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MAN-22412-US001 Rev.

C00

Optical Test Toolkit Module for the MTT and xDSL Family of Products

Users Manual SSMTT-33M

302 Enzo Drive San Jose, CA 95138


Optical Test Toolkit Module

Tel: 1-408-363-8000 Fax: 1-408-363-8313

Warning Using the supplied equipment in a manner not specied by Sunrise Telecom may impair the protection provided by the equipment. CAUTIONS!
Do not remove or insert the module while the test set is on. Inserting or removing a module with the power on may damage the module. Do not remove or insert the software cartridge while the test set is on. Otherwise, damage could occur to the cartridge.

End of Life Recycling and Disposal Information DO NOT dispose of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) as unsorted municipal waste. For proper disposal return the product to Sunrise Telecom. Please contact our local ofces or service centers for information on how to arrange the return and recycling of any of our products. EC Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive aims to minimize the impact of the disposal of electrical and electronic equipment on the environment. It encourages and sets criteria for the collection, treatment, recycling, recovery, and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

2010 Sunrise Telecom Incorporated. All rights reserved. Disclaimer: Contents subject to change without notice and are not guaranteed for accuracy.
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Optical Test Toolkit Module Table of Contents


1 Optical Test Toolkit Module. ................................................5 1.1 Module Panel. .....................................................................5 1.2 Test Set LEDs.....................................................................5 2 Menus...................................................................................6 2.1 Light Source.......................................................................7 2.2 Optical Power Meter...........................................................8 2.3 Insertion Loss...................................................................12 2.3.1 Set Source. ....................................................................12 2.3.2 Referencing...................................................................13 2.3.3 Loss Measurement........................................................15 2.4 Optical Return Loss..........................................................17 2.4.1 Set Source. ....................................................................17 2.4.2 Referencing...................................................................17 2.4.3 Loss Measurement........................................................17 2.5 Visual Fault Locator..........................................................20 2.6 View/Store/Print................................................................21 2.6.1 Saving a Test.................................................................22 2.6.2 Viewing a Stored Test....................................................22 2.6.3 Printing a Stored Test....................................................22 2.6.4 Deleting a Stored Test...................................................22 2.6.5 Locking & Unlocking a Stored Test................................22 2.6.6 Renaming a Stored Test................................................23 3 Applications.......................................................................24 3.1 Fault Location and Cable ID.............................................24 3.2 LED Laser Source............................................................25 3.3 Loss Test (Power Meter + Laser Source).........................25 3.3.1 STT to MTT...................................................................25 3.3.2 MTT to MTT. ..................................................................25 3.3.3 Optical Return Loss Test...............................................26 4 Reference...........................................................................27 4.1 Handling of Optical Fiber..................................................27 4.2 Fiber Optic Connectors. ....................................................28 4.3 Cleaning Optical Fiber......................................................29 4.4 Eye Safety........................................................................29 4.5 Express Limited Warranty. ................................................30 Index........................................................................................31

Optical Test Toolkit Module

SSMTT-33

1 Optical Test Toolkit Module


To get the best use from your equipment and ensure its safe operation, please spend a few minutes to read this manual. 1.1 Module Panel
Source (APC) Port Power Meter Port VFL Port

Protective Caps

Figure 1 Module Connector Panel The module can incorporate the following optical ports, depending on the purchased hardware configuration: Power Meter Port: This port is used for power meter testing. Source (APC) Port: This port is used for laser source and optical loss testing. VFL Port: This port is used for the Visual Fault Locator. The ports shown in Figure 1 come standard with type FC connectors. The module can be ordered with other connectors. Please discuss this with your local Sunrise Telecom distributor. 1.2 Test Set LEDs The module uses the following test set LEDs. MODULE: Indicates that the test set is in module mode. SIGNAL: When a threshold is set, this indicates that the measurement is within that set threshold by a green LED. ERRORS: When a threshold is set, this LED is red to indicate that the measurement has gone outside of the set thresholds. If the signal returns within the set thresholds after going outside the thresholds the LED flashes red. Press HISTORY to clear.
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2 Menus

Press the MODULE key to access the Optical Test Toolkit Main Menu. The menu tree shown in Figure 2 outlines functions of this module.

