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, the size of enrollment, or the number of patients visiting a clinic. In everyday usage, statistics are numbers used to summarize information about objects or phenomena like the statistics pertaining to the performance of a football team, statistics to summarize characteristics of groups of human beings. It refers to a body of scientific principles and methodologies that are useful for obtaining information about a phenomenon or a large collection of items. It is a body of techniques and procedures dealing with the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of information that can be stated numerically. Statistical literacy is necessary if they are to read and evaluate reports and other literature critically and intelligently. Statistical literacy is important to health care workers if they are going to undertake an investigation that involves the collection, processing, and analysis of data on their own account. Statistics can help an investigator describe data, design experiments, and test hunches about relationships among things or events of interest. Statistics is a tool that helps acceptance or rejection of the hunches within recognized degrees of confidence. It should be noted that statistics never PROVE anything. ather, they indicate the likelihood of the results of an investigation being the product of chance. Population !sometimes referred to as a a statistical population" # is a collection !or aggregate" of measurements about which an inference is desired. Sample $ consists of a finite number of measurements chosen from a population. %he number of measurements in a sample is called the sample size. What is sampling? # is the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population. What is a sample? Is a subset of population elements. What is an element? Is the most basic unit about which information is collected. Types of Sampling Design &. Probability sampling $ involves random selection in choosing the elements. '. Nonprobability sampling $ involves nonrandom selection in choosing the elements. Types of Nonprobability Sampling 1. on!enien"e Sampling $ entails using the most conveniently available people as study participants. ( faculty member who distributes questionnaires to nursing students in a class is using a convenience sample, or an accidental sample. #. $uota Sampling $ is one in which the researcher identifies population strata and determines how many participants are needed from each stratum. )y using information about population characteristics, researchers can ensure that that diverse segments are represented in the sample, preferably in the proportion in which they occur in the population. %. Purposi!e Sampling or &u'gmental sampling $ is based on the belief that researchers* knowledge about the population can be used to hand#pick sample members. esearchers might decide purposely to select subjects who are judged to be typical of the population or particularly knowledgeable about the issues under study.
. Des"ripti!e statisti"s $ are used to organize. (. 1ethods for making inferences. weight. Stratifie' ran'om sampling $ the population is first divided into two or more strata. Simple stratified random sampling b. ordinal. and describe measures of a sample *nferential statisti"s $ are used to infer or predict population parameters from sample measures Parametri" an' Non+parametri" Statisti"s Parametri" # (re used only with actual observations or their transforms # 2enerally restricted to observations on interval scales # 3ompare means and variances # equire data to be normally distributed and to have homogeneous variances # 3ounts must usually be transformed # 4erived data may first have to be transformed Non+parametri" # 1ay be used with actual observations. or with observations converted to ranks # 1ay be used with observations on nominal. Identify the population '. temperature. Simple ran'om sampling $ is the most basic probability sampling design. p7" . luster sampling $ there is a successive random sampling of units. %he first unit is large groupings or clusters. %ypes+ a. Systemati" Sampling $ involves the selection of every kth case from a list or group. 1ethods for designing the research study '. )ecause of the successive stages in cluster sampling. 1ethods for organizing and summarizing data /. #. and are usually count of things !frequencies" ontinuous $ values may fall at any point along an uninterrupted scale. ecruit the sample Statisti"al "omponents of a resear"h stu'y %hree stages in statistical methods applied in research &. and are usually measurements !lengths. summarize.urses (ssociation members Steps in sampling in )uantitati!e stu'ies &. Specify the eligibility criteria /. such as every &-th person on a patient list or every &--th person in a directory of . Specify the sampling plan 0.Types of Probability Sampling 1. Statisti"s $ measures that describe a variable of a sample Parameter $ measures that describe a variable of a population Statistics is to sample as parameter is to population. this approach is often called multistage sampling. and interval scales # 3ompare medians # 4o not require data to be normally distributed or to have homogeneous variance # (re suitable for data which are 5counts6 # (re suitable for derived variables Dis"ontinuous an' "ontinuous !ariables Dis"ontinuous $ values assume integral whole numbers.roportionate stratified random sampling %.
