1. An Introduction to BHEL, Bhopal

2. Water Turbine 2.1 elton Turbine

2.2 !ranci" Turbine 2.# $aplan turbine

#. %al&e" #.1 Butter'l( %al&e #.2 Ball %al&e

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LMITED ,a" "et up in Bhopal in Au-u"t, 1./0, ,ith a &ie, to reach "el' "u''icienc( in indu"trial product" and po,er e1uip2ent". Thi" plan ,a" "etup in collaboration ,ith 34S AE5, +.$. 3ore plant" ,ere "etup at Tiruchi, H(derabad ,ith C6echo"lo&a7ian and So&iet +nion a""i"tance in 3a( 1./0, *ec. 1.0/, and 5an. 1.08 re"pecti&el(. Toda( B.H.E.L. ha" beco2e the lar-e"t en-ineerin- plant e2plo(in- o&er 9/::: e2plo(ee". It" head1uarter i" located at Ne, *elhi.

BHEL i" the lar-e"t en-ineerin- and 2anu'acturin- enterpri"e in India in the ener-(;related4in'ra"tructure "ector, toda(. BHEL,a" e"tabli"hed 2ore than

"o2e o' the be"t technolo-ie" 'ro2 leadinco2panie" in the .2/.ith a . The co2pan( ha" been earninpro'it" continuou"l( "ince 1. The hi-h le&el o' 1ualit( < reliabilit( o' it" product" i" due to the e2pha"i" on de"i-n. to-ether .82 and pa(in. reco-ni6ed trac7 record o' per'or2ance.88.81.ith technolo-ie" de&eloped in it" o. BHEL ha"= • In"talled e1uip2ent 'or o&er 1.ell. • Supplied o&er 2.er -eneration.::: 3W o' po.9: (ear" a-o.to international "tandard" b( ac1uirinand adaptin. u"herin. en-ineerin. a drea2 that ha" been 2ore than reali6ed . Capti&e and Indu"trial u"er".in the indi-enou" Hea&( Electrical E1uip2ent indu"tr( in India .n )<* centre". 'or +tilitie".80.::: 3%A tran"'or2er capacit( and other .and 2anu'acturin.::.di&idend" "ince 1.orld.

and O&er"ea" Bu"ine"". na2el( o. Alu2inu2.::: 72" )ail.or7 up to 9:: 7% >AC < *C? • Supplied o&er 2/. BHELA" operation" are or-ani"ed around three bu"ine"" "ector". includin. etroche2ical".a( net. Ce2ent plant". etc.e1uip2ent operatin. • Supplied Traction electric" and AC4*C loco" to po. • Supplied o&er one 2illion %al&e" to o.::: 3otor" . to be "en"iti&e to hi" need" and re"pond 1uic7l( to the chan-e" in the 2ar7et.in Tran"2i""ion < *i"tribution net. Thi" enable" BHEL to ha&e a "tron. Steel. !ertili6er. Tran"portation and )ene. Indu"tr( .er lant" and other Indu"trie". )e'inerie".er.Tran"2i""ion.ith *ri&e Control S("te2 to o.able Ener-( .or7.er pro@ect". .cu"to2er orientation.er o&er 12.

or7 culture and participati&e "t(le o' 2ana-e2ent all the"e ha&e en-endered de&elop2ent o' a co22itted and 2oti&ated . career plannin-.and retrainin-.to -i&e "hape to it" a"piration" and 'ul'ill the eBpectation" o' the countr( to beco2e a -lobal pla(er./:/ e2plo(ee". bench2ar7" in ter2" o' producti&it(. in hi" career.cla"" en-ineerin."ta7eholder &alue. 1ualit( and re"pon"i&ene"". co22itted to enhancin. a po"iti&e . E&er( e2plo(ee i" -i&en an e1ual opportunit( to de&elop hi2"el' and -ro.or7'orce "ettinne. Continuou" trainin. The co2pan( i" "tri&in.orld.BHELA" &i"ion i" to beco2e a . The -reate"t "tren-th o' BHEL i" it" hi-hl( "7illed and co22itted 9/.enterpri"e. .

ell.B.hen it" 'ir"t plant . The Co2pan(C" inherent 'inancial "tren-th" can be "een 'ro2 it" net .. Bhopal? BHEL i" the lar-e"t en-ineerin. The Co2pan(C" ca"h "urplu" .L.a" "et up in Bhopal u"herin.a" e"tabli"hed 2ore than 9/ (ear" a-o . o' B.reco-ni6ed trac7 record o' per'or2ance.orth.L= AN O%E)%IEW >BirdC" E(e &ie.ith a .E.H. BHEL .in the indi-enou" Hea&( Electrical E1uip2ent indu"tr( in India.E.H. a drea2 that ha" been 2ore than reali6ed .enterpri"e in India in the ener-( related4in'ra"tructure "ector toda(. *ebt E1uit( ratio and ca"h "urplu".and 2anu'acturin.