MODULE KEY

OPTICAL LOSS TEST TOOLKIT MAIN MENU LIGHT SOURCE sec 2.1 OPTICAL POWER METER sec 2.2 INSERTION LOSS sec 2.3 OPTICAL RETURN LOSS sec 2.4 VISUAL FAULT LOCATOR sec 2.5 VIEW/STORE/PRINT sec 2.6

INSERTION LOSS SET SOURCE sec 2.3.1 REFERENCING sec 2.3.2 LOSS MEASUREMENT sec 2.3.3

OPTICAL RETURN LOSS SET SOURCE sec 2.4.1 REFERENCING sec 2.4.2 LOSS MEASUREMENT sec 2.4.3

Figure 2 Menu Tree for the SSMTT-33LTS and -33LTSP Note that the SSMTT-33LS functions only as a light source, hence only Section 2.1 of this manual applies to its use.

SSMTT-33

2.1 Light Source Set up the light source for the module. Refer to Figure 3.
11:50:45 > >ET 000:00:00 < ST 11:50:45<
Laser 11:53:45 >LIGHT SOURCE IS ON < >ET 000:03:00 ST 11:50:45<

LIGHT SOURCE WAVELENGTH : TX LEVEL : MODULATION FREQ: AUTO SHUT-OFF : 1550 -5.50 CW OFF nm dBm min

LIGHT SOURCE WAVELENGTH : TX LEVEL : MODULATION FREQ: AUTO SHUT-OFF : 1550 -5.50 CW OFF nm dBm min

1310

1550

START

1310

1550

START

Laser Off

Laser On

Figure 3 Light Source Screen Figure 3 shows the screen with the Laser off on the left, after pushing START (F3 or F4) the screen changes as shown on the right of Figure 3. The following items appear in this screen: WAVELENGTH Options: 1310, 1550, 850, 1490, 1625 (options presented depend on hardware configuration) Select the desired wavelength. TX LEVEL Options: SSMTT-33LS; 0 through -10, default 0. -33LTS; -2.5 through 10, default -2.5. -33LTSP; -5.50 through -10.00, default -5.50. Change the transmit level by pushing and holding either (decrement) DEC (F2) or (increment) INC (F4). You may also press DEFAULT (F1). You also can enter the TX LEVEL by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. MODULATION FREQ Options: 270 (F1), 1000 (F2), 2000 (more, F1), CW (more, F2) Choose your output modulation frequency. AUTO SHUT-OFF Options: OFF through 15 minutes Choose to automatically turn off the laser. This can be set in 1 minute increments by pressing (decrement) DEC (F2) or (increment) INC (F4). Press DEC until OFF is displayed and the feature is disabled. Once START is pressed, the Elapsed Time (ET) counter starts to count and the Start Time (ST) is displayed. The ET counter stops once the set time is reached or until STOP is pressed. Pressing START resets the ET counter to zero and resets the ST to the current start time.
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2.2 Optical Power Meter


11:50:45 > >ET 000:01:00

< ST 11:49:45<

OPTICAL POWER METER MEASUREMENT MODE: WAVELENGTH : MAX / MIN : THRESHOLD : UNIT : REFERENCE: BASIC 1550 nm ON OFF dB R 0.00 dBm

-7.66
MAX: -7.70 DARK C BASIC

dB R
MIN: < -70 STORE

Figure 4 Optical Power Meter Screen Use this screen to set up the Optical Power Meter measurement parameters and to perform measurements. Note that measurement starts as soon as HW CONFIGURE... disappears, at that point ET (Elapsed Time) starts and ST (Start Time) is recorded. The measurement is displayed under the UNIT line. At any time press STORE (F4) to record your measurement. For details on storing, refer to Section 2.6. The following items are found in Figure 4: MEASUREMENT MODE Options: DARK C (F1), BASIC (F2) default, PON (F3-only on SSMTT-33PON) DARK C: An accurate power level measurement relies on a sensitive photo diode. The power reading is related to the current generated by the photo diode. Even if there were no incident radiation emitted to the photo diode, the photo diode would still have a current output. This is caused by thermal noise and is called dark current. Dark current is sensitive to temperature of the environment and, as a result, will affect the power level reading. To get accurate power level measurements in varying temperature environments, you will need to calibrate the dark current before you make a power measurement. Calibrate the dark current by tightly capping the power meter port using the modules attached port caps. The dark current value will be measured, stored and used for the power measurement. The screen shown in Figure 5 allows you to calibrate for dark current. To perform the calibration:
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1. Cap the Power Meter Port with the attached cap. 2. Press DARK C (F1) and the screen shown in Figure 5 is displayed. In this screen observe the DARK CURRENT reading. When the reading is steady press SET (F4). The test set will now compensate for the dark current. Note that when you turn off the test set, the calibration is lost. 11:50:45 > Seal the PM Port Tightly > CALB DARK CURRENT DARK CURRENT

