmitted at a lower level to prevent near-end cross talk problems. - When the signal should be attenuated so that it arrives at the next repeater at approximately -31 dB ds level.
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2.1.2 T1 Dual Conguration Figure 6 T1 Dual Test Conguration Screen Tx/INSERT Options: L1-TX (F1), L2-TX (F2) This determines the line on which you transmit the test pattern or insert the dropped signal. Press L1-TX (F1) to select Line 1 or press L2-TX (F2) for Line 2. This determines where the 1.544M test pattern, Nx64 kbps test pattern, Nx64 kbps multiplexed signal, Nx56 kbps multiplexed signal, or voice frequency channel will be inserted. I.e., if Tx/ INSERT is congured for L2-TX, and you are talking on the test set, then your voice will be inserted on Line 2. Rx/DROP Options: L1-RX (F1), L2-RX (F2) This determines the line on which you will receive your test signal. Press L1-RX (F1) to select Line 1 or press L2-RX (F2) for Line 2. This selection configures which receiver will be used for measuring the following: bit error rate, 1.544 Mbps frequency, voice channel frequency, voice channel level, and voice channel Rx A/B/C/D. I.e., if you want to perform a bit error rate test on the received signal from Line 1, then select Rx/DROP= L1-RX. The PAT SYNC and BIT ERROR LEDs refer to the Rx/DROP line. RxLVL-1 & -2 Options: TERM (F1), MONITOR (F2), BRIDGE (F3) RxLVL-1 and RXLVL-2 configure the two 1.544M receivers. These settings let the test set electrically decode a 1.544 Mbps signal under a wide range of resistive or cable losses. They also
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determine which electrical load will be placed on the circuit by the module. There is no effect on the transmitter. In a 1.544 Mbps circuit, there must always be exactly one receiver that applies the low impedance (100) termination. There should never be two or more receivers applying a low impedance termination. CAUTION! If you are uncertain as to which option to choose, select BRIDGE. This will protect the 1.544 Mbps signal. TERM: See Section 2.1.1-RxLVL-1. MONITOR: See Section 2.1.1-RxLVL-1. BRIDGE: See Section 2.1.1-RxLVL-1. Tx SOURCE Options: PATTERN (F1), THRU (F2) Refer to Section 2.1.1, TxSOURCE. FRAMING Options: ESF (F1), SF-D4 (F2), SLC 96 (F3), UNFRAME (F4) Refer to Section 2.1.1-FRAMING. CODING Options: B8ZS (F1), AMI (F2) Refer to Section 2.1.1-CODING. TxCLOCK Options: INTERN (F1), RX-1 (F2), RX-2 (F3) Refer to Section 2.1.1-TxCLOCK. TEST RATE Options: 1.544 M (F1), Nx 64K (F1), Nx 56K (F3) Refer to Section 2.1.1-TEST RATE. LBO 1&2 Options: 0 db (F1), -7.5dB (F2), -15 dB (F3), -22.5 dB (F4) This is used for both lines. Refer to Section 2.1.1-LBO 1. LED PANEL Options: LINE 1 (F1), or LINE 2 (F2) Select either LINE 1 or LINE 2 to be displayed on the test set LED panel. This does not apply to the PAT SYNC and BIT ERR LEDs.

Dual T1 Module

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2.2 Loopback & Span Control


Different kinds of DS1 loopback devices can be controlled with the test set. With the circuit looped back, you can measure performance on the transmission path between the test set and the loopback device. Before proceeding, nd out if the line to be tested has one or more loopback devices installed. If so, find out what type of loopback it is and how it is intended to operate. This menu contains the following: CSU & NIU CONTROL HDSL SPAN CONTROL INTELLIGENT NE CONTROL Note: Loopback and span control codes dont function properly if in TEST CONFIGURATION, TEST RATE is set for one of the fractional rates (Nx64K or Nx56K). If so, the test set will display a warning screen that the rate will be set to T1 FULL after pressing ENTER, press ESC to return to the module mai menu. 2.2.1 CSU & NIU Control (DS1 Loopback)

Figure 7 CSU & NI Loopback Control Screen Basic Loopback Procedure 1. From the DUAL T1 main menu, select LOOP BACK & SPAN CONTROL > CSU & NIU CONTROL. Do not select MODE unless all of the other screen settings are correct. Selecting the MODE will execute the current screen settings. This should be selected last. 2. Select the loopback TYPE, either: IN-BAND (F1) is a common type deployed in networks today, and can be transmitted with any type of framing. ESF-DL (F2) can only be transmitted with ESF (extended superframe) framing, and may be required for certain NIUs. Note: When in doubt, choose IN-BAND if using SF-D4 (superframe) framing, and ESF-DL if using ESF framing.

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SSxDSL-8

3. Choose the desired CODE. This will depend on the TYPE of loopback selected. IN-BAND loopbacks will have a code of either CSU, NI (also known as a smart jack), 100000, or USER. ESF-DL loopbacks will have a code of either LINE, PAYLOAD, NETWORK, or USER. To work with USER-defined loopbacks refer to the other procedures in this subsection. IN-BAND (F1): The NI code is used for an industry-standard Network Interface Unit (smart jack) if it is set to respond to in-band loopback codes. The loopback only regenerates the signal and should pass both BPVs and bit errors. It is generally installed at the customer premises. CSU code is used for customer-owned CSUs. 100000 is used with a type of NIU (smart jack) that can be found in New England. ESF-DL (F2): The LINE code operates a line loopback at a CSU. This loopback only regenerates the signal. Bit errors and BPVs should pass through this loopback. PAYLOAD operates a payload loopback at a CSU. In this, the 192 channel bits are passed through but the framing bits and line code are regenerated. Only bit errors will be passed. NETWORK operates an NIU (smart jack) loopback, which only regenerates the signal and passes both BPVs and bit errors. The coes transmitted for each are shown i Tables 1 and 2:
IN-BAND CSU Loop Up: 10000 CSU Loop Down: 100 NI Loop Up: 11000 NI Loop Down: 11100100000: 100000

Table 1 In-Band Network Codes


Line Loop Up: 11111111 01110000 Line Loop Down: 11111111 00011100 Payload Loop Up: 11111111 00101000 Payload Loop Down: 11111111 01001100 Network Loop Up: 11111111 01001000 Network Loop Down: 11111111 00100100

T1.403 (ESF-DL)

Table 2 T1.403 Network Codes

4. Press LOOP-UP (F1) to loop the circuit up before testing. 5. Once the loopback is complete, you will see a message on the screen, confirming that the operation was successful. 6. When nished, press LOOP-DN ( F2) to loop the circuit down. Programing a User Loopback Code 1. In the CSU & NI CONTROL screen, select CODE and press USER (F4). 2. Select a blank position on the USER LOOPBACK CODE list scren and press CREATE (F1). The following screen appears:
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Figure 8 User Loopback Code Scree 3. Press EDIT (F1), and a character screen is displayed:

Figure 9 User Code Naming Screen 4. Press INPUT (F3) and A will be highlighted in the character grid. 5. Use the keypad arrow keys to select a character and press ENTER. The character will appear next to LABEL. Repeat until nished. If you make a mistake in the entry: A. Press STOP (F3) and select the mistake. B. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or, press INSERT (F1) to insert a character. C. Press INPUT (F3) to select a new character. Press ENTER to insert the new character to the left of the cursor. 6. When nished, press SAVE (F4) to return to the previous screen. 7. Press EDIT (F1) to create a code pattern. 8. Press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad to enter up to 24, 1s and 0s to make the desired pattern.
20 SSxDSL-8

If you make a mistake in the entry: A. Press SHIFT and the incorrect digit B. Press SHIFT and enter the digit (0 or 1); repeat as necessary. Press SHIFT when done 9. When nished, press SAVE (F4) and the entered CODE name will be displayed. Selecting a User Loopback Code 1. In the CSU & NI CONTROL screen, select CODE and press USER (F4). Be sure to press F4 even if the USER item is already displayed as the selected CODE entry. This will move you into the USER LOOPBACK CODE screen. 2. Select the desired loopback code and press ENTER. Note that if no codes have been entered you will need to create one. Please see Programing a User Loopback Code. 3. You will now see the CSU & NI CONTROL screen displaying the selected USER pattern in the CODE position. 4. Press ENTER to begin the loopback operation and proceed with the basic loopback procedure. Viewing a User Loopback Code 1. In the CSU & NI CONTROL screen, select CODE and press USER (F4). Be sure to press F4 even if the USER item is already displayed as the selected CODE entry. This will move you into the USER LOOPBACK CODE screen. 2. Select the desired loopback code and press VIEW (F1). 3. You will now see your selected pattern on the screen. 4. When nished , press ESC to return to the USER LOOPBACK CODE screen. Deleting a User Loopback Code 1. In the CSU & NI CONTROL screen, select CODE and press USER (F4). Be sure to press F4 even if the USER item is already displayed as the selected CODE entry. This will move you into the USER LOOPBACK CODE screen. 2. Select the desired loopback code that you want to delete and press CLEAR (F4). 3. An Are you sure message will appear, press YES (F1) if you are, or press ESC key to abort. In either case, you will return to the USER LOOPBACK CODE list screen.

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2.2.2 HDSL Span Control This menu allows you to test High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Lines. The HDSL Loopback screen updates according to circuit status. The menu screen contains: CONFGURATION LOOPBACK HDSL SPAN QUERY 2.2.2.1 Conguration

Figure 10 HDSL Conguration Screen PROFILE Options: ADTRAN (F1), PARGAIN (F2), SONEPLX (F3) Select one of the above options for the type of equipment in use. # OF DOUBLERS Options for ADTRAN: NONE (F1), 1 (F2), 2 (F3) Options for PARGAIN: NONE (F1), 1 (F2), 2 (F3), 3 (MORE, F1), 4 (MORE, F2) Enter the expected number of doublers in the span. INTEGRATED HTU-R/NIU Options: YES (F1), NO (F2) If the ATU-R is configured with an integrated NIU (Smartjack), select YES, otherwise select NO. ACCESS PT Options if ADTRAIN: CO (F1), CPE (F2) Options if PARGAIN: CO (F1), CPE (F2) Option if SONEPLX: CO (F1) Select either CO (Central Ofce) or CPE (Customer Equipment) depending on the PROFILE.
22 SSxDSL-8

2.2.2.2 Loopback Network loopback allows sending loopback code from the Central Ofce HTU-C (High bit-rate Terminal Unit-Central Ofce) to the Customer Premises HTU-R (High bit-rate Terminal Unit-Remote Distribution). After sending the arming code, the span is assumed to be armed and ready to receive loopback commands. BER and error injection testing verify the NIU loop up. If veried, Figure 11 appears showing the NIU in loopback. If NIU loop up is not veried, the NIU remains in through mode. In some cases, the HTU-R can be congured to react to Smartjack loopback commands, in which case the loop could be from the HTU-R instead f an NIU. However, in most cases a NIU is connected after an HTU-R.

Figure 11 Network Loopback Screen The following items are found in Figure 11. The black T and R boxes at the far left represent the test set. The T indicates the L1-Tx signal; R indicates L1-Rx signal. The network boxes are labelled: H-C, H-R, and NIU. When you successfully loop up a network element, the graphic updates. For example, Figure 11 shows a loopback at the NIU. TIME indicates the amount of time that has elapsed since arming the span. This is only available when TYPE is set to A1LB. STATUS: indicates the spans status. This reports either Span Idle or Span Armed. TYPE Options if PROFILE* = ADTRAN: IN-BAND (F1), ABBREVI (F2), MEAS (F4). Options if PROFILE* = PARGAIN: A1LB (F1) GNLB (F2), MEAS (F4).
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Options if PROFILE* = SONEPLX: PROGRAM (F1), MEAS (F4) This is type of code to send. *PROFILE is located in the HDSL conguration screen, see Section 2.2.2.1. IN-BAND: This is a type of loopback code for Adtran ABBREVI: Abbreviated is an Adtran customer loopback code. MEAS: Press to go to a summary measurement screen, see Section 2.4.1.1 for a description of this screen. This is available in all PROFILEs. A1LB: Loopback code that includes arming the span for Pairgain. GNLB: Loopback code that does not arm the span for Pairgain. PROGRAM: Loopback code that includes arming the span for SONEPLEX. ACTION Press SELECT (F1) and a list of commands are displayed. The available commands are specic to the TYPE selected in the previous screen and the setup in the HDSL CONFIGURATION screen. After selecting the desired command, press SEND (F4). At this point, the screen returns to the NETWORK LOOPBACK screen with the selected command displayed in the ACTION line. The displayed command will blink, until it is completed, or timed out. The commands available are: ARMING IN-BAND: Sends an in-band arming code. Most equipment must be armed before responding to loopback commands. ARMING ESF-DL: Sends a ESF-DL arming code. LOOP UP HTU-C: Sends a command to loop up the HTU-C. LOOP UP HTU-R: Sends a command to loop up the HTU-R. LOOP UP DOUBLER X: Sends a command to loop up the number X doubler. There can be up to 4 doublers listed. This is set in the HDSL CONFIGURATION screen (Figure 10). LOOP DOWN: Sends a loop down command to all devices on the line. TIME-OUT OVERRIDE: Sends a timeout override command. Equipment can be provisioned for an automatic timeout where a loopback is dropped after a specied period (e.g. 1 hr). This command disables it. Therefore, if you send this command, be sure to loop down any equipment when finished testing. LOOPBACK QUERY: Requests a loopback query. DISARM IN-BAND: Sends an in-band disarming code. DISARM ESF-DL: Sends a ESF-DL disarming code.
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LP HTU-C TOWARD N: Requests a loopback at the HTU-C toward N. LP DOUBLER X TOWARD N: Requests a loopback at doubler 1 toward N. There can be up to 4 doublers listed. This is set in the HDSL Conguration screen (Figure 10). After selecting an ACTION, th test set may display a message below the STATUS line. These messages are:

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2.2.2.3 HDSL Span Query This performs a loopback sequence and reports whatis on the span. It is used to find out how many repeaters are on the span.

Figure 12 HDSL Span Query Screens As can be seen in Figure 12 the query screen displayed depends on how QUERY FROM is set, CO or CPE. In both cases, the box with the T and R is the test set. The T indicates the L1-Tx signal; R indicates L1-Rx signal. The network boxes are labelled: H-C, H-R, and NIU. When you successfully loop up a network element, the graphic updates. For example, Figure 11 shows a loopback at the NIU. TIME indicates the amount of time that has elapsed since arming the span. This is available when TYPE is set to A1LB. STATUS: indicates the spans status. This reports either Span Idle or Span Armed. Configure the following: PROFILE Options: ADTRAN (F1), PARGAIN (F2), SONEPLEX (F3) Select one of the above options for the type of equipment in use. TYPE Options if PROFILE is ADTRAN: IN-BAND (F1), ABBREVI (F2) Options if PROFILE is PARGAIN: A1LB (F1), GNLB (F2) This is type of code to send. IN-BAND: Sends IN-BAND code for Adtran. ABBREVI: Sends Abbreviated code for Adtran. A1LB: Loopback code that includes arming the span for Pairgain GNLB: Loopback code that does not arm the span for Pairgain.
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QUERY FROM Options: CO (F1), CPE (F2) Select your test point; Central Ofce or Customer Premise. When ready, press START (F4) to query the span. A warning is displayed telling you that the query will take down any preexisting loops. As the span is queried various messages telling you what commands are sent are displayed under QUERY FROM, the commands sent are dependent upon the previos settings. They typically are: Query fromCO with A1LB loopback code sends:

Query from O with GNLB loopback code sends:


Query from CPE with ALB loopback code sends:


HDSL SPAN QUERY sends GNLB loopback code in sequence.


After the sequence is completed, STATUS information can be displayed: LPBK# BIT LPBK# HTU-R: Bit Error LPBCH RIT HRE1 HTU-R 20

STATUS shows the number of bit errors returned as a response. Note: Check the manufactures documentation for your span card(s) to determine what type of codes it will respond to.

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2.2.3 Intelligent NE Control (Repeaters) 2.2.3.1 Teltrend Ofce & Line Repeaters Teltrend provides a variety of office and line repeaters, which are supported by the test set. Refer to Teltrend documentation for detailed information for operation of these repeaters. 2.2.3.2 Westell Ofce & Line Repeaters Westell repeaters are looped back similarly to Teltrend, but there are a few important differences in using Westell repeaters: Westell central office repeater and line repeater include a sequential loopback (SEQLPBK) F-key. This allows for quickly stepping through the loopbacks on a line. To use, arm the span and press SEQLPBK. You can now observe which repeater loops up without entering the repeater address. This is useful for tracking down misaddressed repeaters. If you want to do a span power down with the Westell office repeater, it must rst be looped up. The Westell central office repeater menus do not have th fractional T1 blocking or NIU-mode commands of Teltrend. 2.2.3.3 Repeater Setup

Figure 13 Repeater Screen The items to the right of the diagram shown in Figure 13 provide information on the repeater control session and cant be congured in this screen. They are: TIME: Counts from 000:00 (mmm:ss) as soon as the span is armed. This gives you an indication of how much time is remaining until the repeater automatically drops its loopback, which may occur as a result of the repeaters time-out circuitry. STATUS: The bar displays current span looping status.
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Span: Displays the last completed span control function, or the one currently under process. ARMED is shown in Figure 13. The items appearing below the diagram in Figure 13 may be congured in this screen. They are: RPTR TYPE Options: LNRPTR (F1), OFFRPTR (F2) LNRPTR: Line repeater OFFRPTR: Office repeater RPTR MODEL Options: 31xx-56 (F1), 31xx-80 (F2), TELTRND (F3), TELTLBE 31xx-56: Type of Westell repeater. 31xx-80: Type of Westell repeater. TELTRND: Teltrend repeater. TELTLBE: Teltrend LBE family repeater. RPTR NO: This specifies which repeater will be looped up. Press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad to enter a repeater number. SPAN CTRL: The Span Control line, allows you to send span commands by pressing an F-key. Once pressed, the line blinks indicating that the command is being sent. The available F-keys are specific to the type of repeater selected. The following are the F-keys for supported repeaters; their definitions follow: Span Control for Teltrend Ofce Repeater Options with ESF Framing: ARM-DLK (F1), UNARMDL (F2), LOOP-UP (F3), LOOP-DN (more, F1), LPBKQRY (more, F2), POWR-UP (more, F3), POWR-DN (more, F1), DUAL-LB (more, F2), UNBLOCK (more, F3), CLR-FT1 (more, F21), TOUTDIS (more, F2). Options with SF-D4, SLC-96 and UNFRAME Framing: ARMINB (F1), UNIVLDN (F2), LOOP-UP (F3), LOOP-DN (more, F1), LPBKQRY (more, F2), POWR-UP (more, F3), POWR-DN (more, F1), DUAL-LB (more, F2), UNBLOCK (more, F3), CLR-FT1 (more, F21), TOUTDIS (more, F2). Span Control for Teltrend Line Repeater Options with ESF Framing: ARM-DLK (F1), UNARMDL (F2), LOOP-UP (F3), LOOP-DN (more, F1), LPBKQRY (more, F2), PWLPQRY (more, F3), PWCUTTH (more, F1), TOUTDIS (more, F2), Options with, SLC-96, SF-D4 and UNFRAME Framing: ARMINB (F1), UNIVLDN (F2), LOOP-UP (F3), LOOP-DN (more, F1), LPBKQRY (more, F2), PWLPQRY (more, F3), PWCUTTH (more, F1) TOUTDIS (more, F2).
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Span Control for 31xx-56 Ofce Repeater Options with ESF Framing: ARM-DLK (F1), UNARMDL (F2), LOOP-UP (F3), LOOP-DN (more, F1), SEQLPBK (more, F2), LPBKQRY (more, F3), POWR-UP (more, F1) POWR-DN (more, F2), TOUTDIS (more, F3). Options with, SLC-96, SF-D4 and UNFRAME Framing: ARMINB (F1), UNIVLDN (F2), LOOP-UP (F3), LOOP-DN (more, F1), SEQLPBK (more, F2), LPBKQRY (more, F3), POWR-UP (more, F1) POWR-DN (more, F2), TOUTDIS (more, F3). Span Control for 31xx-56 Line Repeater Options with ESF Framing: ARM-DLK (F1), UNARMDL (F2), LOOP-UP (F3), LOOP-DN (more, F1), LPBKQRY (more, F2), PWLPQRY (more, F3), PWCUTTH (more, F1), TOUTDIS (more, F2), Options with, SLC-96, SF-D4 and UNFRAME Framing: ARMINB (F1), UNIVLDN (F2), LOOP-UP (F3), LOOP-DN (more, F1), LPBKQRY (more, F2), PWLPQRY (more, F3), PWCUTTH (more, F1) TOUTDIS (more, F2). The following definitions are for the previous F-keys. Note that some functions act differently depending on the type of repeater, and that some are repeater specic. ARM-DLK/ ARM-INB: Arms the ofce and or line repeaters on the span. In most cases, ARM-DLK and ARM-INB have the same function. Arming is required before the repeaters will actually loop up. UNARMDL: Unarms the data link. UNIVLDN: Sends the NIU in-band loop down code to drop one Teltrend or NIU at a time. When the test set is set up for Westell type repeaters, this function causes the test set to transmit the universal loop-down code to loop-down any looped repeaters. LOOP-UP: Commands the ofce repeater or specied line repeater to loop up. The repeater must be armed rst. If the ofce repeater is a Teltrend E-type, you can also choose ofce RPTR number 1 through 3 in RPTR NO. Do this before pressing LOOPUP. However, if the E-type repeater is configured for fractional T1 blocking, only repeater number 1 can be looped up. If the test set is set up for line, the RPTR number must be entered before the LOOP-UP command is selected. If the loop up is successful, a message will appear showing the fractional configuration of the ofce repeater. LOOP-DN: Commands the office or line repeater to loop down. However, it will not loop down the E-type office repeater when it is in NIU emulation mode, or does it loop-down an NIU.
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LPBKQRY: Loop Back Query will query all the repeaters on the span to see which one is actually looped back. If a repeater is found, its number will be displayed in the graphic. LPBK will be displayed in a looped or in a non-looped mode. PWRQRY: Power Query will query all the repeaters on the span to see which one is looping the span simplex power. You will see a message if the power loop query finds a repeater in power loop. PWCUTTH: Power Cut Through will tell the repeater, which has looped the span power, to attempt to cut that power to the other repeaters on the span. POWR-DN: Power Down tells the office repeater to cut the power to the span. The power will remain cut until you choose another function or press the ESC key on the keypad to return to the DUAL T1 main menu. Powering down the span resets all the repeaters. Arm the ofce repeater before selecting POWR-DN. DUAL-LB: Dual Loopback, loopbacks E-type ofce repeater in both directions when configured for NIU mode and has already been looped up using the ARM-INB key. UNBLOCK: Unblocks the office repeater to allow the NIU loop up code to pass through the customer premises toward the DSX. This function is necessary when you are testing from the customer premises and want to loop back a NIU that is on the other end of the circuit. You rst must send the NIU loop up code (ARM-INB). Sending the UNBLOCK code will temporarily inhibit the NIU blocking feature of the ofce repeater. Next, send the NIU code (ARM-INB) again and the far end NIU will loop up. CLR-FT1: Use to temporarily congure the E-type ofce repeater in fractional mode back to through mode. It allows you to troubleshoot the span using full 1.544 Mbps testing. First press ARM-INB (not DL) to arm the E-type repeater. This will also loopback the NIU, although you will probably not see pattern sync, because the central office repeater is still blocking the unused channels. Now press CLR-FT1 (more, F2). You should now see pattern sync and no errors. When nished, press UNIVLDN (more, F3) to drop the NIU loop and return the repeater it to fractional blocking mode. TOUTDIS: Disables the automatic time-out of the repeaters on the span. If selected, loop down all repeaters on the span when nished. SEQLPBK: Used for Westell ofce and line repeaters. This allows you to quickly step through the loopbacks on the line. I is useful for tracking down misaddressed repeaters. Arm the span before using.

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2.3 Send Test Pattern


Figure 14 Send Test Pattern Screen 2.3.1 Standard Test Patterns This section denes the various test patterns transmitted and recognized by the test set. Use this procedure: 1. From the DUAL T1 main menu, select SEND TEST PATTERN. 2. Use the keypad arrow keys to select a pattern. Note that the SENDING indicator (below the list of patterns) changes as each new pattern is highlighted. As a new pattern is highlighted, the test set immediately begins transmitting the pattern. 3. Press INVERT (F2) to send the pattern with an inverted polarity (ones and zeros reversed). Press NORMAL (F3) to send the pattern with a normal polarity. 4. Press ESC to return to the DUAL T1 main menu. The long patterns are written in hexadecimal notation, also known as hex. You can tell if a pattern is written in hex because it will be written with pairs of numbers separated by commas. Hex is a 16 digit number system consisting of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. The hex pattern 15 FA translates to the binary pattern 0001 0101 1111 1010, where the left most bit is transmitted first. The following test patterns are available: QRSS: Industry-standard Quasi Random Signal is formed from a 20 stage shift register and is zero constrained for a maximum of 14 consecutive zeros. When transmitted in a framed signal, up to 15 consecutive zeros will occur in accordance with AMI minimum density requirements. FOX: Industry-standard pattern used in data communications applications. The ASCII translation of the pattern is the Quick brown fox .... sentence. The pattern is frame aligned to ensure proper
32 SSxDSL-8

ASCII translation of the bits. It is recommended that the pattern be sent with framed signals, otherwise ASCII translation is not possible. The pattern is: 2A, 12, A2, 04, 8A, AA, 92, C2, D2, 04, 42, 4A, F2, EA, 72, 04, 62, F2, 1A, 04, 52, AA, B2, 0A, CA, 04, F2, 6A, A2, 4A, 04, 2A, 12, A2, 04, 32, 82, 5A, 9A, 04, 22, F2, E2, 04, 8C, 4C, CC, 2C, AC, 6C, EC, 1C, 9C, 0C, B0, 50 55OCT: This is the original 55 octet pattern. It is used for stress testing T1 circuits and network elements. If transmitted in a framed signal with AMI coding, it will violate the 15 zeros constraint. It does not violate the zeros constraint in an unframed signal. If framed, the framing bit is inserted at octet boundaries. The pattern is: 80, 80, 80, 80, 80 80, 00, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, C0, 80, 80, 80, 80, E0, 80, 80, 80, 80, AA, AA, AA, AA, 55, 55, 55, 55, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80 55DLY: This 55 octet pattern is a special stress pattern that obeys industry standards for pulse density and maximum consecutive zeros in both AMI and B8ZS coded circuits. Framing bits occur at octet boundaries. Note that this pattern replaced the original 55 octet pattern, T1-6. The pattern is: 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 01, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, C0, 80, 80, 80, 80, E0, 80, 80, 80, 80, AA, AA, AA, AA, 55, 55, 55, 55, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80 1 IN 4: Used for stress testing circuits. It is frame aligned. The pattern is 0100 1 IN 8: Industry-standard pattern used for stress testing AMI and B8ZS lines. The pattern is also called 1:7 in older literature. The pattern is frame aligned (f is the framing bit) as shown in its binary form: f 0100 0000 1 IN 16: Industry-standard pattern used for overstressing AMI lines. It violates industry standards for pulse density. Therefore an AMI circuit that fails this test could still be a good circuit. The pattern is frame aligned (f is the framing bit) as shown in its binary form: f 0100 0000 0000 0000 3 IN 24: Industry-standard pattern used for stress testing AMI lines. The pattern is frame aligned (f is the framing bit) as shown in its binary form: f 0100 0100 0000 0000 0000 0100 2047: Industry-standard bit code used for DDS applications. 511, 127, 63: Industry-standard bit codes for DDS applications. 2e15: Industry-standard 2e15-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 15-stage shift register and is not zero constrained. This pattern contains up to 14 zeros in a row and does not violate standards for consecutive zeros in AMI-coded
Dual T1 Module 33

transmission. 2e20: Industry-standard 2e20-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 20-stage shift register and is not zero constrained. It contains up to 19 zeros in a row and violates standards for consecutive zeros in AMI-coded transmission. 2e23: Industry-standard 2e23-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 23-stage shift register and is not zero constrained. It contains up to 22 zeros in a row and violates standards for consecutive zeros in AMI-coded transmission. ALT10: Industry-standard alternating ones and zeros pattern. The pattern is frame aligned with f showing the location of the framing bit. The pattern is: f 0101 0101 ALL1: Industry-standard all ones pattern is used for stress testing T1 AMI and B8ZS lines. If the pattern is sent unframed, it will be interpreted as an AIS (Alarm Indication Signal). This is the pattern in its binary form: 1111 ALL0: Industry-standard all zeros pattern. This pattern is often used to make sure that clear-channel lines have been properly provisioned for B8ZS during circuit turn-up. If a portion of the circuit is AMI, then pattern synch and/or signal will be lost. The pattern is: 0000 YELLOW: Industry-standard yellow alarm pattern. The pattern is: f 1011 1111 IDLE: Industry-standard idle pattern. The pattern is: f 0001 0111 2.3.2 User Test Patterns Press USER (F1) to send a user-defined test pattern with a maximum length of 32 binary characters or 8s hexadecimal characters. Ten such patterns may be stored in the test set. Entering User-Dened Test Patterns 1. In SEND TEST PATTERN, press USER (F1) to enter the USER TEST PATTERN list screen. 2. Select a blank position on the list and press CREATE (F1). 3. Press TOGGLE (F3) and the letter A will be highlighted in the character grid. Use the keypad arrow keys to move the cursor to the desired character and press SELECT (F4).The character will appear to the right of the LABEL. Repeat until the LABEL is complete. If you make a mistake in the entry: A. Press TOGGLE (F3) to move out of the character grid and back to the LABEL. B. Move the LABEL cursor to the incorrect character.
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C. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or, press INSERT (F1) to insert a character. D. Press TOGGLE (F3) to select a new character. Press ENTER to insert the new character to the left of the cursor. 4. Press TOGGLE (F3) to move out of the character grid and back to the LABEL. 5. Select FORMAT and choose either BINARY (F1) or HEX (F2). The binary input is often simpler for entering short patterns. Valid entries are 1 and 0 for binary. For HEX mode, valid entries are: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. 6. Press the keypad down arrow key to move to the pattern entry area. 7. Press SHIFT and use the keypad to enter up to 2048 binary characters or 512 hexadecimal characters to make up the desired pattern. Press SHIFT when done. If you make a mistake in the entry: A. Press SHIFT and use the keypad arrow keys to select the incorrect entry. B. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or, press INSERT (F1) to insert a character. C. Press SHIFT and use the keypad to enter the desired character. Press SHIFT when done. 8. Press ENTER to store the pattern and to return to the USER TEST PATTERN screen. The code label will now be displayed in the list. Sending a User Test Pattern 1. In the SEND TEST PATTERN screen, press USER (F1). 2. In the USER TEST PATTERN list screen, select the desired label and press ENTER. 3. The screen returns to the SEND TEST PATTERN screen, SENDING shows the selected pattern be transmitted. Viewing a User Test Pattern 1. In the SEND TEST PATTERN screen, press USER (F1). 2. In the USER TEST PATTERN list screen, select the desired label and press VIEW (F1). 3. You will see your selected pattern on the screen (in hex, binary, and ASCII). When you are finished viewing, press ESC to return to the USER TEST PATTERN screen. Editing a User Test Pattern 1. In SEND TEST PATTERN, press USER (F1) to enter the USER TEST PATTERN list screen. 2. In the USER TEST PATTERN list screen, select the desired label and press EDIT (F2). 3. Follow the instructions in Entering User-Dened Test Patterns, from steps 3 through 8.
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2.4 Measurement Results


The test set continuously performs measurements on received signals. You need not access MEASUREMENT RESULTS in order for the results to be compiled. Measurements are automatically restarted every time the TEST CONFIGURATION is changed. MEASUREMENT RESULTS allows you to view the accumulated results and restart the measurement process. A key concept for MEASUREMENT RESULTS is availability. A circuit is available for use only when the bit error rate is low enough that the signal can get through and be understood. A circuit is said to be unavailable at the beginning of 10 consecutive severely errored seconds. Errors, errored seconds, and severely errored seconds are not accumulated when the circuit is unavailable. Therefore, if you continuously inject errors at 1x10-3 error rate, you will see increasing bit errors, errored seconds, and severely errored seconds for the rst 9 seconds. Then, at the tenth second, all the counts will decrease back to the values they had before the start of error injection, and the unavailable counter will increase by 10. Once a circuit is unavailable, it becomes available only after 10 consecutive seconds without severe errors. To continue the previous example, if you turn severe error injection off, and then insert 1 or 2 errors during the next 9 seconds, you will observe that the unavailable second counter continues to increase for the first 9 seconds while the error counter does not change. Then at the tenth second, the unavailable second counter decreases by 10 and the error counter increases by the 1 or 2 errors that you injected. While unavailable seconds are being counted, other measurements, such as AS, BPV, BIT, BER, FEB, CRC, ES, SES and %EFS are not. These measurements are resumed once unavailable seconds are no longer being counted. It may take the test set a few seconds to regain frame synch, pattern synch, coding synch, and to stop declaring any severe errors when a signal transitions from an unavailable state to an available state. If you want to know the exact number of seconds that contained a Loss of Signal condition, see LOSS in the SUMMARY screen. The actual Measurement screens and the values displayed depend upon the Test Mode selected in TEST CONFIGURATION.

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SSxDSL-8

2.4.1 Measurement Result Screens The DS1 Measurement Results screens are: Summary Line/BPV Signal Alarm Frame CRC (only with ESF framing) Frequency Logical/G.821 Summary: one screen shows both Line 1 and Line 2 Line/BPV, Line 1 Line/BPV, Line 2 Signal, Line 1 Alarm, Line 1 Alarm, Line 2 Frame, Line 1 Frame, Line 2 CRC (only with ESF framing), Line 1 CRC (only with ESF framing), Line 2 Frequency, Line 1, one screen for Rx/Drop line Logical/G.821, one screen for Rx/Drop line

The following screens are for T1 DUAL:

These F-keys are common to all of the result screens: PAGE-UP (F1), PAGE-DN (F2): Press to view each of the available measurement results screens. STOP/START (F3): Press to stop measuring, press again to restart the measurement. HOLDSCR/CONTINU (MORE, F1): Press to freeze all measurement displays so they may be easily observed. The measurement count is still proceeding, but the counts are updated only in memory. When nished, press again to return to a live display. PATTERN (MORE, F2): Shortcut to the SEND TEST PATTERN screen. SAVE (MORE, F3): Saves the test results. PRINT (MORE, F2): Print the results through the serial port. The following information is displayed in the upper portion of the measurement screens: ET: Elapsed Time since the test was started, or: Since the test set was switched on. Since TEST CONFIGURATION was reconfigured. Since the STOP/START (F3) key was pressed. Since the AUTO key was pressed.
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RT: Remaining Time until the end of testing. The default condition is that the test runs continuously until you stop it. For this reason, CONTINU is displayed in the RT eld to denote a continuous test. However, in the OTHER FEATURES menu, you may specify the amount of test time. In this case, the remaining time will count down to zero during the measurement. CNFG: Current conguration FRM: Current transmitted framing. Tx: Current transmitted test pattern. Rx: Current received test pattern. 2.4.1.1 Summary Screen

Figure 15 T1 Summary Screen This screen presents the most signicant measurements. It contains measurements on overall service performance. They are: LOSS: Loss of Signal Seconds is a count of the number of seconds for which signal has been lost during the test. LOF: Count of the number of Loss of Frames that have occurred since the start of the test. BPV: Count of the number of Bipolar Violations that have occurred since the start of the test. UAS: Count of all Unavailable Seconds since the start of the test. T1 service is not available during an UAS. A UAS is any second with a loss of signal, loss of frame, loss of pattern, or alarm indication signal. They are also counted at the onset of ten consecutive severely errored seconds. Severely Errored Seconds are dened by a 10-3 error rate, with error rates in this case taken as a measurement of BPV errors, Bit errors, Framing Bit errors, and CRC errors. Once an UAS has been declared, the following seconds continue to be counted as unavailable until the service is declared to be available again. Service becomes available at the onset of ten consecutive available non-severely errored seconds.
38 SSxDSL-8

Usage: Unavailable seconds are usually not permitted in any number in a 15 minute or one-hour test. Service providers typically guarantee no more than three hours of outage per year on T1 line. BPV UAS: Count of Bipolar Violation Unavailable Seconds since the start of the test. BERT UAS: Count of Bit Error Rate Test Unavailable Seconds since the start of the test. Lpp: Refer to Section 2.4.1.3. FREQ: Frequency of the signal as measured against the frequency of the reference clock. The test sets internal clock is used to measure frequency when no external clock source is plugged in. When an external reference clock is used this signal is used as the frequency reference to the frequency of the signal. The reference clock of the test set has Stratum 3 accuracy. 2.4.1.2 Line/BPV Screen This screen shows LINE 1-LINE/BPV-Single DS1 configuration. For T1 DUAL the only differences are in the CNFG row and page two shows the information forLine 2.

Figure 16 Line/BPV, Single DS1 This screen reports the following: BPV: Count of the number of Bipolar Violations that have occurred since the start of the test. Usage: Detects problems with the line under test. The problem is a local one, because any multiplexers, radio or ber transmission links, switches, digital cross-connects, or other line-terminating devices will strip bipolar violations as the signal passes through. Bipolar violations only pass through copper and regenerative repeaters. This is also useful where framing or data being transmitDual T1 Module 39

ted is unknown. Finally, many telephone companies use a given number of BPV counts as the maximum acceptable for a span. BER: Average bipolar violation error rate since the start of the test. Usage: Sometimes used instead of a count when the measurement is conducted for a longer period. 10-3 is a typical maintenance limit for voice transmission and 10-6 is a common acceptance limit for voice transmission. Data customers require 10-9 or better. ES: Count of Errored Seconds that have occurred since the start of the test. An ES is any second with at least one BPV error. An ES is not counted during an unavailable second. Usage: ES is a key tariff parameter for T1 services. Acceptance limits are often given for a number of ES in a 5 minute, 15 minute, or 24 hour period. 7 errored seconds in 5 minutes and 20 errored seconds in 15 minutes are common acceptance limits, and 60 ES in 5 minutes is a common immediate action limit. Some organizations accept no errors on a turn-up test. The measurement is attractive because it takes out the effects of burstiness on service performance and it measures the quality of service as the user actually sees it. SES: Count of the number of Severely Errored Seconds that have occurred since the start of the test. A SES is a second with a 10-3 error rate, where error rate is a measurement of BPV errors. A SES is not counted during an unavailable second. Usage: This measurement is sometimes used in combination with errored seconds to describe overall in-service transmission performance. During a severely errored second, the customer is likely to be experiencing trouble with the service but may still be able to use the service, especially for PCM voice transmission. AS: Count of Available Seconds since the start of the test. AS equals the length of the total test time minus any UAS. UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.1. DGRM: Number of Degraded Minutes since the start of the test. A DGRM is a 60 consecutive non-severely errored seconds during which at least 92 BPVs occurred. CURBER: Current Bipolar Violation Bit Error Rate measured during the previous averaging 1 second interval. Usage: A measure of the current rate is useful in case you are conducting a long-term measurement. In this case, a single period of high errors can skew the average error rate quite high. It is then useful to know if the errors are still occurring. %ES: Percentage of Errored Seconds (as dened by ES) this percentage is calculated by the following formula, %ES=ES/AS.