and then tabulating the frequencies of cases within the class intervals. capacity. Ratio le!el $ is the highest level of measurement because it has an absolute zero value. etc. width. '. (danza !&::.. /.6 5moderately serious.our le!els of measurement 1.atients 64 65 56 68 64 62 56 69 67 72 68 60 74 66 65 62 60 73 61 59 68 75 59 66 66 63 74 71 67 62 66 67 62 64 66 63 64 66 73 66 66 64 71 69 69 66 72 69 . for example. weight. Instructional problems. religion. 5not a problem6. D-T. . <requency distribution '.Is defined as a process of organizing and classifying the data into a desired form. . %ally the scores. can be classified according to the magnitude of seriousness 5very serious. 1easures of 3entrality .roupe' . load. #. %. etc. Or'inal le!el $ is used to indicate the position of data like order or rank. civil status. .ercentages /. 9ther examples of nominal data are sex. Steps/ &.PRO ESS*N. 60 71 59 68 61 65 59 75 61 68 55 64 71 <ictitious 4ata 9n 7eart 65 63 57 67 70 72 67 61 66 63 69 70 61 65 67 65 66 58 59 85 68 75 63 70 61 58 62 68 63 65 55 69 62 64 66 58 64 67 57 ate for &-. ordinal and interval" plus an absolute zero point. occupation. %he ratio scale has all the basic properties of the other scales !nominal.Is a systematic arrangement o f data values $usually from lowest to highest $ together with a count how many times each value was observed in the data set. anking 0. called class intervals.6 5least serious6. (cademic performance of students and academic rank of faculty indicate their positions. 4etermine the range. %he zero has meanings like measuring height..re)uen"y Distribution # Involves grouping together values into sets. etc. Students may be classified as boys or girls8 school personnel are categorized into teaching and non#teaching staff. (. the test scores of students. 1easures of =ariability 0ngroupe' . 3ompute the size of the class interval.re)uen"y 'istribution ." defined it as a unit of measurement of the <ahrenheit and 3elcius scales. 9rdinal data is arranged from highest to lowest. Nominal le!el $ is used to classify or categorize data to identify its nature or characteristics. *nter!al s"ale $ provides intervening space between variables to determine the relationships or differences with one another. Des"ripti!e Statisti"s Topi"s/ &. 0. or vice versa. Set up the class intervals.
2easures of entral Ten'en"y 2o'e $ is the frequently#used number in a given set of scores. # %hree commonly used measures of variability+ range. It is the most frequently used among other measures of spread or dispersion because it is more stable compared to range and variance. # anking is used to describe the order of data obtained in a study. Steps in hypothesis testing &. Parametri" $ is a robust test and is applicable when data is measured in interval or ratio scales '. . # %he mean is the sum total of all the scores divided by the total number of population. 9btain a tabled value for the statistical test. # %he distance between the observations of data are determined after the application of tests. It is the most reliable measure of central tendency when the distribution is skewed or open#ended. 3ompute a test statistic. <requency 4istribution of a ?ualitative =ariable+ .8 250 100 Per"entage an' ran1ing # %he percentage of a given frequency is obtained by dividing the frequency with the total number of frequencies or number of population then multiply the quotient by &--. variance..6 Single 55 22 Di !rced 49 19. It considers only the extreme values and tells us nothing about the distribution of numbers in between. # It is the most reliable measure of regular distribution because the data is treated equally. 2easures of !ariability # @xplain the nature of the data whether homogeneous or heterogeneous. (s with qualitative variables.atients* 1arital Status Frequenc Percentage Marital Status y Married 124 49. and standard deviation Range $ is a poor measure of variation particularly if the size of the sample or population is large. It is the most usual value which is entirely independent of extreme values. Select a test statistic. Select a one#tailed or two#tailed test. 3ompare the test statistic with the tabled value. . 0.re)uen"y 'istributions for $ualitati!e Variables #>hen a variable is qualitative. Stan'ar' 'e!iation $ is essential in conducting research particularly in testing hypothesis. '. 2e'ian $ is the half of the observation or scores. B. 3alculate the degrees of freedom. /. followed by frequencies in succeeding columns. Non+parametri" $ also known as distribution free statistics. a frequency distribution can also be constructed. *nferential Statisti"s Types of inferential statisti"s use' in resear"h/ &. the variable categories are listed in the first column. C. It is usually arranged from highest to lowest or vice#versa. Varian"e $ is the sum of the squared deviation from the mean divided by the total population. 2ean $ is the average of all the scores obtained in the instrument. It is very useful in testing significant differences between two independent samples. be it in the form of test or questionnaire..6 "id!#ed 22 8. @stablish the level of significance. %able '. Ased in ordinal or nominal data.