< <

0.09641

SET Figure 5 Calibrate Dark Current Screen 3. Press ESC to return to the screen shown in Figure 4. BASIC: This is the default measurement mode. If used, connect the fiber to the Power Meter Port PON: This simultaneously measures the 1490 and 1550 nm wavelengths. If used, connect the fiber to the PON Port. WAVELENGTH Options: 850, 1310, 1490, 1550, or 1625 (options presented depend on hardware configuration). Select the wavelength to measure by pressing PREV (F1) or NEXT (F2). MIN / MAX Options: ON (F1), OFF (F2) Choose whether to display the minimum and maximum received values since the start of the measurement. In Figure 4 this is set to ON and the measurement is display near the bottom of the screen at MAX and MIN.

Optical Test Toolkit Module

THRESHOLD Options: ON (F1), OFF (F2), SET (F3) ON: Enables the set threshold. OFF: Disables any set threshold. SET: Press to configure the thresholds used for your measurements. If pressed, the following screen is displayed: 11:50:45 THRESHOLD MODE : LED.TXT 5.00 -50.00 0.50 dBm dBm dBm

MAX POWER: MIN POWER: TOLERANCE:

LED

LED.TXT

SET

Figure 6 Threshold Conguration Screen Configure the following: MODE Options: LED (F1), LED.TXT (F2) Determine how you are notified about a threshold violation. Note that a ashing ERRORS LED indicates that a threshold violation has occurred, but is no longer present. Press HISTORY to clear. LED: This enables the ERRORS LED to indicate a threshold violation by illuminating red. LED.TXT: In addition to the ERRORS LED, you will see a onscreen notice about a threshold violation. Note: If configured for PON mode, two sets of the following settings for the 1490 and 1550 nm wavelengths are available. MAX POWER Set the Maximum Power by pressing DEC (F2) or INC (F3), change the sign by pressing +/- (F1). You also can change it by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad.

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MIN POWER Set the Minimum Power by pressing DEC (F2) or INC (F3), change the sign by pressing +/- (F1). You also can change it by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. TOLERANCE Set the tolerance for the MIN and MAX Power threshold settings in dBm. If the received power is in violation of a MAX/MIN setting, but within your tolerance setting, the test set will display MARG, but the ERRORS LED will be off. Change TOLERANCE by pushing and holding either (decrement) DEC (F2) or (increment) INC (F3). You also can change it by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. When done, press SET (F4) to return to the Optical Power Meter Screen shown in Figure 4. UNIT Options: dBm (F1), uW (F2), dB R (F3) Select the unit of measurement. dBm: This is an absolute decibel power measurement. uW: This measures power in microwatts. dB R: This is a relative decibel power measurement; power is measured with a reference to the set reference point. If used, an additional setting is displayed, REF. You will then need to enter a reference for your measurement. Note that the current measured power level can be set as a reference by pressing SET (F1) when the REFERENCE line is selected. When done, press ESC to return to the module main menu screen.

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2.3 Insertion Loss This menu screen contains the following items: SET SOURCE REFERENCING LOSS MEASUREMENT 2.3.1 Set Source Set the transmit level of the source for Referencing and/or Loss Measurement in the following screen: 11:50:45 > >ET 000:00:03

< ST 11:50:42<

SET SOURCE TX LEVEL : -2.50 dBm

DEFAULT

DEC

START

INC

Figure 7 Set Source Screen TX LEVEL Options: SSMTT-33LTS; -2.50 through -10.00, default -2.50. 33LTSP; -5.50 through -10.00, default -5.50 Change the transmit level by pushing and holding either (decrement) DEC (F2) or (increment) INC (F4). You may also press DEFAULT (F1). You also can enter the TX LEVEL by using SHIFT and the numeric keypad. You may press START (F3) in this screen to enter the optical insertion loss measurement screen. Note that doing so skips the Referencing step.