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%SES: Percentage of Severely Errored Seconds that have occurred. This percentage is calculated by the following formula, %SES=SES/AS. %AS: Percentage of Available Seconds (as dened by AS) since the start of the test. %UAS: Percentage of Unavailable Seconds (as dened by UAS) since the start of the test. %DGRM: Percentage of Degraded Minutes, as dened by DGRM, since the start of the test. 2.4.1.3 Signal Screen This screen shows Line 1-Signal-Single DS1 Configuration. For T1 Dual the only differene is in the CNFG row.

Figure 17 Line 1-Signal Screen This screen reports the following: +LVL: Level of positive pulses received by the test set. -LVL: Level of negative pulses received by the test set. Usage: +LVL and -LVL are useful for finding faults with the last repeater or transmitter that is generating the signal to the test set. If the value of the positive pulses is more than 1 dB different than the value of the negative pulses, this could indicate a problem. The level at a DSX should be approximately 3 volts. The level at a repeater should be between -10 dB and -35 dB. Level and simplex current are measured only on L1-Rx. Lpp: Peak-to-peak level of negative and positive pulses being received by the test set. Usage: Used to make sure the signal has the proper level. I.e., at a DSX, the level should be 0 dB at an OUT jack, and about -20 dB at a MON jack. At a customer premises, the received signal should be no lower than -15 dB, and the transmit signal should
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be about 0 dB. At a repeater, the input signals should be between -7.5 and -35 dB, and the output signals should be about 0 dB. AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.1. VPK: Voltage peak on the DS1 receive side. SMPX: Simplex DC current that flows from L1-Rx tip and ring through the test set to L2-Tx tip and ring. Usage: Used to verify that the proper simplex current is flowing on a T1 span. The result should generally be 60 mA. CAUTION! Unplug the test set from the circuit immediately if the current is over 150 mA, as this may damage the test set. FREQ: Frequency of the signal as measured against the frequency of the reference clock. The test sets internal clock is used to measure frequency when no external clock source is plugged in. When an external reference clock is used this signal is used as the frequency reference to the frequency of the signal. The INTERN reference clock of the test set has Stratum 3 accuracy. %AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. 2.4.1.4 Alarm Screen This screen shows alarm information for Line 1. For T1 DUAL the only differences are in the CNFG row and page two shows th same information for Line 2.

Figure 18 Alarm Screen This screen reports the following: AISS: Alarm Indication Signal is a count of the number of seconds in which AIS was detected. Usage: Provides you with clues as to the nature of an out-ofservice condition. I.e., a break in the line will cause a loss of signal
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for the test set if there are no line terminating elements between the break and the test set. However, if there is a line terminating element, the same break will cause an AISS. YELS: Count of Yellow alarm Seconds since the start of the test. A yellow alarm takes different forms depending on the framing of the signal. For an SF signal, the yellow alarm is signified by a zero in bit 2 for all channels. For an ESF signal, the yellow alarm is 0000000011111111 in the facility data link. The T1 path terminating device will send a yellow alarm on its outgoing signal in response to loss of frame on its incoming signal. Thus, the yellow alarm signifies that the other side of the T1 line has failed somewhere before the end of the circuit. Usage: This is the only end-to-end service indicator that is available for in-service testing on D4, SLC-96, and some ESF circuits. It is used to sectionilize a fault in this way. If the signal on side A reaches the test set without error, but the signal on side B shows a yellow alarm, then side A must be failing somewhere downstream from the test set. EXZS: Excess Zero Seconds is a count of the number of seconds in which excessively long strings of zeros were detected. For AMI coding, this is 16 or more consecutive zeros, for B8ZS this is 8 or more consecutive zeros. AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.1. LOSS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.1. LOFS: Count of Loss Of Frame Seconds since the start of the test. A loss of frame second occurs at the onset of 3 consecutive OOFs. LOFS are counted until the onset of 10 consecutive non-SESs. LDNS: Signal Low Density Seconds is a count of the number of seconds when the n(n-1) rule is broken. Usage: Helps you determine if the customer is transmitting illegal strings of data or whether B8ZS encoding equipment is working properly. I.e., if the line code is setup to be B8ZS at the test set, but you are getting LDNS counts, then a transmitter is not correctly sending the B8ZS code to you. Or, if you have an AMI line and you get excessive LDNS counts, it tells you that the customer is sending an unusual signal and the customer should be switched to a B8ZS line. %AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2.

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2.4.1.5 Frame Screen This screen shows LINE 1-FRAME-Single DS1 configuration. For T1 DUAL the only differences are in the CNFG row and pagetwo shows the same information for Line 2.

Figure 19 Frame Screen This screen reports the following: FE: Count of Framing Errors that have occurred since the start of the test. Usage: Used for in-service testing on SF-D4 circuits where the transmitted data stream is unknown. The advantage of the measurement is that the framing stays intact as it passes through various network elements except fractional T1 circuits; hence it depicts the overall transmission quality from the far end of the circuit to the test set. A problem with this measurement is that it only measures 1 out of every 193 bits, and so gives only a sampling of the true transmission performance. Another problem is that it cant measure the quality of transmission on the two outgoing directions of transmission. It can measure the quality only on the two incoming directions of transmission. OOFS: Count of Out-of-Frame Seconds that have occurred since the start of the test. An OOFS occurs when 2-in-5 framing bits have been in error. OOFS start counting when an out-of-frame condition occurs. OOFS continue to increment until framing has been reestablished or until 3 consecutive seconds have been OOF. In this case, LOF is declared, OOFS are then decrement by three, and LOFS are incremented by 3. Once an OOF condition occurs, the test set begins searching for a new framing position. The OOF condition ends when framing has been reestablished. If the framing remains in the original position, then no further action takes place. If the framing moves to a new position, then a COFA (Change of Frame Alignment) is declared.
44 SSxDSL-8

Usage: A large count of OOF is an indication of signicant transmission problems. LOFS: Count of Loss Of Frame Seconds since the start of the test. A loss of frame second occurs at the onset of 3 consecutive OOFs. LOFS are counted until the onset of 10 consecutive non-SESs. Usage: This measurement is most often used on extended tests where sporadic intermittency problems are experienced. ES: Any second with FBE, CRC, LOF, LOSS or AIS. SES: Severed Errored Second is any second with FBE 10-3, LOF, LOSS AIS or CRC. AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.1. FER: Framing Error Rate measured since the start of the test. Usage: See the discussion For FE. The rate is a way of summarizing the information in a way that is independent of the actual measurement period. CUFER: This is the Current Framing Error Rate. Usage: This measurement is useful for determining if the circuit recently had major error problems. However, the limitation of the measurement is that a 1 second averaging interval is so short for this measurement that it is not very useful for nding error rates below 10-4. FSLIP: This is the count of Frame Slips that have occurred since the start of the test. A frame slip is said to have occurred each time the phase of the line under test has deviated from the phase of the reference clock by 193 bits. This count is not applicable when a reference signal is not plugged in. Usage: This is useful for nding frequency synchronization problems in the network. Frequency synchronization can be the source of problems for channelized hi cap services that carry data and face a switch or a 1x0 digital cross-connect system. %ES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %SES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2.

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2.4.1.6 ESF-CRC-6 Screen This screen shows LINE 1 ESF CRC-6-Single DS1 configuration. For T1 DUAL the only differences are in te CNFG row and page two shows the information for Line 2.

Figure 20 Line 1 ESF CRC-6 Screen This screen reports the following: CRC: Count of the CRC-6 block errors that have occurred since the start of the test. Each CRC-6 block error indicates that there is at least 1 bit error within an extended super frame. An extended super frame consists of 24 frames of 193 bits each. CER: CRC-6 block error rate since the start of the test. ES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.5. SES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.5. AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.1. CURCRC: Current CRC-6 block error rate. %ES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %SES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2.

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2.4.1.7 Frequency Screen This screen shows the LINE 1-FREQUENCY-Single DS1 onfiguration. For T1 DUAL the only difference is in the CNFG row.

Figure 21 Frequency Screen This screen reports the following: RCV/Hz: Current frequency measured in the last second. MAX/Hz: Maximum frequency since the start of the test. MIN/Hz: Minimum received frequency since the start of the test. FSLIP: Refer to Section 2.4.1.5. REFCLCK: When no reference signal is present the test set will use its internal Reference Clock. In this case the screen will still display the Min/Max/Avg frequency of the received signal, but it displays NOREF for any clock slip or wander information. CLKSLIP: Clock Slip is the is the net value of the negative and positive wander. +WANDER: Maximum positive phase difference between the measured frequency and the reference frequency since the start of the test. A signal whose frequency is wandering, i.e. whose frequency alternately goes faster and then slower than the reference frequency, will show both positive and negative wander. -WANDER: Maximum negative phase difference between the measured frequency and the reference frequency since the start of the test.

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2.4.1.8 G.821/Logic Measurement Screen This screen shows G.821/LOGIC MEASUREMENT-DS1Single configuration. For T1 DUAL the only difference is in the CNFG row.

Figure 22 G.821/Logic Screen This screen reports the following: BIT: Count of the number of bit errors that have occurred since the start of the test. This measurement is reported as N/A when the test set is not synchronized on a known received pattern. Usage: Similar to BPV except that the test set is measuring a known pattern. Hence, the measurement covers transmission performance over the entire service, not just the local span or section. This is the preferred measurement for out-of-service testing and service acceptance tests. The measurement is often performed in conjunction with a loopback device at the far end. BER: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. ES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. SES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. EFS: Count of the number of Error Free Seconds since the start of the test. AS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. DGRM: Count of the bit Degraded Minutes that have occurred since the start of the test. A bit degraded minute is 60 non-severely errored seconds during which a total of at least 92 errors occurred. CURBER: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %ES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %SES: Refer to Section 2.4.1.2. %EFS: Percentage for Error Free Seconds since the start of the test. An error free second has no errors at all. Usage: This is most often used for T1 services. Data customers
48 SSxDSL-8

typically expect this number to be anywhere from 95% to 99.5% or higher. %EFS and %AS are probably the two most significant parameters in gauging the quality of T1 service. UAS: Refer to Section 2.4.1.1. SYLS: Number of Synchronization Lost Seconds. It represents the total number of seconds for which pattern synch was lost since the start of the test.

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2.5 Other Measurements


This menu contains the following: VIEW RECEIVED DATA PULSE MASK ANALYSIS DDS MEASUREMENTS BRIDGE TAP DETECT QUICK TEST I QUICK TEST II PROPAGATION DELAY

2.5.1 View Received Data This screen allows for viewing and storing of 60 pages of received T1 data.

Figure 23 View Received Data Screen It displays the live data bits on each line. This data is displayed in binary, hexadecimal, and ASCII format. It allows you to determine which channels are active or idle. Other uses are to verify a valid D-channel or determine the control channel for SS7 links. Use this procedure: 1. Press PAUSE (F3) to trap data, press again to see live data. 2. Press PAGE-UP (F1) or PAGE-DN (F2) to see all 60 pages of data. Each line of the display is dedicated to a single timeslot. The screen contains the following items: PAGE: Currently displayed page. T/S: Currently displayed Time Slot. The screen will display 8 time slots of data at a single time. Three consecutive pages show all 24 time slots in a DS1 frame. BINARY: Shows the received binary line data. Each line represents 8 bits of the individual timeslot. The left most bit is received rst. 50 SSxDSL-8

HEX: Hexadecimal representation of the 8 bits being transmitted in each timeslot. Hexadecimal notation is often used to describe 8-bit channel codes. I.e., a digital loop carrier idle code is usually 7F or FF in hexadecimal notation. The hex number on the left side is the normal translation of the binary code. The hex number in parentheses is the hex translation of the binary code in reverse order. ASCII: This is a representation of the bits being transmitted in each timeslot. Two ASCII characters are shown for each timeslot. One is created from the binary data in its normal order. The one in parentheses is created from the bits in reverse order. 2.5.2 Pulse Mask Analysis Pulse Mask Analysis allows you to measure and view the quality of the T1 pulse. Refer to Figue 24. Figure 24 Pulse Mask Analysis Screen-G.703 Use this procedure: 1. From the DUAL T1 main menu select, OTHER MEASUREMENTS> PULSE MASK ANALYSIS. 2. Select START NEW ANALYSIS, or VIEW LAST PULSE SHAPE. After a few seconds the pulse shape will be displayed. The key pulse statistics are displayed in the right-hand margin. 3. Select one of the industry standard masks for a pass/fail report; T1.102 (F1), T1.403 (F2), TR6241 (F3) or G.703 (F4). After you make a selection, you will see a PASS/FAIL message. 4. When nished, press ESC.

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2.5.3 DDS Measurements DDS Measurements allows testing and maintaining of Digital Data System networks (DDS) by performing basic DDS loopbacks and measurements. The test sets testing capabilities support the following data rates: 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, 56, and 64 Kbps. Interleaved and latching loopbacks of various types are supported. Bit error and bit error rate measurements are provided. You may also send/ receive special network control codes. This menu contains the following: CONFIG & SEND PATTERN LOOP BACK ACCESS MEASUREMENT RESULTS SEND/RCV CTRL CODES

2.5.3.1 Conguration & Send attern


Figure 25 DDS Test Conguration Screen This configuration screen contains the following setup items: Tx T/S Options: 1-24 Use NEXT (F1) and PREV (F2), to select the Tx Timeslot. This is where you will transmit DDS control codes. Rx T/S Options: 1-24 Use NEXT (F1) and PREV (F2), to select the Rx Timeslot. This is where you will receive DDS control codes. TEST RATE Options: 2400 (F1), 4800 (F2), 9600 (F3), 19.2k (more, F1), 56k (more, F2), 64k (more, F3) Select the appropriate rate at which testing is to occur.
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SEND PATT Options: 2047 (F1), 511 (F2), 127 (F3), 63 (more, F1), 1111 (more, F2), 0000 (more, F3), DDS-1 (more, F1), DDS-2 (more, F2), DDS-3 (more, F3), DDS-4 (more, F1), DDS-5 (more, F2), DDS-6 (more, F3), USER (More, F1), 0101 (more, F2) Select the test pattern you wish to send. If you wish to transmit your own USER-defined test pattern, do the following: 1. At the SEND PATT line select, USER from the F-key options. 2. Select the USER PATT line. 3. Press SHIFT and use the keypad (0, 1) to enter an 8-bit loop back code. The pattern specied in the USER PATT line is active only if USER appears on the SEND PATT line above it. 4. Press SHIFT when done. 2.5.3.2 LoopBack Access

Figure 26 Loop Back Access Screen To perform a loop-up/loop-down, configure the following: MODE Options: LOOP-UP (F1), LOOP-DN (F2) Select this item last. Pressing one of the F-Keys here will automatically begin its respective procedure. After you have nished setting all the other items in this screen, press LOOP-UP (F1) to begin looping up or LOOP-DN (F2) to loop down. TYPE Options: LATCH (F1), NON-LAT (F2) NON-LAT refers to the traditional loopback testing for the CSU, DSU, or OCU. This loopback type requires the continuous transmission of loopback control bytes in the test data. For LATCH loopback, it is not necessary to send the loopback code continuously, it will remain activated until a release code is received.
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DEV NO Options: 1-8 Use NEXT (F1) and PREV (F2), to select the device number. This applies only to the DS0-DP Code. For all other codes, this line will remain N/A. CODE Options: LATCH: CSU (F1), DSU (F2), OCU (F3), USER (more, F1), DS0DP (more, F2). NON-LAT: CSU (F1), DSU (F2), OCU (F3), USER (more, F1). Specify the loop up/down code for the specific equipment type to be looped up/down. The choices available will depend upon the TYPE selected. The following codes are available: CSU-Channel Service Unit DSU-Data Service Unit OCU-Office Channel Unit DS0-DP-DS0 Dataport

If you wish to transmit your own loopback code: 1. Press USER (more, F1). 2. Select the USER line. 3. Press SHIFT and use the keypad (0, 1) to enter an 8-bit loop back code. The USER pattern which you have just entered will have no effect unless USER was specified for the CODE. 4. Press SHIFT when done. 2.5.3.3 Mesurement Results

Figure 27 Measurement Results Screen All results relate to the total elapsed time of the test (ELAP TIME). Press STOP/START (F1) to restart the measurements.
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The following items are reported: ELAP TIME: Total amount of time that has elapsed since the beginning, or restarting, of the measurement process (hhh:mm:ss). FRME: Type of framing that is being transmitted. CODE: Type of line coding that is being transmitted. RATE: Test rate as specied in the CONFIG & SEND PATT screen. PATT: Test pattern that is being transmitted, as specied in the CONFIG & SEND PATT screen. The following results are reported: BIT: Total number of bit errors since the beginning of the test. BER: Bit error rate since the beginning of the test. UAS: Total number of Unavailable Seconds since the beginning of the test. %UAS: Percentage of Unavailable Seconds since the beginning of the test. 2.5.3.4 Send/Receive Control Codes In this screen you transmit DDS control codes to the far end and iew which code is received.

Figure 28 Send/Receive Control Code Screen Transmitting Codes The SEND MESG line displays which code is transmitted. To change this code use the F-keys. These F-keys list the 9 programmed codes available to you. Table 3 shows the 9 DDS codes vailable as F-key options.

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F-Key F1 F2 F3 MORE, F1 MORE, F2 MORE, F3 MORE, F1 MORE, F2 MORE, F3

Control Code ABNORMAL MUX-OOS C IDLE D IDLE MAP0 MAP1 T-ALERT TEST UMC

Control Bit b1......b8 10011110 10011010 11111110 11111111 10010011 11101101 11101100 10011100 10011000

Description Abnormal Station Condition Mux out of Sync Control Idle Code Data Idle Code Map 0 Conrmation Code (line side) Map 1 Conrmation Code (drop side) Test Alert Test Code Unassigned Mux Channel

Table 3 DDS Control Codes

Note: The least significant digit, b1, is always 1 and cannot be changed. Therefore, it appears in parentheses on the SEND MESG line. You may also enter in your own code by pressing SHIFT and entering the binary digits (0, 1) from the keypad. After entering a user code, you must press ENTER to send those digits. The following DDS codes may be of interest: Block: 10001010 Far End Voice (FEV): 11011010 MJU Alert (MA): 11110010 Release: 11111000 Transition in Progress (TIP): 10111010

Receiving Codes The RECEIVE portion of the screen displays the DDS code coming from the far end. The test set will display the digits it receives. If these bits correspond to one of the 9 programmed codes, shown in Table 3, the message will be displayed.

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2.5.4 Bridge Tap Detect This test sends 21 different patterns down a span that is looped up. Each pattern is transmitted for 30 seconds. Use this procedure: 1. Conrm that a loopback is in place on the circuit to be tested and that the test set has been properly congured in the TEST CONFIGURATION screen. 2. From the DUAL T1 main menu select, OTHER MEASUREMENTS > BRIDGE TAP DETECT. The testing will begin after pressing ENTER. The screen will display Checking Loop Preparing Engine. If a loop is present, the following screen appears.

Figure 29 G.821/Logic Measurement Screen 3. The screen shown in Figure 29 allows observation of an inprogress test . As the test progresses, the Tx eld changes to reflect the new test pattern. Press PAGE-DN (F2) to see the summary results witin the screen shown in Figure 30.

Figure 30 Bridge Tap Detect Screen-Summary Result

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4. There are 21 patterns used, which are listed in the order sent. IN PROG means that the 30-second measurement for that test pattern is still in progress. Press PAGE-DN (F3) to access the other pages of information. 5. When nished, press ESC. Note: Only a few of the results are stored in the summary listing. The information listed includes the pattern number (1 to 21), the pattern name, the number of bit errors detected, the number of errored seconds detected, and the number of available seconds. For perfect performance, there will be 0 errors, 0 errored seconds, and 30 available seconds. If there is a loss of signal or other unavailable service condition, then there will be less than 30 available seconds. If there are one or more errors during an available second, an errored second will be triggered. Per ANSI and Bellcore standards, an errored second is not counted during an unavailable second. Table 4 shows the patterns thatare transmitted during the test.
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Name ALL 1 ALT10 1-4 1-6 1-7 1-8 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 3-18 3-19 3-20 3-21 3-22 3-23 3-24 QRS Pattern 11111 010101 0100 010000 0100000 01000000 1100000000 11000000000 110000000000 1100000000000 11000000000000 110000000000000 1100000000000000 11010000000000000 110010000000000000 1100010000000000000 01000100000000000001 010001000000000000010 0100010000000000000100 01000100000000000000100 Quasi Random

Table 4 Bridge Tap Test Patterns

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2.5.5 Quick Test I & II


Figure 31 Quick Test Screens Quick tests save time each time a new HICAP service needs to be accepted. In a quick test, the test set sends out ve patterns. The patterns and their durations may be changed or the default settings used. QUICK TEST I and QUICK TEST II are similar, but the patterns and durations can be different. Because of the default patterns and durations supplied, use QUICK TEST I for AMI lines (3-24 pattern) and QUICK TEST II for B8ZS lines (1-8 pattern). Alternately you can set up the two tests to your needs. Note: Unlike MEASUREMENT RESULTS, QUICK TEST I and QUICK TEST II will not run in the background. The test will stop after escaping out of the either test. Use this procedure to run a test or adjust the default settings: 1. Before testing, congure the line interface in TEST CONFIGURATION to the following settings: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL: TERM FRAMING: per the line specication CODING: per the line specication Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: NORMAL TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO: as appropriate for the test access point Press ENTER when done.

2. Plug the cords into the appropriate jacks on the test set as specied in TEST CONFIGURATION, and also into the IN and OUT jacks on the DSX. 3. From the DUAL T1 main menu select, OTHER MEASUREMENTS > QUICK TEST-I or QUICK TEST-II and a character entry appears.
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4. At TICKET enter a name using the following procedure: A. Press INPUT (F3) to use the character grid. B. The letter A will be highlighted and INPUT has changed to STOP. Select the character of choice and press ENTER. The selected character will appear in the first position on the TICKET line and the next position is highlighted. Repeat this until all of the characters in the ticket name are entered; enter a maximum of ten characters. If a mistake is made while entering characters for the ticket: i. Press STOP (F3) and select the incorrect character using the keypad arrow keys. ii. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character, or press INSERT (F1) to add a character. iii. Position the cursor on the TICKET name and press INPUT (F3) to use the character grid. C. When nished, press STOP (F3) and then SAVE (F4). 5. At LOOPBACK select, one of the following: NONE (F1): No Loopback applied. CSU-INB (F2): Customer Service UnitIn-band loopback is used for the customer-owned CSU. NIU-INB (F3): Network Interface UnitIn-Band loopback is used for an industry-standard NIU (smart jack), if it is set to respond to in-band loopback codes. The loopback only regenerates the signal and should pass both BPVs and bit errors. Telephone companies generally install this at the customer premises. NIU-DL (MORE, F1): Network Interface Unit-Data Link loopback operates an NIU (smart jack) loopback. This loopback only regenerates the signal and should pass both BPVs and bit errors. LINE-DL (MORE, F2): Line-Data Link loopback operates a line loopback at a CSU. A line loopback regenerates the signal but does not reframe the signal. Hence, BPVs and frame errors will pass through the line loopback unchanged. PYLD-DL (MORE, F3): Payload-Data Link loopback operates a payload loopback at a CSU. In this loopback, the 192 channel bits pass through, but the framing bits and line code are regenerated. Only bit errors will pass through this loopback. The test set will attempt to automatically loopback the far-end based on the above settings. 6. At PRINT select, either YES (F1) or NONE (F2). A. If YES is selected, connect the printer to the serial port, if a printer is not connected the data collected cannot be retrieved for later printing. B. If NONE is selected, the results can only be viewed while
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in a Quick Test screen. Escaping out erases the results. 7. If you wish to use the default test patterns and their durations, press ENTER to start the test, and go to step 9. If you wish to make changes, continue with the following steps. 8. Select the first TEST PATTERN and choose a new test pattern by pressing one of the following F-keys: QRS (F1), ALL1 (F2), ALL0 (F3), ALT10 (MORE, F1), 1-8 (MORE, F2), 1-4 (MORE, F3), 1-16 (MORE, F1), 3-24 (MORE, F2), 55DLY (MORE, F3), 550CT (MORE, F1), or NONE (MORE, F2). Refer to Section 2.3 for a description of the test patterns. After selecting a pattern, the cursor moves to DURATION. 9. If necessary, change the DURATION by using this procedure: A. Press SHIFT and enter in any number between 00 and 99 minutes using the keypad. The cursor will automatically advance to the next line. Press SHIFT when done, dont press ENTER, the test will start. B. For the other patterns and durations, repeat steps 8 and 9. 10. When ready, press ENTER and a QUICK TEST (I or II) RESULTS screen is displayed (Figure 32). This screen shows elapsed time (ET) remaining time (RT), framing (FRM), transmitted code (XMT) and received code (RCV) for each of the ve stages of the test. Refer to Sectin 2.4 for measurement denitions.

Figure 32 Quick Test I Results Screen

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11. When the test has nished, a test summary screen appears (Figure 33). If printing was enabled and a printer is connectd, the results will automatically print.

Figure 33 Test Summary Screen 12. Press PAGE-DN (F2) to view the test results from each transmitted pattern. These screens are similar to the screen shown in Figure 32, except for the addition of PAGE-UP (F1) and PAGE-DN (F2). 13. Press ESC twice when finished to return to the OTHER MEASUREMENTS menu. Note: The results are not stored. Once the OTHER MEASUREMENTS screen is reached, the results of the QUICK TES are erased.

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2.5.6 Propagation Delay

Figure 34 Propagation Delay Screen The screen shown in Figure 34 displays the propagation delay of a looped back signal. During the propagation delay measurement, the test set measures the number of unit intervals (UIs) it takes for the signal to travel down the line and then return. This number is converted into S (micro seconds) of roundtrip delay. One T1 UI equals 0.647 S. Use this procedure to measure propagation delay: 1. From the DUAL T1 main menu select ,TEST CONFIGURATION and set RxLVL for TERM. Press ESC when done. 2. From the DUAL T1 main menu select, LPBK & SPAN CONTROL > CSU & NI CONTROL. Loop up the test set following the basic loopback procedure in Section 2.2. 3. Press ESC to reach the DUAL T1 main menu, and select OTHER MEASUREMENTS > PROPAGATION DELAY to view the propagation delay. 4. When nished, press ESC. Press RESTART (F4) to begin a new test. Press CALIB (F1) if more than one piece of looped equipment is on the line. To see the propagation delay between the two devices and not the test set, the test set must be recalibrated. Continue pressing CALIB to take measurements farther down the line.

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2.6 VF Channel Menu


The following items appear in the VF Channel menu: VF MEASUREMENT VIEW SUPERVISION DIAL/SPRV SETUP PLACE/RECEIVE CALLS CALL ANALYSIS NOISE MEASUREMENT

2.6.1 VF Measurements The VF Measurements menu lets you choose: The channel to test for both receiving and transmitting. Whether to talk, send a tone, or place a quiet termination on the transmit signal. In T1DUAL Mode, you can also let the test channel pass through unchanged. The tone frequency and level. The signalling bits to send. The line used for listening. The VF Measurements menu also tells you: The received signalling bits. The received 8-it data. The received frequency and level.

Figure 35 VF Measurements Conguration Screens Configure the following: Tx/INSERT Options: Tx-1 (F1), Tx-2 (F2) Default is Tx-1 in T1 Single mode. TxCHAN Options: 1-24 Use NEXT (F1) or PREV (F2) to choose the desired transmit timeslot for the T1 Line. If you have selected T1SINGL for TEST
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MODE in TEST CONFIGURATION, this will be Line 1; if you have selected T1 DUAL, this will be whichever line you have chosen for Tx/INSERT in TEST CONFIGURATION. TxMODE Options: TALK (F1), TONE (F2), QUIET (F3) Choose your desired insert type. TALK: Press to talk on the transmit signal from the microphone. TONE: Press to insert a tone on the transmit signal. If you select TONE, set TxFREQ and TxLVL. QUIET: Press to place a quiet termination on the transmit signal. TxFREQ Options: 50-3950 Hz If you selected TONE as your INSERT TYPE, choose the frequency here. The frequency may be changed in two ways: Press the F-Key corresponding to the desired frequency. Five frequencies are available: 404, 1004, 1804, 2713, or 2804 Hz. You can also press SHIFT and enter the desired value from 50 to 3950 Hz using the numeric keypad. Press ENTER or move the cursor off this line to start sending the tone. Tx LVL Options: -60 to 3dBm If you selected TONE as your INSERT TYPE, choose the tone level here. The level may be changed in two ways: Press the F-key corresponding to the desired level: 0 dBm (F2) and -13 dBm (F3). You can also press SHIFT and enter the desired value from -60 to 3 dBm using the numeric keypad. Press MINUS (F1) to achieve negative values. To send the new tone level, press ENTER or move the cursor off this line. TxABCD Options: ON-HOOK (F1), OFFHOOK (F2), FLASH/WINK (F3) If desired, you may change the signalling bits that are transmitted on the selected channel. If in T1SINGL mode, these bits are sent on line 1; for T1 DUAL mode, they are sent on whichever line has been selected for Tx/INSERT in TEST CONFIGURATION. For SFD4 and SLC-96 framing, you will have A/B bits; for ESF framing, you will have A/B/C/D bits. The exact bits sent for each condition will depend upon the supervision trunk chosen in DIAL/SPRVIS SETUP.
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You may also change these bits manually using SHIFT and number keys 1 and 0. Press ENTER to send the A/B/C/D bits. RxDROP Options: Rx-1 (F1), Rx-2 (F2) Determine which line will report measurements. Rx1CHAN Options: 1-24 Use the appropriate F-keys, NEXT (F1) or PREV (F2), to choose the desired receive timeslot for T1 line 1. If the test set is in T1DUAL mode, this item will refer to whichever line was selected as Rx/DROP. As you change the transmit timeslot above, this receive line also changes. If you want the receive timeslot to be different, select this line and change it. Rx2CHAN Options: 1-24 Use the appropriate F-keys, NEXT (F1) or PREV (F2), to choose the desired receive timeslot for T1 line 2. If the test set is in T1SINGL mode, you are looking at only one line; therefore, this line will read N/A. When the test set is in T1DUAL mode, this line refers to whichever line was not selected as Rx/DROP in TEST CONFIGURATION. It will be the opposite line to the one chosen in RxDROP. Rx1LSTN Options: OFF (F1), SPEAKER (F2), HANDSET (F3) Select the internal speaker, external handset, or off. Rx2LSTN Options: OFF (F1), SPEAKER (F2), HANDSET (F3) Select the internal speaker, external handset, or off. The last five lines are received data; they are for viewing only. For T1 DUAL, they apply to the line selected as RxDROP. Rx1ABCD: This is the Channel Associated Signalling System (CAS) bits. For T1 DUAL, the signalling on both line 1 and 2 is shown. Rx1FREQ: This is the frequency received on line 1. If line 2 is chosen as RxDROP, this line will be Rx2 FRQ and applies to line 2. Rx1DATA: This is the live 8-bit channel data as it is received on the line. Rx2ABCD: This is the CAS bits. For T1 DUAL the signalling on both line 1 and 2 are shown.
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Rx1 LVL: This is the level received on line 1. If line 2 is selected as RxDROP, this line will be Rx-2 LVL and applies to line 2. 2.6.2 View Supervision This screen lets you see the signaling bits for all of the 24 channels for both lines 1 and 2. You can observe the sttus on all channels at the same time. Refer to the Figure 36.

Figure 36 View Supervision Screen Time slots 1 through 4 are shown on the first line; 5 through 8 are shown on the second line, etc. Note: SF-D4 and SLC-96 framed signals will show A/B bit signalling information. ESF will show A/B/C/D signalling bit information for every six frames, the least signicant bit is robbed and is instead used to transmit signalling information.

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2.6.3 Dial/ SPRV Setup This setup screen provides additional parameter settings to be used for VF testing. In this, you can vary the on/off time for the DTMF, MF, and DP digits. You can also condition the test set to send appropriate signalling bits for E & M, oop start, and ground start trunks with FX0 or FXS line cards. Figure 37 Dial/Supervision Setup Screen The following settings are found under DIAL CONFIGURATION: DIAL TYPE Options: EN-BLK (F1), OVR-LP (F2) This determines how the dial digits are sent. EN-BLK: This sends the digits all at once. In this, enter the digits from the keypad, then press SEND to send the digits. OVR-LP: Each digit is sent as you press a corresponding key, just like a telephone. DIAL PERIOD Options: 30-999 ms This species the dial period used for DTMF and MF dialing. The default is 100 ms, or select any value between 30-999 ms by pressing SHIFT and entering the value from the keypad. To select a value less than 100 ms, add a 0 rst (i.e. 030 ms). SILENT PERIOD Options: 30-999 ms This species the silent period used for DTMF and MF dialing. The default is 100 ms, or select any value between 30-999 ms by pressing SHIFT and entering the desired value from the keypad. To select a value less than 100 ms, add a 0 rst (i.e. 030 ms).
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TONE LEVEL dbm Options: -25 to -5 dbm Use NEXT (F1) or PREV (F2) to select the level. DIAL PULSE (10 pps) This is for viewing only and is set for 10 pps. % BREAK Options: 40%, 50%, 60% This is the ratio of the break (on-hook) interval to the total pulse cycle interval. To set, use NEXT (F1) and PREV (F2) to select the percentage. INTERDIGIT PRD Options: 100-900 (hundred intervals only) Use NEXT (F1) or PREV (F2) to select the period. The following settings are found under SUPERVISION CONFIGURATION: TRUNK TYPE Options: E&M (F1), G-START (F2), L-START (F3), USER (F4) Determines the signalling bits transmitted for each signalling condition. Press the key corresponding to the appropriate trunk type, or use your own on/off-hook signalling bits by using this procedure: 1. Press USER (F4) and the USER SUPERVISION SELECTION screen is displayed. 2. Press SHIFT and manually enter the OFF/ON-HOOK signalling bits with the keypad (0/1). Press SHIFT when done. EQUIPMENT Options: FXO (F1), FXS (F2). For E/M Trunk Type, this will be N/A. If you have selected either Ground-Start or Loop-Start in TRUNK TYPE, choose the equipment type. BKWRD SPRVISION Use SHIFT and the keypad (0/1) to enter the backward supervision bits. In T1DUAL mode, these bits are sent in the other direction from the inserted talk/tone. I.e., if inserting a tone on T/S 06 and you have selected Tx/INSERT=L1-Tx, then the test set will transmit the backward supervision bits on T/S 06 of Line 2. IDLE SPRVISION Use SHIFT and keypad numbers (0/1) to enter the four idle supervision bits. These will be placed on idle channels.
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2.6.4 Place/Receive Calls This screen allows you to perform the following dialing functions: Place a DTMF, MF, or DP call. Receive a DTMF, MF, or DP call. Control the transmitted and observe the received supervision. Speed dial a stored number. Record a nmber with a label for future dialing. Edit or delete speed dial numbers.

Figure 38 Place/Receive Calls Screen The following settings are in this screen: METHOD Options: MF (F1), DTMF (F2), DP (F3) MF, Multi Frequency, is an addressing technique used for interoffice signalling in the telephone network. It uses a group of frequencies in pairs to form a single address tone. MF supports the digits 0-9, as well as many other control codes. These control codes appear at the bottom of the screen when MF is selected. DTMF, Dual Tone Multi Frequency is the most commonly used addressing method on todays phones. Like MF, it uses pairs of tones to send a digit. Unlike MF, it uses two separate groups of tones. DTMF supports 16 digits: 0-9, #, *, and A-D. DP, Dial Pulse, is the oldest addressing technique. With pulse dialing, the phone goes on-hook and off-hook 10 times per second in order to dial a given number. I.e., to dial the number 7, the test set starts off in the off-hook condition and then goes
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on-hook/off-hook seven times. This type of addressing is now commonly used in switched 56 services. TX ABCD Options: ON-HOOK (F1), OFFHOOK (F2), WINK/FLASH (F3) This selects the transmit signalling bits. You may select either ONHOOK or OFF-HOOK. The exact supervision used and displayed will depend on the SUPERVISION TRUNK TYPE and EQUIPMENT settings in the DIAL/SPRVIS setup screen. OFF-HOOK: If selected, you may FLASH these bits. A FLASH momentarily sends ON-HOOK supervision, then returns to OFF-HOOK. ON-HOOK: If selected, you may WINK these bits. A WINK momentarily sends OFF-HOOK supervision, then returns to ON-HOOK. NUMBER: Enter the digits you wish to dial. Use SHIFT and the keypad to enter the desired numbers and letters. For DTMF and MF dialing, a legend appears at the bottom of the screen showing which keypad letters correspond to which control codes. TxCHNL Options: NEXT (F1), PREV (F2), SCAN (F3) This assigns the transmit channel. Use NEXT or PREV to choose the desired transmit timeslot for the T1 line. You may choose from T/S 1-24. If you have selected T1SINGL mode in TEST CONFIGURATION, this line will be line 1; if you have selected T1DUAL mode, this will be whichever line you have chosen for Tx/INSERT. In SCAN mode, the test set is in receive mode. It searches all timeslots for an on-hook to off-hook transition. When it nds this transition, it locks on that timeslot and waits for the digits. It will notify you with the message, Incoming call on Channel 01 (or as appropriate). You may then accept or reject this call. Rx CHNL Options: NEXT (F1), PREV (F2), SCAN (F3) This assigns the receive channel. If the transmit and receive channels are the same, changing the Tx channel will automatically change the receive channel. If you would like these channels to be different select, RxCHNL and use NEXT or PREV to select. RxABCD This is for viewing the received signalling bits.