.-. BB. -nalysis of !arian"e 3-NOV-6 34et5een6 .E. >as there a significant difference in the resting heart rates of the two groupsF Ase G H . ratio &. EE. &--. BE.unity * +!. Repeate'+measures -NOV. CB. !Ase a two#tailed test.urpose+ %o test the difference between two related group means 1easurement Devel+ I=+ . B0. C'. %he resting heart rates were measured in a sample of women smokers and nonsmokers at a state university.ominal 4=+ Interval.urpose+ %o test the difference among the means of /I independent groups. atio .ominal 4=+ Interval. Paire' t+test 3Within6 . for a two#tailed test.unity + 16 65 45 15 43 30 25 77 22 30 90 66 39 82 47 20 69 33 16 73 50 Is there a significant difference in the agesF %est at alpha H . E'. :B. Seven samples of individuals were selected randomly from three communities. B: #.healthy subjects in random order $ a bed rest protocol and a high#activity protocol+ Su$%ect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 &ed 'est 67 68 70 66 68 62 71 65 67 65 (ig) *cti ity 63 62 69 64 67 60 66 65 63 62 3ompute the t statistic for dependent groups using alpha H . E0. :0... administered to the same &." Smokers+ CE. ratio &. E-.. %he following are the data for subcutaneous oxygen tension &' hours after the start of two protocols. CE.Parametri" Tests 1..3Within6 .urpose+ to test the difference between two independent group means 1easurement Devel+ I=+ .. CC. B'. E'. BE. EE. :-. E.-. %. %here were &0 smokers and &E nonsmokers in the sample. ratio &.urpose+ %o test the difference among the means of /I related groups or sets of scores 1easurement+ I=+ . BE . (. t+test for in'epen'ent groups 34et5een6 . B'.. :-.ominal 4=+ Interval.unity & +!. B&. or of 'I independent variables 1easurement level+ I=+ . :&. %he ages of the persons were as tabulated+ +!.ominal 4=+ Interval. B'.-.onsmokers+ C'. EC. CB.
-.'&# J. &E.:: =ery high positive or negative correlation J.urpose+ %o test in the difference between the ranks of scores of two independent groups 1easurement level+ I=+ . Pers!n S!diu. %he following are data for &' individuals* daily sodium intake and their systolic blood pressure readings. Pearson8s Pro'u"t 2oment orrelation 34et5een9 Within6 .o correlation Nonparametri" Tests 1.0&# J.9 162 4 7. &P 1 6. '(re the mean significantly different from the women in terms of coping ability scores !G H .4 140 a.7. 'C >omen+ '0.erfect positive or negative correlation J. b.egligible correlation J.1 186 11 6. '/. ratio &. ':.E&# J.B&# J...urpose+ %o test that a correlation is different from zero !that a relationship exists" 1easurement level+ I=+ Interval. &C."F .ESubstantial positive or negative correlation J. Is there a significant relationship between daily sodium intake and systolic blood pressureF %est at alpha H . 3ompute the 1ann#>hitney U statistic for the following scores on a coping ability scale+ 1en+ '&. %o what extent the daily sodium intake determines the systolic blood pressureF :o5 to interpret results of "orrelation? r# value 4escriptive meaning J&. 2ann+Whitney 0+test 34et5een6 .0Dow positive or negative correlation J. &B.8 154 2 7 167 3 6. &:.'.ominal 4=+ 9rdinal &.-&# J.3 189 10 7.2 175 5 7. 'E. ratio 4=+ Interval. /&.B1oderately positive or negative correlation J. ''.5 148 12 6.-.3 190 6 7 158 7 7 166 8 7.-.5 195 9 7. '.