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2.3.2 Referencing This procedure allows the test set to account for the loss of the test setup, i.e., the patch cable used to connect to the circuit. It should be performed for both test sets used in the Insertion Loss test. 1. Using the patch cord you use for testing, connect the Source (APC) port to the Power Meter port as shown in Figure 8.

Power Meter Port

Optic cable used to connect to circuit. Source (APC) Port

Figure 8 Referencing Connections 2. Select INSERTION LOSS > REFERENCING and refer to Figure 9. 11:50:45 > < >ET 000:00:03 ST 11:50:42< REFERENCING 1310 POWER:
Note: A third wavelength (1490 nm) column may be displayed in this screen depending on your purchased options.

1550 -3.98

-3.94

CONNECT POWER METER PORT TO LASER SOURCE PORT SET START

Figure 9 Insertion Loss Referencing Screen


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3. Press START (F4) to begin transmitting the source and measuring power. 4. Press SET (F3) to save the reference result and go to the screen shown in Figure 11. Refer to Section 2.3.3 for details. 5. Disconnect the end of the patch cable that is connected to the Power Meter Port and connect it to the Fiber Under Test (FUT). Do so on both test sets. Note: If the test set is turned off, the reference result is lost. The screen shown in Figure 9 contains the following: ST: Start Time since pressing START (F4). ET: Elapsed Time since pressing START (F4). Note that both times are in HHH:MM:SS format. POWER: Reports the measured power level for each available wavelength.

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2.3.3 Loss Measurement This measurement requires two test sets connected together in Insertion Loss mode as in Figure 10; start the test at either end.

Fiber Under Test

Source (APC) Port Patch Cable

Connection Points Patch Cable Source (APC) Port (A) Near end

(B) Far end

Figure 10 Insertion Loss Connection 11:50:45 >CONNECTED < >ET 000:00:59 ST 11:49:44< INSERTION LOSS UNIT : dBm * 1310 A2B Tx: B Rx: LOSS: B2A Tx: A Rx: LOSS: dBm uW -3.91 -3.83 -0.08 -5.50 -5.59 0.10 STOP 1550 -4.00 -4.35 -0.32 -5.50 -5.73 0.23 STORE

Note: A third wavelength (1490 nm) column may be displayed in this screen depending on your purchased options.

Figure 11 Insertion Loss Measurement Screen This screen contains the following: UNIT Options: dBm (F1), uW (F2) Select your measure mode dBm or uW.
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At any time press F3 to start measuring, press again to stop. During the measurement you may store the measurement by pressing F4. Refer to Section 2.6 for details. After pressing START (F3) the following information is presented for different wavelengths. Press STOP (F3) to halt measuring. A2B Tx: Near-to-far transmit power level. B Rx: Power level received from the far end. LOSS: Power loss from near to far end. B2A Tx: Far-to-near transmit power level. A Rx: Measured power from the near end. LOSS: Power loss from far to near end. Note: A = near-end, B = far-end

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SSMTT-33

2.4 Optical Return Loss The Optical Return Loss menu screen contains the following items: SET SOURCE REFERENCING LOSS MEASUREMENT 2.4.1 Set Source Refer to Section 2.3.1. 2.4.2 Referencing Refer to Section 2.3.2. 2.4.3 Loss Measurement This procedure can be accomplished as a one-way test or as a two-way test. The one-way test is available in the SSMTT-33LTS and the SSMTT-33LTSP, the two-way test is only available in the SSMTT-33LTSP.
Transmitted Signal Source (APC) Port Received Signal

Connector, defect, or break in the line. One-way Test Source (APC) Port

Source (APC) Port

(A) Near End

(B) Far End

Two-way Test

Far end test set provides termination.