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2.6.5 Call Analysis


Figure 39 Call Analysis Screen In this screen configure the following: TEST MODE Options: TX1/RX1 (F1), RX1/RX2 (F2) RX1/RX2 is only available in T1DUAL. In T1SINGL it is TX1/ RX1. DIAL TYPE Options: MF (F1), DTMF (F2), DP (F3) Select the dial type. AUTO SCAN Options: YES (F1), NO (F2) Determine if the test set will scan for active channels. YES: The test set will scan all 24 receive channels for any channel that goes from on/off-hook. When it finds one, it will wait for digits to be transmitted. NO: The test set will analyze only the manually selected receive channel. Tx SPRVSN Options: ON/OFF (F1), ON/WINK (F2), MANUAL (F3) Select the supervision start sequence. ON/OFF: Use to transmit an initial supervision state of on-hook. When the test set receives an off-hook condition on the selected receive channel, it will transmit an off-hook in response. ON/WINK: Use if you want to transmit an initial supervision state of on-hook. When the test set receives an off-hook condition on the selected receive channel, it will transmit a wink in response. MANUAL: Use if you want to transmit an initial supervision state of on-hook, then control the supervision manually.
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RX-1 CH Options: 1-24 Manually select RX-1 by using NEXT (F1) and PREV (F2). RX-2 CH Options: 1-24 Manually select RX-2 by using NEXT (F1) and PREV (F2). TX-1 CH Options: 1-24 Manually select TX-1 by using NEXT (F1) and PREV (F2). When ready, press ENTER to begin the analysis. In the following example, we will scan DTMF diits; a MF or DP analysis will provide different information. Call Analysis Example

Figure 40 Call Analysis Screens 1. Configure the Analysis setup screen as shown in Figure 39. When ready, press ENTER. 2. If in SCAN mode, a ashing SCANNING message at CHANNEL is displayed. This will continue to flash until the test set finds a channel going from ON to OFF-HOOK. It will then display the channel it has found, as well as the Rx and Tx supervision bits. When the digits are sent, it will display them. In the screen shown on the left of Figure 40, the receive digits are 408363800. Press ANALYZE (F1) to get a detailed analysis of each digit (right screen in Figure 40). Press PAGE-DN (F2) to look at all of digits. The following information is provided for each digit: High (H) and Low (L) frequencies in Hz and dBm. Interdigit period (INTD) in microseconds. Note that there is no INTD for the rst digit. Dial period (PERD). Twist (TWST), the difference in level between two frequencies.
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2.6.6 Noise Measurement Noise Measurement lets you measure noise using various parameters. Those parameters ae: Signal to Noise Noise C-Message filter Noise 3K- Flat filter Noise C-Notch filter

Figure 41 Noise Measurement Screen 1. In the VF CHANNEL menu select, NOISE MEASUREMENT and press ENTER and the screen appears as in Figure 41. 2. At Rx CHAN select the channel you wish to perform measurements on. Do this by pressing NEXT (F1) or PREV (F2). There are 24 channels you can choose from. 3. Observe the results: Signal to Noise in dB Noise C-Message in dBrnC Noise 3K-Flat in dBrn Noise C-Notch in dBrn These are taken from the line designated as Rx/DROP in the VF MEASUREMENTS screen.

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2.7 Protocol Testing


The following items are available as options: GR-303 ANALYSIS ISDN PRIMARY RATE SS7 ANALYSIS FRAME RELAY SRAM CARD UTILITY

Note: Protocol testing requires a SRAM memory card. 2.7.1 GR-303 Analysis This option provides monitoring and analysis for the TMC/CSC (Timeslot Management Channel/Common Signalling Channel) and EOC (embedded operations channel) channels. 2.7.1.1 Conguration This screen allows you to configure the test set for monitoring the TMC/CSC channel, including setting up lters. The rst item to congure is the PROTOCOL. Select either TMC (F1) or EOC (F2). The screen will change to match your selection. 2.7.1.1.1 TMC Conguration You may change the TMC channel if necessary (the default setting is channel 24, as specied by GR-303-CORE). You may also congure it to capture messages selectively by layer, call reference, DS1/DS0 number, or cause value.

Figure 42 TMC Conguration Screen Configure the following:


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TIME SLOT Options: 1-24 Determine which DS0 the test set will monitor. The default channel is 24; this follows the GR-303-CORE specification. Press 12 (F1) and 24 (F2) to select that particular channel or you may look at a different channel by pressing INC+1 (F3) or DEC-1 (F4) to select another time slot. CRC CHECK Options: OFF (F1), ON (F2) Determine if the test set will detect and report Layer 2 CRC errors. The default setting is OFF. When set for ON, the test set will capture invalid TMC messages and report them as CRC errors. LAYER-2 MSG Options: ALL (F1), REJECT (F2) ALL: Press to capture all Layer 2 messages. REJECT: Press if you are interested only in call processing messages (Setup, Connect, Release). LAYER-3 MSG Options: ALL (F1), REJECT (F2), ON (F3) ALL: Press to capture all Layer 3 messages. REJECT: Press to not capture any Layer 3 messages. ON: Provides further Layer 3 filtering, upon selecting, more filter choices become available, as shown in Figure 42. This allows you to filter on specific Layer 3 messages (e.g., ones containing a particular call reference value). Layer 3 Filter Settings The following settings are available if you select on for LAYER 3. CALL REF Options: ALL (F1), INC+1 (F2), DEC-1 (F3), INC+100 (MORE, F2), DEC-100 (MORE, F3), INC+10 (MORE, F2), DEC-10 (MORE, F3). Use to capture messages that contain a specic call reference number. This number generally corresponds to the physical line termination port at the RDT, and thus, to a specific customer, which allows you to capture messages belonging to that customer. ALL: Press to capture all call reference numbers. Press INC (F2) and DEC (F3) to enter a specific call reference value by a factor of 1, 10, or 100. The test set will only capture messages containing this value. Valid call reference values are 1 through 2048.
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DS1 NUMBER Options: ALL (F1), INC+1 (F2), DEC-1 (F3). Use to capture call control messages associated with a particular DS1 number. ALL: Press to capture all DS1 numbers. Use INC+1 (F2) and DEC-1 (F3) to move to a specific number. The test set will now only capture messages containing this number. Valid DS1 values are 1 through 28. DS0 NUMBER Options: ALL (F1), INC+1 (F2), DEC-1 (F3). Use to capture call control messages associated with a particular channel. Depending on your DS1 number setting, this will either be one channel on all DS1 lines or one channel on a particular DS1. ALL: Press to capture all DS0 numbers. Use INC+1 (F2) and DEC-1 (F3) to enter a specific number. The test set will now only capture messages containing this number. Valid DS0 values are 1 through 24. CAUSE Options: ALL (F1), SELECT (F2) Use to capture messages containing a specic cause value. As an example, you could choose to monitor the GR-303 link and look for a protocol error (Invalid Information Content) or a release message saying that the channel is unavailable. Refer to Table 7 for a listing and description of possible GR-303 cause values. ALL: Press to capture all cause values SELECT: Press to choose a cause value that will not be catured.

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Code Meaning 16 Normal Clearing

Denition Sent by the RDT/IDT to indicate that call clearing has begun, after customer went onhook. 27 Destination Sent by the IDT to indicate that call clearing out-of-service has been initiated because customer is in a permanent signal state. 30 Response to Sent by the RDT in Status messages, which Status Enquiry are sent in response to Status Enquiry messages. 34 Channel Sent by the IDT to reject a call setup when there Unavailable is no DS0 available to carry the call. The RDT may also reject a call with this cause value if it believes that the DS0, specied by the IDT, is already in use or is unavailable. 35 Distribution Sent by the RDT to reject call establishment Channel when the distribution channel, as indicated by Unavailable the CRV is blocked. 41 Temporary Sent by the IDT to initiate call clearing after Failure recognizing that there is a call state mismatch. The RDT may also send this message in a Status message if it believes there is a call state mismatch. In addition, the IDT and RDT may send this message to indicate call clearing due to a call failure event like a timer expiry, or if a resource becomes unavailable during the call. 44 Line Unit Sent by the IDT/RDT to reject a call setup Unavailable when the line termination, as indicated by the CRV, is incapable of providing service. After receiving a Release Complete message with this cause value, the RDT/IDT immediately stops call establishment. 47 Ring Failure Sent by the RDT to reject call establishment when the line indicated by the CRV fails the ring pre-trip test. 81 Invalid Call Sent by the RDT/IDT to reject a message that Reference contains an invalid call reference value. 96 Mandatory Sent by the RDT/IDT to reject a message Element that does not contain a required information Missing element. 97 Message Sent by the RDT/IDT to reject an Unimplemented unrecognizable message. 99 Information Sent by the RDT/IDT to indicate they did Element not recognize an information element in the Unimplemented received message. 100 Invalid Sent by the RDT/IDT to reject a message Information that contains an invalid information element Element (incorrectly coded).

Table 5 GR-303-CORE Cause Values

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2.7.1.1.2 EOC Conguration This screen allows you to configure the test set for monitoring the eoc channel. You may change the eoc channel if necessary. You may also set a lter to isolate a specic eoc dataink path.

Figure 43 EOC Conguration Screen Configure the following: TIME SLOT Options: 12 (F1), 24 (F2), INC+1 (F3), DEC-1 (F4) Determines which DS0 to monitor. The default channel is 12 (GR303-CORE specication). If required, you may look at a different channel. To change, press INC+1 (F3) and DEC-1 (F4). CRC CHECK Options: OFF (F1), ON (F2) Determines if the test set will detect and report Layer 2 CRC errors. The default setting is OFF. When set for ON, the test set will capture invalid eoc messages and report them as CRC errors. LAYER-2 MSG Options: ALL (F1), REJECT (F2) ALL: Press to capture all Layer 2 messages. REJECT: Press to not capture any Layer 2 messages: RR, RNR, REJ, DM, SABME, UA, UI, DISC. Select if you are interested only in the call processing messages (Setup, Connect, Release). LAYER-3 MSG Options: ALL (F2), REJECT (F1), ON (F3) ALL: Press to capture all Layer 3 messages. REJECT: Press to not capture any Layer 3 messages. ON: Press for further Layer 3 filtering. After selecting, more lter choices become available on the next line.
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FILTER Options: NONE (F1), SELECT (F2), MANUAL (F3) Provides filtering when monitoring EOC STATISTICS. The filter allows you to isolate a particular eoc datalink path between the RDT and IDT (remote terminal and switch). The filter is based on the SAPI/TEI values contained in the address eld. Table 6 provides a listing of all valid combinations er GR-303-CORE.
SAPI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TEI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-11 Data Link Function EOC Path Switching Operations RDTProvisioning/memory administrative OS RDTMaintenance/surveillance OS RDTTesting OS RDTIDT RDTTest system controller 1 RDTTest system controller 2 RDTTest system controller 3 User assignable

Table 6 SAPI & TEI Datalink Values

NONE: The test set will capture all valid eoc SAPI/TEI values based on Bellcores GR-303-CORE specication. SELECT: Allows filtering by link path. The test set provides a listing of all Datalink paths, as specied by their SAPI/TEI combination. Upon pressing, the EOC FILTER SELECTION screen is displayed with the following filters: EOC PATH SWITCH, RDT-ADMIN OS, RDT-MAIN OS, RDT TEST OS, RDT-IDT, RDT-TEST SYST 1, RDT-TEST SYST 2, RDT-TEST SYST 3. 1. Use the keypad up/down arrows to select the desired filter. 2. Press ENTER to save the selection and return to the setup screen , where the new selection is displayed in the FILTER ON field. The test set will now capture only the messages containing the particular SAPI/TEI values associated with the selection. MANUAL: Allows for manually entering specific SAPI and TEI values. Press F3 and the SAPI/TEI filter settings will appear. Select values by pressing NEXT (F1)/PREV (F2). Use INC+10 (F3) and DEC-10 (F4) to increment/decrement the numbers by a factor of ten. Refer to Table 6 for valid combinations.

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2.7.1.2 Start Tracer Use to capture TMC/CSC or eoc messages. The live messages appear on screen and are temporary stored in VIEW/PRINT RECORD. This screen must be displayed tocapture messages.

Figure 44 Start Tracer Screen-Decoded The following information is displayed: BUFFER: Total number of messages stored in the buffer. MESSAGE: Total number of messages captured since entering this screen. PAGE: 1/1: Indicates the page number/number of pages. 200-01-03 (Date) 14:17:10.064: Date and time stamp corresponding to when the message was captured. RDT<-IDT: Displays the direction of the message, whether it came from the RDT (Remote Digital Terminal) or IDT (Integrated Digital Terminal). Message Type and Information Element contents: Refer to Section 2.7.1.3.2 for descriptions of this information. The following F-keys are available: RESTART (F1): Press to zero out MESSAGE and restart tracer. FTR-ON/FTR-OFF (F2): This sets the prelter. When you press FTR-ON, a FILTER indicator appears at the top of the screen. When this is present, the test set captures only those messages that match the GR-303 CONFIGURATION/FILTER settings. To turn off, press FTR-OFF and the indicator is no longer displayed. HEX/DECODE (F3): When a message is present, press to show the message in hexadecimal format (Figure 45). Press again to return to the decoded format.
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PAUSE/RESUME (more, F1): Press to stop live capture. When pressed, a indicator is displayed and the test set is not capturing messages. Also another F-key is available; see SCROLL. Press RESUME to start capturing messages. SCROLL (more, F2): Press to page through messages using PREV (F1) and NEXT (F2). Press RETURN (F4 to display live data.

Figure 45 Start Tracer Screen-Hex Pre and Post Filtering The test set contains both pre and postlters for GR-303 . A prelter captures only specied messages in the buffer; it ignores the rest. A postfilter captures all messages in the buffer, then allows you to selectively view messages. To enable prefiltering: 1. Select START TRACER, press FLTR-ON (F2) and an indicator appears at the top of the screen. The test set is now prefiltering messages; it captures only those messages specied by the lter. 3. To disable the prelter, press FTR-OFF (F2). To postlter messages: 1. Select START TRACER and conrm that the lter is off. 2. Press ESC and reselect START TRACER to capture messages. 3. After capture, select VIEW/PRINT RECORD > TEMPORARY RECORD or STORED RECORD and press FTR-ON (F2) to turn on the postfilter. The screen shows the total messages captured and then the total number of messages matching the lter criteria. 4. To turn off the postlter, press FTR-OFF (F2).
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2.7.1.3 View/Print Record In this menu you can view, filter, print, delete current messages or save messages for future viewing. This menu contains two items: TEMPORARY RECORD STORED RECORD 2.7.1.3.1 Temporary Record This displays the trace buffer contents. It allows viewing, filtering, printing and storing the trace. Note that in Figure 46, EOC RECORD -TEMPORARY is in the banner, it also can say TMC RECORD -TEMPORARY, depending on the racer conguration.

Figure 46 Temporary Trace Record Screen The following information is displayed: TOTAL RECORDS: This is the number of messages in the buffer. QUALIFIED: Number of messages which meet filtering criteria. Note that this number will change with the filters; usually when filtering is on, the number of messages will decrease. If no messages match, it will display 0. If filtering is not on, the number of QUALIFIED messages will match the TOTAL RECORD number. VIEW FROM/VIEW TO: Use SHIFT and the number keys to enter the message number you want to start and stop looking at. POST FILTER IS ON/OFF: This messages tells you whether or not a lter is engaged. Use FTR-ON/FTR-OFF (F2) to toggle. The available F-keys are: VIEW (F1): Displays the messages as specied by the VIEW FROM and VIEW TO settings. Figures 47 and 48 provide sample single line messages as seen when you press VIEW.
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FTR-ON /FLT-OFF (F2): Enables the postfilter. This allows viewing only those messages that match the lter parameters set in the GR-303 CONFIGURATION screen. Press FTR-OFF to disable the postfilter and view all messages in the buffer. PRINT (F3): Send the Trace record to the serial port for printing. STORE (more, F1): Press to store the record. This displays a character entry screen. Refer to the following procedure: 1. Press STORE (more, F1) and a character entry screen is displayed. 2. Press INPUT (F3). Note that the A character is highlighted and the INPUT F-key has changed to STOP. 3. Use the keypad arrow keys to select the desired character. 4. Press ENTER to place the character to the right of the LABEL. Continue this process until the LABEL is complete. You may enter up to 15 characters. If you make a mistake in the entry: A. Press STOP (F3) and select the incorrect character with the keypad arrow keys. B. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or press INSERT (F1) to insert a character. C. Press INPUT (F3) and use the keypad arrow keys to select a character. Press ENTER to insert the new character. 5. Press SAVE (F4), then ESC to return to the TEMPORARY Record screen (Figure 46). DEL-ALL (more, F2): Clears all messages stored in the Temporary buffer. Sample Messages

Figre 47 Release Message Screen

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Figure 48 Layer 2 Message Screen The following information may be found in these messages: Date and time stamp of the message. Direction of the message: from the IDT (Integrated Terminal) or RDT (Remote Terminal). Messag Type: Some possible types are: Setup: CSC and TMC Connect: TMC and CSC Setup Acknowledge: CSC Connect Acknowledge: TMC Alerting: CSC Disconnect: TMC and CSC Call Proceeding: CSC Release: TMC and CSC Notify: CSC Release Complete: TMC and CSC Information: TMC and CSC Status: TMC and CSC Status Enquiry: TMC and CSC Call Reference Value: Identifies the call (and customer) to which the message applies. Remember that in many cases the CRV is associated with the Line Circuit Address (LCA), which is the physical location where the customers distribution pair is terminated. Therefore, the CRV identies the customer. CRV values can range from 1-2048. Call Reference Suffix: Identifies the particular call that applies to the message. The possible values are: Non-ISDN (or the LT only supports one call at a time), B-channel 1 (ISDN BRI), B-channel 2 (ISDN BRI). DS1 Number: Identifies the DS1 line (1-28) used for the call. DS0 Number: Identifies the DS0 channel (1-24) used for the call. Cause Value: Conveys diagnostic information to the RDT or IDT as to why the call failed. Refer to Table 5 for a listing and their meanings. Cause Values are often contained in an Information Element screen. Press INFO (F3) to bring up the Information Element screen, as in Figure 49.

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Figure 49 Information Element Screen RETURN (F3): Press to return to the message. PREV (F1) and NEXT (F2) keys may also be available, depending on the length of the information element. The following can be found in these screens: PREV (F1): Scrolls to the previous message. I.e., the message number is 36 in Figure 47. Pressing PREV displays message 35. NEXT (F2): Scrolls to the next message. I.e., the message number is 36 in Figure 47. Pressing NEXT displays message 36. HEX (F4): Displays he message in hexadecimal format.

Figure 50 Setup Message Screen The message in Figure 50 is a setup message sent by the RDT. The CRV is 146. The dashes next to the DS1 and DS0 numbers indicate that this information is not specied in this message. This is because the call was initiated by the RDT. When the IDT responds with a Setup ACK (CSC) or Connect (TMC) message, it will specify which DS1 and DS0 to use for the call.
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2.7.1.3.2 Stored Record This screen allows you to access your stored traces for viewing, printing, or deleting. Traces are stored as text les in a folder called GR-303 on the extra memory card. A smple screen is shown in Figure 51.

Figure 51 Stored Record List Screen The number of result screens are shown on the second line of the header (0007 in Figure 51). The number of messages in each trace is shown next to the trace number; for example, trace 002, named TEST2 is an GR303-TMC trace containing 10 messages. The following F-keys are available: LOAD (F1): Use the keypad up/down arrow keys along with PAGEUP (F2) and PAGE-DN (F3) to select a message, press LOAD. A screen similar to the one shown in Figure 52 is displayed. PAGE-UP (F2), PAGE-DN (F3): Use these keys to scroll through the available screens of records. RENAME (more, F1): Allows you to rename the stored message LABEL, follow the procedure in Section 2.7.1.3.1 under STORE. DELETE (more, F2): Allows you to delete a selected stored message. DEL-ALL (more, F3): Allows you to delet all stored messages.

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View a Trace

Figure 52 Stored Trace Record Screen In this screen select the desired record, then press LOAD (F1). After loading, the view trace screen is displayed. Refer to Figure 52. TOTAL MSG shows the number of messages available to view. The following F-keys are available: VIEW (F1): Press to view the saved trace as defined at the FROM and TO lines. Use the PREV (F1) and NEXT (F2) keys within the trace screens to scroll through all of the messages. A HEX/ DECODE (F3) key is available to affect the data display. FILTER (F2): Press to apply the lters as currently dened to the saved trace. PRINT (F3): Press to send the saved messages, as selected at the VIEW FROM and VIEW TO lines, to the serial port for printing. Use this procedure: 1. Load the trace you want to print. 2. In the Stored Trace Record screen, if desired select, the messages you want to print at the VIEW FROM and VIEW TO lines. 3. Press PRINT (F3) to send the messages to the serial port for printing.

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2.7.1.4 Statistics These are captured in accordance with your settings in the GR-303 CONFIGURATION screen. 2.7.1.4.1 TMC Statistics This screen provides a running count of any cause values found in Disconnect, Release, Release Complete, and Status messages. You must be in this screen for the results to accumulate. Results are provided for bothLine 1 and Line 2. Refer to Figure 53.

Figure 53 TMC Statistics Screen While in this screen, messages are stored in the View/Print Record. If you need more details and context for a certain cause value, you may look through the messages in View/Print Record. Note: The total TMC message count is recorded at the bottom. This counts up all valid TMC messages (i.e., SETUP, CONNECT, RR). The following F-keys are available in this screen: PAGE-DN/PAGE-UP (F1): Scrolls through available screens. PERCENT/COUNT (F2): This changes the results display to a percentage format. Press COUNT to return to a count display. PAUSE/RESUME (F3): This stops the measurement. All counters remain at the current value, and do not continue to increase. Press RESUME to return to live measurements. RESTART (F4): This restarts the measurement and resets all counters to zero.
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The following information is provided in this screen: Time: This begins counting as soon as you enter the TMC Statistics screen. When you press ESC, time is reset to 0. Total Frames: A continuous count of the number of TMC messages. Errored Frames: A count of the number of TMC messages containing FCS (Frame Check Sequence) errors. Discard Frames: A count of the number of TMC messages that have been discarded because: Frames are either above or below the specified length. The total bit count is not divisible by 8. The message contains more than 6 consecutive ones. See Table 5 for message definitions. 2.7.1.4.2 EOC Statistics As soon as you select this screen, the test set begins to capture and record eoc message information. The following results apply either to all valid eoc messages (if Filter=None) or to eoc messages containing the ltered SAPI/TEI. Once you exit, all counts are reset to 0. Two screens comprise eoc statistics. The rstscreen is shown on the left in Figure 54.

Figure 54 EOC Statistics Screens The following information is displayed: Time: This begins counting as soon as you enter this screen. When you press ESC, Time is reset to 0. Total Frames: Continuous count of the number of eoc messages. Errored Frames: Count of the number of eoc messages containing FCS (Frame Check Sequence) errors. Discard Frames: Count of the number of eoc messages that have been discarded because: Frames are either above or below the specified length.
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Total bit count is not divisible by 8. Message contains more than 6 consecutive ones. The rest of the screen provides a running count of all valid eoc Layer 2 message types, they are: RR: Receiver Ready RNR: Receiver Not Ready REJ: Reject (layer 2) SABME: Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended DM: Disconnect Mode INFO: Information

The available F-Keys are: PAGE-UP/PAGE-DN (F1): Toggle between the two pages. Press PAGE-DN to see the second page, shown on the right in Figure 54. This screen provides a running count of the various eoc datalink paths. Again, these paths are determined by the SAPI/TEI values in Table 6. Counts are provided for both lines, if the test set is congured in T1DUAL test mode. PERCENT/COUNT (F2): Press to see all values in terms of percent (i.e., the percentage of errored frames out of the total eoc frames received). COUNT returns the results back to count. PAUSE/RESUME (F3): This pauses the current measurement; the counters are not reset. Press RESUME to continue. RESTART(F4): This restarts the measurement and resets all counters to zero.

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2.7.2 ISDN Primary Rate This feature allows you to setup and place a call, receive a call, talk/listen (voice calls), or perform a BERT (data calls) on ISDN lines. In these screens: The status of the line is shown near the top of the screen; RDY (ready) is shown if the link is up and in service, and OOS is shown if the link is not ready (out of service). Note that the current transmitted (Tx1) and received (Rx1 or Rx2) messages are shown on the same line to either side of the status indicator, between carrots. The test set starts the Layer 2 handshake immediately. It activates the D-channel as soon as you enter ISDN. In order to do ISDN testing you need to be in a DS1 mode. The test set will reset the framing to ESF and the coding to B8ZS. This menu contains the following: TEST CONFIGURATION CALL CONTROL PROTOCOL ANALYSIS BERT AND RESULTS BACKUP D CHNL TEST OTER PARAMETERS

2.7.2.1 Test Conguration


Figure 55 ISDN Conguration Screen Note: Enter numbers using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. Use <- (F2) to backspace within the line. To change a number, press EDIT (F1) and the shift indicator will appear at the top the screen. Press <- (F2) to select the desired digit and enter the new number
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via the numeric keypad. Any digits to the right of the digit you are correcting will vanish. When finished, press DONE (F1). Configure the following: MODE Options: TE (F1), NT (F2), MONITOR (F3) Congures the test mode for the test set. TE: Terminating Equipment is used when the test set is emulating customer equipment, as in a PBX. Use when you are plugging into a central office switch. NT: Network Terminal is used when emulating an ISDN switch or exchange. Use to plug into customer premises. MONITOR: Use to monitor one or both sides of an ISDN line. PROTOCOL Options: NTI (F1), NATL-2 (F2), AT&T (F3) The Q.931 protocol specification indicates which type of ISDN switch you intend to use for testing. NTI: Relates to the Northern Telecom DMS-100 switch. NATL-2: Refers to Bellcores National ISDN-2 protocol. AT&T: Refers to AT&Ts Custom protocol. LINE TYPE Options: TI23BD (F1), T146B2D (F2), T147BD(F3) Select the type of line you will be testing. T123B: This uses only one T1 line; there are 23 B-channels and one D-channel. T146B2D: This uses both T1 lines; there are 46 B-channels and 2 D-channels. In this case, one D-channel is active, while the other one is in a standby mode to take over if the rst should go out-of-service. T147BD: This uses both T1 lines. There are 47 B-channels, and only one D-channel. In this case, there is no backup Dchannel. Note: When selecting either T146B2D or T147BD, you will use both T1-1 and T1-2. You will have to plug both lines into the circuit. Therefore, the receiver level and LBO settings apply to both lines. RX LEVEL (L1-RX in MONITOR mode only) Options: TERM (F1), BRIDGE (F2), MONITOR (F3) Specify the line interface mode for testing. TERM: Use when sending and receiving a T1 signal. It is the most common mode used for out-of-service testing. The test set terminates the received signal with a low impedance termination, and the circuit is disrupted for testing.
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BRIDGE: Use for testing live circuits. It is similar to MONITOR mode except that the test set applies isolation resistors to the circuit. Select BRIDGE before clipping onto a live circuit, this protects the signal from disruption. Note if you use this mode and connect to a MON jack this will result in two isolation circuits on the signal. In this case, the test set will report a loss of signal and be unable to perform any measurements. MONITOR: Use when the test set is connected to a MON output of an network element. The network MON output isolates the signal with high impedance resistors. It is useful because it protects the live signal from possible disruptions caused by the testing process. It allows you to observe the line while the circuit is carrying customer trafc. TX CLOCK (not in MONITOR mode) Options: INTER (F1), L1-RX (F2), L2-Rx (F3) This determines the timing source for your transmit signal. INTERN: This uses the test sets internal timing as its clock source. You should use it when you want to emulate a piece of network equipment. L1-RX, L2-RX: These use the timing signal received on the indicated line. Use L1/L2-Rx if you are plugging into a switch which requires the test set to be synchronized to the network. Pick L1/L2-RX if you selected TE as the MODE. MY PHONE NUMBER (not in MONITOR mode) Options: Enter any number up to 22 digits. SIGNALLING T/S (MONITOR mode only) Options 1-24 Select the timeslot carrying the signalling; the D-channel. This is usually timeslot 24. Use INC+1 (F1) or DEC-1 (F2) to increase or decrease the value. Press ENTER when finished to return to the ISDN menu.

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2.7.2.2 Call Control With the test set congured for TE or N ISDN, you may select CALL CONTROL to place calls.

Figure 56 ISDN Call Control Screen This screen provides the status of both possible line 1 calls (only one data call may be up at a time). You can also disconnect a call. In Figure 56, CALL1 is a SPEECH call on T/S 1, and CALL2 is an INCOMING DATA-64 call on T/S 2. The CALLER NO for each call is also shown. Call Set Up Screen Press CALL (F2 or F4) in CALL CONTROL, to enter ISDN CALL SETUP. Note if you place a call using CALL (F4), it will defalt to CALL1, if only that one call has been placed.

Figure 57 ISDN Call Setup Screen

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To setup a call, configure the following: CALL TYPE Options: SPEECH (F1), DATA-64 (F2), Nx64 (F3), 3.1K (MORE, F1), DATA-56 (MORE, F2) Determines what kind of call you are going to place. SPEECH: Use to place a voice call. DATA-64: Use to place a data call at 64 kbps data rate. A BERT will start automatically once the call has connected. 3.1K: Use to place an audio call at 3.1 kbps. DATA-56: Use to place a data call at 56 kbps data rate. A BERT will start automatically once the call has connected. Nx64: Pertains to multirate ISDN PRI with 64K for each chanel. Refer to Figure 58 and the following procedure.

Figure 58 ISDN Call Setup, Nx64 Selection Screen 1. Use SELECT (F1) and UN-SEL (F2) to choose the timeslots to send data on; you may not choose the D- channel, which is ordinarily timeslot 24. These may be contiguous or noncontiguous channels. Any selected timeslots will be highlighted. Cursor between the timeslots. 2. CLR-ALL (F3) clears any selected timeslots. 3. After you have selected your timeslots, press RETURN (F4) to return to the Call Setup screen. TEST PATTERN Select the test pattern. Press SELECT (F1) to enter the SEND TEST PATTERN screen and select the pattern you want to send. See Section 2.3, for detailed information.

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The TEST PATTERN is used in Data calls for a T123BD line, and for all types of calls for T146BD and T147BD lines. B CHANNEL (N/A on Nx64 calls) Options: 1-23, AUTO (F3) Specify the B channel to use for the call. Use INC+1 (F1) or DEC-1 (F2) to change the channel number. You will not be able to select the channel chosen as the Signalling/D channel in the ISDN SETUP screen. This is normally channel 24 for North America. Press AUTO (F3) to have the test set automatically detect which channel is available, and place the call on that channel. B CHNL LINE (only for Line Types T147BD and T146B2D) Options: LINE1 (F1), LINE2 (F2) Select the T1 line where your desired B-channel resides. DIAL NUMBER Enter the number that you intend to dial to place your call.

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2.7.2.3 Protocol Analysis This menu allows you to configure filters for capturing messages, and view stored messages. It contains the following: FILTER LIVE TRACER (MONITOR mode only) STORED MESSAGES 2.7.2.3.1 Filter Use this screen to congure message lters. Notes: In MONITOR mode, messages will be captured in accordance with the filters set up in this screen. Prefiltering does not apply when you are emulating a TE or an NT, as all messages must be received so that calls may be placed. In those modes, you may postlter, in thePROTOCOL ANALYSIS > STORED MESSAGES > TEMPORARY BUFFER.

Figure 59 ISDN Filter Screen FILTER STATUS Options: OFF (F1), ON (F2) OFF: Press to capture all messages. ON: Press to set Layer 1, 2, and 3 filters, as explained as follows. A indicator will appear at the top of the screen. Note: If FILTER STATUS is OFF, the next time you enter FILTER, you will enter a screen with the single line item of FILTER STATUS. Select ON, and you will enter the regular FILTER screen.

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The following are available when FILTER STATUS is ON: LAYER 1 Options: REJECT (F1), CAPTURE (F2) REJECT: Press to reject all Layer 1 messages. CAPTURE: Press to accept Layer 1 messages. LAYER 2 Options: REJECT (F1), CAPTURE (F2) REJECT: Press to reject all Layer 2 messages. CAPTURE: Press to accept Layer 2 messages. The following are available when the LAYER 2 filter is set to CAPTURE: SAPI Options: ALL (F3), or any 1 or 2 digit number ALL: Press to capture all SAPI messages. You may also enter a specific number. TEI Options: ALL (F3), or any 1 or 2 digit number ALL: Press to capture all TEI messages You may also enter a specific number. LAYER 3 Options: REJECT (F1), CAPTURE (F2) REJECT: Press to reject all Layer 3 messages. CAPTURE: Press to accept all Layer 3 messages. The following are available when the LAYER 3 filter is set to CAPTURE: CALLING # Options: ALL (F4), any 1-22 digit number ALL: Press to capture all calling numbers. You may also enter a specific number. Note that you have two arrow keys to move within the number, F2 and F3. CALLED # Options: ALL (F4), any 1-22 digit number ALL: Press to capture all called numbers. You may also enter a specific number. Note that you have two arrow keys to move within the number, F2 and F3. CALLREF Options: NONE (F3), any 1-5 digit number
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Each call has a specic call reference value assigned to it. The number is included in the CALL SETUP message. NONE: Press to capture all Call Reference numbers. You may also enter a specific number. MSG TYPE Options: ALL (F1), SELECT (F2) ALL: Press to capture all Layer 3 Messages. SELECT: Press to display the FILTERMESSAGE TYPE screen (Fiure 60) where you may choose a specific type of message to capture.

Setup: CSC and TMC Setup Acknowledge: CSC Alerting: CSC Call Proceeding: CSC Notify: CSC Information: TMC and CSC

Connect: TMC and CSC Connect Acknowledge: TMC Disconnect: TMC and CSC Release: TMC and CSC Release Complete: TMC and CSC Status: TMC and CSC Status Enquiry: TMC and CSC

Figure 60 Select L3 MessageType Filter The following are the message types that can be captured: When nished, press ENTER to return to the FILTER screen. When you have the lters congured as desired, press ESC to return to the ISDN menu. Messages will be captured in accordance with your filter settings. View the current messages in STORED MESSAGES > TEMPORARY BUFFER.

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2.7.2.3.2 Live Tracer Observe the live transfer of messages, on one or both lines. The test set must be in MONITOR mode to use this feature. Conrm that the test set is congured for T1DUAL, BRIDGE or MONITOR, in DUAL T1 main menu > TEST CONFIGURATION. The ISDN TEST CONFIGURATION MODE line must be set for MONITOR. If you are in line 1 conguration only, all of the trace messages will be L1. If you are monitoring both sides of a line, you will seeL1 and L2 messages, on separate screens. Figure 60 is a sample screen.

Figure 61 Monitor Live Tracer The following information is displayed: Receive information for L1, or L1 and L2, depending on your setup. FILTER: An indicator will appear at the top of the screen if you have set up lters in the FILTER screen. Date (1999-03-29) Time (10:38:12.123) Message number (785) L1/L2: The Line on which the message is detected (Line 1). C/R: The Command/Response field bit, which identifies a frame as either a command or a response frame. (Command) P/F: Poll/Final bit (1 in Figure 61); in command frames, it is the P-bit; in response frames, it is the F-bit. When the P-bit is set to 1, it demands a response (F-bit set to 1). The F-bit is then set to 1 to indicate that this frame is a response from a poll command. Messages with P-bit 0 do not require a response and may be sent consecutively without responses.
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SAPI and TEI values are shown. L2 MSG TYPE: The Layer 2 Message Type is SABME. L3 MSG TYPE: No Layer 3 Message Type is shown in Figure 61; a L3 MSG TYPE will display if available. The message is shown in hex format in Figure 61. The following F-keys are available: STOP (F1): Press to halt the live capturing of messages. When STOP has been pressed, the following 3 F-keys appear: PAGE-UP (F2) and PAGE-DN (F3): Use these to scroll through the messages. START (F4): Press to restart the capturing of live messages.

CLR ALL (F2): Press to clear the captured messages so you may begin a new tracing. HEX/DECODE (F3): Press as required to change the presentation of the data. You may also enter STORED MESSAGES/TEMPORARY BUFFER to page through the messages, as well as store them.

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2.7.2.3.3 Stored Messages Within this menu, you can: View, filter, print, or delete current messages. Save messages for future viewing. You must have at least a 1 MEG memory card installed in the test set to use this feature. View stored messages. This menu contains: TEMPORARY BUFFER STORED TRACES Note that a FILTER indicator will appear at the top of the screen when in MONITOR mode, if you have set up pre-filters in the FILTER screen. 2.7.2.3.3.1 Temporary Buffer This buffer screen stores your current messages. They are stored by the criteria set in the FILTER screens, if the test set is in ONITOR mode. If the test set is in TE or NT mode, then all messages are saved.

Figure 62 Current Trace Screen TOTAL MSG: This shows the total amount of message in the buffer. Select the messages to view by following this procedure: 1. Place the cursor on the FROM MSG line. 2. Press SHIFT and enter the number using the numeric keypad. This will be the first message displayed. Move within the number using the cursor arrow keys. Press SHIFT when done.

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3. Select TO MSG and enter the number repeating step 2. This will be the last message displayed. 4. When you have selected the message numbers, press ENTER to begin viewing the messages. See Figure 63 for a sample. 5. Press FILTER (F1) to enter the FILTER screen. You may reset the lters. Upon returning to the CURRENT TRACE screen, the TOTAL MSG will reflect the new number of messages meeting the lter criteria. 6. Press PRINT (F2) to print your messages according to FROM MSG and TO MSG. 7. Press STORE (F2) to store your messages according to FROM MSG and TO MSG. To store messages use this procedure: A. Press STORE (F2) and a character entry screen appears. B. Press INPUT (F3). Note that the A character is highlighted and the INPUT F-key has changed to STOP. C. Use the keypad arrow keys to move the cursor to the desired character. D. Press ENTER to place the desired character in the LABEL. Continue until done, you may enter up to 15 characters. If you make a mistake in the entry: I. Press STOP (F3) and use the keypad arrow keys to select the incorrect character. II. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or, press INSERT (F1) to insert a character. III. Press INPUT (F3) to access the character grid. IV. Use the keypad arrow keys to select the character and then press ENTER to insert the character. E. Press SAVE (F4), then ESC to returnto the CURRENT TRACE screen (Figure 62). 8. Press CLEAR (F4) to delete all messages.