#.urpose+ %o test the difference in ranks of /I related groups 1easurement level+ I=+ .". . 'C. &C. &&.-. &/. &B &E. Ase G H . ( health worker collects the waiting times of five patients selected randomly from four different out# patient clinics. . E&. &C &. &0 (fter+ &. )... &E.. &C. .ot# esuscitate orders $ an (I4S patient. &0. (. &0. ''. &'. &E. (re there differences between the average waiting time at each clinic. &B.... . '&.&. :. ..patients before and after an intervention+ )efore+ &'. Suppose that nine nurses are asked to read descriptions of three patients with 4o#. E&. &&. '-. &/.rus1al+Wallis test 3 4et5een6 . Ase G H . &.urpose+ %o test the difference between the medians of three or more independent groups 1easurement level+ I=+ . &. &0. E 4 00..&. &.ominal 4=+ 9rdinal &. -. Ase G H . /: (. /'. '-. &. %est the null hypothesis that the nurses* scores on aggressiveness of nursing care are unrelated to the type of the patient*s illness. (I4S 3ancer (lzheimer &C. &&. . &. ( 'C. '-. &C. '' 3 &&. E 4 00. (re there differences between the average waiting time at each clinic. 2e'ian Test 34et5een6 .urpose+ %o test the difference in the ranks of scores of /I independent groups 1easurement level+ I=+ . /.. 3. '' 3 &&.. -.rie'man test 3Within6 . 7.. . ( health worker collects the waiting times of five patients selected randomly from four different out# patient clinics. &C. C'. ( 'C. a cancer patient. &E. /.-. 3. &E. &. C ) 0E.-.. &-. &E. &/. &'. &&.. /: %. and 4. E. &0. Wil"o<on Signe'+ran1 test 3Within6 . ). '-. E.. &C.urpose+ %o test the difference in ranks of scores of two related groups 1easurement level+ I=+ .ominal 4=+ 9rdinal )elow are scores on a self#care agency scale for &. C ) 0E. &/. &0. &:. '/ 3ompute the >ilcoxon signed#rank test to determine whether there is a significant change in scores !G H .ominal 4=+ 9rdinal &. &.-. (. /'. &'. &E.. and 4. C'. &E. and a patient with (lzheimer*s disease.ominal 4=+ 9rdinal &.