1D::1 certi'ication 'or . D "er&ice center" .er "ector re-ional center". 9 o. "("te2 and "er&ice" at co2petiti&e price". )ene.19::1 certi'ication 'or en&iron2ental 2ana-e2ent "("te2" and OHSAS. All the 2a@or unit"4di&i"ion" o' BHEL ha&e been a.ith "uitable product". 19 2anu'acturin. Teleco22unication.. BHEL ha" alread( attained ISO . BHEL cater" to core "ector o' Indian econo2( &i6. Tran"portation.ide net."tood o&er )" #D. Indu"tr(.er Feneration and Tran"2i""ion.arded ISO.di&i"ion". o.::1= 2::: &er"ion 1ualit( "tandard certi'ication 'or 1ualit( 2ana-e2ent.D:0 crore ca"h "urplu" a" on #1"t 3arch 2:1:.1D re-ional o''ice and a lar-e nu2ber" o' pro@ect "ite" "pread all o&er India and abroad enable the co2pan( to pro2ptl( "er&e it" cu"to2er and pro&ide the2 .::: and all the 2a@or unit"4di&i"ion" o' BHEL ha&e been up-raded to the late"t ISO. The .or7 o' BHEL A".al ener-( de'en"e etc. The *ebt E1uit( ratio o' the Co2pan( i" at :E.//.

3etro in $ol7ata are e1uipped ..occupational health and "a'et( 2ana-e2ent "("te2".di"tance" Hi-h &olta-e *irect Current >H%*C? "(" te2" are "upplied. INDUSTRY SECTOR: BHEL i" a 2a@or contributor o' e1uip2ent and "("te2" to indu"trie" li7e ce2ent.190 3W in co2pan( a" a-ain"t nil in 1. 'ertili6er". POWER SECTOR: Generation: o. nuclear and h(dro po. etc.er "ector co2pri"e" o' ther2al.er o&er lon.ide ran-e o' tran"2i""ion product" and "("te2" o' upto 9:: $% cla"". petroche2ical".er plant bu"ine"".a(" includin. re'iner(.ith BHELC" traction control e1uip2ent.0. The"e include hi-h &olta-e po.8:. .er and di"tributed tran"'or2er . Toda( BHEL "upplied "et" account 'or nearl( 098# 3W or 0DE o' the total in"talled capacit( o' . in"ulator etc. TRANSPORTATION: 3o"t o' the train" operated b( the India )ail. 'or econo2ic tran"2i""ion o' bul7 po. TRANSMISSION: BHEL al"o pro&ide" a .. capacitor.

ide. "olar po.ind.a( o' "2all. 2ediu2 and lar-e ".ater pu2p". ran-in.itchin.'ro2 the +SA to Ne. NATIONAL CUSTOMERS OF BHEL: • +N5AB STATE ELECT)ICITH BOA)*> SEB? • +TTA) )A*ESH STATE ELECT)ICITH BOA)*>+ SEB? • NATIONAL THE)3AL OWE) CO) O)ATION>NT C? • A OLO TH)ES . INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS: BHEL ha" o&er the (ear".er ba"ed . con&entional and rene. e"tabli"hed it" re'erence in o&er 0: countrie" .able "ource" o' ener-( include= . Gealand in the 'ar ea"t.electric -enerator. RENEWABLE ENERGY: Technolo-ie" that can be o''ered b( BHEL 'or it" eBploitin.non."("te2".TELECOMMUNICATION: BHEL al"o cater" to the teleco22unication "ector b( . li-htin.and heatin.orld."("te2".


and de&elop2ent o' ne. BHELA" co22it2ent to ad&ance2ent o' technolo-( i" re'lected in it" in&ol&e2ent in the de&elop2ent o' 'uturi"tic technolo-ie" li7e 'uel cell" and "uperconductin-enerator". product". BHEL la(" -reat e2pha"i" on the continuou" up-radation o' product" and related technolo-ie".TECHNOLOGICAL UPGRADATION AND RESEARCH " DEVELOPMENT: To re2ain co2petiti&e and 2eet cu"to2er"A eBpectation".1:. .the (ear 2:1:.11. 21E hi-her than the pre&iou" (ear. BHEL in&e"ted )". BHELA" in&e"t2ent in )<* i" a2on-"t the lar-e"t in the corporate "ector in India. *urin.:/: 3illion on )<* e''ort".