Figure 63 Sample Current Trace Screen (TE)


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The following information is shown, depending on the message: 1999-03-24: Date, year-month-date 10:38:02.626: Time of message 501: Message number L1: This is the line used TE -> NT: This is the direction of the message. C/R: The Command/Response field bit, which identifies a frame as either a command or response, Command in Figure 63. P/F: Poll/Final bit (1 in Figure 63); in command frames, it is the P-bit; in response frames, it is the F-bit. When the P-bit is set to 1, it demands a response (F-bit set to 1). The F-bit is then set to 1 to indicate that this frame is a response from a poll command. Messages with P-bit 0 do not require a response and may be sent consecutively without responses. SAPI (000) and TEI (000) values. L2 MSG TYPE; The Layer 2 Message Type in Figure 63 is SABME. L3 MSG TYPE: A DISCONNECT Layer 3 Message Type is shown in Figure 63. A L3 MSG TYPE will be displayed if available. CALLREFL: The Call Reference Length is the number of octets in the Call Reference value (one or two octets). CALLREFV: The Call Reference Value is assigned in the CALL SETUP message. The following F-keys are available: PREV (F1) and NEXT (F2): Used to scroll through messages. DECODE/HEX (F3): Press to change the presentation of the data. InfoElem (F4): An additional Inormation Element is sometimes available. Press to view the Info Element. Refer to Figure 64.

Figure 64 Info Element Screen


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The Information Element screen gives a bit-by-bit decode of the Information Element contained in the message. In the sample, a Cause Value is translated. The Cause Information Element is a key diagnostic tool for troubleshooting. It often contains Disconnect, Release, or Status messages. It otains three elds: Location, Class, and Value. See Table 7. Press RETURN (F4) when done.
Class: Normal Event Cause No. Class Value 1 000 0001 2 000 0010 3 000 0011 6 000 0110 7 000 0111 Cause Name Unallocated number No route to specified transit network No route to destination Channel Unacceptable Call awarded and being delivered in a established channel 16 001 0000 Normal Call Clearing 17 001 0001 User Busy 18 001 0010 No user responding 19 001 0011 No answer from user (user alerted) 21 001 0101 Call Rejected 22 001 0110 Number changed 26 001 1010 Non-selected user clearing 27 001 1011 Destination out of order 28 001 1100 Invalid number format (address incomplete) 29 001 1101 Facility Rejected 30 001 1110 Response to STATUS ENQUIRY 31 001 1111 Normal, unspecied Class: Resource Unavailable Cause Cause Name No. Class Value 34 010 0010 No circuit/channel available 38 010 0110 Network out of order 41 010 1001 Temporary Failure 42 010 1010 Switching equipment congestion 43 010 1011 Access information discarded 44 010 1100 Requested circuit Not Available 47 010 1111 Resources unavailable, unspecied Class: Service or Option Not Available Cause Cause Name No. Class Value 50 011 0010 Requested facility not subscribed 54 011 0110 Incoming calls barred 57 011 1001 Bearer capability not authorized 58 011 1010 Bearer capability not presently available 63 011 1111 Service or option not available, unspecied Class: Service or Option Not Implemented Cause Cause Name No. Class Value 65 100 0001 Bearer capability not implemented 66 100 0010 Channel type not implemented 70 100 0110 Only restricted digital information bearer capability is available 79 100 1111 Service or option not implemented, unspecied Table continued on the next page.

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Class: Invalid Message Cause No. Class Value 81 101 0001 82 101 0010 83 101 0011 84 101 0100 85 101 0101 86 101 0110 88 101 1000 91 101 1011 95 101 1111 Class: Protocol Error Cause No. Class Value 96 110 0000 97 110 0001 98 99 110 110 0010 0011

Cause Name Invalid call reference value Identied channel does not exist A suspended call exists, but this call id does not Call identity in use No call suspended Call having the requested call id has been cleared Incompatible destination Invalid transit network selection Invalid message, unspecied Cause Name Mandatory information element is missing Message type non-existent or not implemented Message not compatible with call state or message does not exist or not implemented Information element non-existent or not implemented Invalid information element contents Message incompatible with call state Recovery on timer expiry Protocol error, unspecied Cause Name Inter-working, unspecified

100 110 0100 101 110 0101 102 110 0110 111 110 1111 Class: Internetworking Cause No. Class Value 127 111 1111

Table 7 Q.931 Cause Values

2.7.2.3.3.2 Stored Traces This screen allows access to stored traces. You can view, print, or delete previously saved traces. You must have a SRAM, 1 MEG memory card in order to save traces. Refer to Section 2.7.1.3.2 for operation of this feature.

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2.7.2.4 BERT and Results This allows testing the physical layer as well as performing a BER test on a data call. To see the results, press ESC until you reach the ISDN main menu, then select BERT AND RESULTS. A BERT will start automatically after a DATA-64 or DATA-56 call has connected. MEAS will appear at the top of the screen. You do not need to be in the BERT AND RESULTS screen in order for measurements to be taken. For other types of calls, press START (F3) in BERT AND RESULTS to begin your test of the physical layer. There are a number of pages of measurement results to scroll through for both lines 1 and 2. Refer to Section 2.4.1.2, Line/BPV Screens for the result definitions. These F-keys appear within the BERT and Results screens: PAGE-UP (F1) and PAGE-DN (F2): Press to scroll through the pages of results. START/STOP (F3): Press to stop a BERT, then press START (F3) to begin a new one. HOLDSCR/CONTINU (MORE, F1): Press to freeze the measurement results for easy viewing. Press CONTNU to resume viewing the live presentation of data. The following are typical result screens:


Figure 65 Status Screen The first screen you will see is the Status screen. It reports the overall status of each line in arge letters, such as NO ERRORS or SIG LOSS. Press PAGE-DN (F2) to see the next screen, Summary.

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Figure 66 Summary Screen This screen provides summary of the signicant measurement results about the T1 signal. It contains measurement data related to specic types of impairments, like BPV errors or framing errors. It rovides a count on the left side of the screen, and a rate on the right side for most measurements.

Figure 67 G.821 BERT and Results Screen The nal screen presents results according to the G.821 standard. There will be a SUMMARY screens for both lines, if both are in use. The G.821 screen is only available for data calls. Only one data call may be up at a time.

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2.7.2.5 Backup D Channel Test This test set automatically congures to 46B2D upon entering this test. During this test, information is transferred on the 46 B channels, on both T1-1 and T1-2, however, only one D-channel controls the transmission. The other acts as a backup. It becomes active when the first channel is no longer in service. This test checks for a backup -channel. It shows the status for both lines. To use, congure the test set for T1DUAL and TE modes.

Figure 68 Backup D Channel Test The following information is displayed for each line: D-CHANNEL NO: View the channel number used for the Dchannel. Set the number in the OTHER PARAMETERS menu. INTERFACE ID: View the Interface ID configured for the line. Congure the ids in the OTHER PARAMETERS menu. These are the possible D-channel Status messages: Manual Out of Service: The D-channel is unavailable. It can be made available only by manual intervention on the near-end. Out of Service: The D-channel is unavailable. The maintenance entity will periodically attempt to make it available. In service: The D-channel is available for transfer of call control and other Layer 3 messages. Stand by: Only Layer 2 messages are established. The service is unavailable for the transfer of Layer 3 messages. If the other lines D-channel is made unavailable, this channel will become available. Press SWAP (F1) to drop the active D-channel. The second channel should go In Service. Press SWAP again to return to reestablish line 1 as the D-channel.
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2.7.2.6 Other Parameters In this screen, congure general parameters for ISDN primary rate testing.

Figure 69 Other Parameters Line 1 D chnl, Line 2 D chnl Options: 1-24 The D-channel should normally be set to channel 24. Use NEXT (F1) and PREVIUS (F2) to make the selection. Press DEFAULT (F3) to return to channel 24. The Line 2 D-channel can function as the backup D-ch to line 1. L1 INTERFACE ID, L2 INTERFACE ID Options: 1-127 Select the interface ID for each line. Use NEXT (F1) and PREVIUS (F2) to enter a value. Press DEFAULT (F3) to enter a value of 0 for line 1 and 1 for line 2. Layer 2 TEI Options: 0-127 This is the Terminal End-Point Identier. Select a value for this using the F-keys to increment and decrement the value as desired. A value of 0 is normally used. The TEI identifies the terminal to which the message is intended. The values are grouped as follows: - 0-63: Fixed TEI assignment - 64-126: Automatic assignment - 127: Group TEI for broadcast data link connection
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NSF Code Options: 0-31, NONE (F3) Specify the NSF CODE (Network Specific Facilities). Press NEXT (F2) and PREVIUS (F2) to select the code, or press NONE. This code specifies which network facilities are being invoked. Normally, for the TE mode, NSF is set to NONE (F3), and for the NT mode, it is set to 2. NSF TYPE Options: SERVICE (F1), FEATURE (F2), TABLE (F3) Select the NSF TYPE corresponding to the Code selected above. If you have selected NONE for the NSF CODE, the NSF TYPE does not apply. To view the NSF Type options as specified by either Northern Telecom or National ISDN-2, press TABLE (F3). FEATURE is designated by f, and SERVICE by s. AUTO ANSWER MODE Options: OFF (F1), ON (F2) Determine how the test set will handle an accepted call. OFF: Press to reject all calls. ON: Press to ACCEPT or REJECT each call manually (normal operation).

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2.7.3 SS7 Analysis This screen contains the following: CONFIGURATION FILTER SETUP CAPTURE TRACE VIEW TRACE

2.7.3.1 C nguration

The test set must be in T1DUAL mode, using ESF framing and B8ZS line coding to perform SS7 analysis. Figure 70 SS7 Conguration Screen Configure the following: SS7 VERSION Options: ANSI (F1), ITU (F2), CHINA24 (F3), CHINA14 (F4) Determines the standard to be used during your analysis. OPC/DPC DISP Options: HEX (F1), DECIMAL (F2) Determines the display format for DPC (Destination Point Code) and OPC (Originating Point Code) SIGNALING TIME SLOT Options: 1-24 Select the timeslot on which you will receive the SS7 signal, for both T1-1 and T1-2. Note that timeslot 16 is commonly used. Press PREV (F1) or NEXT (F2) to select the timeslot. TRUNK RATE Options: 56k (F1), 64k (F2) Determine the rate for the signal link to use.
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2.7.3.2 Filter Setup This screen lets you: Select various filter items to be used during the trace capturing and viewing processes, including Layer 1 (physical alarm), Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) and Layer 3 (Network Layer). Search for messages which match specified filtering cri

eria. - Setup lters for capturing traces (preltering). - Capture all traces and then setup lters (postlter). Figure 71 SS7 Filter Setup Screen Configure the following for filtering: LAYER 1 Options: REJECT (F1), CAPTURE (F2) Determine whether to capture Layer 1 messages. It includes physical layer events such as Loss of Frame, Loss of Signal. REJECT: Press to reject all Layer 1 messages. CAPTURE: Press to capture all Layer 1 messages. LAYER 2 Options: REJECT (F1), ALL (F2), LSSU (F3) Determine whether to capture signaling link control Layer 2 messages. They dene the functions and procedures for transmitting signaling information over one individual data link. Layer 2, along with Layer 1, provides a signaling link for reliable transfer of signaling messages between two points. REJECT: Press to reject all Layer 2 messages. ALL: Press to capture all Layer 2 messages. LSSU: Press to capture only LSSU (Link Status Signal Unit) messages.
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Layer 3 Options: REJECT (F1), CAPTURE (F2) Determine whether to capture Layer 3 messages. This is the signaling network layer. REJECT: Press to reject all Layer 3 messages. CAPTURE: Press to capture all Layer 3 messages. DPC Options: ANSI: 0-0-0 to 255-255-255, ITU: 0 to 16383 (Decimal) or 00-00-00 to 07-FF-07 (Hexadecimal) NONE (F1): xx-xx-xx The Destination Point Code indicates the signaling point for which the message is intended. Enter a specific DPC, by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. If no DPC is entered, all DPC messages will be captured. OPC Options: ANSI: 0-0-0 to 255-255-255 ITU: 0 to 16383 (Decimal) or 00-00-00 to 07-FF-07 (Hexadecimal) NONE (F1): xx-xx-xx The Originating Point Code indicates the signaling point that is the source of the message. Enter a specific OPC by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. If no OPC is entered, all OPC messages will be captured. SI Options: NONE (F1), TUP (F2), ISUP (F3), SNM (more, F1), SNT (more, F2), SCCP (more, F3) The Service Indicator eld is used by signaling handling functions to perform message distribution. It indicates the user part to which the message belongs and it specifies the type of messages to lter. NONE: Search for messages belonging to all SI fields. TUP: Telephone User Part messages ISUP: ISDN User Part messages SNM: Signaling Network Management messages SNT: Signaling Network Testing messages SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part messages

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The options available in the following items depend upon the chosen SI Field. The remaining congurations are grouped by the options corresponding to the SI selection. SI: TUP Options CIC Options: NONE (F1), 000 to FFF The Circuit Identication Code is used as a label for circuit-related messages. It identies the telephone circuit among those interconnecting the destination point and the originating point. For TUP, the least signicant 4 bits of the CIC eld are the Signaling Link Selection (SLS). SLS is used to perform loadsharing. Enter a specific CIC by using SHIFT and the keypad. If no CIC is entered, messages from all CICs will be captured. HEAD CODE Options: NONE (F1), 00 to FF The TUP Head Code indicates the group to which the message belongs, as well as the name of the message. Use the SHIFT and keypad to enter the code. Refer to Table 8. ADDR SGNL Options: NONE (F1), CALLED# (F2), CALLER# (F3) Filter messages using address numbers. CALLED#: Press to look for a specific called number, the destination of the call. CALLER#: Press to look for a specific caller number, the origin of the call. - For the above use SHIFT and the keypad to enter the number. NONE: Press to capture all addresses. ADDR NUMB NONE (F1) or up to a 22-digit number Entera specic CALLED or CALLER number using SHIFT and the keypad. NONE: Press if you want the test set to search for all numbers.

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Code ACB ACC ACM ADI ANC ANN ANU BLA BLO CBK CCF CCL CCR CFL CGC CHG CLF COT DPN EUM FOT GRA GRQ GRS GSM HGU HUA IAI IAM LOS MBA MGB MGU MPR MUA RLG RSC SAM SAO SBA SEC SGB SGU SSB SST SUA UBA UBL UNN Key

Hex TUP Heading Code Access Barred Signal A5 Automatic Congestion Control Info MESS 1A Address Complete MESS 14 Address Incomplete Signal 45 Answer Signal, Charge 16 Answer Signal, No charge 26 Answer Signal, Unqualified 06 Blocking-ACK Signal 37 Blocking Signal 27 Clear-back Signal 36 Continuity Failure Signal 32 Calling Party Clear Signal 76 Continuity-Check-Request Signal 67 Call Failure Signal 55 Circuit-Group-Congestion Signal 25 Charging MESS 24 Clear-Forward Signal 46 Continuity Signal 32 Digital Path Not Provided Signal B5 Extended Unsuccessful Backward Setup Info MESS F5 Forward Transfer Signal 66 Circuit Group Reset ACK MESS A8 General Request MESS 13 Circuit Group Reset MESS 98 General Forward Setup Info MESS 12 HDW Failure Oriented Group Unblocking MESS 78 HDW Failure Oriented Group Unblocking ACK MESS 88 Initial Address MESS with Additional INFO 21 Initial Address MESS 11 Line-out-of-Service Signal 85 MAINT Oriented Group Blocking ACK MESS 28 MAINT Oriented Group Blocking MESS 18 MAINT Oriented Group Unblocking MESS 38 Misdialed Trunk Prex C5 MAINT Oriented Group Unblocking ACK MESS 48 Release Guard Signal 17 Reset-Circuit Signal 77 Subsequent Address MESS 31 Subsequent Address MESS with One Single 41 Software Generated Group Blocking ACK MESS C8 Switching-Equipment Congestion Signal 15 Software Generated Group Blocking MESS B8 Software Generated Group Unblocking MESS D8 Subscriber-Busy Signal 65 Send Special INFO Tone Signal 95 Software Generated Group Unblocking ACK E8 Unblocking-ACK Signal 57 Unblocking Signal 47 Unallocated Number Signal 75 ACK Acknowledgment MESS Message INFO Information HDW Hardware MAINT Maintenance

ACB ACC ACM ADI ANC ANN ANU BLA BLO CBK CCF CCL CCR CFL CGC CHG CLF COT DPN EUM FOT GRA GRQ GRS GSM HGU HUA IAI IAM LOS MBA MGB MGU MPR MUA RLG RSC SAM SAO SBA SEC SGB SGU SSB SST SUA UBA UBL UNN

Table 8 TUP Heading Codes

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SI: ISUP Options CIC Options: NONE (F1), 000 to FFF The Circuit Identication Code is used as a label for circuit-related messages. It identies the telephone circuit among those interconnecting the Destination Point and the Originating Point. For ISUP, the least signicant 4 bits of the CIC eld are a binary representation of the actual number of the timeslot which is assigned to the speech circuit. Enter a specific CIC by using SHIFT and the keypad. SLS Options: NONE (F1) ANSI: 5 bits, 00000 to 11111 in binary ITU: 4 bits, from 0000 to 1111; be aware the test set shows the 5-bit setting. The Signaling Link Selection (SLS) chooses the link to use when multiple links are available in a load sharing situation. NONE: To not designate a SLS. Use 0 (F1) and 1 (F2) to enter a SLS. MESG TYPE Options: NONE (F1), 00 to FF Use the SHIFT and keypad to enter the type. Refer to Table 9. ADDR SGNL Options: NONE (F1), CALLED# (F2), CALLER# (F3) Filter messages using address numbers. CALLED#: Press to look for a specific called number, the destination of the call. CALLER#: Press to look for a specific caller number, the origin of the call. NONE: Press to capture all addresses. ADDR NUMB Options: NONE (F1) or up to a 22-digit numbe Enter a specic CALLED or CALLER number using SHIFT and the keypad. NONE: Press if you want the test set to search for all numbers.
Code Message Type CCITT ANSI HEX

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ACM ANM BLA BLO CCR CFN CGB CGBA CGU CGUA CMC CMR CMRJ CON COT CPG CQM CQR CRA CRG CRM CVR CVT DRS EXM FAA FAR FOT FRJ GRA GRS IAM INF INR LPA OLM PAM REL RES RLC RSC SAM SUS UBA UBL USIS USR

Address Complete Message Answer Blocking Acknowledgment Blocking Continuity Check Request Confusion Circuit Group Blocking Circuit Group Blocking Acknowledgment Circuit Group Unblocking Circuit Group Unblocking Acknowledgment Call Modication Completed Call Modication Request Call Modication Reject Connect Continuity Call Progress Circuit Query Circuit Query Response Circuit Reservation Acknowledgment Charge Information Circuit Reservation Circuit Validation Response Circuit Validation Test Delayed Release Exit Facility Accepted Facility Request Forward Transfer Facility Reject Circuit Group Reset Acknowledgment Circuit Group Reset Initial Address Message Information Information Request Loop Back Acknowledgment Overload Pass Along Release Resume Release Complete Reset Circuit Subsequent Address Message Suspend Unblocking Acknowledgment Unblocking Signal Unequipped Circuit Id Code User to User Information

06 09 15 13 11 2F 18 1A 19 1B X X X X 1D 1C 1E 07 05 2C 2A 2B E9 31 EA EB EC 27 ED 20 21 08 1F 17 29 01 04 03 29 30 28 0C 0E 10 12 02 0D 16 14 2E 2D

X X X X X X

X X X X

Table 9 ISUP Message Types

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SI: SNM Options SLS Options: NONE (F1) ANSI: 5 bits, 00000 to 11111 in binary ITU: 4 bits, from 0000 to 1111; be aware the test set shows the 5-bit setting The Signaling Link Selection (SLS) chooses the link to use when multiple links are available in a load sharing situation. NONE: Press to not designate a SLS. Use 0 (F1) and 1 (F2) to enter a SLS. HEAD CODE Options: NONE (F1), 00 to FF The SNM Heading Code indicates the name of the message or signal. The 2 hex-digit cde is entered H1 heading code rst, followed by the H0 heading code. Refer to Table 10. Enter the code, by using SHIFT and the keypad.

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MESS Group CHM ECM FCM TFM RSM MIM TRM DLM UFC

H1/ H0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A

1 COO ECO RCT TFP RST LIN TRA DLC

2 COA ECA TFC * RSR LUN

CBD CBA

TFR LIA LUA

TFA LID

* LFU LLT LRT

CSS CNS CNP UPU Values marked * should not be used TFA TFC TFM Transfer allowed signal Transfer controlled signal

Abbreviations Changeback-acknowledge CBA signal Changeback-declaration CBD signal Changeover and changeback CHM messages CNP Connection impossible signal Connection unsuccessful CNS signal Changeover acknowledge COA signal COO Changeover order signal CSS Connection successful signal Signaling data link connection DLC order signal Signaling data link connection DLM order message Emergency changeover ECA message Signaling traffic flow control ECM messages Emergency changeover order ECO signal Signaling route set congestion RCT test signal Signaling route set test signal RSR for restricted destination Signaling route set test signal RST for prohibited destination TRF Transfer restricted signal

Transfer prohibited allowed/ restricted messages TFP Transfer prohibited signal Transfer restart allowed TRA signal Transfer restart allowed TRM message Management inhibit MIM messages LID Link inhibit denied signal LFU LIN LIA LUA Link forced uninhibit signal Link inhibit signal Link inhibit acknowledge signal Link uninhibit acknowledge signal

LUN Link uninhibit signal LLT LRT Link local inhibit test signal

Table 10 SNM Head Codes

Link remote inhibit test signal User part flow control UFC message UPU User part unavailable signal

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SI: SNT Options SLS Options: NONE (F1) ANSI: 5 bits, 00000 to 11111 in binary ITU: 4 bits, from 0000 to 1111; be aware the test set shows the 5-bit setting The Signaling Link Selection (SLS) chooses the link to use if multiple links are available. NONE: Press to not designate a SLS. Use 0 (F1) and 1 (F2) to enter a SLS. HEAD CODE Options: NONE (F1), 00 to FF Use SHIFT and keypad to enter the code. The SNT H0 Heading Code identifies the message group as: - 0000 in binary; 0 in hex: spare - 0001 in binary; 1 in hex: test message - all other messages are spare The SNT H1 Heading Code identifies the signal code as: - 0001 in binary; 1 in hex: signaling link test message (SLTM) - 0010 in binary; 2 in hex: signaling link test acknowledgment message (SLTA) Since the heading code input takes the forat of H1 H0: - Enter 11 (hex) for SLTM - Eter 21 (hex) for SLTA

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SI: SCCP Options Select SCCP and the screen shown in Figure 72 is displayed.


Codes AK CC CR CREF DT1 DT2 EA ED ERR IT RLC RLSD RSC RSR UDT UDTS XUDT XUDTS

ANSI Decimal Code 8 2 1 3 6 7 12 11 15 16 5 4 14 13 9 10 17 18

Figure 72 SS7 SCCP Filter Setup Screen


SCCP Messages Data Acknowledgment Connection Conrm Connection Request Connection Refused Data Form 1 Data Form 2 Expedited Data Acknowledgment Expedited Data Error Inactivity Test Release Complete Released Reset Conrm Reset Request Unitdata Unitdata Service Extended Unitdata Extended Unitdata Service

Table 11 SCCP Message Types

X X

SLS Options: NONE (F1) ANSI: 5 bits, 00000 to 11111 in binary. ITU: 4 bits, from 0000 to 1111; be aware the test set shows the 5-bit setting. The Signaling Link Selection (SLS) chooses the link to use when multiple links are available in a load sharing situation. NONE: Press to not designate a SLS. Use 0 (F1) and 1 (F2) to enter a SLS.

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MESG TYPE Options: NONE (F1), 00 to FF Select an SCCP message type, if desired. Refer to Table 11 for the SCCP Message Types. Some of the following items will not be available for configuration on all subsystems. ADDR SGNL Options: NONE (F1), CALLED# (F2), CALLER# (F3) Filter messages using address numbers. Note that the signicance of these fields depends on whether the message is connectionoriented; the eld is related to the direction of the connection setup. If the message is connectionless, the eld signicance depends on the direction of the message (as with OPC and DPC). CALLED#: Press to look for a specific called number. CALLER#: Press to look for a specific caller number. NONE: Press to capture all addresses. If you choose an ADDR SGNL, the next three items appear: ADDR NUMB If desired, enter the specic CALLED or CALLER number. Dont enter a number if you want the test set to search for all numbers. Enter the number, by using SHIFT and the keypad. SSN Options: NONE (F1), SELECT (F2) The Subsystem Number identies a SCCP user funcion. NONE: Press to capture all subsystem numbers. SELECT: Press and you will enter a screen where you may select from the following subsystems:
NO_SS-No SSN RESVD-Reserved AuC-Authentication Center HLR-Home Location Register MSC-Mobile Switching Center OMAP-Operation & Maintenance Part MANAG-Management ISUP-ISDN User Part MAP-Mobile Application Part VLR-Visitor Location Register EIR-Equipment Identier Register BSSAP-Base Station Subsystem Application Part

Press ENTER when done to return to the SS7 SCCP Filter Setup Screen. SIG PT CODE Options: NONE (F1) ANSI: 0-0-0 to 255-255-255 ITU: 0 to 16383 (decimal) or 00-00-00 to 07-FF-07 (hex) Use to enter a Signaling Point Code in decimal format. NONE: Press to capture all Signaling Point Codes. Enter the number, by using SHIFT and the keypad.
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The following TCAP filters and decoding functions are available only with option SWOCx-S2 TCAP ANALYSIS. TCAP OTID Options: NONE (F1), number MAP uses the SS7 TCAP (Transaction Capability Action Part) to control end to end dialogue and remote operation handling. The Originating Transaction ID is part of the TCAP sublayer. Enter the number, by using SHIFT and the keypad. Enter up to ten hex digits. TCAP DTID Options: NONE (F1), number entry TCAP DTID refers to the TCAP Destination Transaction ID. Enter the number, by using SHIFT and the keypad. Enter up to ten hex digits. INVOKE ID Options: NONE (F1), two-digit number entry The Invoke ID is part of TCAPs component portion information element tag (part of the TCAP Transaction Sublayer). Enter the number, by using SHIFT and h epad. You may enter the ID number in hex code from 00 to FF.

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2.7.3.2.1 SS7 Messages Here is a listing of SS7 messages supported by the test set.
SS7 TUP MESSAGES IAM: Initial Address Message FAM: Forward Address Message IAM_CLNPRTY_ELEMENT_TUP IAM_MSG_INDI_ELEMENT_TUP IAM_ADDR_SIG_ELEMENT_TUP IAI_CLNPRTY_ELEMENT_TUP IAI_MSG_INDI_ELEMENT_TUP IAI: Initial Address IAI_ADDR_SIG_ELEMENT_TUP Message with IAI_FIRST_INDI_ELEMENT_TUP Additional IAI_CUG_INFO_ELEMENT_TUP Information IAI_CLN_ID_ELEMENT_TUP IAI_ORG_ADDR_ELEMENT_TUP SAM: Subsequent SAM_ADDR_SIG_ELEMENT_TUP Address SAO: Subsequent Address Message with One Signal GSM_RESPONSE_ELEMENT_TUP GSM: General GSM_CLNPRTY_ELEMENT_TUP Forward Setup GSM_CLN_ID_ELEMENT_TUP Information GSM_EMPTY_ELEMENT_TUP Message GSM_TEXCHG_ELEMENT_TUP GSM_INTRUNK_ELEMENT_TUP GSM_ORG_ADDR_ELEMENT_TUP COT: Continuity signal CCF: GRQ: General Request message ACM: Address Complete Message GRQ_MESG_ELEMENT_TUP ACM_MESG_INDI_ELEMENT_TUP

FSM: Forward Setup Message BSM: Backward Setup Message SBM: Successful Backward Setup Information Message

CHG: Charging Message

SEC: Switching Equipment Congestion signal CGC: Circuit-Group-Congestion signal NNC: National Network congestion signal ADI: Address Incomplete signal UBM: CFL: Call Failure signal Unsuccessful SSB: Subscriber Busy signal, Electrical Backward UNN: Unallocated Number signal Setup LOSMSG: Information SST: Send Special Information Tone signal Message ACB: Access Barred signal DPN: Digital Path Not Provided signal MPR: Misdialed Trunk Prex EUM: Extended Unsuccessful Backward Setup Info Message ANU: Answer signal, Unqualified ANC: Answer signal, Charge ANN: Answer signal, No Charge CSM: Call CBK: Clear Back signal Supervision CLF: Clear Forward signal Message RAM: FOT: Forward Transfer signal CCL: Calling Party Clear signal Table continued on the next page.

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RLG: Release Guard signal BLO: Blocking signal CCM: BLA: Blocking Acknowledgment signal Circuit UBL: Unblocking signal Supervision UBA: Unblocking Acknowledgment signal Message CCR: Continuity Check Request signal RSC: Reset Circuit signal MGB: Maintenance GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Oriented Group Blocking GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Message MBA: Maintenance GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Oriented Group Block GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Acknowledgment MGU: Maintenance GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Oriented Group GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Unblocking Message MUA: Maintenance Oriented Group GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Unblocking GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Acknowledgment HGB: Group Blocking GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Message GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP HBA: Group Blocking GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Acknowledgment GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Message HGU: Hardware Failure GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Oriented Group Blocking GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP GRM: Message Circuit HUA: Hardware Failure GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Group Oriented Group GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Supervision Unblocking Message GRS: Circuit Group GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Message Reset Message GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP GRA: Circuit Group GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Reset-Acknowledgment GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP SGB: Software GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Generated Group GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Blocking Message SBA: Software Generated GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Group Blocking GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Acknowledgment SGU: Software GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Generated Group GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Unblocking Message SUA: Software GRM_RANGE_ELEMENT_TUP Generated Group GRM_STATUS_ELEMENT_TUP Unblocking Message CNM: Circuit Network Management Message Group ACC: Automatic Congestion Control CNM_MESG_INDI_ELEMENT_TUP Information Message Table continued on the next page.

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SS7 ISUP MESSAGES (ISDN User Part) IAM_NOC_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_FRW_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_CLNPRTY_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_XMS_MEDIUM_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_CALLED_NUM_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_TRANIT_SEL_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_CALL_REF_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_CALLING_NUM_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM: Initial Address IAM_OPT_FRW_ELEMENT_ISUP Message IAM_REDIREC_NUM_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_REDIREC_INFO_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_GROUP_CODE_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_CONNECT_REQ_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_ORI_CALLED_NUM_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_USER_2_USER_INFO_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_ACCESS_TRANSPORT_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_USER_SERV_INFO_ELEMENT_ISUP IAM_USER_2_USER_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP SAM_SUB_SEQ_ELEMENT_ISUP SAM: Subsequent INR: Address Message INR_INFO_REQ_ELEMENT_ISUP INF: Information INF_INFO_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP COT: Continuity COT_COT_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP ACM: Address ACM_BKW_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP Complete CON_BKW_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP CON: Connect FOT ANM REL_CODE_LOC_ELEMENT_ISUP REL: Release REL_RECOMMEND_ELEMENT_ISUP REL_CAUSE_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP SUS: Suspend SUS_RESUME_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP RES: Resume RES_RESUME_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP RLC_CODE_LOC_ELEMENT_ISUP RLC: Release RLC_RECOMMEND_ELEMENT_ISUP Complete RLC_CAUSE_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP CCR RSC BLO UBL BLA UBA GRS GRS_RANGE_ELEMENT_ISUP CGB_GROUP_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP CGB: Circuit Group CGB_RANGE_STATUS1_ELEMENT_ISUP Blocking CGB_RANGE_STATUS2_ELEMENT_ISUP CGU_GROUP_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP CGU: Circuit Group CGU_RANGE1_ELEMENT_ISUP Unblocking CGU_RANGE2_ELEMENT_ISUP CGBA: Circuit CGBA_GROUP_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP Group Blocking CGBA_RANGE1_ELEMENT_ISUP Acknowledgment CGBA_RANGE2_ELEMENT_ISUP CGUA: Circuit CGUA_GROUP_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP Group Unblocking CGUA_RANGE1_ELEMENT_ISUP Acknowledgment CGUA_RANGE2_ELEMENT_ISUP Table continued on the next page. CMR: Call Modication Request CMC: Call Modication Completed CMRJ: Call Modication Reject FAR: Facility Request FAA: Facility Accepted CMR_CALL_MODE_ELEMENT_ISUP CMC_CALL_MODE_ELEMENT_ISUP CMRJ_CALL_MODE_ELEMENT_ISUP FAR_FAC_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP FAA_FAC_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP

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FRJ: Facility Reject LPA DRS PAM GRA CQM: Circuit Group Query CQR: Circuit Group Query Response CPG: Call Progress USR USIS CFN OLM CRG CRA CRM CVR CVT EXM (Exit)

FRJ_FAC_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP FRJ_CODE_LOC_ELEMENT_ISUP FRJ_RECOMMEND_ELEMENT_ISUP FRJ_CAUSE_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP GRA_RANGE_STATUS1_ELEMENT_ISUP GRA_RANGE_STATUS2_ELEMENT_ISUP CQM_RESUME_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP CQR_RANGE_ELEMENT_ISUP CQR_ADDR_SIG_ELEMENT_ISUP CPG_NOC_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP CFN_CODE_LOC_ELEMENT_ISUP CFN_RECOMMEND_ELEMENT_ISUP CFN_CAUSE_INDI_ELEMENT_ISUP

SS7 TCAP MESSAGES: Transaction Capability Application Part Message Type Tag TCAP_MESSAGE_UNIDIRECT Component Portion Tag Message Type Tag Dialogue Portion TCAP_MESSAGE_BEGIN Originating Component Portion Transaction ID Tag Tag Message Type Tag Dialogue Portion TCAP_MESSAGE_END Destination Component Portion Transaction ID Tag Tag Message Type Tag Originating Dialogue Portion TCAP_MESSAGE_CONTINUE Transaction ID Tag Component Portion Destination Tag Transaction ID Tag Message Type Tag P-Abort Cause TCAP_MESSAGE_ABORT Destination Portion Transaction ID Tag Dialogue Portion SS7 SCCP MESSAGES: Signaling Connection Control Part SCCP_INFO_SRC_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_CONN_REQ SCCP_INFO_PROC_CLASS SCCP_INFO_CALLED_ADDR SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_CONN_CONF SCCP_INFO_SRC_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_PROC_CLASS SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_CONN_REFUSE SCCP_INFO_REF_CAUSE SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_REL SCCP_INFO_SRC_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_REL_COMP SCCP_INFO_SRC_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_REST_CONF SCCP_INFO_SRC_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_DT1 SCCP_INFO_SEG_REASSEM SCCP_INFO_DATA SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_DT2 SCCP_INFO_SEQ_SEGMENT SCCP_INFO_DATA SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_MSG_DATA_ACK SCCP_INFO_RCV_SEQ_NUM SCCP_INFO_CREDIT

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SCCP_MSG_UNITDATA

SCCP_MSG_UNITDATA_SERV SCCP_MSG_EXPEDITED_DATA SCCP_MSG_EXPEDITED_DATA_ACK SCCP_MSG_REST_REQ SCCP_MSG_ERR SCCP_MSG_INACT_TEST

SCCP_MSG_EXTUNIDATA

SCCP_MSG_EXTUNIDATA_SERV

SCCP_INFO_PROC_CLASS SCCP_INFO_CALLED_ADDR SCCP_INFO_CALLING_ADDR SCCP_INFO_DATA SCCP_INFO_RTN_CAUSE SCCP_INFO_CALLED_ADDR SCCP_INFO_CALLING_ADDR SCCP_INFO_DATA SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_DATA SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_SRC_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_RST_CAUSE SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_ERR_CAUSE SCCP_INFO_DEST_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_SRC_LOCAL_REF SCCP_INFO_PROC_CLASS SCCP_INFO_SEQ_SEGMENT SCCP_INFO_PROC_CLASS SCCP_INFO_HOP_COUNTER SCCP_INFO_CALLED_ADDR SCCP_INFO_CALLING_ADDR SCCP_INFO_DATA SCCP_INFO_PROC_CLASS SCCP_INFO_HOP_COUNTER SCCP_INFO_CALLED_ADDR SCCP_INFO_CALLING_ADDR SCCP_INFO_DATA

Table 12 Supported SS7 Messages 2.7.3.3 Capture Trace This screen is used to view a live trace of SS7 messages, captured according to the lter settings. Figure 72 provides a Layer 2 sample.

Figure 73 Capture Trace Screen

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The following F-keys are available: STOP/START (F1): Press to halt or restart the live capturing of messages. If you STOP the messages, VIEW (F3) appears. Press VIEW to enter the TEMPORARY RECORD screen, which gives you access to the records. If you leave the screen by pressing ESC, you will lose the data. HEX/DECODE (F2): Press to change the presentation of information from hexadecimal to decoded. PAUSE/RESUME (F3): Press this key to temporarily pause the presentation of live data. An indicator will appear at the top of the screen. Press RESUME to return the presentation of live data. See the next section for details on the information presented on the screen. The information shown will depend on your filter setup. The first line of the header indicates the layer the message was taken on (Layer 2 in Figure 73), the date, time, and the message number. The following lines list the message type (ISUP in the sample gures), and further specics. It is easier to actually see the information in the SS7 ANALYSIS > VIEW TRACE > TEMPORARY TRACE screen. 2.7.3.4 View Trace This menu contains: TEMPORARY TRACE STORED TRACE Note: To save messges, a 1 MEG memory card must be installed in the test set. 2.7.3.4.1 Temporary Trace In this screen, you can select records to view, filter, or delete.

Figure 74 Temporary Record Screen


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The following F-keys are available: VIEW (F1): Press to view the traces, as selected at the FROM and TO lines. CLEAR (F2): Press to delete all of the messages. Press ENTER to erase all of the records after you see the warning message, or press ESC to exit the screen without erasing the records. STORE (F3): Press to save the selected messages. You will enter the LABEL screen. See Saving a Trace in this section. FILTER (F4): Press to change the filter settings. You will enter the FILTER SETUP screen. See Section 2.7.3.2 on setting lters. Viewing a Temporary Record 1. Select the FROM line. Note that TOTAL MSG shows the number of messages available. 2. Press SHIFT, then use the numeric keypad to enter the number of the first trace you want to see. Press SHIFT when done. 3. Select TO, and repeat the number entry process, this time entering the number of the last trace you want to see 4. Press VIEW (F1) and the trace screens are displayed. See the next gures for sample screens. This is the same screen as in Figure 73, after pressing DECODE.