levelF >.ominal 1#. Spearman8s rho 34et5een9 5ithin6 .-. Pers!n S!diu.urpose+ %o test the difference in proportions for paired samples !'K'" 1easurement level+ I=+ .ominal 4=+ .5 195 9 7.urpose+ %o test that a correlation is different from zero !that a relationship exists" 1easurement level+ I=+ 9rdinal 4=+ 9rdinal &.ominal &. .4 140 a.ominal @. %he following are data for &' individuals* daily sodium intake and their systolic blood pressure readings. Is there a significant relationship between daily sodium intake and systolic blood pressureF %est at alpha H .5 148 12 6.urpose+ %o examine the magnitude of a relationship between variables in a contingency table !not restricted to 'x'" 1easurement level+ I=+ .8 154 2 7 167 3 6. .3 190 6 7 158 7 7 166 8 7.3 189 10 7.urpose+ %o examine the magnitude of a relationship between two dichotomous variables 1easurement level+ I=+ . 3alculate the chi#square test for the following set of data+ 2roup ( 2roup ) 7ad a flu shot '/4id not have &&.9 162 4 7.urpose+ %o test difference in proportions in a 'K' contingency table when .1 186 11 6.2 175 5 7.ominal 4=+ . Is the value of chi#square statistically significant at the .ominal ?.urpose+ %o test that a correlation is different from zero !that a relationship exists" 1easurement level+ I=+ 9rdinal 4=+ 9rdinal 11. hi+s)uare test 3 4et5een6 . 2"Nemar8s test 3Within6 .ominal 4=+ .=.ominal 4=+ .en'all8s tau 34et5een9 5ithin6 .ominal .isher8s e<a"t test 34et5een6 ..urpose+ %o test the difference in proportions of 'I independent groups 1easurement level+ I=+ . L /1easurement level+ I=+ . &P 1 6. 1A. Phi "oeffi"ient 34et5een6 . ramer8s V 34et5een6 .-.ominal 4=+ .
( brief statement of the purposes which the study N research hopes to achieve. the potential contribution of the research to new knowledge and policy implications. or findings to current study should be included. . initials should be included in the last names for proper identification Diterature review should cover all variables in the conceptual framework. and definition of terms ( brief statement of the origin of the problem (n account describing the circumstances.resent global#national#local scenarios %he problem studied must be shown as one. objectives of the study. scope and limitation of the study. method. Such terms should be defined operationally according to the precise meanings they are intended to convey. %he reader must be made to recognize this need. accurately.oint out the weaknesses and strengths of each study. %he scope is expected to indicate a reasonable area of study.ile/ Major Parts of a Thesis/Research Proposal Chapter 1 : Introduction M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M %he introduction generally consists of the background of the study. !one general problem statement in paragraph form" %his section should show why the problem investigated is important and what significance the results have. %his section provides a general picture of the research topic. In the case of citations of different works by persons with the same surname. which is large enough to be significant but narrow enough to permit careful treatment. principal findings and conclusions 3larify the interrelationships of the studies reviewed. the framework itself including its presentation in the form of paradigm. and the hypotheses %he purposes of this section are+ !a" to tell what research has or has not been done on the problem. .P-T-BON . include both conceptual and operational definitions %his chapter consists of the review of related literature. . method of study. both literature and studies. statement of the problem. It may include a justification of the selection or choice of the study. !b" to explain or clarify the theoretical rationale of the problem.oint out how each study reviewed is related to the problem at hand. significance of the study. State the nature of the subjects treated. <or clearer presentation. which suggested research. and clearly. 9nly studies which are related in purpose. 1any terms are subject to a variety of interpretations. It should include a statement on relevance to felt needs. Summarize the review and provide a transition from the past studies to the present one In the text. %he problem must be defined in terms of the data that can be obtained. only the last names of the authors are given. 1inimize figures N diagrams in the text. which arose from a situation of need or unresolved difficulties. %he boundaries of the study should be properly defined. 2roup same topics. ac!ground of the Stud" Statement of the Pro#lem $#jecti%es of the Stud" Significance of the Stud" Scope and &imitation of the Stud" 'efinition of Terms Chapter (: Re%ie) of &iterature and Theoretical *rame)or! Related &iterature and Studies Theor" ase . any limitations in the reference population. their number. %he discussion of such studies should be in the form of a brief critical analysis of the purposes. Shapes the justification of the research problems in order to provide the legal basis for defining its parameters. %he problem must be stated precisely.