Figure 12 Optical Return Loss Connection


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Notes: A third wavelength (1490 nm) column may be displayed in this screen depending on your purchased options. MEASUREMENT MODE is only available for the SSMTT-33LTSP

Laser 11:50:45 > Fiber should be terminated. < >ET 000:00:03 ST 11:50:42< OPTICAL RETURN LOSS

MEASUREMENT MODE:1-WAY UNIT : dBm 1310 1550 -19.36 -19.35

POWER

ORL dBm

: uW

15.27

15.54 MORE

STOP

RefZero Rst Ref

STOP

MORE

STORE

STOP

MORE

Figure 13 Optical Return Loss Measurement Screen This screen contains the following: MEASUREMENT MODE Options: 1-WAY (F1), 2-WAY (F2) Choose either a 1-way or a 2-way test setup, as shown in Figure 12. The SSMTT-33LTS does not have this setting, it is fixed at 1-way. UNIT Options: dBm (F1), uW ( F3), RefZero (MORE, F1), Rst Ref (MORE, F2) Select your measure mode dBm or uW. Press START (F3) to begin measuring. RefZero: Zero out the current ORL value and use it as a reference point. Refer to Figure 14. Rst Ref: Removes the current RefZero and resets the RefZero value. During the measurement you may store it by pressing STORE (MORE, F2). Refer to Section 2.6 for details. The following is reported in this screen: POWER: Return (reflected) power. ORL: Optical Return Loss value.
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When RefZero (MORE, F1) is pressed the RefZero values are then displayed.

Patch Cable

A Connection to FUT B Termination D C


Note: Perform the DarkC calibration to your test set and perform the Referencing procedure to your patch cable before you perform this test. 1. Apply termination at point B and start the Optical Return Loss (ORL) measurement. 2. Set RefZero to zero out ORL between points A and B. 3. Remove termination at point B and apply the termination at point C, right after component D. 4. The measured ORL is the ORL caused by component D.

Figure 14 Measuring ORL of a Network Component

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2.5 Visual Fault Locator The Visual Fault Locator works by transmitting a visible light signal at 650 nm. The signal can be set to Continuous Wave (CW) mode or modulated at 2 Hz. At a fault, visible light appears. It works best over distances of less than 1 km but can have a range of up to 5 km. Use the following screen to set up the light signal. 11:50:45 VFL

VISUAL FAULT LOCATOR MODULATION FREQ

CONTINUOUS WAVE
2 Hz CW STOP

Figure 15 Visual Fault Location Screen The screen contains one item to congure, it is: MODULATION FREQ Option: 2 Hz (F1), CW (F2) Select either a 2 Hz (on/off pulse) or a Continuous Wave (always on) signal. When ready press START (F3) to turn on the light source. Press STOP (F3) to turn off the light source. VFL indicates that the Visible Frequency Laser is active.

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2.6 View/Store/Print You may store up to 50 different results to view or print at a later time. To store results, use the procedure in Section 2.6.1. 11:50:45 VIEW/STORE/PRINT Free space: 160 Kbyte NAME TYPE LOCK 1. OPM 010815_12:21 OLTS 2. RL 010818_10:27 OLTS 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. VIEW PRINT more

RENAME

UN/LOCK

DELETE

more

Figure 16 View/Store/Print File Selection Screen The following F-keys are available in this screen. VIEW (F1): Allows viewing of a selected file, see Section 2.6.2. PRINT (F3): Allows printing of a selected file, see Section 2.6.3. RENAME (more, F1): Allows renaming a selected file, see Section 2.6.6. UN/LOCK (more, F2): Allows locking and unlocking a file, see Section 2.6.5. DELETE (more, F3): Allows deleting a file, unless locked, see Section 2.6.4.