Figure 75 ISUP Message Screen, Decoded The following F-keys are available: PREV (F1), NEXT (F2): Use to look through the available screens. The information shown on the screen will depend on your filter setup. The rst line of the header indicates the layer the message was taken on (Layer 2 in Figure 75), the date, time, and the message number. The following lines list the message type (ISUP in the sample gures), and further specics.
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Saving a Trace 1. Select the traces you want to save at the FROM and TO lines in the TEMPORARY RECORD screen. 2. Press STORE (F3) and a character entry screen is displayed. 3. Press INPUT (F3). Note that the A character is highlighted and the INPUT F-key has changed to STOP. 4. Use the keypad arrow keys to move the cursor to the desired character. 5. Press ENTER to place the desired character to the right of the LABEL. Continue this process until the LABEL is complete. You may enter up to 15 characters. If you make a mistake in the entry: A. Press STOP (F3). B. Move the LABEL cursor to the incorrect character. C. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or, press INSERT (F1) to insert a character. D. Press INPUT (F3) to select a character. Press ENTER to insert the new character to the left of the cursor. 6. Press SAVE (F4) to save the selected traces under the label you have given them. You should see FILE SAVING, then FILE STORED! when the process is complete. The saved trace wil be available in STORED TRACE. 2.7.3.4.2 Stored Traces In this screen you can: View and print saved traces. Rename, delete all or a selected saved trace.

Figure 76 View/Print/Save Traces Screen The following F-keys are available:


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LOAD (F1): Press to view the highlighted record. PAGE-UP (F2), PAGE-DN (F3): Used to scroll through the available screens of records. RENAME (more, F1): Press to give the selected record a new name. The LABEL screen is displayed, see Saving a Trace in Section 2.7.3.4.2. DELETE (more, F2): Press to delete the selected record. DEL-ALL (more, F3): Press to delete all of the records. Viewing a Trace 1. Seect the desired record, then press LOAD (F1). After loading, the view trace screen, as in Figure 77. TOTAL MESSAGE shows the number of messages available to view.

Figure 77 View a Trace Screen The following F-keys are available: VIEW (F1): Press to view the saved trace. FILTER (F2): Press to apply the lters as currently dened to the saved trace. The SS7 FILTER SETUP screen is displayed where you may change the filter settings. See Section 2.7.3.2 for instructions on setting up filters. The current trace will be filtered according to these settings. 2. Select the VIEW FROM line. 3. Press SHIFT, then using the numeric keypad enter the number of the first trace you want to see. Press SHIFT when done. 4. Select TO, and repeat the number entry process, this time entering the number of the last trace you want to see. 5. Press VIEW (F1) and the trace screens are displayed. See the following figures for sample screens.

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The following F-keys are aailable: PREV (F1), NEXT (F2) :Press to scroll through the messages. HEX/DECODE (F3): Press to change the presentation of information from hexadecimal to decoded.

Figure 78 HEX TUP Trace Screen L4DECO: When a Layer 4 Information Element is available, a digit or letter will appear along with a L4DECO (4) F-key as in the screen on the left in Figure 79. Press L4DECO to view the bit-by-bit Layer 4 decoded information, as shown on the right screen in Figure 79.

Figure 79 Trace Screens Press RETURN (F4) in the right screen shown in Figure 79 to return to the Decoded Trace screen. When the Layer 1 lter is set to CAPTRE, physical layer information is captured, including alarms and errors, as in Figure 80.

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Figure 80 Layer 1 Alarm Screen Here is a sample Layer 2 LSSU screen:

Figure 81 Layer 2 - LSU Screen In this screen, the LSSU messages are presented. These are only sent when a link comes into service (alignment), or to stop flow when the processor is busy.

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Figure 82 Decoded TUP Trace Screen The following information is presented: L1: This is the line the message was received on, it can be L1 or L2. 01-07-01: Date, month-date-year format 12:28:02: Time, hour: minute: second #: Message Number MSU: Message type, this is a TUP message BSN: Backward Sequence Number FSN: Forward Sequence Number SI: Service Indicator SSP: Circuit Identication Code. HO (2): Denes the message group, H1 (1) : Denes the message. Additional information may also be available. On the sample screen, the Calling Party (CLN PRTY) number is sown (it also is the Layer 4 decode bit), as is a Message Indication (MSG IND: 342) and the Address Signal (ADR SIG: 1234567). Here is a sample series of SCCP messages.

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Figure 83 SCCP Messages The following two screens are a sample pair of BSSMAP Layer 4 decoded screens.

Figure 84 BSSMAP Screens

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2.7.4 Frame Relay This option allows for testing the status of a Frame Relay network. To congure for Frame Relay, the module main menu conguration screen needs to be set as follows: TEST MODE: T1DUAL Tx/INSERT: L1-TX Rx/DROP: L1-RX RxLVL-1: TERM RxLVL-2: TERM Tx SOURCE: PATTERN FRAMING: ESF CODING: AMI Tx CLOCK: INTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M, Nx64 or Nx56K LBO 1&2: 0dB LED PANEL: LINE1 or 2 Press ENTER when ready. Note: The PAT SYNC LED will not light green, as a bit pattern is not being transmitted and received. From the module main menu select, PROTOCOL ANALYSIS > FRAME RELAY. The menu screen that appears contains: CONFIGURATION LMI ANALYSIS PING TEST FOX TEST STATISTICS ANALYSIS

Note: If youpress the keypad AUTO key while in the FRAME RELAY menu screen, the test set will automatically configure the LMI and DLCI header size.

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2.7.4.1 Frame Relay Conguration


Figure 85 Frame Relay Conguration Screen Configure the following: INTERFACE Options: UNI (F1), NNI (F2) UNI: Press for User Network Interface. NNI: Press for Network-Network interface. EMULATION Options: USER (F1), NETWORK (F2) USER: Press to have the test set emulate the user side of the UNI or NNI. NETWORK: Press to have the test set emulate the network side of the UNI or NNI. PROTOCOL Options: ANSI617 (F1), Q.933 (F2), LMI (F3), NO-LMI (F4) Choose the protocol to use. Note that pressing AUTO will automatically congure the LMI and DLCI header size. ANSI617: Press for ANSI T1.617 standard. Q.933: Press for ITU-T Q.933 Frame Relay standard. LMI: Press for Local Management Interface standard. No-LMI: Press to use no LMI signaling.

DLCI LENGTH Options: 2 (F1), 3 (F2), 4 (F3) Set the number of octets for the DLCI header. The Data Link Connection Identier identies both directions of a virtual connection. Note: For the following items, press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad to make an entry.
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DLCI VALUE Options: DTE 0-8,388,606; DCE 16-999 Set the DLCI value for the emulation. This value is of only local signicance. The DLCI value range is dependent on DLCI length. T391 STATUS ENQUIRY (sec) Options: 5-30 seconds Set the time interval at which a T391 Status Enquiry will be sent. This is a link status verication timer, sent by the user. After a Status Enquiry is sent, the timer resets. T392 STATUS (sec) Options: 5-30 seconds Set the time interval at which a T392 Status Enquiry will be sent. T392 is a polling verication timer. It is used for transmitting the STATUS (PVC status information). N391 FULL STAT POLL (cyc) Options: 1-255 cycles Determine how often the test set will take a N391 Full Status Poll. This is a Full Status enquiry counter sent by the user to the network. After each Status Enquiry message is sent, the N391 count is increased by 1. When the N391 set value has been reached, the network should send a Full Status rather than a Status message. The test set will send the poll after the entered number of cycles. N392 ERROR THRESHOLD (cyc) Options: 1-10 cycles Set the error threshold cycle. This is a network timer, used as an error counter. N392 is a count of errors occurring during the monitored events N393. This number should be equal to or less than the N393 count. N393 MONITOR EVENTS (cnt) Options: 1-10 events Determine how many events must occur to trigger the counter to reset. This is an monitored event counter. A monitored event is any message received across the interface. An event can include errors or timer expiration.

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2.7.4.2 LMI Analysis This reports information about the frame relay connections at the User Network Interface (UNI), and allows the user and the network to exchange information about the physical link and virtual connections. The analysis begins as soon as the screen is selected. LMI provides a small number of specic services. It polls the user or network to see if it is connected at the interface. It informs the user when virtual circuits are added to or removed from the ntwork, and whether or not each circui is active. It also reports on the availability of a new virtual circuit. Figure 86 shown the flow of timer and counter based polling over time.

Figure 86 N391 and T391 Operation


Figure 87 LMI Analysis Screen USER or NETWORK SIDE (USER SIDE is shown in Figure 87). ELAPSED TIME: This is how long the test has been running. LINK ERRORED TOTAL: This is the total number errors for the link under test. TIME OUT ERROR: This counter increments when a proper Status or Full Status response is not received. RESPONSE SEQ. NUMB: This is the number Received Sequence Number Errors; frames received out of sequence.
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WRONG MESSAGE: This is the number of frames containing an invalid message. LINK OK TOTAL: This counter increments when a proper Status or Full Status response is received. STATUS: Reports current status message, such as Send Sttus Enquiry, Receive Full Status, or Receive Status. The following F-keys are available: PVC (F1): Press to see the DLCI activity on the Permanent Virtual Circuit as in the following screen.

Figure 88 LMI PVC Analysis Screen Observe any New (just activated) and/or Active DLCIs; each corresponds to an individual PVC. A DLCI shifts from NEW to ACTIVE after a full status report has been received from the DCE. The test set automatically sorts the DLCIs by number. Press PAGE-UP (F2) or PAGE-DN (F3) to scroll through the results, if there is more than one page of New/Active DLCIs. Press PRINT (F4) to send the data to the serial port for printing. Press LMI (F1) to return to the LMI ANALYSIS screen. Continuing with the F-keys shown in Figure 87: NETLMI/USERLMI (F2): If the test set is in a NNI conguration, you will be able to see results for both the USER and the NETWORK sides. Press NETLMI to see the Network side information. Press again to return to the USERLMI side. If the test set is in a UNI INTERFACE configuration, you will be able to see results for whichever side you have selected for EMULATION. PRINT (F3): Press to send the data to the serial port for printing. STOP/START (F4): Press to stop or restart the analysis.
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2.7.4.3 PING Test This test sends a PING from a Local to a Dstination IP address, to verify continuity. Both ends must be using TCP/IP. A large difference between the maximum and minimum response times for each PING indicates congestion in the network.

Figure 89 PING Test Conguration Screen Configure the following: Note: To enter numbers, press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad. LOCAL IP Enter the IP address of the local side which will send the ping. DEST IP Enter the distant IP address to receive the ping. NLPID Options: IP (F1), SNAPIP (F2) Determine which Network Layer Protocol Identifiers will be carried inside the Frame Relay frame. IP: Press to use the Internet Protocol (F1). SNAPIP: Press when no protocol is in use, using the Sub Network Access Protocol. TIMEOUT (sec) Determine how long (in seconds) the test set will wait for a response before declaring the test over. No. OF PINGS Options: 1-99 Determine how many pings will be sent to the distant IP address.
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InARP Options: MANUAL (F1), TIMED (F2), NoInARP (F3) Inverse Address Resolution Protocol is used by a station to request a protocol address corresponding to the station at the other end of the connection. The test set can simultaneously send and receive InARP information. MANUAL: Press and you will need to enter information in the RESPSE TIME OUT field. The InARP request will be sent only when you press InARP (F2) in the PING TEST screen. TIMED and an InARP will be sent automatically, according to your configuration of the next two fields. NOInARP: Press and the test set will not respond to InARP and the following InARP settings will vanish. InARP ENQUIRY TIME Options: Chose any time from 1-99:59 minutes Determine the interval at which the test set will send an InARP. This applies only to TIMED InARP. RESPSE TIME OUT (sec) Options: 0-999 seconds Determine the time out time for the test. When ready, press START (F4). If InARP is use, an InARP request is sent to the gateway and the test begins after the test set receives an InARP response from the gateway. At this point the PING TEST screen is displayed as in the following figure:

Figure 90 PING Test Screen The test set sends a Status Enquiry, and expects to receive a Status or Full Status response from the network. When it has received the proper number of responses (as set by the N391 count in the LMI screen), a ready message is displayed. Press START/STOP (F4) to begin or end testing. Here are the results: PVC STATUS: Current transmission status.
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InARP STATUS: Reports any InARP messages. PINGS: Number of PINGs in the test. SENT: Number of PINGs sent so far. STATUS: Current test status. RECEIVE: Number of echo PINGs received. UNREACH: Number of PINGs which were not reached; the number of PINGs which were not responded to. ROUND TRIP TIME: Displayed in milliseconds. CUR: This is the round trip time of the current PING. A V G : This is the average round trip time of a PING. MAX: This is the longest round trip time of all PINGs. MIN: This is the shortest round trip time of all PINGs. Press ECHO (F1) to display the following screen:

Figure 91 ECHO Results Screen This screen reports on the number of echo PINGs the test set has sent in response to a PING from a specic IP address. Note that Echo PING runs in the background, updating results continuously. However, you must press ECHO in the PING TEST screen to see the results. The following is displayed in this screen: No. of ECHOED IPS: This is the number of IP addresses which sent PINGs to the test set. PAGE: Lists the number of pages of results available (1 is shown in Figure 91). Use PAGE-UP (F2) and PAGE-DN (F3) to scroll through the available screens. TIME: This is the timestamp of the last PING received from the PING FROM IP address. PING FROM: This is the IP address which sent the PING. TOTAL: This is the total number of PINGs received from the PING FROM IP address. The following F-keys are available:
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PING (F1): Press to return to the screen shown in Figure 90. PAGEUP (F3) and PAGE-DN (F3): Used to scroll through the available screens of results. PRINT (F4): Press to print the results. Press InARP (F2) in the PING Test screen to view the next screen shown in the following figure:

Figure 92 InARP Statistics Screen The following results are reported: TOTAL #: This is the number or messages reported for each message type. SENT: Total number of sent InARPs. RSP RCV: Total number of responses received to the sent InARPs. RSP T.O.: Total number of responses which timed out (did not come within the RESPSE TIME OUT (sec) setting). RCV: Total number of received InARP enquiries. RSP SENT: Total number of responses sent by the test set. LAST IP: This is the address of the last IP which the test set sent an InARP to and received a response from. The following F-keys are available: PING (F1): Press to return to the PING results screen. InArpRQ (F2): Press to manually send a request for an InARP to the gateway. Applies when InARP is set to MANUAL in the PING TEST CONFIGURATION screen. PRINT (F4): Press to print the results.

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2.7.4.4 FOX Test This test is used to stress a network by sending large amounts of data. Varying the CIR and FOX frame length allows you to see how the network responds to different traffic loads. End-to-end connectivity of the frame relay network cn be veried by transmitting frames to a specic DLCI, then counting the frames received at that DLCI. Looping back on the line veries circuit capacity. This test is useful when the node to be tested is not using TCP/IP.

Figure 93 FOX Test Conguration Screen Configure the following: LOAD (%) Options: 1-95% This is the percentage of the network capacity occupied by the CIR. For example, if CIR is 50% on a T1 line, then LOAD is 50%. Press SHIFT and use the keypad to enter the number. FRAME LENGTH Options: 64-4096 bytes Determine how many bytes the FOX message will be transmitted on in each frame. Press SHIFT and use the keypad to enter the number. CIR (Kbps) Observe the allowable CIR. This rate configures itself automatically to correspond with the LOAD (%) chosen. If traffic exceeds the Committed Information Rate (the user information transfer rate), the network will begin congestion control procedures.
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FECN Options: 0 (F1), 1 (F2) The Forward Explicit Congestion Notification bit is sent downstream to notify the downstream node that the sending (upstream) node is experiencing congestion, so congestion management procedures should be initiated. 1 means the node is experiencing congestion, 0 that it is not. The use of the FECN bit is optional. BECN Options: 0 (F1), 1 (F2) The Backward Explicit Congestion Notification bit is sent upstream to notify the upstream node that the sending (downstream) node is experiencing congestion, so congestion management procedures should be initiated. 1 means the node is experiencing congestion, 0 that it is not. The use of the BECN bit is optional. DE Options: 0 (F1), 1 (F2) The Discard Eligibility bit informs the network, by the customer, that if the network is experiencing congestion, this frame may be discarded first. Additionally, the network may set this bit if te customer has exceeded the subscribed CIR value, again allowing the network to discard this frame first if congestion occurs. The DE usually has a value of 1 when it is in use. Press START (F4) and the following screen is displayed: Figure 94 FOX Test Results Screen If congured for LMI, the test set sends a Status Enquiry and expects to receive a Status or Full Status response from the network. When the proper number of responses (as set by the N391 count in the LMI screen) have been received, you will see
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a PVC STATUS: READY message. This indicates that testing can begin. The following items appear in Figure 94: ST: Start time of the test. CIR: See FOX Test Conguration screen items (Figure 94). ET: Elapsed time is how long the test has been running. LOAD: See FOX Test Conguration screen items (Figure 94). PVC STATUS: PVC connection status. CURRENT Kbps: This is the current test rate; corresponding to the CIR. FECN FRAMES: This is a count of the number of frames containing a Forward Explicit Congestion Notification bit. BECN FRAMES: This is a count of the number of frames containing a Backward Explicit Congestion Notification bit. DE FRAMES: This is a count of the number of frames containing a Discard Eligibility bit. BAD FRAMES: This is a count of the number of frames which were received with an incorrect byte alignment. FCS ERROR: This is a count of the number of Frame Check Sequence errors. This calculation is performed in the last two frames which is used to verify that data was not corrupted during transfer. RSN ERROR: This is a count of the number of frames with Received Sequence Number errors (frame received out of order). SSN ERROR: This is a count of the number of frames with Sent Sequence Number errors (received with the wrong number). TX FRAMES: This is the total count of transmitted frames. Rx FRAMES: This is the total count of received frames. Note: When the test set is looped, as it often will be for this test, the number of Received and Transmitted frames will be the same. If the test set is connected to a TE, the frame counts can vary (depending on how each ones CIR is set). The following F-keys are available: RESET (F2): Press to stop and then begin the test anew (the TX and RX FRAMES will reset to zero). PRINT (F3): Press to send the results to the serial port for printing. FOXSTOP/FXSTART (F4): Press to pause the test, press again to continue wit the test (the TX and RX FRAMES number will increase from where they left off).

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2.7.4.5 Statistical Analysis This feature should be used with the test set configured with TEST MODE as either T1SINGL or T1DUAL and RxLVL-1/-2 for BRIDGE or MONITOR.

Figure 95 SA Monitor Conguration Screen Configure the following: LONG FRAME LENGTH Options: 10-999 A frame longer than the length set here will be designated a long frame. SORT FRAME LENGTH Options 5-99; or up to one digit less than the Long Frame Length. A frame shorter than the length set here will be designated a short frame. When ready, press ENTER and the analysis is started with the following screen being displayed:

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Figure 96 Frame Relay Performance Screen The following F-keys are available in all result screens: PAGE-UP (F1) and PAGE-DN (F2): Use to scroll through the result screens. PRINT (F3): Press to send the results to the serial port for printing. STOP/START (F4): Press to stop the current analysis, press again to begin a new analysis. Note: For the following screens, the LINE 2 column will only be displayed, when TEST MODE is set for T1DUAL in the module main conguration screen. Results given in the rst screen are: AVG UTIL (%): This is the average utilized percentage of the rate. MAX UTIL (%): This is the highest utilized percentage of the rate. MIN UTIL (%): This is the lowest utilized percentage of the rate. AVG THRU (kbps): This is the average transmitted frame rate. MAX THRU (kbps): This is the highest transmitted frame rate. MIN THRU (kbps): This is the lowest transmitted frame rate. AVG FRAME/SEC: Thi is the average number of frames transmitted per second. MAX FRAME/SEC: This is the highest rate of frames transmitted per second. MIN FRAME/SEC: This is the lowest rate of frames transmitted per second.
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Press PAGE-DN (F2) and the next screen is displayed:

Figure 97 Frame Relay Statistics Screen AVG OCTET : This is the average octet length (number of bytes). TOTAL FRAMES: This is the total number of frames received. FECN FRAMES: This is the number of frames containing a Forward Explicit Congestion Notification bit. BECN FRAMES: This is the number of frames containing a Backward Explicit Congestion Notification bit. DE FRAMES: This is the number of frames containing a Discard Eligibility bit. SHORT FRAMES: This is the number of Short Frames (as dened in the Monitor Conguration). LONG FRAMES: This is the number of Long Frames (as dened in the Monitor Conguration). FCS ERRORS: This is a count of the number of Frame Check Sequence errors (this is a calculation performed in the last two frames which is used to verify that data ws not corrupted during transfer). ABORTED FRAMES: This is the number of frames which were aborted; this usually indicates a link problem or a problem with the customers equipment. Press PAGE-DN (F2) to see the list of Active DLCIs shown in the left screen in Figure 98.

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Figure 98 DLCI Screens In the selection screen shown on the left of Figure 98, use the keypad arrows keys to select the active DLCI you want to examine. Press PAGE-DN (F2) and the screen shown on the right in Figure 98 is displayed. Alternately, you can press NEXT (MORE, F1) and PREVIUS (MORE, F2) to scroll through all of the active DLCIs. The following statistics are in the right screen of Figure 98: AVG OCTET : This is the average octet length (number of bytes). TOTAL FRAMES: This is the total number of frames received. FECN FRAMES: This is the number of frames containing a Forward Explicit Congestion Notification bit. BECN FRAMES: This is the number of frames containing a Backward Explicit Congestion Notification bit. DE FRAMES: This is the number of frames containing a Discard Eligibility bit. SHORT FRAMES: This is the number of Short Frames (as dened in the Monitor Conguration). LONG FRAMES: This is the number of Long Frames (as dened in the Monitor Conguration). FCS ERRORS: This is a count of the number of Frame Check Sequence errors (this is a calculation performed in the last two frames which is used to verify that data was not corrupted during transfer). ABORTED FRAMES: This is the number of frames which were aborted, usually due to link problems or problems with a customers DTE equipment.

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2.7.5 SRAM Card Utiity This utility will automatically format the SRAM memory card for use in the test set. This must be done when inserting a new card or when you wish to erase all data contained on a card. The utility can be accessed via the DUAL T1 main menu > PROTOCOL TESTING >SRAM CARD UTILITY.

Figure 99 SRAM Card Utility Screen The following F-keys are available in this screen: DETECT (F1): Automatically detects the type of card. Move the cursor down to SRAM FOR TRACE, the following Fkeys are available: FORMAT (F1), 64KB (F2), 128KB (F3), 256KB (MORE,F1), 512 KB (MORE, F2), 1024KB (MORE,F3) Pressing any of the above F-keys will format the card. You will be prompted with the following, WARNING! SRAM CARD DATA WILL BE LOST DO YOU WANT TO CONTINUE?. Press YES (F1) to format or NO (F2) to abort the procedure. If you pressed YES the screen will change and FORMATTING.... will appear. Once done the screen will change back to the SRAM CARD UTILITY screen with your chosen memory allotment highlighted on the SRAM FOR TRACE line.

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2.8 Data Link Control


This feature applies to ESF and SLC-96 framing. You will not be able to enter this menu if you have selected UNFRAME or SF-D4 as your framing in the module main menu conguration screen. This menu contains the following: ESF DATA LINK SLC-96 DATA LINK 2.8.1 ESF Data Link Control This feature applies to ESF framing. ESF Data Link Control is provided when you have chosen ESF framing in the module main menu configuration screen. The menu contains the following: MONITOR BPM MONITOR PRM TRANSMIT BPM TRANSMIT PRM

2.8.1.1 Monitor ESF Data Link BPM

Figure 100 Monitor ESF Data Link BPM Screen This screen monitors for messages that the test set receives over the data link. The 0: line shows the current bits received if the test set is receiving a message on the datalink. Pressing DECODE (F2) will translate the current message. If the test set is not receiving a message, the 0: line will say IDLE, and the bits of the last message that was received will be displayed under the 1:, 2:, 3:, or 4: lines with 1: being the most current and 4: being the least current. Pressing CLEAR (F1) will delete all messages.

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2.8.1.2 Monitor PRM This screen allows you to view the Performance Report Message (PRM) as reported on the ESF datalink. It gives real-time end-toend performance information when the circuit is in service. This screen also displays the duration (in seconds) of: Payload loopback messages Yellow alarm messages Elapsed time since data link monitoring began Valid data link message was received

Figure 101 Monitor ESF Data Link PRM Screen The following items are displayed: ELAPSED TIME: This is the total amount of time which has passed since the data link began to be monitored. DETECTION TIME: This is the total amount of time the test set has detected valid data link messages during the time that the test set has been monitoring the data link. CRC=1: This is the number of seconds during which exactly 1 CRC-6 error was reported. C=<5: This is the number of seconds during which 2 to 5 CRC-6 errors were reported. C=<10: This is the number of seconds during which 6 to 10 CRC-6 errors were reported. C=<100: This is the number of seconds during which 11 to 100 CRC-6 errors were reported. C=<319: This is the number of seconds during which 101 to 319 CRC-6 errors were reported. C=>320: This is the number of seconds during which 320 or more CRC-6 errors were reported.
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SEFE: This is the number of severely errored framing events reported. FSBEE: This is the number of frame synchronization bit error events reported. BPV: This is the number of seconds in which at least one bipolar violation was reported. SLIP: This is the number of seconds during which at least one frame slip occurred. PLBK: This is the number of seconds in which the device was looped back. SPRM: Supplementary Performance Report Messages may be added to Performance Report Messages (PRMs). SPRMs report on trouble conditions within the specific area near the SPRM insertion point. The insertion point should be as close as is practical to the NI so that the SPRM can sectionalize the trouble within the network or within the customer interface (CI). U1 & U2: This is the number of seconds in which these bits were not zero. These fields only apply when the R-bits show an SPRM has been added. The following F keys are available: CI/NETWORK (F1): Allows setting the test set to monitor Command/Response on network or customer interface (CI) side. STOP/START (F2): Press to stop the measurement, press again to restart the measurement. HOLDSCR/CONTIN (F3): Press to stop the screen from updating to allow for easy viewing. The measurement continues in the background, update the screen by pressing CONTIN.

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2.8.1.3 Transmit BPM You can send a data link Bit-Patterned Message. Figure 102 shws an example.

Figure 102 Transmit ESF Data Link BPM Screen The following F keys are available: CONTINU (F1): Changes the REPEAT eld to CONTINU. In this setting, the data link is sent continuously until STOP (F4) is pressed. TIMED (F2): Changes the REPEAT eld to 000:00 (MMM:SS). In this setting, the data link is sent for the specied number of minutes and seconds or until STOP (F4) is pressed. NUMBER (F3): Changes the REPEAT eld to 00 (1-99). The data link is sent for the specied number of repetitions. The default is 01. SEND/STOP (F4): Press to send the specied data link message. While the message is being sent, lines 13 and 14 display a message based on the REPEAT setting. The Remaining Time counts down while the message is sent. Press STOP to shut down the line. Use the keypad Up/Down arrow keys to select CODEWORD. The Codeword field displays the last selected codeword in LtR bit order. The default value is 00000000 11111111 EDIT/DONE (F1) Allows manually changing the data link bits. The cursor moves to the first x bit in the codeword. In this state, the only F-key available is DONE (F1). When DONE is pressed, the test set automatically decodes the codeword.
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SELECT (F2): Displays the BPM selection screens shown in Section 2.8.1.3.1. IDLE (F3): Sets the data link to idle. When idle, the DL will contain continuous repetitions of the data link idle code; 01111110. When sending idle code, the decode field will read, IDLE. This is the default. STATUS: When sending messages, the eld reads SENDING. When sending a small number of messages, the eld might appear to ash. When sending messages and the REPEAT is set to TIMED, the status field also displays and counts down the remaining time as SENDING RT: 000:00:00. When not sending any messages, the test set is sending the data link idle code. In this case, the Status Field reads IDLE. Decode Field: Uses codeword decodes from the reference section and not the abbreviated decodes shown in the Select ESF Data Link BPM screens. In this screen you select a message to send, and specify the number of times it is sent. Use this procedure: 1. Select the desired CODEWORD. You can do this by using the predefined codewords or by typing in the desired bit numbers. If you type in the message, select the desired position and enter 1s and 0s using SHIFT and the keypad. You are only allowed to move the cursor between the 10th and 15th bits of the message. The rest of the 16-bit message is xed. The predefined codewords are accessed by pressing SELECT (F2). See Section 2.8.1.3.1. 2. When you have selected your CODEWORD, select REPEAT. If you would like to send the message continuously, press CONTINU (F2). If you would like to send the message for an exact number of repetitions, press NUMBER (F1), then use SHIFT and the keypad to enter the number of repetitions between 02 and 99. 3. Press SEND (F4) to begin transmitting the pattern on the datalink. If you pressed CONTINU for the number of repetitions, the message will be sent continuously while you are in the DATA LINK CONTROL ESF screen. Exiting the screen or moving into a another one will cause the message to stop. Note for ESF NIU Loopbacks Use this to loopback a far end NIU from the customer premises side of the near end NIU. Set the message to Network Use. Set the repetition to seven times. Seven repetitions will allow the far
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end NIU to loop up without letting the signal last long enough to loop up the near end. 2.8.1.3.1 Select ESF Data Link BPM The following three screens allow you to select the data link message without having to know the codeword. In the Protection Switch selection screen, there are 29 cursor positions: Protection Switch Acknowledge, Protection Switch Release, and the 27 Protection Switch Line values. Here, the cursor can also move left and right. Press SELECT (F4) to select the highlighted message. Once the message is selected, the test set returns to the Transmit BPM screen shown in Figure 102. Press ESC from any of these screens to return to the Transmit BPM screen withou changing codewords.

Figure 103 Select ESF Data Link BPM Screens Table 13 shows the codewords with their asociated binary codes.

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Codewords RAI/Yellow Alarm Loopback Retention ISDN (International) Stratum 1 Traceable Stratum 2 Traceable Stratum 3 Traceable Stratum 4 Traceable +/- 20 ppm Clock Traceable Sync. Traceability Unknown Reserved for Network Sync. Line Loopback Activate Line Loopback Deactivate Payload Loopback Activate Payload Loopback Deactivate Network Use (Loopback Activate) Universal Loopback (Deactivate) ISDN Loopback (01110100) ISDN Loopback (00000100) Protection Switch Acknowledge Protection Switch Release Protection Switch Line: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Codes 00000000 11111111 00101010 11111111 00011100 11111111 00000100 11111111 00001100 11111111 00010000 11111111 00101000 11111111 00100010 11111111 00001000 11111111 01000000 11111111 00001110 11111111 00111000 11111111 00010100 11111111 00110010 11111111 00010010 11111111 00100100 11111111 00101110 11111111 00100000 11111111 00011000 11111111 00100110 11111111 01xxxxx0 11111111 Where xxxxx= 127 in binary

Table 13 ESF Data Link BPM Codewords

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2.8.1.4 Transmit PRM Congure the test set to send the Performance Report Message by entering the screen shown in Figure 104. In this mode, the test set will broadcast the message on the TX jack according to the quality of the received signal on the RX jack. This screen will display each message sent. It will count all of the various errors which have been recorded and transmitted since entering this screen. The test set sends this message continuousl until you press ESC.

Figure 104 Data Link Transmit PRM Screen The following items are displayed: Elapsed Time: The Hours: Minutes: Seconds since the start of the PRM transmission. Transmission automatically starts when entering this screen. PRM Messages: Number of PRM messages sent by the test set. Each measurement eld can hold up to 6 digits. CRC=1: Number of seconds during which exactly one CRC-6 error was reported. C=<5: Number of seconds during which two to five CRC-6 errors were reported. C=<10: Number of seconds during which six to ten CRC-6 errors were reported. C=<100: Number of seconds during which 11 to 100 CRC-6 errors were reported. C=<319: Number of seconds during which 101 to 319 CRC-6 errors were reported. C=<320: Number of seconds during which 320 or more CRC-6 errors were reported.
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SEFE: Number of Severely Errored Framing Events that were reported. FSBEE: Number of Frame Synchronization Bit Error Events that were reported. BPV: Number of seconds in which at least one Bipolar Violation occurred were reported. SLIP: Number of seconds during which at least one frame slip occurred. PLBK: Payload loopback activated is the number of seconds in which the device is looped back. The following F-key are available: NETWORK/CI (F1): Changes the COMMAND RESPONSE. When set to NETWORK, the test set sends PRM messages with a C/R of 1. When set to CI, it sends PRM messages with C/R of 0. STOP/START (F2): Press to stop transmission of PRMs, press again to start sending.

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2.8.2 SLC-96 Data Link Control All capabilities of this feature are in conformance with Bellcores standard TR-TSY-000008. For further information please refer to Section 3.1.14. This menu contains the following: MONITOR DATA LINK SEND MESSAGE VIEW DATA LINK Note: In order to select this menu, select SLC-96 framing in the module main menu conguration screen. CAUTION! Using the SLC-96 send message capability can bring down an entire SLC system. Be sure you are properly trained before proceeding. Monitoring the SLC datalink from a MON jack should not cause a problem. 2.8.2.1 Monitor Data Link This screen gives you an English-language translation of the information in the SLC data link. See Figure 105 for a sample screen and refer to Section 3.1.1 for setup and connection procedures.

Figure 105 Monitor SLC-96 Data Link Screen The following items are displayed: MODE: There are three kinds of data link modes specied in TRTSY-000008, NOTE, WP1B, and WP1. The mode will show as the NOTE, which indicates the 16-bit format of either the NOTE or the WP1B card. Alternatively, the mode can be indicated as the WP1, a 13-bit format. MAJOR: A major alarm on the data link will be indicated here. MINOR: A minor alarm on the data link will be indicated here. POWER: A power alarm will be indicated here.
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A SHLF: An A-shelf alarm will be indicated here. B SHLF: An B -shelf alarm will be indicated here. C SHLF: An C-shelf alarm will be indicated here. D SHLF: An D-shelf alarm will be indicated here. PROTECT LINE SW: The switch-to-protection line switch message is shown here. C BITS: The 11 C-Bits are displayed here. A-FELP: An A digroup far end loop will be indicated here. B-FELP: A B digroup far end loop will be indicated here. C-FELP: A C digroup far end loop will be indicated here. D-FELP: A D digroup far end loop will be indicated here. P-FELP: A Protection digroup far end loop will be indicated here. M-BITS: The three M bits are displayed here. The following F-key is displayed: HOLDSCR/CONTIN (F1): Press Hold Screen to freeze the display of live data, press Continue to resume displaying live data. 2.8.2.2 Send Message The test set gives you an English language able of items that you may send on the SLC-96 data link.

Figure 106 SLC-96 Send Message Screen The following items are displayed: MODE: Determines which SLC-96 element will emulate as the SLC-96 message is sent, NOTE (F1), WP1 (F2), or WP1B (F3). MAJOR: This allows setting the desired alarm message. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message.
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MINOR: This allows setting the desired alarm message. It not available if NOTE is selected in MODE. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. POWER: This allows setting the desired alarm message. It not available if NOTE is selected in MODE. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. A SHLF: This allows setting the desired alarm message. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. B SHLF: This allows setting the desired alarm message. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. C SHLF: This allows setting the desired alarm message. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. D SHLF: This allows setting the desired alarm message. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. C-BITS: This allows for directly entering SLC data link bits that are not otherwise defined. To do so, press PROGRAM (F2), then press SHIFT and use the (0/1) numeric keypad or press PASTHRU (F1) to allow the bits to pas through unchanged. The next items allow setting a far-end loop or indicate the existence of one. A-FELP: This allows setting the desired alarm message. It not available if NOTE is selected in MODE. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. B-FELP: This allows setting the desired alarm message. It not available if NOTE is selected in MODE. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. C-FELP: This allows setting the desired alarm message. It not available if NOTE is selected in MODE. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. D-FELP: This allows setting the desired alarm message. It not available if NOTE is selected in MODE. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. P-FELP: This allows setting the desired alarm message. It not available if NOTE is selected in MODE. Press ALM (F2) to set, press CLR (F2) to clear the message. S-BITS: This allows for directly entering SLC data link bits that are not dened, by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. M-BITS: This allows for directly entering SLC data link bits that are not dened, by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. When ready press SEND (F4) to start sending your message. Once sent, it will continue to be sent until you change it.
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2.8.2.3 View Data Link SLC-96 This screen allows you to view a live SLC-96 data link. The bits are arranged according to their place in the SLC-96 dat link. It can be useful for applications that do not follow TR-TSY-000008.

Figure 107 View Data Link SLC-96 Screen The following F-keys are available: PAGE-UP (F1) and PAGE-DN (F2): Use to navigate through the 16 pages of data. PAUSE/RESUME (F3): Press to pause the display of live data for easy viewing, press again to resume displaying live data.

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2.9 Other Features Menu


This menu contains the following: MEAS CONFIGURATION ERROR INJECTION VIEW TEST RECORD 2.9.1 MEAS Coguration In this screen congure the modules measurement parameters.

Figure 108 Measurement Conguration Screen Configure the following as required for the testing you wish to perform: MEAS DURATION Options: TIMED (F1), CONTINU (F2) Set the Measurement Duration. TIMED: A timed measurement will stop when the specified amount of time has elapsed. This is useful for making measurements of a specied length. When a timed test is in progress, the RT (Remaining Time) counter shows how much time is left before the end of the test. If you select this, press SHIFT and then enter a number between 1 min to 999 hr by using the numeric keypad. CONTINU: A continuous test will run indefinitely until you press RESTART, or until you change some other setting on the test set that restarts the test. START MEAS Options: PROGRAM (F1), MANUAL (F2) Select the method to begin your test measurements.
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PROGRAM: This allows programing a specified time in the future to begin taking measurements. Once you have selected PROGRAM, enter the desired time in the next two items. MANUAL: In this mode you must manually begin the test measurements. PROG DATE YMD Applies if you have selected PROGRAM for START above. Enter the Year, Month, and Day to begin measurements by pressing SHIFT and using the numeric keypad. PROG TIME HMS Applies if you have selected PROGRAM for START Specify the Hour, Minute, and Seconds to begin measurements by pressing SHIFT and using the numeric keypad. PRINT RESULT Options: TIMED (F1), LAST (F2) TIMED: Press to have the test results printed from every minute to 999 hours and 59 minutes by pressing SHIFT and using the numeric keypad. LAST: The test results are printed only at the end of a timed test, or a continuous test that has ended due to a RESTART. PRINT EVENT Options: ENABLE (F1), DISABLE (F2) ENABLE: Use to print out a time and date-stamped error message every second that one or more errors occur. DISABLE: Use if you do not want to print out a result each time.