" 4escribes the sources of data # whether primary or secondary %he report should include appropriate information on the total population. <riedman*s %wo#>ay (. involving at least two variables. . Oruskal#>allis 9ne >ay (. . (. sources of data. interview guides or schedules. Instruments include tests.ominal 4ata # 3hi Square test.g. Oendall*s tau IntervalN atio 4ata # . %his chapter includes descriptions of the method used. descriptive.9=( IntervalN atio 4ata #P test. construction.9=(. and the like. !e. 1c .hi 3oefficient 9rdinal 4ata # Spearman ank 9rder 3orrelation. conjoint analysis." measurable. systematic sampling. stratified random sampling. principles. 3ontingency test.earson r. regression analysis. 4escribe briefly how the data collected are to be processed. the data gathering instruments.ominal 4ata #3hi Square test. 7ypotheses are conjectural statements of relationships between two or more variables.9=( .Chapter .. !'" precise and clear8 !/" non#judgmental8 !0" not answerable by yes or no8 and !.robability Sampling techniques include simple random sampling.: Methodolog" Method /sed Sources of 'ata 'ata 0athering Instrument Sampling Techni1ue Statistical Treatment of 'ata Some Considerations in the Choice of Statistical Techni1ue in Testing . ."pothesis Tests of 'ifference Tests of Relationship . sampling technique. 1ention to which problem statement the statistical tool is usedN applied. t test. >ilcoxon test. 1ann >hitney test. Include discussion on validity and reliability of the instruments ! if survey instruments are self#constructed" ( description of the sampling technique used in determining the sample size of the subjects and how were they selected. canonical correlations Conceptual *rame)or! Research +ssumptions / Research .M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M Includes existing accepted concepts.emmar test 9rdinal 4ata # un*s test. causal etc. questionnaires. and cluster sampling. or interval N ratioF . convenience sampling. It is only when the statistical technique used is new or unfamiliar that the formula is given. the researcher formulates a conceptual scheme for his research problem which is a tentative theoretical explanation of the phenomenonN problem he is going to investigate. ( description of the adoption. procedure of the study and statistical treatment ( brief description of the method of research used in doing the study. and administration of instruments should be included. ordinal. quota."potheses . discriminant analysis.on#probability sampling includes purposive. the sample and the source of evidence. <rom the review of related literature and studies."potheses . theories and frameworks. %hese statements are based on existing information and are tested empirically %he hypothesis should be + !&" rational. >hat type of hypothesisF # difference of means or relationship of variablesF >hat type of 4ataF # nominal. Should be reduced to a paradigm showing the variables and their interrelationships (ssumptions are presumed to be true statements of facts related to the research problems.
researchers can ensure that that diverse segments are represented in the sample.robability sampling $ involves random selection in choosing the elements. '. such as every &-th person on a patient list or every &--th person in a directory of . Types of Probability Sampling &.roportionate stratified random sampling /. '. Systemati" Sampling $ involves the selection of every kth case from a list or group. $uota Sampling $ is one in which the researcher identifies population strata and determines how many participants are needed from each stratum. this approach is often called multistage sampling. . )y using information about population characteristics. Purposi!e Sampling or &u'gmental sampling $ is based on the belief that researchers* knowledge about the population can be used to hand#pick sample members. or an accidental sample. luster sampling $ there is a successive random sampling of units.ile/ What is sampling? # is the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population. ( faculty member who distributes questionnaires to nursing students in a class is using a convenience sample.urses (ssociation members . 0. %.onprobability sampling $ involves nonrandom selection in choosing the elements. on!enien"e Sampling $ entails using the most conveniently available people as study participants. Stratifie' ran'om sampling $ the population is first divided into two or more strata. esearchers might decide purposely to select subjects who are judged to be typical of the population or particularly knowledgeable about the issues under study. #. What is an element? . preferably in the proportion in which they occur in the population. Types of Nonprobability Sampling 1. Simple ran'om sampling $ is the most basic probability sampling design. .. %he first unit is large groupings or clusters.Is a subset of population elements. Types of Sampling Design &. What is a sample? .Is the most basic unit about which information is collected.rom Other . %ypes+ a. )ecause of the successive stages in cluster sampling. Simple stratified random sampling b. .