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: BHELA" Hu2an )e"ource *e&elop2ent In"titute >H)*I? ha" "7ill" in the area" o' 3ana-e2ent trainin-. %alue" Laborator(. and other 'unctional and beha&ioral area" o' 2ana-e2ent. Con"ultanc(. Hu2an )e"ource 2ana-e2ent.2ana-e2ent. Acti&it( ba"ed co"tin-. E2otional Intelli-ence. er'or2ance 2ana-e2ent.trainin.proce"" Laborator(.to pro'e""ional" in the 'ield o' Strate-ic 2ana-e2ent. O&er the (ear". Or-ani6ational *e&elop2ent and 3anpo. . Leader"hip *e&elop2ent.er lannin-. Contract 2ana-e2ent. )e"earch. Hu2an. ro@ect 2ana-e2ent. 3ar7etin. Trainer *e&elop2ent. Tea2 Buildin-. the in"titute ha" ac1uired pro'icienc( in i2partin.



or they must be fully submerged in the water flow. which limits the flow rate and head that can be harnessed. Theory of operation lowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner. History Water wheels have been used for thousands of years for industrial power. .1 ft. In reaction turbine pressure drop occurs in both fixed and moving blades. and the type of impeller selected. energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine Water turbines are divided into two groups$ reaction turbines and impulse turbines. the( are 2o"tl( u"ed 'or electric po. ft. Their main shortcoming is size.# head applications.th centur( and . The migration from water wheels to modern turbines took about one hundred years. &ewton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.ater turbine i" a rotar( en-ine that ta7e" ener-( 'ro2 2o&in. Water turbine" .ere de&eloped in the 1. creating a force on the blades. (ost water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are used in low ")*+m. !ince the runner is spinning.able ener-( "ource. the force acts through a distance "force acting through a distance is the definition of work#.er -eneration. Development occurred during the Industrial revolution.WATER TURBINE A . The( harne"" a clean and rene.ater. Reaction turbines %eaction turbines are acted on by water. No. The precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the supply pressure of water. In this way.ere .er prior to electrical -rid".idel( u"ed 'or indu"trial po.-.0-.# and medium "*+/*++m. which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure "or suction#. using scientific principles and methods.-. They also made extensive use of new materials and manufacturing methods developed at the time.

Impulse turbines are most often used in very high "5*++m. !ince the turbine is spinning. The 2et pushes on the turbine's curved blades which changes the direction of the flow. the water's pressure "potential energy# is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine.-. and the turbine doesn't re4uire housing for operation. &o pressure change occurs at the turbine blades.1 ft. the force acts through a distance "work# and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. 3rior to hitting the turbine blades. Bhopal . &ewton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines.Impulse turbines Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water 2et. The resulting change in momentum "impulse# causes a force on the turbine blades.# head applications T(pe" o' turbine" 2anu'actured at BHEL.

er lant Introduction:The 3elton wheel is an impulse turbine which is among the most efficient types of water turbines. When the water/2et contacts the bucket. 7lthough many variations of impulse turbines existed prior to 3elton's design.heel at Walchen"ee o. does work on the . In the process. and carried away much of the energy. and allowing for a very efficient turbine.</ turn. the water exerts pressure on the bucket and the water is decelerated as it does a . the direction of the water velocity changes to follow the contour of the bucket. &ozzles direct forceful streams of water against a series of spoon/shaped buckets mounted around the edge of a wheel. the water leaves the wheel with very little speed. Function: The water flows along the tangent to the path of the runner.PELTON WHEEL A""e2bl( o' a elton . This .impulse. as opposed to its weight like traditional overshot water wheel. and flows out the other side of the bucket at low velocity. they were less efficient than 3elton's design$ the water leaving these wheels typically still had high speed. 7s water flows into the bucket. 3elton's paddle geometry was designed so that when the rim runs at : the speed of the water 2et. The 3elton wheel extracts energy from the impulse "momentum# of moving water. the water's momentum is transferred to the turbine.9+s. extracting almost all of its energy. It was invented by 6ester 7llan 3elton in the 8.