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2.6.1 Saving a Test 1. From any screen with a STORE F-key, press it and the record is stored. The lename is based on the type of test, date, and time of day. 2.6.2 Viewing a Stored Test 1. From the OPTICAL TEST TOOLKIT main menu, select VIEW/ STORE/PRINT. 2. Select the desired file with the keypad up/down cursor keys. 3. Press VIEW (F1) and the stored result will appear. 4. Use the keypad up/down cursor keys to scroll through the available screens. 5. When finished, press ESC to return to the VIEW/STORE/ PRINT screen. 2.6.3 Printing a Stored Test 1. Connect a SunSet printer to the serial port of the test set. For other types of printers or for more information, refer to the Storing and Printing chapter in the test set users manual. 2. From OPTICAL TEST TOOLKIT main menu, select VIEW/ STORE/PRINT. 3. Select the desired file with the keypad up/down cursor keys. 4. Press PRINT (F3) and the file will begin printing. 5. When finished, press ESC to return to the VIEW/STORE/ PRINT screen. 2.6.4 Deleting a Stored Test 1. From the OPTICAL TEST TOOLKIT main menu, select VIEW/ STORE/PRINT. 2. Select the desired file with the keypad up/down cursor keys. 3. Press DELETE (more, F3) and the le is deleted (if it is unlocked). 2.6.5 Locking & Unlocking a Stored Test 1. From the OPTICAL TEST TOOLKIT main menu, select VIEW/ STORE/PRINT. 2. Select the desired file with the keypad up/down cursor keys. 3. Press UN/LOCK (more, F2) and the file is locked or unlocked as indicated to the right of the le name. Refer to the lock icon shown in Figure 16.

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2.6.6 Renaming a Stored Test 1. From the OPTICAL TEST TOOLKIT main menu, select VIEW/ STORE/PRINT. 2. Select the desired file using the keypad up/down cursor keys. A. Press UN/LOCK (more, F2) if the file is locked. 3. Press RENAME (more, F2) and a character screen is displayed like in Figure 17. 11:50:45 VIEW/STORE/PRINT FILENAME: RL A g N t # a H n U / @ B h O u 0 _ b I o V 1 . C i P v 2 ! c J p W 3 ? 010818_10:27 D j Q w 4 $ d K q X 5 % E k R x 6 & e L r Y 7 + F l S y 8 f M s Z 9 G m T z *

INSERT

DELETE

INPUT

SAVE

INSERT

DELETE

STOP

SAVE

Figure 17 Character Input Screen 4. Press INPUT (F3). Note that the A character is highlighted and the INPUT F-key has changed to STOP. 5. Use the keypad cursor keys to move the cursor to the desired character. 6. Press ENTER to place the desired character in the FILENAME line. Continue this process until the name is complete.You may enter up to 15 characters. If you make a mistake in the entry: A. Press STOP (F3). B. Move the FILENAME cursor to the incorrect character. C. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or, press INSERT (F1) to insert a character. D. Press INPUT (F3) to select a character. Press ENTER to insert the new character to the left of the cursor. 7. Press SAVE (F4) to save and return to the View/Store/Print screen shown in Figure 16.
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3 Applications
The insertion loss and optical return loss features of this module are handy economical tools for analyzing the physical plant equipment and systems during design, installation, maintenance, and troubleshooting phases of optical fiber networks. 3.1 Fault Location and Cable ID The module can emit visible laser light (Class 2), which can be used for locating macrobends and broken bers that may occur within the OTDR dead zone. This laser indicates the physical location of faults with red light. It can also be used for fiber identification and checking for connector scratches. It works best at distances of less than 1 km but can be usable up to 5 km.

Detect breaks in OTDR dead zone

Highlight sharp bends where losses occur

Mechanical/fusion splice optimization

Connector surface scratch detection

Defective connector detection

End-to-end fiber identification in multifiber cables

Figure 18 Fault Locating and Cable ID


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3.2 LED Laser Source The module can be used as a light source in fiber network service verification. Supports switchable wavelengths of 850/1310, 1310/1550, and 1550/1625 nm. 3.3 Loss Test (Power Meter + Laser Source) 3.3.1 STT to MTT Using a Loss Test Module in both the STT and MTT, loss testing can be done. Bidirectional test results are displayed on both near end and far end testers.

Controller

Responder

Figure 19 STT to MTT 3.3.2 MTT to MTT Using a Loss Test Module in an MTT at each end, loss testing can be done. Bidirectional test results are displayed on both near end and far end testers.

Responder Controller

Figure 20 MTT to MTT

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3.3.3 Optical Return Loss Test Return loss is the total accumulated back reection passing through a particular point on a ber. Back reection reduces system performance by degrading transmitter stability and causes reflections in the fiber system, which introduces bit errors. The Optical Return Loss feature measures the cumulative link return loss and individual component reectance to detect ORL troubles in the system.