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2.9.2 Error Injection Error injection is usually performed to verify presence of a loopback. Press ERR INJ and the test set will insert the type and quantity of errors you have specied. If the test set is looped backed, the ERRORS LED will light. When you actually inject the errors, the errors will b inserted during a 1 second period, and will cause from 1 to 2 errored seconds.

Figure 109 Error Injection Screen Configure the following: TYPE Options: FBE (F1), CRC (F2), BPV (F3), BIT (MORE, F1), BIT +BPV (MORE, F2) Select the type of errors you wish to insert. FBE: Select to generate a framing error. CRC: Select to generate a CRC-6 error. BPV: Select for Bipolar Violations; you will be prompted to select BURST or RATE. BIT: Select for bit error; you will be prompted to select BURST or RATE. BIT+BPV: Select for bit error plus bipolar violations; you will be prompted to select BURST or RATE. MODE Options: BURST (F1), RATE (F2) Select the error injection method. BURST: This mode allows a set number of errors to be injected with each press of the ERR INJ key. To setup; select COUNT, press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad to enter the number of errors (1-9999) you wish to inject.
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RATE mode allows errors to be injected continuously at a specied rate. To setup; select RATE, press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad to enter the constant rate (2e-3 through 9e-9) at which you wish to inject errors. COUNT Options: 1 to 9999 Select the number of errors you wish to insert. Used for BURST mode, choose the COUNT of errors to be inserted. After pressing SHIFT, enter in any number between 1 through 9999. The errors will be inserted in approximately 1 second or less, and will cause from 1 to 3 errored seconds. RATE Options: 1e-3 to 9e-9 Used for RATE mode, choose the error RATE number and exponent. The errors will then be inserted at a continuous rate as specied in this entry. When ready, press ENTER to return to the OTHER FEATURES menu screen.

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2.9.3 View Test Record This screen allows viewing stored test results. A total of 20 Measurement Resultsmay be stored in this menu. Records are stored by pressing SAVE in MEASUREMENT RESULTS.

Figure 110 View Test Record Screen Measurement results numbers are shown in accordance with the events and results that are in memory. Events are errors and alarms. Viewing a Test Record 1. In VIEW TEST RECORD, use PAGE-UP (F2), PAGE-DN (F3) and the keypad up/down arrow keys to select a record. 2. Press VIEW (F1) and the selected record is displayed. 3. Press ESC when done. Locking/Unlocking a Record 1. In VIEW TEST RECORD, use PAGE-UP (F2), PAGE-DN (F3) and the keypad up/down arrow keys to select a record. 2. Press LOCK (MORE, F3) and a lock indicator will appear. Once locked the record cant be deleted or renamed. Press UNLOCK (MORE, F2) to change or delete the record. Deleting a Record 1. In VIEW TEST RECORD, use PAGE-UP (F2), PAGE-DN (F3) and the keypad up/down arrow keys to select a record. If locked, unlock it. 2. Press DELETE (MORE, F1) and the selected record is deleted. Deleting All Records 1. In VIEW TEST RECORD, press CLR-ALL (MORE, F2) and all unlocked records are deleted.
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Printing a Record 1. Connect a Sunset printer to the serial port. 2. In VIEW TEST RECORD, use PAGE-UP (F2), PAGE-DN (F3) and the keypad up/down arrow keys to select a record. 3. Press PRINT (MORE, F3). Labeling a Record 1. In VIEW TEST RECORD, use PAGE-UP (F2), PAGE-DN (F3) and the keypad up/down arrow keys to select a record. 2. Press EDIT (F1) and you will enter a character entry screen. 3. Press TOGGLE (F3). The letter A in the character grid will be highlighted. 4. Select the character you want by using the keypad arrow keys, and press SELECT (F4). Repeat until the label is done. To enter numbers, press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad. If you make a mistake: A. Press TOGGLE (F3) and then use the keypad left/right arrows key to select the incorrect character. B. Press DELETE (F2) to remove the character, or press INSERT (F1) to place a character to the right of the cursor. C. Press TOGGLE (F3) and use the keypad arrow keys to choose a new character, press SELECT (F4) to place it. 5. Press ENTER when done.

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2.10 CSU/NI Emulation


This gives you a simple, full-duplex emulation of a CSU or NI. With this capability, you can unplug the CSU or NI and insert the test set in its place. This screen gives you: A pictorial explanation of the circuit status. Measurement results. Configuration commands to perform loopbacks. While in this mode, the test set will respond to CSU and NI loop up/down codes. You may employ CSU/NI Emulation in T1 SINGL and T1DUAL modes. 2.10.1 CSU/NI Emulation, T1 Single Mode 1. Before entering CSU/NI Emulation, set the module main menu configuration screen to the following: TEST MODE: T1 SINGL RxLvL-1: TERM, BRIDGE, or MONITOR FRAMING: As appropriate for the circuit under test; cannot use the AUTO framing function of the test set. CODING: As appropriate to the circuit under test. Tx CLOCK: Fixed at Rx-1 TX SOURCE: PATTERN or THRU TEST RATE: 1.544 M. If this is set to a fractional rate, you will not be able to enter the CSU/NI Emulation screen. LBO 1: As required.

2. Plug the cords into the test set and circuit under test. Make sure Line 1 jacks are plugged in to the signal coming from the network. The test set will respondto loopback codes from the network and the CSU/NI Emulation screen appears as in Figure 111.

Figure 111 CSU/NI Emulation Screen, T1 Single


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3. Set the test set up for either NI emulation or CSU emulation. Do this by going to TYPE and pressing either CSU (F1) or NIU (F2). 4. Observe the circuit error counts and see if a remote loopback command is being received. Note that the framing of the remote loopback command must be the same as the framing selected in the module main menu conguration screen. 5. If desired, operate any of the local commands as follows: RESET (F1) resets the test set to a through mode. LLPBK-1 (F2) operates a line loopback from L1-Rx to L1-Tx. A line loopback regenerates the signal but does not reframe the signal. Hence, BPVs and frame errors will pass through the line loopback unchanged. Once the line loop back has been invoked, the LLPBK-1 command will be replaced with the UNLLB-1 (F2) command. In this case, pressing F2 will undo the loopback. PLPBK-1 (F3) operates a payload loopback from L1-Rx to L1-Tx. A payload loopback regenerates the signal, and also reframes and recodes the signal. Hence, BPVs and frame errors will be eliminated as they pass through the payload loopback. Once the payload loopback has been invoked, the PLPBK-1 command will be replaced with the UNPLB-1 (F3) command. In this case, pressing F3 will undo the loopback. 6. When finished, press ESC and all loopbacks will be dropped. 2.10.2 CSU/NI Emulation, T1 Dual Mode 1. Before entering CSU/NI Emulation, set the module main menu configuration screen to the following: TEST MODE: T1DUAL TXINSERT : L1-Tx, If this is set to Line 2, you will receive the message, Support L1-Tx/L1-Rx Only. Rx/DROP: L1-Rx, If this is set to Line 2, you will receive the message, Support L1-Tx/L1-Rx Only. RXLVL 1 and 2: TERM, BRIDGE, or MONITOR Tx SOURCE : THRU or PATTERN FRAMING: as appropriate for the circuit under test (not AUTO). CODING: as appropriate for the circuit under test. Tx CLOCK: Rx-1 is preset. TEST RATE: 1.544M. If this is set to a fractional rate, you will not be able to enter the CSU/NI Emulation screen. LBO 1&2: as appropriate for the line under test. LED PANEL: LINE 1 or 2 2. Plug the cords into the test set and circuit under test. Make sure LINE 1 jacks are plugged in to the signal coming from the network.
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The test set will resond to loopback codes from the network. The CSU/NI Emulation screen will appear as in Figure 112.

Figure 112 CSU/NI Emulation Screen, T1 Dual 3. Set the test set up for either NI emulation or CSU emulation. Do this by going to TYPE and pressing either CSU (F1) or NIU (F2). 4. Observe the circuit error counts and see if a remote loopback command is being received. Note that the framing of the remote loopback command must be the same as the framing selected in module main menu conguration screen. 5. If desired, operate any of the local commands as follows: RESET (F1) resets the test set to a through mode. LLPBK-1 (F2) operates a line loopback from L1-Rx to L2-Tx. A line loopback regenerates the signal but does not reframe the signal. Hence, BPVs and frame errors will pass through the line loopback unchanged. Once the line loop back has been invoked, the LLPBK-1 command will be replaced with the UNLLB-1 (F2) command. In this case, pressing F2 will undo the loopback. LLPBK-2 (F3) operates a line loopback from L2-Rx to L1-Tx. A line loopback regenerates the signal but does not reframe the signal. Hence, BPVs and frame errors will pass through the line loopback unchanged. Once the line loop back has been invoked, the LLPBK-2 command will be replaced with the UNLLB-2 (F3) command. In this case, pressing F3 will undo the loopback. 6. When finished, press ESC and all loopbacks will be dropped.

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3 Applications
This section contains suggested testing procedures.

3.1 T1 Applications
3.1.1 Accepting a New T1 Span

Figure 113 Accepting a New T1 Span CAUTION! The circuit cannot be in service during this test. 1. Find out what kind of loopback device is installed at the end of the span, and what loopback codes operate it. 2. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: As specied by the span design. CODING: As specied by the span design. TxCLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO1: 0 dB When ready, press ENTER. 3. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 113. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 4. From the module main menu select, LOOPBACK & SPAN CONTROL > CSU & NIU CONTROL and congure as required: For SF-D4 or SLC-96 framing: TYPE: IN-BAND CODE: As appropriate For ESF framing: TYPE: ESF-DL CODE: As appropriate (LINE and PAYLOAD are used with CSU loopbacks and NETWORK is used with an NIU loopback). See Section 2.2.1 for a description of each of these items.

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5. At MODE press LOOP-UP (F1) and the loop up process will begin. You will see a LOOPING UP . . . message followed by a LOOP UP SUCCEEDED message. If the test set detects a loopback already in place, it will warn you with a PREEXISTING LOOP DETECTED message. 6. Press ESC until you reach the module main menu and select SEND TEST PATTERN, choose a pattern to send and press ENTER. 7. Select from the module main menu select, MEASUREMENT RESULTS and press STOP/START (F3) to restart the testing. Verify that the span performs to your companys specications. 8. When your testing is complete, press ESC until you reach the module main menu and select, LOOPBACK CONTROL & SPAN CONTROL > CSU & NIU CONTROL. 9. Use the same screen settings you used for LOOP-UP, but press LOOP-DN (F2) at MODE. Verify that the LOOP DOWN SUCCEEDED message is displayed. 10. When done, disconnect from the circuit.

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3.1.2 Monitor an In-service Circut


Figure 114 Monitoring an In-Service DS1 Circuit Note The circuit can be in service during this test. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: MONITOR Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M 2. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 114. 3. Press AUTO to have the test set congure the remaining configuration screen settings for you. Press ENTER when ready. 4. Examine the LEDs for information about your circuit. The T1/E1 SIG and FRAME LEDs should be green. A steady ERRORS LED will tell you the circuit is working, but it is experiencing trouble. A red FRAME LED indicates severe problems. An ALARM LED indicates a problem on the other side of the circuit. An AIS may indicate a trouble condition, where a network element transmitting to the test set has lost its incoming signal, and has replaced it with the AIS signal. 5. If needed, from the module main menu select, MEASUREMENT RESULTS and verify that the span performs to your companys requirements for the service delivered. See Section 2.4 regarding Measurement Denitions and Usage. 6. When done, disconnect from the circuit.

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3.1.3 Looping a CSU or NI on a T1 Line CAUTION! The circuit cannot be in service during this test. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: as specied by the span design CODING: as specied by the span design Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1: 0 dB When ready, press ENTER. 2. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 113. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 3. From the module main menu select, LOOPBACK & SPAN CONTROL > CSU & NIU CONTROL and congure as required: For SF-D4 framing: TYPE: IN-BAND CODE: NI or CSU For ESF framing: TYPE: ESF-DL CODE: LINE (for CSUs), PAYLOAD (for CSUs), or NETWORK (for NIUs/smart jacks) 4. At MODE press LOOP-UP (F1) and the process will begin.You will see a LOOPING UP . . . message followed by a LOOP UP SUCCEEDED message. If the test set detects a loopback already in place, it will warn you with a PREEXISTING LOOP DETECTED message. Refer to Section 2.2 for additional information about loopback capabilities and screen settings. 5. When nished, press LOOP-DN (F2) at MODE and the loop down action will begin. Verify that the LOOP DOWN SUCCEEDED message is displayed. 6. When done, disconnect from the circuit.

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3.1.4 Stress Testing a T1 Line 1. Congure the span for testing as outlined in Section 3.1.1. Complete steps 1 through 5 of the procedure. 2. From the module main menu select, SEND TEST PATTERN and choose a desired pattern. The test set will begin transmitting the new pattern immediately. 3. With your new pattern, see if the BPV/CODE and /or ERRORS LED lights up. If so, you may have illustrated the customer problem with the circuit. Try additional patterns as needed. 4. When done, loopdown the circuit and disconnect from the circuit. The following are some common patterns used to stress T1 lines: QRSS: This is the original T1 stress test pattern, and is the test sets default. 55 DALY: This stresses the ability of regenerators to follow timing circuit phase changes. It stresses the ability to pass zero patterns, and is most useful on AMI lines. 3-24: This contains the maximum number of legal zeroes and the minimum density of allowable ones. It is useful for AMI lines. 2e23 and 2e20 : These are similar to QRS, except that they are not zero-constrained. 2e23 has a maximum of 23 zeroes in a row, and 2e20 has 20 zeroes in a row. AMI circuits are only specified to carry 15 zeroes in a row, so these patterns stress these circuits beyond what they are designed to carry. Despite the long individual zero strings, the average density of ones is 50%. 1-8: This is similar to 3-in-24, except it has a maximum of 7 zeroes in a row. This is best for stressing B8ZS lines. 1-16: This puts enormous stress on AMI circuits, especially line repeaters. It averages only 6% density, which is far under the specified 12.5% density for AMI. It does not cause problems for B8ZS circuits. 1111: This requires the most power from regenerating circuitry, and may cause the pulse level to drop. Other Patterns: Several additional patterns are available for stress testing. Refer to Section 2.3.1 which defines each pattern and its usage.

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3.1.5 B8ZS/AMI Verication on a T1 Line A common fault in new circuits is a B8ZS/AMI options mismatch in one or more network elements. This procedure will help you determine if this problem exists in your circuit. 1. Set up the test set and circuit as shown in Section 3.1. Remember to repeat this procedure for each direction of the circuit. Make sure the module line CODE is set to the same line coding as is appropriate for the circuit. 2 Get the circuit looped up and ready for testing. 3. Transmit an ALL1 pattern and an ALT10 pattern. Verify that there are no errors with any of these patterns. If there are any errors, then you have problems that are not associated with an B8ZS/AMI mismatch. 4. Transmit a 3-24 pattern. If any equipment in the line has options for which the test set is not configured, you will see a loss of synch or excessive errors. 5. Verify the diagnosis by transmitting a QRSS pattern.This pattern will also cause errors when there is an AMI/B8ZS mismatch on the line. 6. In Figure 113 the customers T1 terminating equipment is isolated from the circuit. Thus, if the customers equipment has the options problem, this procedure will not expose it while the circuit is looped up. 7. If the circuit tests fine while looped up, but fails when looped down, verify that the line code being received in one direction is the same as the line code being received in the other direction. If it is, the customers equipment may be at fault. If the problem still isnt evident from the central ofce, then a trip to the customers premises may be required. 8. When done, disconnect from the circuit.

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3.1.6 Checking for Frame Slips and Frequency Synch Frequency synchronization can be a problem when: The customer utilizes a channelized T1 circuit. The customers circuit passes through a synchronous network element, such as a switch, PBX, or a digital cross-connect. The circuit passes through more than one carrier. They can also result in frame slips, a major source of service impairment. Perform this test while the span is carrying live trffic.

Figure 115 Frequency Synchronization Problems 1. Obtain a reference frequency source. This can be the other side of the customers circuit or it can be a 1.544 Mbps reference signal that is traceable to a Stratum 1 level clock. 2. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1DUAL Tx/INSERT: L1-TX Rx/DROP: L1-RX RxLVL-1: TERM, if a 3V source with up to 36 dB loss or MONITOR if a monitor signal is used. RxLVL-2: TERM, if a 3V source with up to 36 dB loss or MONITOR if a monitor signal is used. Tx SOURCE: PATTERN FRAMING: as specied by circuit. CODING: as specied by circuit Tx CLOCK: Rx-2 TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1: 0 dB LED PANEL: As desired. When ready, press ENTER. 3. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 115. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 4. From the module main menu select, MEASUREMENT RESULTS and press PAGE-DN (F2) until the LINE 1-FREQUENCY screen is displayed, if there is a problem the frequency slip bar will be moving across the screen. If there is no bar drawn,
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then no slippage is occurring. 5. If an external reference signal is used, then check both sides of the circuit. If one side of the circuit is your reference and the other side is the tested signal, then you are done. 6. When done, disconnect from the circuit.

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3.1.7 Measuring Signal Level You can measure signal level while performing one of the other tests, or you can measure signal level by itself. At a DSX OUT jack, the voltage level should be between 2.7V and 3.3V. At a repeater, it should be between 2.4V and 3.3V on either of the repeater outputs. The loss at the repeater inputs should generally be between 10 dB and 35 dB. The signal strength at the incoming side of an ofce repeater bay CSU, or NI, should be 0 dB to -15 dB. If there is a signal on the OUT jack, use the setup shown in Figure 114, otherwise, use the setup shown in the Figure 116.

Figure 116 Measuring Signal Level 1. Decide on the access mode to use.You can use TERM, MONITOR, or BRIDGE. TERM and BRIDGE provide the most accurate results, but MONITOR may be the most convenient for your circuit under test. TERM will disrupt service. A BRIDGE measurement may be degraded by a low-quality termination at the network element terminating the T1 line. A MONITOR measurement should generally show a result of about -20 dB. For illustrative purposes we will use TERM. Verify that the span is not in service. Using TERM will disrupt service. 2. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: as specied CODING: as specied Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1: 0 dB When ready, press ENTER. 3. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 116. 4. Press AUTO to automatically congure the test set for the circuit under test.
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5. From the module main menu select, MEASUREMENT RESULTS and press PAGE-DN (F2) until the LINE 1-SIGNAL signal screen is displayed. Separate readings are given for the positive and negative signals so you can get more accurate information on a faulty regenerator. 6. When done, disconnect from the circuit.

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3.1.8 Checking SX Wiring


Figure 117 Checking DSX Wiring An incorrectly wired DSX can cause problems. Use this procedure to verify that it has been wired correctly. CAUTION! The circuit cannot be in service during this test. 1. If the DSX is very large, you may need two test sets or a very long cord for this test. 2. For each test set, from the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure the test set(s) as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: as specied by span design CODING: as specied by span design Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1: 0 dB When ready, press ENTER. 4. From the module main menu select, SEND TEST PATTERN. 5. Select QRSS (NORMAL) as the pattern to be transmitted. 6. Press ENTER to return to the module main menu. 7. Connect to the circuit, as shown in Figure 127, or use two test sets if the devices are too far apart. You will need to find a point on either side of the DSX to plug in, like at test jacks on the network equipment on either side of the DSX. Make sure that you have opened the circuit at each point so that the test set is not bridge-tapped into the circuit. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 8. Verify that the test set(s) PAT SYNC LED is green, and that the ERRORS LED is off, confirming that circuit is wired properly. 9. Congure ERR INJ for injecting both LOGIC and BPV errors and press ERR INJ on one of the test sets. Verify on the other test set that the ERRORS LED comes on and starts to blink. Repeat the procedure for the other direction of the circuit. 10. When done, disconnect from the circuit.
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3.1.9 Observing Network Codes or Channel Data The test set has a large screen display for analyzing live circuit data. This can provide DS1 level translations of binary, hexadecimal and ASCII data. In addition, it can decode T1 network control codes that are in use. Sixty pages of DS1 data are stored so that you can scroll through the information and observe changes over time. This number of pages can also tell you whether a T1 network pattern is interleaved with the framing bit or is overwritten by the framing bit. This test may be performed while the span is carrying live trafc if BRIDGE or MONITOR mode is used, or out-of-service in TERM mode. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: MONITOR or BRIDGE if the circuit is carrying live trafc, TERM for out-of-service circuits. Specify the other settings as desired, or press the keypad AUTO key to have the test set automatically congure to the correct framing and line coding. If the circuit is out-of-service, manually congure the other settings as required. When done, press ENTER.

2. Plug the test set into the circuit as shown in Figure 114 for an in-service measurement. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 3. From the module main menu select, OTHER MEASUREMENTS > VIEW RECEIVED DATA. You will now be able to view the live channel data. 4. Review the live data as it is displayed. When the codes that you are interested in appear, press PAUSE (F3) to trap sixty pages of DS1 data; press PAGE-DN (F2) to scroll through the data. The data is presented as it appears in the T1 bit stream and is broken out into timeslots. Use Table 14 to convert from timeslot number to chanel number.

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T/S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Table 14 Channel Numbering

D3/D4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

D1D 1 13 2 14 3 15 4 16 5 17 6 18 7 19 8 20 9 21 10 22 114 23 12 24

D2 12 13 1 17 5 21 9 15 3 19 7 23 11 14 2 18 6 22 10 16 4 20 8 24

5. Figure 118 shows an example;1011 1111 11.

Figure 118 10-bit Pattern 6. When done, disconnect from the circuit.

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3.1.10 Monitoring a Voice Frequency Channel Note The circuit can be in service during this test. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: MONITOR or BRIDGE, depending on how you connectto the circuit.

Figure 119 Monitoring a Voice Channel 2. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 119. 3. Press the keypad AUTO key to automatically determine the framing and line coding present on the received signal. 4. Press ESC to return to the module main menu and select, VF CHANNEL TESTING > VF MEASUREMENTS. 5. Select the desired receive and transmit channels using NEXT (F1) and PREV (F2). The channel numbers are automatically converted to a timeslot number for you on D4, ESF, and SLC96 A-digroup DS1s. The test set refers to the framing type to make this conversion for you. If you are using another type of framing, refer to Table 14. 6. Adjust the volume by pressing VOLUME and use UP (F1)/ DOWN (F2). Press EXIT (F3) when adjusted. If you are not able to monitor the channel, verify that the test set was able to sync on a known framing type. The test set will not perform the monitor function if framing is unavailable. Press the keypad AUTO key if a valid frame pattern is not shown. 7. When done, disconnect from the circuit.

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3.1.11 Siple Talk/Listen


Figure 120 Simple Talk/Listen This procedure is for use on a T1 circuit. It is illustrated in Figure 120. However, you can have a PBX, test set, loopback, switch, channel bank, or a other T1 terminating element at the far end. CAUTION! The circuit cannot be in service during this test. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: as specied CODING: as specied Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M TxLBO: 0 dB When ready, press ENTER. Note: It is impossible to perform this test on an unframed signal, the FRAME LED must be green. 2. Connect the test set into the circuit as shown in the Figure 120. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 3. From the module main menu select, VF CHANNEL TESTING > VF MEASUREMENTS and select the receive (listen) and transmit (talk) channels. They are usually the same channel. Now you can talk and listen on the channel you have selected. 4. Adjust the volume by pressing VOLUME and using UP (F1)/ DOWN (F2). Press EXIT (F3) when adjusted. Note: The test set will automatically convert channel numbers to timeslots on D4, ESF, and SLC-96 A digroups. For other formats, refer to Table 14. 5. When done, disconnect from the circuit.
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3.1.12 Advanced Talk/Listen

Figure 121 Connecting the Cords Use the Simple Talk/Listen procedure as a reference for this procedure. This procedure lets you use different access modes, signaling, and additional features. Verify the span is not in service if you will be using a disruptive access mode. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM (as an example) FRAMING: ESF CODING: B8ZS Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1: 0 dB When ready, press ENTER. Note: In THRU mode, the test set receives and retransmits the other 23 channels without disruption. This mode will cause a momentary hit on the circuit, as you plug and unplug into the circuit. Other types of access are possible; however, the setup shown in Figure 121 preferred, as it provides the least disruption. 2. From the module main menu select, VF CHANNEL TESTING > VF MEASUREMENTS and choose the RX (listen) and TX (talk) channels. They are usually the same channel. If you need to access D1D, D2, or SLC-96 digroups B-D, see Table 14. 3. Connect to the circuit exactly as shown in Figure 121. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. You now can talk/listen on the channels you selected. Adjust the volume by pressing VOLUME and use UP (F1)/ DOWN (F2). Press EXIT (F3) when adjusted.
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5. If you need control supervision on the circuit, enter the supervision bits you want in order to go off hook, send ringing, or any other state. Send the bits by pressing ON-HOOK (F1), OFFHOOK (F2) or WINK (F3). View the supervision bits which are returned on this same screen. 6. Press ESC to exit this screen. You will still be sending the supervision bits you have set for the remainder of the session. 7. If you need to dial on the circuit select, VF CHANNEL MENU > PLACE/RECEIVE CALLS > METHOD, and enter the number. 8. When done, see Figure 121 and disconnect from the circuit. 3.1.12.1 D4 Channel Bank Signaling Tables The common signaling arrangements used on D4 channel banks are shown in the following table. TRMT refers to the signaling bits transmitted by the channel bank equipped with the indicated channel card. RCV refers to the signaling bits received by the channel bank. * means that either ra 0 may appear.
Dial Pulse Originating (DPO) VF input to DPO TRMT AB Loop open 00 Loop closure 11 ** ** Dial Pulse Terminating (DPT) VF input to DPT TRMT AB Normal battery 00 Reverse battery 11 ** ** 2 or 4-Wire E&M E&M Input TRMT AB M-lead ground or open 00 M-lead battery 11 ** ** Table continued on the next page RCV AB ** ** 0* 1* RCV AB ** ** 0* 1* RCV AB ** ** 0* 1* DPO VF Output

Normal battery Reverse battery DPT VF Output

Loop open Loop closure E&M Output

E-lead open E-ld ground or looped

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Revertive Pulse Originating (RPO) VF Input to RPO TRMT RCV RPO VF Output AB AB Loop open 00 ** Loop closure 11 ** ** 01 Normal battery, no RP ** 00 Normal battery & RP ** 1* Reverse battery Revertive Pulse Terminating (RPT) VF Input to RPT TRMT RCV RPT VF Output AB AB Normal battery 00 ** Reverse battery 11 ** ** 0* Loop open ** 1* Loop closure Sleeve Dial Pulse Originating (SDPO) VF input to DX TRMT RCV DX VF output AB AB On-hook (idle) 00 ** Off-hook (busy) 11 ** ** 0* On-hook (idle) ** 1* Off-hook (busy) Duplex (DX) 2-Wire, 900 or 4-Wire, 600 VF input to DX TRMT RCV DX VF output AB AB On-hook (idle) 00 ** Off-hook (busy) 11 ** ** 0* On-hook (idle) ** 1* Off-hook (busy) Equalized Transmission Only (ETO), or TO, 4 or 2-Wire VF input to ETO TRMT RCV ETO VF output AB AB No signaling ** ** No signaling Table continued on the next page

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Foreign Exchange Ofce End (FXO), Ground Start Mode VF input to FXO TRMT RCV FXO output AB AB No tip ground 1* ** Tip ground 0* ** No ringing *1 ** Ringing *0 ** ** 0* Loop open ** 1* Loop closure ** *1 No ring ground ** *0 Ring ground Foreign Exchange Ofce End (FXO), Loop Start Mode VF input to FXO TRMT RCV FXO output AB AB No ringing 01 ** Ringing 00 ** ** 0* Loop open ** 1* Loop closure Foreign Exchange Subscriber End (FXS) Ground Start Mode VF input to FXS TRMT RCV FXS VF output AB AB Loop open, no ring 01 ** ground Ring ground 00 1* No tip ground Loop closure, or ring 11 0* Tip ground ground ** 1* No tip ground, no ring ** 01 Tip ground, no ringing Loop open 01 00 Tip ground, ringing Loop closure 11 00 Tip ground, no ringing Table continued on the next page

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Foreign Exchange Subscriber End (FXS), Loop Start Mode VF input to FXS TRMT RCV FXS VF output AB AB Loop open 01 ** Loop closure 11 ** *1 *1 No ringing Loop open 01 *0 Ringing Loop closure 11 *0 No ringing Pulse Link Repeater (PLR) VF input to PLR TRMT RCV PLR E&M output AB AB E-lead open 00 ** E-lead ground or loop 11 ** ** 0* M-lead ground or open ** 1* M-lead battery or loop Ringdown (RD) 2-wire, 900 or 4-wire, 600 Input to RD TRMT RCV RD output AB AB No ring to t,r simplex 11 ** 20Hz ring t,r simplex 00 1* No ring to t,r pair 20Hz ring t,r simplex 11 0* ring on t,r pair sg lead at ground 11 ** sg lead at -48 VDC 11 0* 48Vdc to sg lead sg lead at -48 VDC 00 1* Ground sense relay to sg

Table 15 D4 Channel Bank Signaling

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3.1.13 Send a Tone This procedure is for sending a tone. This is an intrusive test, be sure the T1 line is not carrying traffic, and that it will be able to withstand the hits this procedure will introduce. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL Tx SOURCE: Select either; PATTERN: In this mode the test set sends the tone on the selected channel, and fills the other 23 channels with an idle code. The received signal is terminated at the test set, and is not retransmitted. Refer to Section 3.1 for assistance in setting up this mode. THRU: In this mode the test set sends a tone on the selected channel. It receives and retransmits the other 23 channels without disruption. Using the THRU mode will cause a momentary hit on the circuit when the test set is plugged in, and when it is unplugged. RxLVL-1: Select either; TERM is used to terminate the line in a 100 resistance, and is generally used in out-of-service testing. MONITOR is used when you have 20 dB of protected monitor isolation resistance built into your DSX patch panel. BRIDGE is used when you are clipping directly onto the tip and ring of your T1 line. When ready, press ENTER.

5. Once the access mode has been selected, connect the test set. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 6. From the module main menu select, VF CHANNEL TESTING > VF MEASUREMENTS and use the NEXT (F1) or PREV (F2) to set up the receive and transmit channels to the correct number. 7. Select TxMODE and press TONE (F2). 8. Select TxFREQ and choose the desired frequency using the MORE (F4) key to display additional alternatives. Select one of these, or enter in a frequency using SHIFT and keypad. If you entered a value in from the keypad press ENTER to begin sending the tone at the desired frequency. 9. Select TxLVL and choose the desired level, either 0 dBm (F2), -13 dBm (F3), or enter a value directly from the keypad using MINUS (F1), SHIFT and keypad. If you entered a value in from the keypad, press ENTER to begin sending the tone. 10. When done, disconnect from the circuit.
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3.1.14 SLC-96 Testing Here are some application notes on SLC-96 testing. Refer to your digital loop carrier maintenance manual for detailed information. Refer also to TR-TSY-000008 for SLC-96 reference information. Note that SLC-96 systems come with maintenance capabilities built right into the system. These maintenance features should be used as a rst step in troubleshooting SLC-96 problems. T1 test equipment should be used only when the SLC-96 maintenance features are not available. CAUTION! SLC-96 systems carry up to 96 channels of customer traffic. Do not use the test setups shown here unless you have been properly trained. Use these setups only in conjunction with a SLC-96 maintenance manual. Verify through that manual that your planned maintenance activities will not causein service disruptions.

Figure 122 Typical SLC-96 System Conguration Three typical SLC-96 maintenance applications are discussed in this section. The applications cover in-service data link monitoring, out-of-service testing, and in-service digroup testing. Use Figure 122 as a guide for each of these applications.
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It is highly recommended that you study the general information on SLC-96 systems before actually attempting to perform maintenance on these systems. SLC-96 systems are used to carry subscriber telephone service, as well as a variety of special services. These systems provide pair gain by multiplexing up to 96 metallic loops onto 4 T1 lines. These systems have a remote terminal located near the customer and a central ofce terminal located in the central ofce. The central ofce terminal may have a DS1 or analog metallic TEST MODE as part of the switch. Conversely, newer switches may be built with a TR-TSY-000008 TEST MODE (SLC-96 TEST MODE standard) so that there is no need for a central ofce SLC-96 terminal. SLC-96 systems have three modes of operation: Mode I uses all 4 digroups; each channel of each digroup is reserved exclusively for a given customer. Mode II uses only 2 digroups for all 96 channels; the SLC-96 system keeps track of which channels are allocated to which customers through the C bits in the SLC data link. Mode III, the system serves only special service lines. This mode uses only two digroups, because only 48 channel units can be plugged into the terminals. The A digroup transmits the systems data link through the SLC-96 framing format. The data link contains alarm, protection switching, far-end looping, and other maintenance information. The B and D digroups use D4 framing. These digroups are not used in modes II and III. The C digroup also uses SLC-96 framing. The C datalink is used only in mode II. In this mode it carries channel allocation information. The SLC-96 system uses a protection digroup for ensuring a higher level of reliability. Either the remote terminal or the central office terminal may initiate a switch to the protection digroup if a transmission failure is encountered.

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3.1.14.1 SLC-96 Data Link Monitoring


Figure 123 Monitoring SLC Data Link This is a procedure for monitoring the A Digroup data link to observe the operational status of an in-service SLC-96 system. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RXLVL-1: MONITOR FRAMING: SLC-96 CODING: AMI (or as provisioned) Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: THRU or PATTERN LBO 1: 0 dB (ft) (or as required) TEST RATE: 1.544M When ready, press ENTER. 2. Connect the test set as shown in Figure 123-Position 1. 3. From the module main menu select, MEASUREMENT RESULTS and see if the signal has any BPVs or framing errors. 4. Press ESC and select DATA LINK CONTROL > MONITOR DATA LINK. See if a protection switch is in place. If so, note which digroup and the direction of transmission. See if a far-end loop is in place on any of the digroups, this will be signified by ALM next to the FELP category. 5. Reconnect to Position 2 and observe: The mode of the remote card (WP1, WP1B). If there is a SLC-96 system alarm. If any of the remote shelves are in alarm. If there is a protection line switch in place. If there is a far end loop in place. 6. Take appropriate action and then, disconnect from the cir202cuit. SSxDSL-8

3.1.14.2 Out-of-service SLC-96 Testing


Figure 124 SLC-96 Out-of-Service Testing CAUTION!: This test will disrupt service, verify that the span is not in service. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: SLC-96 CODING: AMI (or as provisioned) Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: THRU or PATTERN LBO 1: 0 dB (ft) (or as required) TEST RATE: 1.544M When ready, press ENTER. 2. Connect to the circuit as required for the testing you wish to perform. Refer to Figures 134 and 135. More than one test set may be necessary because you may need to transmit and receive maintenance commands on the A digroup while you are performing bit error testing on another digroup. Possible tests include: Switching digroup A through D to protection. Looping back digroup A through D and P to verify transmission performance. Inducing the system to switch to protection by creating a loss of signal, loss of frame, or high bit error rate. Verifying transmission of proper alarm indication when a shelf or power source has gone down. Verifying that central office terminal transmits AIS (blue alarm) in the downstream direction when a signal has been lost in upstream direction.
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Verifying that A digroup can do a half-switch when half of the A digroup and half of the protection digroup is not working. Verifying fast and transparent protection switching so that users do not notice a problem. Verifying proper assignment of channels during mode II operation. 3. When finished, disconnect from the circuit in as show in the connection setup used.

Figure 125 SLC-96 A Digroup Data Link Transmission

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3.1.15 In-Service Hitless Dual Drop & Insert THRU Testing This type of testing is useful for : Placing a telephone call on a single channel. Sending and eceiving tones to test channels.

Figure 126 In Service Full Duplex THRU Drop and Insert 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1DUAL Tx/INSERT: L1-Tx Rx/DROP: L2-Rx RxLVL-1: MONITOR, BRIDGE RxLVL-2: MONITOR, BRIDGE Tx SOURCE: THRU FRAMING: as specied by the circuit design CODING: as specied by the circuit design Tx CLOCK: Rx-1 TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1&2: 0 dB LED PANEL: As desired When ready, press ENTER. 2. Depending on the test application, do the following: For talk and listen, you should:
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A. From the module main menu select, VF CHANNEL ACCESS > VF MEASUREMENTS and choose the receive and transmit channels (they are usually the same channel number) that you wish to use. B. Select TALK for the INSERT TYPE and L1-Rx for the LISTEN SIDE. When connected to the circuit, you will be able to talk and listen on the selected channel. C. Adjust the volume by pressing VOLUME and use UP (F1)/ DOWN (F2). Press EXIT (F3) when adjusted. To send and receive a tone: A. From the module main menu select, VF CHANNEL ACCESS > VF MEASUREMENTS and use NEXT (F1) or PREVIUS (F2) to set up the receive and transmit channels. B. Select the rest of the items as follows: Tx-1 T/S: Any Rx-1 T/S: Any Rx-2 T/S: Any INSERT TYPE: TONE TONE FREQ Hz: select a tone frequency TONE LVL dBm: select a tone level TX-1 A/B/C/D: select a tone level LISTEN SIDE: BOTH C. Once connected to the circuit, you will be transmitting a tone on the selected channel. CAUTION! Only experienced technicians should perform this procedure. Any mistakes will disrupt service. Practice on an outof-service circuit to be sure you have procedure mastered. By entering VF CHANNEL ACCESS, you will automatically send a tone or voice signal to the specied channel set in VF MEASUREMENTS. Conrm the settings before proceeding. 3. To conduct this test on a line that is in service, make the connections in accordance with Figure 126. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. Device 1 and 2 must be in loopback mode. 4. If you are in talk and listen mode, you should now be able to talk and listen on the channel and line that you have specied. 5. Refer to Figure 126, if you selected channel 1 and set the LISTEN SIDE to L1-Rx, then you should hear the voice conversation of only channel 1 from Device 1. Also, Device 2 should be able to hear your voice only on channel 1 since you are transmitting out to line 1 on that specic channel. If you change the selected channel, then you will be able to talk and listen on this specic channel; and the other channels of both Device 1 and 2 should be uninterrupted.
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For tones, check to see that you are receiving the same tone frequency level that you inserted on the specied channel (i.e. the TONE FREQ Hz specied should be the same as the Rx-1 FRQ/LVL). Also, make sure that the transmitted A/B/C/D bits are the same as the received A/B/C/D bits when you depress the ONHOOK (F1), OFF-HOOK (F2), and WINK (F3) buttons. Try to send two different tones; have Equipment 1 send a 404 Hz tone and Equipment 2 a 1804 Hz tone on channel 1. From the test set you should be able to pick up and hear the different tones on channel 1 by looking at the RxFREQ/LEVEL from the line that you have specied in TEST CONFIGURATION. Channel 1 of LINE 1 should be a 404 Hz tone and channel 1 of LINE 2 a 1804 Hz tone. For LINE 1, make sure that the Rx-1 A/B/C/D bits for the test set are the same as the transmitted A/B/C/D bits from Equipment 1 and that the Tx-1 A/B/C/D bits for the test set are the same as the received A/B/C/D bits from Equipment 2. Check that the other channels are not disturbed on both Equipment 1 and Equipment 2. Do the same checks for LINE 2.