thus allowing the water flow to continue uninterrupted. These small units are recommended for use with thirty meters or more of head. BHEL Bhopal manufacturing details and running projects:- . almost all of the available energy is extracted in the first stage of the hydraulic turbine. efficient momentum transfer of the fluid 2et to the turbine wheel. 7lso a comparable amount of pipe material is re4uired for each of the two sources. The smallest 3elton wheels are only a few inches across. one re4uiring a long thin pipe. in order to generate significant power levels. this allows the bucket to be emptied at the same rate it is filled. Depending on water flow and design. even though the two flows theoretically contain the same power. Therefore. thus splitting the water 2et in half "see photo#. or maximum power and efficiency. "see conservation of mass#. Thus. when the available water source has relatively high hydraulic head at low flow rates. There exist multi/ton 3elton wheels mounted on vertical oil pad bearings in hydroelectric plants. section#. Applications: 3elton wheels are the preferred turbine for hydro/power.Design %ules. The 3elton wheel is most efficient in high head applications "see the . unlike gas turbines that operate with compressible fluid. and the other a short wide pipe. and can be used to tap power from mountain streams having flows of a few gallons per minute.turbine. !ome of these systems utilize household plumbing fixtures for water delivery. This balances the side/load forces on the wheel. 3elton wheels have only one turbine stage. 3elton wheels operate best with heads from 8@ meters to 8. more power can be extracted from a water source with high/pressure and low/flow than from a source with low/pressure and high/flow. although there is no theoretical limit. >ecause water and most li4uids are nearly incompressible. =ften two buckets are mounted side/by/side. The largest units can be up to ?++ megawatts.. and helps to ensure smooth. 7 very small percentage of the water's original kinetic energy will still remain in the water$ however. the turbine system is designed such that the water/2et velocity is twice the velocity of the bucket. 3elton wheels are made in all sizes.++ meters.

L+R. o" Unit# 1. .5~300 200~1500 1000~5000 $rder# 'ommi##ioned %& 30 1501 MW ()) MW Large Pelton Turbine Project *+R+H.xmw 2 . 2H+2H+ M+L+!+ P/1+R+3 Rating (No. (mm 250 300 300 500 500 500 &00 %500 3&)0 3&)0 2&%0 20&0 2300 2&&5 $R%N&I" T'R(INE .H+R+*+TH/ 'HU1H+ T.115 2-)0 %-)% 1-&0 3-%0 2-%3 3-50 Hea! (m %&0 %%0 %35 &25 ))( %)0 102& "pee! (rpm Runner #ia.Pelton Turbine Unit Rating(MW) Head(m) Runner iameter(mm) !o.

7t the exit. The power output ranges from 8+ to 9@+(W. Application rancis turbines may be designed for a wide range of heads and flows. The turbine's exit tube is shaped to help decelerate the water flow and recover the pressure. The turbine is located between the high/ pressure water source and the low/pressure water exit. causing the runner to spin. water acts on cup/shaped runner features. This. giving up its energy. known as a runner.&ie. 7 casement is needed to contain the water flow. Aertical shaft may also be used for small size turbines. 6arge rancis turbines are individually designed for each site to operate at the highest possible efficiency. The speed range of the turbine is from . helps rancis and other inward/flow turbines harness water energy efficiently. along with their high efficiency. The guide vanes "or wicket gate# may be ad2ustable to allow efficient turbine operation for a range of water flow conditions. in addition to the water's pressure. has made them the most widely used turbine in the world. Buide vanes direct the water tangentially to the turbine wheel. leaving with no swirl and very little kinetic or potential energy. mini/ hydro excluded. imagine swinging a ball on a string around in a circle$ if the string is pulled short. and their output power varies from 2ust a few kilowatts up to one gigawatt.a( o' a !ranci" turbine rancis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. They operate in a head range of ten meters to six hundred and fifty meters and are primarily used for electrical power production. but normally they have horizontal shaft. the ball spins faster due to the conservation of angular momentum. or an analogy. further acting on the runner. (edium size and larger rancis turbines are most often arranged with a vertical shaft. usually at the base of a dam. Theory of operation The rancis turbine is a reaction turbine. This radial flow acts on the runner's vanes. itCs spinning radius decreases. cuta. The inlet is spiral shaped. rancis type units cover a head range from ?+ meters to 9++ meters. %unner diameters are between 8 and 8+ meters. which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine. This property.* to 8+++ rpm. typically over -+D.Side. . 7s the water moves through the runner.