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4 Reference
4.1 Handling of Optical Fiber Proper handling of optical ber cables, connectors, and equipment is important in obtaining accurate measurements and preventing potential transmission problems. This section reviews proper handling procedures for optical ber. SC Connector Bulkhead Adaptor FC Connector Barrel Alignment Sleeve Key Key

Ferrule Figure 21 Optical Connectors and Adapters Fiber Optic Patch Cord Basics Fiber optic patch cords come in two categories: Single-mode, which are yellow and Multi-mode, which are orange. The terms single-mode and multi-mode describe physical transmission mechanisms of the ber and do not refer to the quality of the ber. Single-mode and multi-mode transmission equipment are not usually interconnected. Multi-mode is used for shorter transmission distance and in general is less expensive than single-mode. For testing and analysis purposes, single-mode and multi-mode may be mixed. Considering the fact that an optical ber is a strand of glass about the same diameter as a human hair, ber optic patch cords and connectors are remarkably durable. However, careful handling will ensure continued high performance and long life. Do not pull or kink patch cords, as the glass strand in the middle might become damaged or broken. Even if the fiber is not permanently damaged, a sharp bend will cause excessive signal loss. Fiber optic cables work by bending the light signal as it travels. But, the light can only tolerate so much bending. Keep patch cord bend radii to no less than an inch. Use specialized optical cable raceways and plenums whenever available. Never use tie wraps as you would with electrical cables.
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4.2 Fiber Optic Connectors Alignment Sleeve Ferrule of Connector B

Ferrule of Connector A Fiber

Alignment Sleeve Fiber

End Faces Touch

Figure 22 Cross-Sectional View of Connectors In the electrical world, female connectors are mated to male connectors. In the optical world, the connection mechanism is altogether different. Fiber optic connector systems are designed to align two fiber ends so that the light signal will pass between them; imagine trying to align two hairs end to end. Modern fiber optic connector systems solve this nearly impossible task. There are several types of optical connectors in use today. Figure 21 shows the two most popular, SC and FC. In this example, an SC to FC bulkhead adapter is used to connect the two fibers together. In Figure 22, a schematic of the connector cross section demonstrates the details of the connection mechanism. Ceramic ferrules on the connector ends are kept in alignment by a sleeve in the connector bulkhead adapter. The ber itself is mounted in the exact center of the ferrule. When the ferrules are aligned by the sleeve, so are the bers. Springs in the connector bodies provide consistent pressure so that the two connector end faces are assured to be in contact with each other. Since all tolerances must be kept extremely tight, it is amazing that the typical connector signal loss is usually less than a couple tenths of a dB. When using optical connectors, insert or remove the ferrule straight into the sleeve. Try to minimize wiggling the connector as this may loosen the tight fit between the ferrule and sleeve. For SC connectors, orient the prominent key on the connector body (Figure 21) with the slot in the bulkhead adapter. Push the connector until it clicks. To remove, pinch the connector body between your thumb and nger, and gently pull straight out. FC connectors require more care. Find the small key and orient it with the equally small slot in the threaded section of the bulkhead adapter. Even in Figure 21, this key is not very visible. Thread the outer barrel only lightly nger tight. Never use pliers! Over tightening the barrel will not improve signal transmission and could
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cause permanent damage. To remove, unthread the barrel, and gently pull straight out. Most problems with FC connectors are due to key misalignment. This is difficult to detect since even when the key is misaligned, the barrel can be threaded, which then hides the misaligned key. A hint is when the barrel only catches the first one or two threads. Also, the connector will not be completely seated in the bulkhead adapter. 4.3 Cleaning Optical Fiber Fiber optic connectors must be kept clean to ensure long life and to minimize transmission loss at the connection point. When not in use, always replace dust covers and caps to prevent deposits and films from airborne particles. A single dust particle caught between two connectors will cause significant signal loss. Even worse, dust particles can scratch the polished ber end, resulting in permanent damage. Do not touch the connector end or the ferrules, since this will leave an oily deposit from your fingers. Likewise, do not allow uncapped connectors to drop on the floor. Should a ber connector become dirty or exhibit high loss, carefully clean the entire ferrule and end face. Special lint-free pads should be used with isopropyl alcohol. Even though not very accessible, the end face in a bulkhead adapter on test equipment can be cleaned by using a special lint-free swab, again with isopropyl alcohol. In extreme cases, test equipment may require more thorough cleaning at the factory. Cotton, paper, or solvents should never be used for cleaning since they may leave behind particles or residues. Use a ber optic cleaning kit especially made for cleaning optical connectors, and follow the directions. Some kits come with canned air to blow any dust out of the bulkhead adapters. Be cautious, as canned air can do more harm than good if not used properly. Again, follow the directions that come with the kit. 4.4 Eye Safety It is good safety practice to never look directly into the end of a fiber or bulkhead adapter. You may be working with equipment that transmits at high power and are not eye-safe. For added safety, turn the laser off when not in use. In any case, the wavelengths used in telecommunications are not visible, so the presence of an optical signal cannot be determined by looking into the ber end. Summary Take care of your fiber. Always replace dust covers. Keep optical connectors clean and make a practice of not looking into ber ends.
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4.5 Express Limited Warranty This Sunrise Telecom product is warranted against defects in materials and workmanship during its warranty period. The warranty period for this product is contained in the warranty page on http://www.sunrisetelecom.com. Sunrise Telecom agrees to repair or replace any assembly or compo nent found to be defective under normal use during this period. The obligation under this warranty is limited solely to repairing or replacing the product that proves to be defective within the scope of the warranty when returned to the factory. This warranty does not apply under certain conditions, as set forth on the warranty page on http://www.sunrisetelecom.com. Please refer to the website for specific details. THIS IS A LIMITED WARRANTY AND THE ONLY WARRANTY MADE BY SUNRISE TELECOM. SUNRISE TELECOM MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTY, REPR SENTATION OR CONDITION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