6. When nished, make sure you remove the cords in the order of 8 through 1; otherwise, you may disrupt the circuit or damage the test set.

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3.1.16 Fractional T1 Testig 3.1.16.1 Fractional T1 Circuits

Figure 127 Fractional T1 Circuit Fractional T1 circuits are circuits of data rate Nx56 kbps or Nx64 kbps, where n can be anywhere from 1 to 24 channels. N channels of the T1 line are dedicated to the fractional T1 circuit, and the remaining channels of the T1 line are either filled with an idle code or other revenue trafc. A fractional T1 circuit typically starts out at the customer premises at a fractional T1 CSU (Figure 127). The purpose of this CSU is to convert the signal into a standard T1 signal suitable for transmission on the telephone company network. The CSU may also multiplex other fractional signals into an aggregate fractional signal within the T1. The CSU is congured to place the data into either an Nx56 or Nx64 kbps format. Nx56 utilizes the rst 7 bits in each channel, and allows the customer to transmit an unlimited number of zeroes, even when the T1 line is set up for AMI coding. The CSU places a 1 in the eighth bit to ensure 12.5% ones density, even when the customer is transmitting all zeroes. Nx64 is like Nx56, except the CSU inserts no ones. This format is generally used when the T1 line is configured using B8ZS line code, or alternating channel assignment. In the B8ZS case, the
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line code ensures adequate pulse density regardless of the number of zeroes transmitted on the circuit. In the alternating channel assignment case, the idle pattern inserted into the alternating idle channels ensures adequate ones density regardless of the customer data transmitted in the alternating active channels. The CSU must be congured to put the fractional T1 channels in the proper positions within the 24 channels available in the T1 line. Three formats exist: sequential order, alternating order, and random order. The alternating order format was described in the previous paragraph. For example, a 384 kbps circuit (6x64) might use channels 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Channels 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 might be filled with a 01111111 idle code. Sequential order is different from alternating order in that all the fractional channels are located contiguously within the T1 frame. For example, the same 384 kbps circuit might use channels 1 through 6 of the T1 line. A randomly congured 384 kbps circuit might use channels 4, 9, 10, 17, 20, and 24. In a fractional T1 circuit, such as a video circuit, it is vital each channel of the circuit arrives in the same order (phase) that it left. If this does not happen, the signal becomes scrambled, and the receiver cannot properly decode the information. The signal will generally only arrive in phase if the fractional T1 circuit travels as a bundle through the various network elements and transmission media. If individual channels should become split onto two different transmission paths, the transmission delay of the two paths will probably be different, causing a decoding problem. We have already covered the function of the CSU in the fractional T1 circuit shown in Figure 127. Other elements serve different functions. For instance, the 1x0 DCS (Digital Cross-connect System) is used to cross-connect the incoming fractional T1 line onto the desired transport line. The 1x0 DCS allows many fractional T1 circuits to be combined with other channelized circuits onto more densely-packed T1s. The idle channels are simply discarded as they pass into the DCS. This reduces costs by providing highest utilization (ll) on the T1 paths in the long-haul portion of the network. The M13, or 3x1, DCS allows the grouping of many T1s onto selected higher-speed transmission paths for long-haul transport. The fractional circuit passes through a similar group of network elements at the far end of the circuit.

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3.1.16.2 FT1 Circuit Acceptance Test Procedure


Figure 128 Plugging into the FT1 Circuit This is an acceptance test procedure for fractional T1 circuits. It is an advanced test procedure that should only be attempted if you are already familiar with the T1 test procedures described earlier in this section. Verify that the fractional circuit is not in service. This acceptance test will disrupt service. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: as specied by your design CODING: as specied by your design Tx CLOCK: INTERN if facing the Fractional CSU, otherwise Rx-1 if facing the 1x0 DCS Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: Nx56K or Nx64K, setup the desired channels for transmit and receive. When you press Nx56K/Nx64K, the screen will switch to the Nx-56/64K TIME SLOT SELECTION screen. Manually setup the timeslots to the conguration indicated in the circuit record. If the timeslot conguration is not known, press AUTO (F1) to configure the active channels. Press ENTER when done. LBO 1: 0 dB or as required When ready, press ENTER.

Note: Auto conguration may not yield the proper channels if any of the active channels are transmitting an idle code. Auto configuration will also not work properly if the idle code, set to 7F for the test set, is not the same as the idle code on the circuit being tested. (7F = 01111111, FF = 11111111). One way to observe the idle and active channels is to plug the test set in using the 1.544 Mbps test rate, and then go to OTHER MEASUREMENTS >
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VIEW RECEIVED DATA. This will allow you to double check what the test set prompts with its AUTO configuration. 2. Connect the test set to the circuit at one of the term access points shown in Figure 128. Make sure you know which end of the circuit you are facing. 3. Loop up the circuit toward the near end CSU. A standard CSU loopback code may be used. You may need to recongure the test set back to 1.544M RATE in TEST CONFIGURATION in order to loop up the CSU. 4. Select MEASUREMENT RESULTS and perform the acceptance test.Verify the fractional T1 service performs to your companys requirements for the service delivered. If necessary, refer to Section 2.4 for information on interrupting the results. 5. Reconnect the test cords in order to look toward the far end CSU. 6. Loop back the far end FT1 CSU. You will need to find out what kind of loop code will activate the far end FT1 CSU. This may require assistance at the far end. 7. Select MEASUREMENT RESULTS and perform the acceptance test. Verify that the fractional T1 service performs to your companys requirements for the service delivered. If necessary, refer to Section 2.4 for results interruption. 3.1.16.3 Using a T-BERD Power Lid Using the T-Berd Power Lid is simple with this module. Use this procedure: 1. First read the T-Berd Power Lid manual for general operation and safety instructions. 2. At the point where you would plug in a T-Berd test set, instead plug in the tests set.You may use a Female SS111 Dual Bantam to 15-pin D-subminiature Connector Cable. 3. Plug the cables bantam side into the test set.The arrows should point into the DS1 RX jack and out of the DS1 TX jack. 4. Plug the cables 15-pin female connector into the 15-pin male connector attached to the spiral cord coming out of the power lid. 5. You can now test the powered span with the test set.

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3.2 ISDN Applications


3.2.1 ISDN PRI Call Setup This proedure outlines an ISDN call in TE mode.

Figure 129 ISDN Call Setup, TE Mode CAUTION!: This test will disrupt service, verify that the span is not in service. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: ESF CODING: B8ZS Tx CLOCK: Rx-1 Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1: 0 dB When ready, press ENTER. 2. From the module main menu select, SEND TEST PATTERN and choose 1-8. Use 1-8 or 2047 for all ISDN testing; QRS may bring down the switch. When ready, press ENTER. 3. From the module main menu, select, OTHER MEASUREMENTS > VIEW RECEIVED DATA and press PAGE-DN (F2) to view T/S 24. You should see six consecutive ones together with two zeros. If not, then the D-channel may not be set up to handle messages. 4. Press ESC until the module main menu screen is displayed and from it select, PROTOCOL TESTING> ISDN PRIMARY RATE > TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: MODE: TE PROTOCOL: as specied by the design LINE TYPE: as specied by the design T123BD for a single T1 line T146B2D to use both T1 lines; there are 46 B-channels and 2 D-channels T147BD to use both T1 lines without a backup D-channel
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RX LEVEL: TERM TX CLOCK: RCVCLK (use INTERN if NT mode) MY PHONE NUMBER: Enter the telephone number which the ISDN switch uses to identify you on the network. This is an optional entry. When ready, press ENTER.

5. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 129, if you are emulating terminal equipment (TE). Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 6. Select CALL CONTROL and check to see if a RDY message is displayed. This signies that the layer 2 handshake has taken place, and the test set is ready to place and receive calls. 7. In the CALL CONTROL screen, press CALL (F2 or F4) and the CALL SETUP screen is displayed. Congure the call: CALL TYPE: SPEECH B CHANNEL: AUTO B CHNL LINE: If in DUAL mode, with a T146B2D or T147BD. LINE TYPE: choose the line to place the call on CALLED NUM TYPE: as appropriate, or UNKNOWN if not specied. CALLED NUM PLAN: as appropriate, or UNKNOWN if not specied. DIAL NUMBER: enter the number you want to call, using the SHIFT and number keys. When ready, press ENTER and the call will be placed. You will be able to talk and listen on the selected timeslot. You should see a SEND L1 CONNECTION ACKNOWLEDGE message. 8. When nished, press ON HOOK (F1 or F3 as appropriate) in CALL CONTROL and disconnect from the circuit. 3.2.2 Receiving a Call In ISDN > OTHER PARAMETERS, you determine how the test set will answer a call. Do this by setting the ANSWER MODE line: OFF: The test set will notify you of an incoming call by ringing. When receiving an incoming call, it will display the CALL CONTROL screen. Press ACCEPT (F1 or F3) to accept the call and go off-hook, or select REJECT (F2 or F4) to not accept the call, and remain on-hook. ON: The test set will automatically accept any incoming call.

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3.2.3 ISDN PRI Monitoring Perform this test anywhere access to the T1 circuit is available (i.e. central ofce, customer premises, span). This test may be performed while the PRI line is in-service. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and congure for dual DS1 point-to-point testing. Configure the Receiver level before connecting to the circuit. 2. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 130. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs.

Figure 130 ISDN Monitoring 3. From the module main menu, select, OTHER MEASUREMENTS > VIEW RECEIVED DATA. Press PAGE-DN (F2) to view T/S 24.You should see six consecutive ones together with two zeros. If you do not see this, then your D-channel may not be set up to handle ISDN messages. When done, press ESC until you reach the module main menu screen. 4. From the module main menu select, PROTOCOL TESTING > ISDN PRIMARY RATE > TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: MODE: MONITOR PROTOCOL: as required SIGNALING T/S: 24 (unless otherwise indicated) L1-RX: MONITOR When ready, press ENTER 5. If you want to capture only a select group of messages, ISDN, PROTOCOL ANALYSIS > FILTER. Here you may choose to capture only messages with a certain Call Reference value, Called Number, or Caller Number. To do so: A. Press ON (F2) at the FILTER STATUS line.
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B. Configure the filters as desired; selecting whether or not to see messages for each layer. Refer to Section 2.7.2.3.1. C. When ready, press ENTER. 6. Select LIVE TRACER. You should now see both LINE 1 and LINE 2 ISDN messages being sent and received if a call is being placed at either end. Press STOP (F1) to pause the messages. New F-keys will appear, allowing you to PAGE-UP (F1) and DOWN (F2) through the messages. Press START (F4) to restart the tracing process. The HEX/DECODE (F3) key is available in both paused and running trace; press it to change the presentation of the data. 8. Press ESC and select STORED MESSAGES > TEMPORARY BUFFER. At the initial screen, you may choose to view or print all the messages, or a certain number of messages. To view/print a select number, place the cursor on the FROM MSG line. Press SHIFT and enter the number of the message you wish to start viewing at. Press SHIFT again and select TO MSG. Use the same process to enter in the message number where you will stop viewing. Press CLEAR (F4) to erase all of the messages.The messages will also be erased when you shut off the test set. Press STORE (F3) to save the messages. 9. When done, disconnect from the circuit. 3.2.4 Placing a Data Call and Running a BERT 1. Follow the instructions in Section 3.2.1, steps 1-5. 2. Congure the call from the ISDN menu > CALL CONTROL screen. Press CALL (F2) to congure: CALL TYPE: DATA-64 (or other) B CHANNEL: AUTO (or specic channel) TEST PATTERN: 2047 (or other) CALLED NUM TYPE: LOCAL, or as required CALLED NUM PLAN: TELEPH, or as required DIAL NUMBER: enter the number you want to call. 3. When the conguration is complete, press ENTER to place the call. After the connection is made, you will hear the data on the test sets speaker. 4. Press ESC to return to the ISDN menu and select BERT AND RESULTS. The BERT restarts. Press PAGE-UP (F1)/PAGE-DN (F2) to see the result screens. Verify the measurements meet your requirements. Press HOLDSCR (more, F4) to freeze the display for easy viewing. Press CONTINU (more, F4) to update the display.

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3.2.5 Placing a Second Call To place a second call, press the second CALL key in the CALL CONTROL screen, and repeat the CALL SETUP procedure in Section 3.2.4. You may place two speech calls, one speech and one data call, or two data calls. Note: If you are not automatically changing B-channels by selecting AUTO, you will have to manually change it. Refer to Section 2.7.2.2-B CHANNEL. 3.2.6 46B+2D Backup D-Channel Test This procedure illustrates making an ISDN call on a 46B+2D ISDN line. This test is performed while the line is out of service. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1DUAL Tx/INSERT: L1-Tx (or as required) Rx/DROP: L1-Rx (or as required) RxLVL-1: TERM RxLVL-2: TERM TxSOURCE: PATTERN FRAMING: ESF CODING: B8ZS Tx CLOCK: Rx-1 TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1&2: 0dB LED PANEL: As desired When ready, press ENTER. 2. Connect thetest set to the circuit as shown in Figure 131.

Figure 131 Backup D-Channel Test 3. From the module main menu select, PROTOCOL TESTING > ISDN PRIMARY RATE > TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: MODE: TE
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PROTOCOL: According to your circuit. LINE TYPE: T146B2D RX LEVEL: According to your circuit. TX CLOCK: According to your circuit. MY PHONE NUMBER: As needed. When ready, press ENTER.

4. From the ISDN menu select OTHER PARAMETERS and set up the LINE 1 D-Channel and LINE 2 D-Channel. When ready, press ENTER. 6. From the ISDN menu select BACKUP D CHNL TEST. You will see the status of both lines. LINE 1 should display In service and LINE 2 should display Standby. 7 To test whether or not the D-channel can properly transition from standby to active, press SWAP (F1) to manually drop LINE 1. LINE 1 should display Manual out of service and LINE 2 should change to In service. To reestablish LINE 1, press SWAP (F1) again, and it should now display Stand by. Wait until this changes to In-Service. 8. When nished, disconnect the test set from the circuit.

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3.3 SS7 Applicaions


3.3.1 Monitoring Transmit/ Receive Links

Figure 132 Monitoring In-service SS7 Links You can monitor the sending and receiving links of the SS7 network using the dual line receive jacks using this procedure. It can be performed while the span is in service and using either T1SINGL or T1DUAL modes. 1. From the module main menu select, TEST CONFIGURATION and congure as required: TEST MODE: T1DUAL Tx/INSERT: As required. Rx/DROP: As required. RxLVL-1: MONITOR RxLVL-2: MONITOR Tx SOURCE: PATTERN FRAMING: ESF CODING: B8ZS Tx CLOCK: INTERN TEST RATE: As required. LBO 1&2: 0dB LED PANEL: As desired When ready, press ENTER. TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: MONITOR FRAMING: ESF CODING: B8ZS Tx CLOCK: INTERN Tx SOURCE: PATTERN TEST RATE: As required. LBO 1: 0dB

2. Connect the test set to the circuit as shown in Figure 132. Press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. 3. From the module main menu select, PROTOCOL TESTING > SS7 ANALYSIS > CONFIGURATION and congure as follows: SS7 VERSION: ANSI OPC/DPC DISPLAY: Press HEX (F1) to view/enter these codes in hexadecimal format, or press DECIMAL (F2) for decimal format. SIGNALING TIME SLOT: Use PREV (F1) and NEXT (F2) to select the receive channel that will carry the signaling.
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TRUNK RATE: As required. When ready, press ENTER. 4. From the SS7 ANALYSIS menu select, FILTERSETUP and refer to Figure 133 for a sample screen.

Figure 133 SS7 Filter Setup Screen 5. Decide whether to REJECT or CAPTURE the LAYER 1 and LAYER 2 messages. 6. CAPTURE the LAYER 3 messages. A. The test set uses the Originating Point Code (OPC) and the Destination Point Code (DPC) to lter SS7 messages. To capture all messages regardless of these point codes, do not enter any digits for each, as in Figure 133. Depending on your OPC/DPC DISP selection in the SS7 CONFIGURATION screen, you can enter specic codes in either decimal or hexadecimal format. B. Specify a particular SI (Service Indicator) eld to lter. C. After selecting a SI field, you will need to configure the last several lines, which will depend on your SI choice: Enter specific values using the SHIFT and number keys. For TUP in Figure 133, CIC code, HEAD CODE, ADDR SGNL, and ADDR NUMB are available. For ISUP messages, MESG TYPE replaces HEAD CODE and SLS is added. For SCCP messages, select SSN, MESG TYPE number and decide whether to use ADDR SGNL. Additional fields such as TCAP OTID, TCAP DTID, and INVOKE ID may appear, as well as ADDR SGNL and ADDR NUMB. For SNM and SNT messages there are only the SLS and HEAD CODE elds. Refer to Section 2.7.3.2 for a more information of each of these ltering elds.
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D. When ready, press ENTER. 7. From the SS7 ANALYSIS menu select, CAPTURE TRACE. The test set now begins the tracing process using the filter selections from the FILTER SETUP screen. You may pause the screen to look at the message closely by pressing STOP (F1). Use HEX/DECODE (F2) to decode the message. 8. When nished, press ESC. 9. If you want to see the current trace, press STOP (F4), then ESC. 10. From the SS7 ANALYSIS menu select, VIEW TRACE > TEMPORARY TRACE screen, where you may narrow the number of traces to view at the MSG FROM and MSG TO lines. 11. To view messages, press VIEW (F1) and use PREV (F1)/ NEXT (F2) to view the captured messages.

3.4 Frame Relay Applications


Refer to Section 2.7.4 for Applications.

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4 Reference 4.1 T1 Transmission


This section gives you an overview of T1 technology and equipment. It also shows you the basics of troubleshooting and sectionizing problems with T1 circuits. T1 is a general term that refers to the transmission of 1.544 Mbps digital circuits over any media. T1 can be transported over copper, ber, or radio. DS1 is the term for the electrical signal found at the metallic interfaces for this circuit where most testing is performed. 4.1.1 T1 Usage T1s are used for a variety of purposes. They are widely embedded in the network distribution architecture as a convenient means of reducing cable pair counts by carrying 24 voice channels in one 4 wire circuit. End users have migrated their private networks onto leased T1s as a means of reducing their network operation costs. DS1 is a universal digital access point to traditional digital networks and newer fiber optic synchronous networks. 4.1.2 T1 Services Telephone companies are now selling T1 point-to-point circuits in a variety of formats. Channelized T1s are often sold as a means of connecting PBXs (Private Branch Exchanges) or ACDs (Automatic Call Distributors) to a central office switch. In this case, the telephone company may also install and maintain a channel bank for the customer at their premises. T1 pipes are sold to more sophisticated users who only require point-to-point connectivity of a T1 circuit from the telephone company. 4.1.3 DS1 Network Elements As shown in Figure 134, a rich variety of equipment is available for T1 circuits. CSUs, or Customer Service Units, can convert a V.35 or other computer-based synchronous signal format into the DS1 format and insert the appropriate DS1 framing. CSUs also provide loopback capability, indicator lights, monitor jacks, and split access for troubleshooting and installation debugging. Network Interface Units (NIUs) are installed by the telephone company at customer premises for a variety of maintenance reasons. The NIUs also provide a loopback, but at the telephone company control. This loopback allows the telephone company to verify that the circuit works all the way to the point of interface with the customers network. The NIUs may also be congured to loopback signal, send AIS, or send idle
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signal when the customer signal is unplugged. New kinds of NIUs even provide performance monitoring information and maintenance switching capabilit.

Figure 134 DS1 Network Elements T1 can be transmitted over twisted pair, fiber, or digital radio. Twisted pair (normal telephone wire) is the most widely spread form of transmission, and has several types of associated network elements. Regenerative repeaters, for example AT&Ts 239 series, are located up to 6000 feet apart on a twisted pair span. The repeaters are housed in apparatus cases. The repeaters are located within 3000 feet of the central office and the customer premises in order to avoid cross-talk problems when the signal is carried on building wiring. Newer line repeaters offer loopback capability for faster span sectionalization. Central ofce repeaters provide the 60 mA span current used for powering the regenerative repeaters on the span. The repeaters may be housed in Ofce Repeater Bays (ORBs). Newer central office repeaters automatically adjust the supplied voltage to adapt to varying numbers of repeaters plugged into the span. They also may have fractional T1 blocking capability to allow the telephone company to sell a
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reduced price T1 that only carries a certain number of channels. They also may have the automated loopback capability and span power-down/power-up capability. A variety of equipment is found at the ends of DS1 lines. D4 channel banks are a traditional form of multiplexer that converts ordinary telephone wires to 64 kbps channels for multiplexing onto a DS1. Newer D4 banks offer a wide variety of channel plug-ins to handle DDS-style circuits, private line circuits, and even ISDN. AT&T SLC96 and SLC-5 systems are commonly found in the Bell environment and were designed as enhancements to the older D4 style. M13 multiplexes are a traditional higher-order multiplexer for DS1s. These units take up to 28 DS1s and multiplex them into a DS3. Note that the DS1 framing and payload still exist inside the DS3 signal, but that the DS1 line coding is not passed through. PBXs, class 5 switches (central office switches connected to local subscribers), and toll switches are often found at the end of T1 lines. These elements use DS1s as a way of concentrating their connections to local subscribers and interofce trunks. The function of these elements is to take supervision and addressing information from subscribers, set up a call throughout the world network for the subscriber, connect the subscriber through when the path is set up, and terminate the call when the subscriber is finished. A variety of Digital Cross-Connect Switches (DCSs) connect to DS1 lines. DCSs commonly reduce the space required for achieving channel cross-connection, eliminate the manual labor associated with cross connection, and can provide amazingly fast computerized rerouting of facilities in the event of a network outage. The common DCSs are of type 1x0, 1x1, and 3x1. A 1x0 DCS has DS1 ports interfacing the network. Internally it cross-connects DS0s between the DS1s according to instructions that have been entered in through the administrative terminal. The 1x0 DCS takes the place of many racks of 1x0 multiplexes combined with a DSX-0 manual cross-connect bay. A 1x1 DCS is also called an electronic DSX-1 and is designed as a replacement for the DSX-1. A 3x1 DCS has DS3 ports and possibly DS1 ports facing the network. It replaces a bank of M13 multiplexes and the DSX-1. A wide variety of SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) equipment is now being deployed in the network. This equipment operates at higher rates and introduces a wide variety of new signal formats, both optical and electrical. Much of the SONET gear is also designed to interface to the embedded network and has DS1 and DS3 interfaces. SONET equipment replaces equipment like M13 multiplexes and 3x1 DCSs.

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4.1.4 DS1 Standards Many standards govern various parts of DS1 transmission and network elements. The two most important standards are: ANSI T1.102-1987, Digital Hierarchy, Electrical Interfaces. ANSI T1.403, Network-to-Customer Installation-DS1 Metallic Interface. 4.1.5 DS1 Sgnal

Figure 135 DS1 Pulse Transmission The DS1 signal is a 1.544 Mbps 3.0V signal. Like the DS3 signal, it uses a bipolar format. Unlike DS3, there are two line codes used in transmission, Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and Bipolar 8-Zero Substitution (B8ZS). AMI was the original line code used when DS1 was first introduced. However, its use is suboptimal in todays networks, which mix data transmission with voice transmission and which require near error-free quality. The problem with AMI line coding is that it requires the terminal transmitting data to have at least a 12.5% average 1s density and a maximum of 15 consecutive zeroes. This data content is impossible to guarantee when computer data is being transmitted, so transmission quality can suffer. In comparison, B8ZS uses a bipolar violation substitution which guarantees the 12.5% average with a maximum number of 7 consecutive 0s. Most networks are moving towards B8ZS line code usage. See Figure 135 for an illustration of the DS1 signal.

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4.1.6 T1 raming

Figure 136 DS1 Frame Structure T1 framing is simpler than DS3 framing. In T1, there are 192 data bits and one framing bit. With framing, you can tell where the first bit of the frame is. Most T1s are arranged with 24 channels of data, with one byte (8 bits) transmitted per channel per frame. Channel 1 is the rst 8 bits after the frame bit, channel 2 is the second 8 bits after the framing bit and so on. 8000 frames are transmitted per second. Each channel provides 64 kbps bandwidth. There are 3 kinds of standardized T1 framing in use today, SF, ESF, and SLC-96. The simplest is SF Framing. In this, 12 frames are grouped together as a Super Frame (SF). The 12 framing bits are transmitted in a recognizable pattern such that the super frame is organized into frame number 1, frame number 2, and so on. ESF (Extended Super Frame) is a newer method, which groups 24 frames together. Of the 24 framing bits, only 6 are used to establish the frame position, i.e. which frame is number 1, which frame is number 2, and so on. Another 6 are used for a CRC-6 (Cyclic Redundancy Check code-6), and 12 are used for the ESF Facility Data Link (FDL). The CRC-6 bits are the remainder from a division of the bits of the previous frame by a sixth-order polynomial. Any monitoring device along the line can do the same division process and compare its remainder to the CRC-6 bits. If the two gures are not identical, then the monitoring device can assume that a transmission error has occurred somewhere between the measurement point and the origin of the ESF-framed signal. The facility data link is a 4 kbps data channel that allows terminal to terminal communications on an in-service circuit. One example of in-service communication is the performance report message that is broadcast once per second on an in-service circuit. This message is discussed later in this section in End-to-end Performance Monitoring. The facility data link also provides a secure communication channel that the customer cannot inuence. For
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instance, ESF NIU loopback commands are transmitted on the data link so that there is zero chance that the customers own payload data will accidentally loop up the NIU. SLC-96 framing is used on AT&Ts old SLC-96 product line. The framing supports a broad variety of maintenance functions such as alarm transmission, automatic switching to protection line, and far end loop back. SLC-96 framing is used on the DS1 link in between the central ofce terminal and the remote terminal. 4.17 PCM

Figure 137 PCM Sampling and -Law Encoding Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is the technology that allows a voice conversation to be digitized and inserted on a T1 line. In a voice conversation, there is a 4 kHz analog bandwidth which is transmitted through the network. Through the Nyquist theorem, 8000 samples per second must be taken in order to achieve the 4000 Hz bandwidth requirement. As shown in Figure 137 the analog signal is sampled at 125 S intervals, 8000 times per second. Each sample is a measurement of the voltage of the analog signal. The voltage level is then converted to an 8-bit binary word. An 8-bit word provides 256 different levels, which is not very many. To produce a higher quality sound, a -law transformation is used which puts a constant dB level in between each voltage step. This creates a nonlinear relationship between the pulse amplitude and the level number, but it is more pleasing to the ear because it provides a more constant signal-to-noise ratio at a wider range of volumes. Each 8-bit word occupies one channel in one frame. Because there are 24 channels available, up to 24 conversations can be carried on the T1 signal.
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4.1.8 Switching A basic understanding of switching is helpful when troubleshooting T1 problems. The DS3 transmission section pointed out that DS1, DS2, and DS3 signals are plesiochronous, that is, they are not frequency-locked with respect to each other. The DS2 and DS3 signals have stuff bits built into the framing, so that all signals can be slipping with respect to each other and not cause any transmission errors. The frequencies are only required to be about +/- 20 ppm to +/- 50 ppm (parts per million) of center frequency for error free transmission. Long after this digital plesiochronous (sometimes called asynchronous) transmission technology was adopted, switches began a conversion from analog technology to newer, digital technology. Unfortunately, the original DS1 framing concept never anticipated a need to cross-connect DS0s directly from one DS1 to another DS1, which is exactly what happens inside a digital switch. A call that comes in on one channel of a DS1 goes out on another channel of another DS1. 8000 times per second, a switch takes one received frame from each of the DS1s connected to it. It disassembles each frame into the 24 independent timeslots. It looks into its call map to see where each of the received timeslot bytes should be sent. Then it sends each byte to the appropriate DS1 transmit port. Next, it assembles all the bytes for each transmit DS1, inserts any idle code on timeslots that are not actively in the middle of a call, and inserts an appropriate framing bit for the frame type being used. It then transmits each DS1 frame during 1/8000 of a second. There may be several 125 S periods of delay for a byte as it moves through the switch. Not all DS1s will have the frames ending at exactly the same moment in time. For this reason, the switch maintains a buffer for each transmitted and received DS1 signal. Each buffer provides an elastic store of bits, so that the switch will always have bits available to transmit or receive at the exact moment required. All DS1s must be received and transmitted at exactly the same frequency: the frequency at which the switch is operating. Any received DS1 that is going too slowly will eventually run out of bits in its buffer, because the switch is taking bits out of the buffer faster than the buffer is being lled by the DS1. When the buffer becomes empty, the switch must insert extra data in each of the timeslots that are transmitted on the cross-connected channels. An error has now occurred, because what is transmitted is not the same as what is received. Likewise, if any received DS1s frequency is higher than the switch, sooner or later the receive buffer will overflow because bits are coming in faster than they are being taken
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out. Once the buffer overflows, some bits which are received will not be transmitted on the cross-connected channel. An error has again occurred; this time because data has been lost. The universal deployment of digital switches has resulted in a massive effort to synchronize all DS1s so that errors will not occur in switched circuits that use DS1 for transport. 4.1.9 Sychronization

Figure 138 Timing Distribution DS1 circuits should be synchronized to avoid the switching problems described in the previous paragraph. Minor frequency deviations will cause only pops and crackles on a voice circuit, however a data circuit can be rendered virtually useless by the regular errors resulting from frequency slippage. If a DS1 should be slipping by more than 100 to 300 bps, a digital switch may even put the DS1 out of service, and declare an alarm. Complete synchronization is achieved only when all signals can have their frequency traced back to the same clock. When a network element is installed, its timing relationship is one of the items that needs to be engineered. The relationship is usually one of master/slave. For instance, if a PBX is connected to a central ofce switch via a T1 line, chances are good that the central office switch is properly synchronized to the network. Therefore, the DS1 signal received by the PBX from the central office will be synchronized to the network. Thus, the PBX should be set up to be in slave timing mode, with the DS1 signal received from the central office used
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as the timing source. In turn, a D4 channel bank that is connected to the PBX should be slaved to the PBX. One possible distribution of clock in the network is illustrated in Figure 138. Note that a network element which is slave timed to another network element may also be the master to other network elements attached to it. Also note that slave timing is sometimes called loop timing, or receive timing; loop timing because the received timing is looped out the transmitter and receive timing because the received signal is used for the timing source. Another method is to be internally timed. The advantage of this is that the element will always be able to generate a signal, so no clock signal is required. Test sets doing acceptance testing are usually set to internal timing. Note that internal timing is not acceptable when the test set will be transmitting toward a switch for Nx64 kbps testing; the switch is drawing its timing from something other than the test set. In this case the test set should be loop timed. 4.1.10 Supervision Common T1 framing methods transmit supervisory information through robbed bit signaling. Every 6 frames, the least signicant bit in the PCM byte for every channel is robbed, and is instead used to transmit signaling information. In SF framing, bits in the sixth and twelfth frames are robbed to form the A and B signaling bits for each channel. These bits are interpreted according to the kind of circuit carried in the channel. For instance, on an E&M circuit A= 0, B= 0 means that the circuit is idle, (the user is on-hook). A = 1, B = 1 means that the circuit is seized (the user has taken his phone off the hook). With ESF framing, there are 24 frames grouped together, with bit 8 of each channel in frames 6, 12, 18, and 24 as the ABCD signaling bits. Most ESF signaling is identical to SF signaling, the C and D bits are copies of the A and B bits. SLC-96 supervision is handled via the SLC-96 data link. 4.1.11 Addressing This is the process of sending a telephone subscriber address for the purpose of setting up a call. The oldest addressing technique in use today is pulse dialing. With pulse dialing, your phone goes on-hook and off-hook 10 times per second in order to dial a given number. For example, to dial a 7, you start out in the offhook condition, then you go on-hook/off-hook 7 times. This is the technique that rotary dial phones use. This addressing information is transmitted through a T1 line by toggling the A and B bits from the off-hook state to the on-hook state at a rate of 10 times per second. This sort of addressing is commonly used in switched 56 services.
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MF, Multi Frequency, is an addressing technique used for interofce signaling in the telephone network. It uses a group of frequencies in pairs to form a single address tone. In addition to supporting the digits 0 through 9, MF offers many other control codes for specialized network applications like billing, pay phones, etc. DTMF, Dual Tone Multi Frequency, is the commonly used addressing method on todays phones. Like MF, it uses pairs of tones to send a digit. Unlike MF, it uses two separate groups of tones. DTMF supports 16 digits, 0 through 9, #, *, and A through D. 4.1.12 AIS nd Yellow Alarms

Figure 139 AIS and Yellow Alarms In DS1, AIS and yellow alarms work just like they do in DS3. An intermediate network element such as an M13 multiplex, 1x1 DCS, or SONET mux, is supposed to transmit AIS downstream when it receives a loss of signal. The DS1 AIS is an all 1s, unframed signal. A terminating network element like a D4 channel bank, PBX, central office switch, or 1x0 DCS should send a yellow alarm back towards the other end when it receives a loss of frame. Note that a received AIS is a loss of frame. Terminating elements also need to properly condition the DS0s that the DS1 carries when the frame is lost. For instance, A D4 channel bank is supposed to condition its channel cards to take them out of service and transmit an appropriate out-of-service signal to any low speed equipment. Refer to Figure 139 on how the AIS and yellow alarms are transmitted.

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41.13 Loopbacks

Figure 140 DS1 Loopback Testing Loopback testing lets you quickly verify the performance of a new DS1 circuit. It can also greatly speed the fault sectionalization process on a circuit that is not working properly. Loopback capabilities are provided in a variety of equipment, new central office repeaters, new regenerative line repeaters, NIUs, CSUs, and M13 multiplexes. The general characteristics of this equipment have been discussed in Section 4.1.3. Figure 140 shows the variety of loopback points available from the central ofce during a fault sectionalization process.

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4.1.14 End-to-End Performance Monitoring


Figure 141 DS1 Performance Monitoring End-to-end performance monitoring is made possible through ESF framing and CSUs which support the Performance Report Message (PRM) broadcast on the ESF Facility Data Link (FDL). This capability is specied in ANSI T1.403. With ESF performance monitoring, any CRC-6 error or bipolar violation which is received by the CSU is transmitted out towards the other direction in the performance report message on the facility data link. In that way, the end user, or the various telephone companies that provide transport service, can all have equal ability to see the quality of the end-to-end transmission while the circuit is in-service. Before this capability was available, the circuit would have to be taken out of service in order to measure the end-to-end transmission performance. This new end-to-end performance monitoring capability gives the customer a way to verify the quality of the service that the telephone company is delivering. It also allows the telephone company to setup internal monitoring systems to report on the average grade of service provided to customers. The telephone company may also receive early warning of some failures, i.e. those failures that are preceded by a gradual period of deterioration. This early warning could allow the telephone company to fix the problem before the service is lost. End-to-end performance monitoring is illustrated in Figure 141. In this, a fault on the transmission line induces repeated errors on the service. The CSU at the end of the line sees the errors as CRC-6 errors and generates a performance report message in the other direction. The installed performance monitoring equipment in the central ofce and the technician using their test set can both see the message.
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4.2 Troubleshooting and Fault Sectionalization


This section will help you find problems on T1 circuits. First you will get a checklist on various problems that often happen with T1 circuits. Then you will see how the information you have learned about errors and alarms helps you quickly nd the problem. The following is a checklist of items to be checked on a T1 circuit: Is the circuit wired up properly? Check for loose wire wraps, bad splices, connections to wrong pairs, etc. Are there any cable problems? For example: bridge taps, wet cable, paper insulated cable, shorts, or grounds. Is the cable T-screened? Ideal T1 transmission cables uses a screen to separate the two directions of transmission to prevent cross talk. Are the T1s in the screened cable properly separated into Transmit and Receive binder groups? Has the circuit been connected properly at all the offices along its route? Are Transmit and Receive backwards? A surprising number of circuits get plugged in backwards. Try the other way. Are there any AMI/B8ZS mismatches? AMI and B8ZS line codes are incompatible with each other. Both ends of a T1 line must use the same coding. If all ones works fine, QRS has errors, and 3-in-24 will not synchronize, it's probably an AMI/ B8ZS mismatch. Is the CSU or other element set to stuff 1s to prevent low density? This is required for AMI circuits but will cause loss of synch on 3-in-24, errors on QRS, and no errors on all ones. Is there a framing mismatch? Be sure the framing is the same on both sides. Does the problem reappear when you drop the loopback? The problem is probably with the equipment on the far side of the loopback. Is the circuit connected to a switch or PBX? Look for frequency mismatch. Are DS1 signals used throughout? Sometimes people plug DS1 into DS1C by mistake, or create other signal format incompatibility. Is there a double loopback? Sometimes 2 or more loopbacks of the same type get installed where only 1 is expected. In this case a double or triple loop may occur on a loopback code, and the loopdown code may have to be transmitted 2 or more times before all the loops come down.
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Is there a termination problem? All lines should have only one 100 termination. Other terminations should be high impedance. If you're not sure, try TERM, BRIDGE, and MONITOR. Is the level too low? The received level should be at least -15 dB dsx for most equipment. Is there a frequency synchronization problem? See the discussion in this section. Is there a cross-talk problem? If the signal level is lower than -12 dB, another signal could be cross-talking onto the received T1 line. Are repeaters installed? Are they at the right spacing? Is there a span powering problem? 60 mA span power needs to be delivered to all repeaters on the span; all repeaters should have their power switches properly set to LOOP or THRU. The central office automatic span powering repeater should be delivering the proper voltage to power the span. All the repeaters before the farthest one away from the central ofce should be set to THRU. The farthest repeater or the NIU should be set to LOOP. Too many repeaters will overload the central ofce repeater. Is the NIU span powered? Is that span power provided? Is the central office repeater transmitting a 6V signal that is not being padded to 3V before it gets to the next equipment? Is the test cord broken or dirty? This can cause misleading test results. Is the test set working properly? This can also cause confusion when troubleshooting problems. A quick way to check the test set is to loop the test cord from transmit to receive, checking both the cord and the set at the same time. Common test set problems are wrong termination (TERM, BRIDGE, DSXMON), wrong clock setting (INTERNAL is right for most cases), wrong framing, wrong line code, wrong Nx64 selection, and wrong test pattern.