.T .1&5 % . Rating (No. o" Unit# Large $rancis Turbines 5~300 30~&00 1000 ~ (500 $rder# 'ommi##ioned 100 12( 122%1 MW )115 MW Project 4H+R R+!5.( 3)50 300 5&50 115.R+ .xmw & .+6+R 1+L. where a reservoir is filled by the turbine "acting as a pump# during low power demand.135 ) .!+ . BHEL Bhopal manufacturing details and running projects:$rancis Turbine Unit Rating(MW) Head(m) Runner iameter(mm) !o. they may also be used for pumped storage.+6+R R+!6+!+ . (mm "piral Inlet (mm 2&00 5000 2%00 (000 20&0 3(30 300 %550 1&&.In addition to electrical production. and then reversed and used to generate power during peak demand.135 Hea! (m 320 "pee! (rpm Runner #ia.! .% 30(2 3(5 100 30% &0 350 .125 & .150 3 .

a" de&eloped in 1. It .1# b( the Au"trian pro'e""or %i7tor $aplan.ho co2bined auto2aticall( ad@u"ted propeller blade" . Theory of operation The Eaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine. The design combines radial and axial features. The Eaplan turbine was an evolution of the rancis turbine.rpm. Water is directed tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner.ater le&el. The head ranges from 8+/9+ meters and the output from @ to 8?+ (W. causing it to spin.ic7et -ate" to achie&e e''icienc( o&er a . The inlet is a scroll/shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate.to 1?. meters.ith auto2aticall( ad@u"ted . %unner diameters are between ? and . . which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy.hich ha" ad@u"table blade".t(pe .)%PL%N T'R(INE A Bonne&ille *a2 $aplan turbine a'ter 01 (ear" o' "er&ice The $aplan turbine i" a propeller. low/head power production.ide ran-e o' 'lo.ater turbine . Eaplan turbines are now widely used throughout the world in high/flow. . Its invention allowed efficient power production in low/head applications that was not possible with rancis turbines. The range of the turbine is from 9. and .

7 higher turbine location. They cover the lowest head hydro sites and are especially suited for high flow conditions. however. Aariable geometry of the wicket gate and turbine blades allows efficient operation for a range of flow conditions. but operate for decades. Discharge of oil into rivers is not permitted. but may be lower in very low head applications. a critical element of Eaplan design is to maintain a positive seal to prevent emission of oil into the waterway.The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic energy. manufacture and install. Fommercial products exist for producing several hundred watts from only a few feet of head. They are used in where the range of head is not large. typically over -+D. They are very expensive to design. but several other variations existG ropeller tur!ines have non/ad2ustable propeller vanes. Eaplan turbine efficiencies are typically over -+D. Inexpensive micro turbines on the Eaplan turbine model are manufactured for individual power production with as little as two feet of head. The resulting pressure drop may lead to cavitation. Furrent areas of research include F D driven efficiency improvements and new designs that raise survival rates of fish passing through. The turbine does not need to be at the lowest point of water flow as long as the draft tube remains full of water. Applications Eaplan turbines are widely used throughout the world for electrical power production. Variations The Eaplan turbine is the most widely used of the propeller/type turbines. >ecause the propeller blades are rotated by high/pressure hydraulic oil. increases the suction that is imparted on the turbine blades by the draft tube. 6arge Eaplan turbines are individually designed for each site to operate at the highest possible efficiency. 6arger propeller turbines produce more .

xmw 5 .% 1%3 13&. 7t the 6a Brande/8 generating station in northern Huebec. 8? propeller turbines generate 8*I.50 % . .% %(00 5&%0 51)2 %000 %000 .50 3 . Tubular turbines are a fully axial design.0 "pee! (rpm Runner #ia. Bul! or Tu!ular tur!ines are designed into the water delivery tube. wicket gate and runner.%0 Hea! (m 3&.(5 3 .) 20. whereas Eaplan turbines have a radial wicket gate.% 150 115. '+!+L U1+.0 25.0 %(. o" Unit# 2 ~150 10~)0 1200~)500 $rder# 'ommi##ioned 0( (2 22%3 MW 15(0 MW Large 1a7lan Turbine# Project . (mm "piral Inlet (mm &200 &500 (0)2 &)50 &500 13&.33 3 . $2R+ 1+ R+ T+!+1PUR Rating (No. BHEL Bhopal manufacturing details and running projects:)aplan Turbine Unit Rating(m8) Head(m) Runner iameter(mm) !o. 7 large bulb is centered in the water pipe which holds the generator. (W J8K.than 8++ (W.% 32.