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Index
A Applications LED/Laser Source; 25 Loss Test (Power Meter + Laser Source); 25 Optical Return Loss Test; 26 Visual Fault Locator; 24 C Cautions; 2 F Figures 01 Module Connector Panel; 5 02 Menu Tree for the SSMTT-33LTS and -33LTSP; 6 03 Light Source Screen; 7 04 Optical Power Meter Screen; 8 05 Calibrate Dark Current Screen; 9 06 Threshold Conguration Screen; 10 07 Set Source Screen; 12 08 Referencing Connections; 13 09 Insertion Loss Referencing Screen; 13 10 Insertion Loss Connection; 15 11 Insertion Loss Screen; 15 12 Optical Return Loss Connection; 17 13 Optical Return Loss Measurement Screen; 18 14 Measuring ORL of a Network Component; 19 15 Visual Fault Location Screens; 20 16 View/Store/Print File Selection Screen; 21 17 Character Input Screen; 23 18 Fault Locating and Cable ID; 24 19 STT to MTT; 25 20 MTT to MTT; 25 21 Optical Connectors and Adapters; 27 22 Cross-Sectional View of Connectors; 28 H Handling of Optical Fiber; 27 I Insertion Loss Measurement Screen A2B Tx; 16 A Rx; 16 B2A Tx; 16 B Rx; 16 LOSS; 16
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L LED/Laser Source Screen AUTO SHUT-OFF; 7 MODULATION FREQ; 7 TX LEVEL; 7 WAVELENGTH; 7 Loss Measurement Screen MEASUREMENT MODE 1-WAY; 18 2-WAY; 18 ORL; 18 POWER; 18 UNIT; 18 M Module Panel Ports Power Meter; 5 Source (APC); 5 type FC; 5 Visual Fault Locator; 5 O Optical Power Meter Screen BASIC; 9 DARK C; 8 MEASUREMENT MODE; 8 MIN / MAX; 9 THRESHOLD; 10 UNIT; 11 WAVELENGTH; 9 R Referencing; 13 S Set Source Screen TX LEVEL; 12 T Test Set LEDs ERRORS; 5 MODULE; 5 SIGNAL; 5 Threshold Conguration Screen MAX POWER; 10 MIN POWER; 11
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MODE LED; 10 LED.TXT; 10 TOLERANCE; 11 V View/Store/Print Screen Deleting a Stored Test; 22 Locking & Unlocking a Stored Test; 22 Printing a Stored Test; 22 Renaming a Stored Test; 23 Saving a Test; 22 Viewing a Stored Test; 22 Visual Fault Locator MODULATION FREQ; 20 W Warnings; 2 Warranty; 30

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