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4.2.1 Fault Sectionalization


Figure 142 BPVs & LOS in DS1 Fault Sectionalization Fault sectionalization techniques vary depending on whether the T1 circuit is in-service or out of service. If it is out of service, then you start from the middle and loop back the circuit in each direction to see which side has the problem. Next, go to the middle of the side that has the problem and do another loopback in each direction. Repeat this procedure until you nd the problem. Refer to Figure 140 for an illustration of the loopback test. This gure shows many of the loopbacks that may be available in one direction from the central ofce. Note that there also may be DS3 loopbacks available if the circuit is a DS3 circuit, or DS1 channel loopbacks may be available in higher order multiplexes. If the circuit is in service, non-disruptive performance monitoring techniques are used. Much can be learned simply by plugging into monitoring jacks and observing the information. Be sure to plug into the monitor jack for each direction and look at the results. The following paragraphs tell you what conclusions you can make from various results at different monitor points. In the accompanying diagrams, a test set shows what abnormal conditions it is seeing from its monitor point. In the diagrams, a black dot indicates a line impairment that is causing steady or bursty errors. A loss of signal is indicated by a missing signal arrow. If CRC is listed in the diagram, it will only be seen if the circuit uses ESF framing. Likewise, If C-bit [parity] error is listed, this is only found if C-bit parity framing is used.
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4.2.2 Bipolar Violations and Loss of Signal DS1 or DS3 bipolar violations, or loss of signal, show that the fault is relatively nearby. DS1 bipolar violations pass through line repeaters, ofce repeaters and NIUs, but are stopped by multiplexers, DCSs, switches, signal format changes (i.e. from optical to electrical, or from radio to electrical) and possibly CSUs. DS3 bipolar violations indicate that the problem is between the test set and the nearest DS3 equipment, within a few hundred feet. The DS3 format only exists at interconnections between equipment. Different formats are used for transmission over long distances. In comparison, the DS1 electrical signal can transmitted through regenerative line repeaters for hundreds of miles. Thus a DS1 bipolar violation indicates a transmission problem between the test set and the last multiplex, DCS, or other element that stops bipolar violations. Figure 142 illustrates the DS1 case. 4.2.3 Frame Bit, Bit, CR-6, and C-Bit Parity Errors

Figure 143 FBE and CRC in DS1 Testing These errors travel with the DS1 circuit for the entire length of the circuit. They pass through higher order multiplexes. They also pass through changes in line format from copper-to-ber, fiber-to-radio, etc. If these errors are found with bipolar violations, then the problem is local. If these errors are found without bipolar violations, then the problem is behind the last format change. Figure 143 shows what these errors mean when they are seen without BPVs.
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.2.4 AIS and Yellow Alarm


Figure 144 DS1 Yellow and AIS AIS means there is a problem on the line somewhere behind the last multiplex, DCS, fiber mux, or other device which replaces a loss of signal with AIS. Yellow alarm means the received signal has been lost at the end of the line that generated the signal you are monitoring. When you monitor the other direction, if the signal is framed, then the problem must exist between you and the end of the line generating the Yellow alarm. If the signal is unframed (for example AIS or loss of signal) the trouble is between you and the other end of the circuit. Figure 144 shows how the AIS and Yellow alarms show up in DS1 and DS3 fault sectionalization.

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.2.5 FEBE or ESF PRM Errors

Figure 145 DS1 ESF PRM Errors Both of these indicate that errors are being received at the end of the line that is generating these messages. If you see no errors on the other direction of the line being monitored, then the problem exists between you and the end generating the FEBE or PRM error messages. If the other side shows BPVs, CRC-6, frame or other errors, then the problem exists between you and the end of the circuit that is not generating the FEBE or PRM error messages. If you are monitoring a DS1 circuit from a DS3 access point and you see both DS3 FEBEs and DS1 PRM errors, then the problem exists before the end of the DS3. If you are on a C-bit parity framed DS3 monitoring a DS1 and you see ESF PRM errors but you do not see FEBEs, then the problem exists in between the side of the circuit generating the ESF PRMs and the end of the DS3 mux. Figure 145 shows a typical example of a network fault leading to this indication.

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5 Troubleshooting and Calibration 5.1 Troubleshooting


Here are suggestions for when the SSxDSL-8 module is not performing as expected. Problem: Continuous BPVs show on screen even though there should be no problem with the signal. Suggestion: Check the line interface. Do not use DSXMON for a full 3V signal. Do not use TERM for a monitor jack. Try both BRIDGE and DSXMON for a monitor jack. Do not use BRIDGE or DSXMON on a signal that has been opened and is no longer properly terminated. Problem: Measurement is not working properly (loss of signal, no pattern synch). Suggestions: Verify signal TEST MODE and RxLVL-1, or RxLVL-2 settings in the TEST CONFIGURATION screen. Verify that proper cable connections are in accordance with the circuit to the circuit graphic. Make sure that OUT is plugged to IN and vice-a-versa. Twist the plugs inside the jacks and check for proper insertion. Check continuity of the cables. Problem: Test Patterns will not synchronize. Suggestions: Press RESYNCH to force the test set to resynchronize on the pattern, framing type, and line coding. Verify that the sent pattern is the desired pattern. Check this in SEND TEST PATTERN. Verify that there is no AMI/B8ZS mismatch. Problem: Test patterns will not sync with other test equipment. Suggestions: Verify that PATTERN INVERSION is set for DISABLE in the OTHER FEATURES > OTHER PARAMETERS screen. Use VIEW RECEIVED DATA to look at the pattern the other test set is sending. Problem: Voice Frequency section does not work. Suggestions: Verify that the test set has a valid framing type. If there is no valid framing, put proper framing on the T1 signal. Make sure that the timeslot number is not confused with the channel number. Confirm that the RX and the TX channels are correct.
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5.2 Calibration
The SSxDSL-8 module is self-calibrating. It requires no adjustments and does not need to be returned to Sunrise Telecom for calibration. If required to perform a periodic calibration on the SSxDSL-8 module, use this procedure: 1. Switch the test set on. 2. Verify that all LEDs blink in sequence and that each LED lights properly. The POWER LED should always be green and the LOW BATT LED should light only when the battery is nearly discharged. 3. Verify that there are no errors listed at the completion of the self-test. 4. Connect a single bantam to single bantam cord from LINE 1 TX to LINE 1 RX. 5. From the MAIN MENU > TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1SINGL RxLVL-1: TERM FRAMING: ESF Tx CODING: B8ZS Tx SOURCE: NORMAL XMT CLOCK: INTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO - 1: 0 dB When done, press ENTER.

6. If necessary, press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. Verify that the PULSES, ESF, and PAT SYNC LEDs are green. The B8ZS LED may be on, depending on the test pattern transmitted. 7. From the DUAL T1 main menu, select MEASUREMENT RESULTS. Use PAGE-UP (F1) and PAGE-DN (F2) to access the LINE 1 - SIGNAL screen. - Verify that the +LVL is 3.00V +/- 10% and that the -LVL is 3.00V +/- 10%. - Verify that the FREQ is 1544000 +/- 1 Hz. 8. Press ESC to return to the DUAL T1 main menu. 9. Connect a single bantam to single bantam cord from LINE 2 TX to LINE 2 RX. 10. From the DUAL T1 main menu, select TEST CONFIGURATION and configure as follows: TEST MODE: T1DUAL Tx/INSERT: L2-Tx Rx/DROP: L2-Rx
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240

RxLVL-1: TERM RxLVL-2: TERM Tx SOURCE: TESTPAT FRAMING: SF-D4 Tx CODING: AMI XMT CLOCK: INTERN TEST RATE: 1.544M LBO 1&2: 0 dB When done, press ENTER.

11. If necessary, press HISTORY to clear any blinking LEDs. Verify that the PULSES, SF and PAT SYNC LEDs are green. 12. From the DUAL T1 main menu, select MEASUREMENT RESULTS. Use PAGE-UP (F1) and PAGE-DN (F2) to access the LINE 1 SIGNAL screen. - Verify that the +LVL is 3.00V +/- 10% and that the -LVL is 3.00V +/- 10%. - Verify that the FREQ is 1544000 +/- 1 Hz. 15. Press ESC return to the DUAL T1 main menu. The calibration procedure is now complete.

5.3 Express Limited Warranty


This Sunrise Telecom product is warranted against defects in materials and workmanship during its warranty period. The warranty period for this product is contained in the warranty page on http://www.sunrisetelecom.com. Sunrise Telecom agrees to repair or replace any assembly or compo nent found to be defective under normal use during this period. The obligation under this warranty is limited solely to repairing or replacing the product that proves to be defective within the scope of the warranty when returned to the factory. This warranty does not apply under certain conditions, as set forth on the warranty page on http://www.sunrisetelecom.com. Please refer to the website for specific details. THIS IS A LIMITED WARRANTY AND THE ONLY WARRANTY MADE BY SUNRISE TELECOM. SUNRISE TELECOM MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTY, REPR SENTATION OR CONDITION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

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Index
A Applications Bridge Tap Detect; 57 Fault Sectionalization; 235 Propagation Delay; 63 Quick Test I & II; 59 Troubleshooting and Fault Sectionalization; 233 Applications- Frame Relay; 220 Applications-ISDN 46B+2D Backup D-Channel Test; 216 ISDN PRI Call Setup; 212 Placing a Data Call and Running a BERT; 215 Placing a Second Call; 216 PRI Monitoring; 214 Receiving a Call; 213 Applications-SS7 Monitoring Transmit/ Receive Links; 218 Applications-T1 Accepting a New T1 Span; 179 Advanced Talk/Listen; 194 B8ZS/AMI Verication on a T1 Line; 184 Checking DSX Wiring; 189 Checking for Frame Slips and Frequency Synch; 185 Fractional T1 Testing; 208 FT1 Circuit Acceptance Test Procedure; 210 In-Service Hitless Dual Drop & Insert THRU Testing; 205 Looping a CSU or NI on a T1 Line; 182 Measuring Signal Level; 187 Monitor an In-service Circuit; 181 Monitoring a Voice Frequency Channel; 192 Observing Network Codes or Channel Data; 190 Out-of-service SLC-96 Testing; 203 Send a Tone; 199 Simple Talk/Listen; 193 SLC-96 Data Link Monitoring; 202 SLC-96 Testing; 200 Stress Testing a T1 Line; 183 T-BERD Power Lid; 211 B Bridge Tap Detect G.821/Logic Measurement Screen; 57 Test Patterns; 58

242

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C Calibration; 240 Cautions; 2, 42, 165, 200, 206 Connector Panel HANDSET; 9 L1-TX & L1-RX; 9 L2-RX & L2-TX; 9 SPAN POWER; 9 CSU & NIU Control (DS1 Loopback) Basic Loopback Procedure; 18 Deleting a User Loopback Code; 21 ESF-DL; 18 IN-BAND; 18 In-Band Network Codes; 19 Programing a User Loopback Code; 20 Selecting a User Loopback Code; 21 T1.403 Network Codes; 19 Viewing a User Loopback Code; 21 CSU/NI Emulation T1 Dual Mode LLPBK-1 (F-key); 177 LLPBK-2 (F-key); 177 RESET (F-key); 177 UNLLB-1 (F-key); 177 UNLLB-2 (F-key); 177 T1 Single Mode LLPBK-1 (F-key); 176 PLPBK-1 (F-key); 176 RESET (F-key); 176 UNLLB-1 (F-key); 176 UNPLB-1 (F-key); 176 D D4 Channel Bank Signaling Tables; 195 Data Link Control (ESF) Monitor PRM Screen BPV; 158 C=<10; 157 C=<100; 157 C=<319; 157 C=<5; 157 C=>320; 158 CI/NETWORK (F-key); 158 CRC=1; 157 DETECTION TIME; 157 ELAPSED TIME; 157 FSBEE; 158 PLBK; 158
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Data Link Control (ESF)-Monitor PRM Screen continued SEFE; 158 SLIP; 158 SPRM; 158 U1 & U2; 158 Transmit BPM Screen Decode Field; 160 Note for ESF NIU Loopbacks; 160 Select ESF Data Link BPM; 161 STATUS; 160 Transmit PRM Screen BPV; 164 C=<10; 163 C=<100; 163 C=<319; 163 C=<320; 163 C=<5; 163 CRC=1; 163 Elapsed Time; 163 FSBEE; 164 NETWORK/CI (F-key); 164 PLBK; 164 PRM Messages; 163 SEFE; 164 SLIP; 164 Data Link Control (SLC-96) Monitor Data Link Screen A SHLF; 166 A-FELP; 166 B SHLF; 166 B-FELP; 166 C BITS; 166 C SHLF; 166 C-FELP; 166 D SHLF; 166 D-FELP; 166 M-BITS; 166 MAJOR; 165 MINOR; 165 MODE; 165 P-FELP; 166 POWER; 166 PROTECT LINE SW; 166 Send Message Screen A SHLF; 167 A-FELP; 167 B SHLF; 167 B-FELP; 167
244 SSxDSL-8

Data Link Control (SLC-96)-Send Message Screen continued C SHLF; 167 C-BITS; 167 C-FELP; 167 D SHLF; 167 D-FELP; 167 M-BITS; 167 MAJOR; 166 MINOR; 167 MODE; 166 P-FELP; 167 POWER; 167 S-BITS; 167 View Data Link Screen; 168 DDS Measurements Conguration Screen Rx T/S; 52 SEND PATT; 53 TEST RATE; 52 Tx T/S; 52 Loop Back Access Screen CODE: CSU, DSU, OCU, DSO-DP, USER; 54 DEV NO; 54 MODE: LOOP-UP, LOOP-DN; 53 TYPE: LATCH, NON-LAT; 53 Results Screen %UAS; 55 BER; 55 BIT; 55 CODE; 55 ELAP TIME; 55 FRME; 55 PATT; 55 RATE; 55 UAS; 55 Send/Receive Control Code Screen Control Codes; 56 Send/Receive Control Codes Screen; 55 F Figures 001 Test Set LED Panels; 7 002 Dual T1 Connector Panel; 9 003 Menu Tree; 10 004 T1 Single Conguration Screen; 11 005 Timeslot Selection Screen; 14 006 T1 Dual Test Conguration Screen; 16 007 CSU & NI Loopback Control Screen; 18 008 User Loopback Code Screen; 20
Dual T1 Module 245

Figures continued 009 User Code Naming Screen; 20 010 HDSL Conguration Screen; 22 011 Network Loopback Screen; 23 012 HDSL Span Query Screens; 26 013 Repeater Screen; 28 014 Send Test Pattern Screen; 32 015 T1 Summary Screen; 38 016 Line/BPV, Single DS1; 39 017 Line 1-Signal Screen; 41 018 Alarm Screen; 42 019 Frame Screen; 44 020 Line 1 ESF CRC-6 Screen; 46 021 Frequency Screen; 47 022 G.821/Logic Screen; 48 023 View Received Data Screen; 50 024 Pulse Mask Analysis Screen-G.703; 51 025 DDS Test Conguration Screen; 52 026 Loop Back Access Screen; 53 027 Measurement Results Screen; 54 028 Send/Receive Control Code Screen; 55 029 G.821/Logic Measurement Screen; 57 030 Bridge Tap Detect Screen-Summary Result; 57 031 Quick Test Screens; 59 032 Quick Test I Results Screen; 61 033 Test Summary Screen; 62 034 Propagation Delay Screen; 63 035 VF Measurements Conguration Screens; 64 036 View Supervision Screen; 67 037 Dial/Supervision Setup Screen; 68 038 Place/Receive Calls Screen; 70 039 Call Analysis Screen; 72 040 Call Analysis Screens; 73 041 Noise Measurement Screen; 74 042 TMC Conguration Screen; 75 043 EOC Conguration Screen; 79 044 Start Tracer Screen-Decoded; 81 045 Start Tracer Screen-Hex; 82 046 Temporary Trace Record Screen; 83 047 Release Message Screen; 84 048 Layer 2 Message Screen; 85 049 Information Element Screen; 86 050 Setup Message Screen; 86 051 Stored Record List Screen; 87 052 Stored Trace Record Screen; 88 053 TMC Statistics Screen; 89 054 EOC Statistics Screens; 90 055 ISDN Conguration Screen; 92
246 SSxDSL-8

Figures continued 056 ISDN Call Control Screen; 95 057 ISDN Call Setup Screen; 95 058 ISDN Call Setup, Nx64 Selection Screen; 96 059 ISDN Filter Screen; 98 060 Select L3 Message Type Filter; 100 061 Monitor Live Tracer; 101 062 Current Trace Screen; 103 063 Sample Current Trace Screen (TE); 104 064 Info Element Screen; 105 065 Status Screen; 108 066 Summary Screen; 109 067 G.821 BERT and Results Screen; 109 068 Backup D Channel Test; 110 069 Other Parameters; 111 070 SS7 Conguration Screen; 113 071 SS7 Filter Setup Screen; 114 072 SS7 SCCP Filter Setup Screen; 122 073 Capture Trace Screen; 130 074 Temporary Record Screen; 131 075 ISUP Message Screen, Decoded; 132 076 View/Print/Save Traces Screen; 133 077 View a Trace Screen; 134 078 HEX TUP Trace Screen; 135 079 Trace Screens; 135 080 Layer 1 Alarm Screen; 136 081 Layer 2 - LSSU Screen; 136 082 Decoded TUP Trace Screen; 137 083 SCCP Messages; 138 084 BSSMAP Screens; 138 085 Frame Relay Conguration Screen; 140 086 N391 and T391 Operation; 142 087 LMI Analysis Screen; 142 088 LMI PVC Analysis Screen; 143 089 PING Test Conguration Screen; 144 090 PING Test Screen; 145 091 ECHO Results Screen; 146 092 InARP Statistics Screen; 147 093 FOX Test Conguration Screen; 148 094 FOX Test Results Screen; 149 095 SA Monitor Conguration Screen; 151 096 Frame Relay Performance Screen; 152 097 Frame Relay Statistics Screen; 153 098 DLCI Screens; 154 099 SRAM Card Utility Screen; 155 100 Monitor ESF Data Link BPM Screen; 156 101 Monitor ESF Data Link PRM Screen; 157 102 Transmit ESF Data Link BPM Screen; 159
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Figures continued 103 Select ESF Data Link BPM Screens; 161 104 Data Link Transmit PRM Screen; 163 105 Monitor SLC-96 Data Link Screen; 165 106 SLC-96 Send Message Screen; 166 107 View Data Link SLC-96 Screen; 168 108 Measurement Conguration Screen; 169 109 Error Injection Screen; 171 110 View Test Record Screen; 173 111 CSU/NI Emulation Screen, T1 Single; 175 112 CSU/NI Emulation Screen, T1 Dual; 177 113 Accepting a New T1 Span; 179 114 Monitoring an In-Service DS1 Circuit; 181 115 Frequency Synchronization Problems; 185 116 Measuring Signal Level; 187 117 Checking DSX Wiring; 189 118 10-bit Pattern; 191 119 Monitoring a Voice Channel; 192 120 Simple Talk/Listen; 193 121 Connecting the Cords; 194 122 Typical SLC-96 System Conguration; 200 123 Monitoring SLC Data Link; 202 124 SLC-96 Out-of-Service Testing; 203 125 SLC-96 A Digroup Data Link Transmission; 204 126 In Service Full Duplex THRU Drop and Insert; 205 127 Fractional T1 Circuit; 208 128 Plugging into the FT1 Circuit; 210 129 ISDN Call Setup, TE Mode; 212 130 ISDN Monitoring; 214 131 Backup D-Channel Test; 216 132 Monitoring In-service SS7 Links; 218 133 SS7 Filter Setup Screen; 219 134 DS1 Network Elements; 222 135 DS1 Pulse Transmission; 224 136 DS1 Frame Structure; 225 137 PCM Sampling and -Law Encoding; 226 138 Timing Distribution; 228 139 AIS and Yellow Alarms; 230 140 DS1 Loopback Testing; 231 141 DS1 Performance Monitoring; 232 142 BPVs & LOS in DS1 Fault Sectionalization; 235 143 FBE and CRC in DS1 Testing; 236 144 DS1 Yellow and AIS; 237 145 DS1 ESF PRM Errors; 238 Frame Relay Conguration Screen DLCI LENGTH; 140 DLCI VALUE; 141
248 SSxDSL-8

Frame Relay-Conguration Screen continued EMULATION: USER, NETWORK; 140 INTERFACE: UNI, NNI; 140 N391 FULL STAT POLL (cyc); 141 N392 ERROR THRESHOLD (cyc); 141 N393 MONITOR EVENTS (cnt); 141 PROTOCOL: ANSI617, Q.933, LMI, NO-LMI; 140 T391 STATUS ENQUIRY (sec); 141 T392 STATUS (sec); 141 ECHO Results Screen No. of ECHOED IPS; 146 PAGE; 146 PING FROM; 146 TIME; 146 TOTAL; 146 FOX Test Conguration Screen BECN; 149 CIR (Kbps); 148 DE; 149 FECN; 149 FRAME LENGTH; 148 LOAD (%); 148 FOX Test Results Screen BAD FRAMES; 150 BECN FRAMES; 150 CIR; 150 CURRENT Kbps; 150 DE FRAMES; 150 ET; 150 FCS ERROR; 150 FECN FRAMES; 150 LOAD; 150 PVC STATUS; 150 RSN ERROR; 150 Rx FRAMES; 150 SSN ERROR; 150 ST; 150 TX FRAMES; 150 InARP Statistics Screen InArpRQ; 147 LAST IP; 147 RCV; 147 RSP RCV; 147 RSP SENT; 147 RSP T.O.; 147 SENT; 147 TOTAL #; 147
Dual T1 Module 249

Frame Relay continued LMI Analysis Screen ELAPSED TIME; 142 LINK ERRORED TOTAL; 142 LINK OK TOTAL; 143 PVC; 143 RESPONSE SEQ. NUMB; 142 STATUS; 143 TIME OUT ERROR; 142 USER or NETWORK SIDE; 142 WRONG MESSAGE; 143 LMI PVC Analysis Screen NETLMI/USERLMI; 143 PING Test Conguration Screen DEST IP; 144 InARP; 145 InARP ENQUIRY TIME; 145 LOCAL IP; 144 NLPID: IP, SNAPIP; 144 No. OF PINGS; 144 RESPSE TIME OUT (sec); 145 TIMEOUT (sec); 144 PING Test Screen InARP STATUS; 146 PINGS; 146 PVC STATUS; 146 RECEIVE; 146 ROUND TRIP TIME, CUR, AVG, MAX, MIN; 146 SENT; 146 STATUS; 146 UNREACH; 146 Statistical (DLCI) Analysis Screen ABORTED FRAMES; 154 AVG OCTET; 154 BECN FRAMES; 154 DE FRAMES; 154 FCS ERRORS; 154 FECN FRAMES; 154 LONG FRAMES; 154 SHORT FRAMES; 154 TOTAL FRAMES; 154 Statistical Analysis (Frame Relay) Performance Scr AVG FRAME/SEC; 152 AVG THRU (kbps); 152 AVG UTIL (%); 152 MAX FRAME/SEC; 152 MAX THRU (kbps); 152 MAX UTIL (%); 152
250 SSxDSL-8

Frame Relay-Statistical Analysis Screen continued MIN FRAME/SEC; 152 MIN THRU (kbps); 152 MIN UTIL (%); 152 Statistical Analysis (Frame Relay) Statistics Scre ABORTED FRAMES; 153 AVG OCTET; 153 BECN FRAMES; 153 DE FRAMES; 153 FCS ERRORS; 153 FECN FRAMES; 153 LONG FRAMES; 153 SHORT FRAMES; 153 TOTAL FRAMES; 153 Statistical Analysis Conguration Screen LONG FRAME LENGTH; 151 SHORT FRAME LENGTH; 151 G GR-303 Analysis EOC Conguration CRC CHECK; 79 FILTER; 80 LAYER-2 MSG; 79 LAYER-3 MSG; 79 SAPI & TEI Datalink Values; 80 TIME SLOT; 79 Start Tracer Screen BUFFER; 81 MESSAGE; 81 PAGE; 81 Pre and Post Filtering; 82 RDT<-IDT; 81 TMC Conguration CALL REF; 76 CAUSE; 77 Cause Values; 78 CRC CHECK; 76 DS0 NUMBER; 77 DS1 NUMBER; 77 LAYER-2 MSG; 76 LAYER-3 MSG; 76 TIME SLOT; 76 View/Print Record EOC Statistics; 90 Stored Record: LOAD, RENAME, DELETE, DEL-ALL; 87 Temporary Trace: Information Element; 86 Temporary Trace: POST FILTER IS ON/OFF; 83 Temporary Trace: QUALIFIED; 83
Dual T1 Module 251

GR-303 Analysis-View/Print Record continued Temporary Trace: TOTAL RECORDS; 83 Temporary Trace: VIEW FROM/VIEW TO; 83 TMC Statistics; 89 View a Trace; 88 H HDSL Span Control Network Loopback Screen STATUS; 23, 26 TIME; 23, 26 HDSL Span Control- Conguration # OF DOUBLERS; 22 ACCESS PT; 22 INTEGRATED HTU-R/NIU; 22 PROFILE ADTRAN; 22, 26 PARGAIN; 22, 26 SONEPLX; 22 HDSL Span Query PROFILE; 26 QUERY FROM; 27 TYPE; 26 I Intelligent NE Control (Repeaters) Conguration RPTR MODEL: 31xx-56, 31xx-80, TELTRND; 29 RPTR NO; 29 RPTR TYPE: LNRPTR, OFFRPTR; 29 SPAN CTRL: Options; 29 Screen: TIME, STATUS, SPAN; 28 SPAN CTRL (Commands) ARM-DLK/ARM-INB; 30 CLR-FT1; 31 DUAL-LB; 31 LOOP-DN; 30 LOOP-UP; 30 LPBKQRY; 31 POWR-DN; 31 PWCUTTH; 31 PWRQRY; 31 SEQLPBK; 31 TOUTDIS; 31 UNARMDL; 30 UNBLOCK; 31 UNIVLDN; 30 Teltrend; 28 Westell; 28 ISDN Primary Rate

252

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Call Set Up Screen B CHANNEL: 1-23, AUTO; 97 B CHNL LINE: LINE1, LINE2; 97 CALL TYPE: SPEECH, DATA-64, Nx64, 3.1K, DATA-56; 96 DIAL NUMBER; 97 TEST PATTERN; 96 Conguration Screen LINE TYPE: TI23BD, T146B2D, T147BD; 93 MODE: TE, NT, MONITOR; 93 MY PHONE NUMBER; 94 PROTOCOL: NTI, NATL-2, AT&T; 93 RX LEVEL: TERM, BRIDGE, MONITOR; 93 SIGNALLING T/S; 94 TX CLOCK: INTER, L1-RX, L2-Rx; 94 Protocol Analysis- Live Tracer C/R; 101 Date; 101 FILTER; 101 L1/L2; 101 L2 MSG TYPE; 102 L3 MSG TYPE; 102 Message number; 101 SAPI; 102 TEI; 102 Protocol Analysis-Backup D Channel Test D-CHANNEL NO; 110 INTERFACE ID; 110 Protocol Analysis-BERT G.821 BERT and Results Screen; 109 Status Screen; 108 Protocol Analysis-Filter CALLED #; 99 CALLING #; 99 CALLREF; 100 FILTER STATUS; 98 LAYER 1; 99 LAYER 2; 99 LAYER 3; 99 MSG TYPE; 100 SAPI; 99 TEI; 99 Protocol Analysis-Other Parameters AUTO ANSWER MODE; 112 L1 INTERFACE ID, L2 INTERFACE ID; 111 Layer 2 TEI; 111 Line 1 D chnl, Line 2 D chnl; 111 NSF Code; 112
Dual T1 Module 253

ISDN Primary Rate-Protocol Analysis continued NSF TYPE: SERVICE, FEATURE, TABLE; 112 Protocol Analysis-Stored Messages Q.931 Cause Values; 107 Stored Traces; 107 Temporary Buffer-C/R; 105 Temporary Buffer-CALLREFL; 105 Temporary Buffer-CALLREFV; 105 Temporary Buffer-FROM MSG; 103 Temporary Buffer-InfoElem; 105 Temporary Buffer-L2 MSG TYPE; 105 Temporary Buffer-L3 MSG TYPE; 105 Temporary Buffer-P/F; 105 Temporary Buffer-SAPI; 105 Temporary Buffer-TO MSG; 103 Temporary Buffer-TOTAL MSG; 103 L LEDs AIS; 8 ALARM; 8 BIT ERR; 8 BPV/CODE; 9 ERRORS; 9 FRAME; 7 MODULE (SSMTT) or xDSL (SSxDSL); 7 PAT SYNC; 8 SIGNAL (SSMTT) or T1/E1 SIG (SSxDSL); 7 M MEAS Conguration MEAS DURATION; 169 PRINT EVENT; 170 PRINT RESULT; 170 Measurement Results Alarm Screen %AS; 43 AISS; 42 AS; 43 EXZS; 43 LDNS; 43 LOFS; 43 LOSS; 43 UAS; 43 YELS; 43 ESF-CRC-6 Screen %AS; 46 %ES; 46 %SES; 46 %UAS; 46

254

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Measurement Results-ESF-CRC-6 Screen continued AS; 46 CER; 46 CRC; 46 CURCRC; 46 ES; 46 SES; 46 UAS; 46 Frame Screen %AS; 45 %ES; 45 %SES; 45 %UAS; 45 AS; 45 CUFER; 45 ES; 45 FE; 44 FER; 45 FSLIP; 45 LOFS; 45 OOFS; 44 SES; 45 UAS; 45 Frequency Screen +WANDER; 47 -WANDER; 47 CLKSLIP; 47 FSLIP; 47 MAX/Hz; 47 MIN/Hz; 47 RCV/Hz; 47 REFCLCK; 47 G.821/Logic Screen %EFS; 48 %ES; 48 %SES; 48 AS; 48 BER; 48 BIT; 48 CURBER; 48 DGRM; 48 EFS; 48 ES; 48 SES; 48 SYLS; 49 UAS; 49 Line/BPV Screen %AS; 41
Dual T1 Module 255

Measurement Results continued %DGRM; 41 %ES; 40 %SES; 40 %UAS; 41 AS; 40 BER; 40 BPV; 39 CURBER; 40 DGRM; 40 ES; 40 SES; 40 UAS; 40 Signal Screen %AS; 42 %UAS; 42 +LVL; 41 -LVL; 41 AS; 41 FREQ; 42 Lpp; 41 UAS; 42 VPK; 42 Summary Screen BERT UAS; 39 BPV; 38 BPV UAS; 39 FREQ; 39 LOF; 38 LOSS; 38 Lpp; 39 UAS; 38 Measurements Duration of; 169 Start; 170 Menu Tree; 10 N Network loopback ACTION; 24 TYPE; 24 O Other Features Menu Error Injection Screen COUNT; 172 MODE: BURST, RATE; 171 RATE; 172 TYPE: FBE, CRC, BPV, BIT, BIT +BPV; 171
256 SSxDSL-8

Other Features Menu-Error Injection Screencontinued MEAS Conguration Screen PRINT EVENT; 170 View Test Record Screen Deleting a Record; 173 Labeling; 174 Locking/Unlocking; 173 Printing a Record; 174 P Propagation Delay; 63 Pulse Mask Analysis Screen; 51 Q Quick Test I & II; 59 S SRAM Card Utility; 155 SS7 Analysis Capture Trace; 130 Viewing a Trace; 134 Conguration Screen OPC/DPC DISP: HEX, DECIMAL; 113 SIGNALING TIME SLOT; 113 SS7 VERSION: ANSI, ITU, CHINA24, CHINA14; 113 TRUNK RATE; 113 Filter Setup DPC; 115 Layer 1; 114 Layer 2; 114 Layer 3; 115 OPC; 115 SI: ISUP Options: ADDR NUMB; 118 SI: ISUP Options: ADDR SGNL; 118 SI: ISUP Options: CIC; 118 SI: ISUP Options: MESG TYPE; 118 SI: ISUP Options: SLS; 118 SI: NONE, TUP, ISUP, SNM, SNT, SCCP; 115 SI: SCCP Message Types; 123 SI: SCCP Options: ADDR NUMB; 124 SI: SCCP Options: ADDR SGNL; 123 SI: SCCP Options: INVOKE ID; 125 SI: SCCP Options: MSG TYPE; 123 SI: SCCP Options: SIG PT CODE; 124 SI: SCCP Options: SLS; 123 SI: SCCP Options: SSN; 124 SI: SCCP Options: TCAP DTID; 124 SI: SCCP Options: TCAP OTID; 124 SI: SNM Head Codes; 121 SI: SNM Options: HEAD CODE; 120
Dual T1 Module 257

SS7 Analysis-Filter Setup continued SI: SNM Options: SLS; 120 SI: SNT Options: HEAD CODE; 122 SI: SNT Options: SLS; 122 SI: Supported SS7 Messages; 129 SI: TUP Heading Codes; 117 SI: TUP Options: ADDR NUMB; 116 SI: TUP Options: ADDR SGNL; 116 SI: TUP Options: CIC; 116 SI: TUP Options: HEAD CODE; 116 Temporary Trace; 131 View Trace; 131 T T1 Conguration CODING AMI; 13 B8ZS; 13 FRAMING AUTO; 13 ESF; 12 SF-D4; 12 SLC-96; 12 UNFRAME; 12 LBO 1 -7.5 dB, -15 dB, or -22.5 dB; 15 0 dB; 15 LED PANEL LINE 1; 17 LINE 2; 17 Rx/DROP L1-RX; 16 L2-RX; 16 RxLVL-1 BRIDGE; 12 MONITOR; 12 RxLVL-1 & -2 BRIDGE; 17 MONITOR; 17 TERM; 17 TEST RATE 1.544M; 15 AUTO; 15 Nx56K; 15 Nx64K; 15 Timeslot Selection; 14 Tx CLOCK INTERN; 13
258 SSxDSL-8

T1 Conguration continued RX-1; 13 RX-2; 13 Tx SOURCE PATTERN; 14 THRU; 14 Tx/INSERT L1-TX; 16 L2-TX; 16 T1 Technology Addressing; 229 AIS and Yellow Alarm; 237 AIS and Yellow Alarms; 230 Bipolar Violations and Loss of Signal; 236 DS1 Network Elements; 221 DS1 Signal; 224 End-to-End Performance Monitoring; 232 Fault Sectionalization; 235 FEBE or ESF PRM Errors; 238 Frame Bit, Bit, CRC-6, and C-Bit Parity Errors; 236 Loopbacks; 231 PCM; 226 SF Framing; 225 SONET; 223 Supervision; 229 Switching; 227 Synchronization; 228 T1 Framing; 225 T1 Services; 221 T1 Usage; 221 Tables 01 In-Band Network Codes; 19 02 T1.403 Network Codes; 19 03 DDS Control Codes; 56 04 Bridge Tap Test Patterns; 58 05 Cause Values; 78 06 SAPI & TEI Datalink Values; 80 07 Q.931 Cause Values; 107 08 TUP Heading Codes; 117 09 ISUP Message Types; 119 10 SNM Head Codes; 121 11 SCCP Message Types; 123 12 Supported SS7 Messages; 129 13 Select ESF Data Link BPM Codewords; 162 14 Channel Numbering; 191 15 D4 Channel Bank Signaling; 198 Test Patterns, Standard 1 IN 16; 33
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1 IN 4; 33 1 IN 8; 33 2047; 33 2e15; 33 2e20; 34 2e23; 34 3 IN 24; 33 511, 127, 63; 33 55DLY; 33 55OCT; 33 ALL0; 34 ALL1; 34 ALT10; 34 FOX; 32 IDLE; 34 QRSS; 32 YELLOW; 34 Test Patterns, User Dened Editing; 35 Entering; 34 Sending; 35 Viewing; 35 Troubleshooting and Calibration; 239 V VF Measurements Call Analysis Example; 73 Call Analysis Screen AUTO SCAN; 72 DIAL TYPE: MF, DTMF, DP; 72 RX-1 CH; 73 RX-2 CH; 73 TEST MODE: TX1/RX1, RX1/RX2; 72 Tx SPRVSN: ON/OFF, ON/WINK, MANUAL; 72 TX-1 CH; 73 Conguration Screen Received Data: Rx1 LVL; 66 Received Data: Rx1ABCD; 66 Received Data: Rx1DATA; 66 Received Data: Rx1FREQ; 66 Received Data: Rx2ABCD; 66 Rx1LSTN: OFF, SPEAKER, HANDSET; 66 Rx2CHAN; 66 Rx2LSTN: OFF, SPEAKER, HANDSET; 66 RxDROP: Rx-1, Rx-2; 66 Tx LVL: -60 to 3dBm; 65 Tx/INSERT: Tx-1, Tx-2; 64 TxABCD: ON-HOOK, OFFHOOK, FLASH/WINK; 65
260 SSxDSL-8

VF Measurements-Conguration Screen continued TxCHAN; 64 TxFREQ: 50-3950 Hz; 65 TxMODE: TALK, TONE, QUIET; 65 Dial/Supervision Setup Screen % BREAK: 40%, 50%, 60%; 69 BKWRD SPRVISION; 69 DIAL PERIOD: 30-999 ms; 68 DIAL PULSE (10 pps); 69 DIAL TYPE: EN-BLK, OVR-LP; 68 EQUIPMENT: FXO, FXS; 69 IDLE SPRVISION; 69 INTERDIGIT PRD: 100-900; 69 SILENT PERIOD: 30-999 ms; 68 TONE LEVEL dbm: -25 to -5; 69 TRUNK TYPE: E&M, G-START, L-START, USER; 69 Noise Measurement; 74 Place/Receive Calls Screen METHOD: MF, DTMF, DP; 70 NUMBER; 71 RxABCD; 71 RxCHNL: NEXT, PREV, SCAN; 71 TX ABCD: ON-HOOK, OFFHOOK, WINK/FLASH; 71 TxCHNL: NEXT, PREV, SCAN; 71 View Supervision Screen; 67 View Received Data Screen ASCII; 51 BINARY; 50 HEX; 51 PAGE; 50 T/S; 50

Dual T1 Module

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