=peration is similar to that of a ball valve. The closing mechanism takes the form of a disk. The . features a slight offset in the way the disc is . The valve may also be opened incrementally to throttle flow.T$%e& o' (a)(e& *an+'a. When the valve is fully open. 7 butterfly valve is from a family of valves called 4uarter/turn valves. %otating the actuator turns the disc either parallel or perpendicular to the flow. the disc is rotated a 4uarter turn so that it allows an almost unrestricted passage of the fluid.at BHEL:. has the lowest pressure rating. the disc is always present within the flow.t+re. each adapted for different pressures and different usage. <nlike a ball valve. >utterfly valves are generally favored because they are lower in cost to other valve designs as well as being lighter in weight. which allows for 4uick shut off. The resilient butterfly valve. is a metal disc mounted on a rod. therefore a pressure drop is always induced in the flow. There are different kinds of butterfly valves. The high performance butterfly valve. passing through the disc is a rod connected to an actuator on the outside of the valve. which uses the flexibility of rubber. the disc is turned so that it completely blocks off the passageway. The disc is positioned in the center of the pipe. meaning less support is re4uired. regardless of valve position. When the valve is closed. used in slightly higher/pressure systems. ('TTER$L* +%L+E Lar-e butter'l( &al&e 7 butterfly valve is a valve which can be used for isolating or regulating flow.butterfly.

Jclarification neededK and is therefore able to withstand a greater amount of pressure. 1500 ~ (000 20 ~ 300 Large (utter.R. such as front and rear suction ports and tank to pump lines.e #iameter (mm 5000 . used to make a fluid start or stop flowing through a section of pipe.+6+R .'4 210 L+TT. shutting off the flow.a:e oor 8it< .+al. The valve is similar in operation to a ball valve. which increases the valve's sealing ability and decreases its tendency to wear. including eccentric and high/performance valves.lo8 6uide.M4L+ +al. 7 butterfly valve can appear in various styles.( L4!. These are normally a type of valve that uses a flat plate to control the flow of water. Hea! (m %0..eal Latti:e oo Parallel . 7 butterfly valve is also a type of flow control device. R+!5.l.T . The valve best suited for high/pressure systems is the triple offset butterfly valve.e T-pe "i/e (mm Hea!(m 'on9entional . %otating the handle turns the plate either parallel or perpendicular to the flow of water.+.eal Latti:e oor ouble .L+M 5000 5300 10) L+TT.ingle .'4 #oor T-pe (rpm Project 2+L. which makes use of a metal seat.positioned.es 0ax.l.+al. 7s well as this. butterfly valves are used on firefighting apparatus and typically are used on larger lines. It is a very well/known and well used design. BHEL Bhopal manufacturing details and running projects:(utter. "tructure >utterfly valves are valves with a circular body and a rotary motion disk closure member which is pivotally supported by its stem.

o' a ball &al&e. through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve. #? *i"c >ball? 9? Handle >Le&er? /? Ste2 7 ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc.&al&e 2echani"2 "i2ple 2anual 1? Bod( 2? Seat Cuta. When the valve is closed. and flow is blocked. The handle or lever will be inline with the port position letting you .a( &ie. The ball valve. flow will occur.see.a( &ie. the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve. the valve's position.(%LL +%L+E Cut. or port. They do not offer . are part of the family of quarter turn valves.a. >all valves are durable and usually work to achieve perfect shutoff even after years of disuse. They are therefore an excellent choice for shutoff applications "and are often preferred to globe valves and gate valves for this purpose#. along with the butterfly valve and plug valve. the part of the valve which controls the flow through it. o' a ball. The sphere has a hole.

eal i#: T=7e .u77lied > 0( . !izes typically range from +.es T-pe "i/e (mm Pi#ton T=7e .7<eri:al *al9e .eal 500~%000 Hea!(m 200~1200 Total . >all valves are used extensively in industrial applications because they are very versatile. The body of ball valves may be made of metal. plastic or metal with a ceramic center.@ cm to *+ cm.the fine control that may be necessary in throttling applications but are sometimes used for this purpose. BHEL Bhopal manufacturing details and running projects:"p1erical +al. The ball is often chrome plated to make it more durable. 7 ball/check valve is a type of check valve with a ball without a hole for a disc. and is not covered in this article. They are easy to repair and operate. supporting pressures up to 8+++ bars and temperatures up to ?++LF.

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