# STREAM SPLITTING

HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM ENERGY RECOVERY

BY SITI SHAWALLIAH IDRIS, AMIChemE

RECAP  The pinch design method developed earlier followed several rules and guidelines to allow design for minimum utility (or maximum energy recovery) in the minimum number of units. .  Occasionally. it appears not to be possible to create the appropriate matches because one or other of the design criteria cannot be satisfied.

one of the hot streams cannot be cooled to pinch temperature without some violation of the DTmin constraint.GRID DIAGRAM – ABOVE PINCH • Cold utility must not be used above the pinch. • There are three hot streams and two cold streams • Thus. regardless of the CP values of the 7 100 oC streams. 15 30 T>90oC T>90oC 90 oC 4 5 90 oC What do we do? . CP 12 20 1 2 3 Pinch 100 oC 100 oC which means that all hot streams must be cooled to pinch temperature by heat recovery.

STREAM SPLITTING .

 Split ratio for stream 5: 7 as such CPC cannot be lower than 20 [CP inequalities for above pinch (CPH≤CPC)] 15 30 90 oC 4 5 90 oC .STREAM SPLITTING  Split a cold stream into two parallel CP 12 20 1 2 3 Pinch 100 oC 100 oC 100 oC branches  Now each hot stream has a cold partner with which to match. capable of cooling it to pinch temperature.

SPLITTING CRITERIA In addition to CP inequalities criteria introduced earlier: ABOVE PINCH: NH≤NC  NH = Number of hot streams  NC = number of cold streams .

4 5 30 20 What do we do? . which means Pinch CP 1 2 100 oC 100 oC that all cold streams must be heated to pinch temperature by heat recovery.  There are two hot streams and three cold T<100oC 35 60 T<100oC streams • Thus. one of the cold streams cannot be heated to pinch temperature without some violation of the DTmin constraint. regardless of the CP values of the 90 oC 90 oC 90 oC 3 24 streams.GRID DIAGRAM – BELOW PINCH  Hot utility must not be used.

capable of heating it to pinch temperature.STREAM SPLITTING –BELOW PINCH  Split a hot stream into two parallel Pinch CP 1 2 100 oC 100 oC branches  Now each cold stream has a hot partner T<100oC 35 60 with which to match. T<100oC  Split with stream with bigger CP value  Split ratio depends on the CP inequality 90 oC 90 oC 90 oC 3 24 4 5 30 20 criteria (CPH≥CPC) .

SPLITTING CRITERIA In addition to CP inequalities criteria introduced earlier: BELOW PINCH: NH≥NC  NH = Number of hot streams  NC = number of cold streams .

STREAM SPLITTING .EXAMPLE Pinch 100 oC 100 oC 1 2 30oC 40oC CP 5 4 5 CPH≥CPC NH≥NC 7 4  Based on the CP inequalities – no feasible match! 90 oC 15oC 3 7 .

STREAM SPLITTING .EXAMPLE Pinch 100 oC 100 oC 40oC 43.8oC  One solution 1 2 C C 30oC 40oC CP 5 4 CPH≥CPC NH≥NC 5 4 4 3 7 SPLIT COLD STREAM 3 90 oC 15oC 3 7 .

2 7 .5 7 or 5 4 (ii) CPH≥CPC NH≥NC 4.5 7 or 5 4 (iii) CPH≥CPC NH≥NC 3.STREAM SPLITTING – SPLIT OPTIONS  What about other split options? (i) CPH≥CPC NH≥NC 5 4 3.5 3.5 2.8 3.

8 3.2 .STREAM SPLITTING – SPLIT OPTIONS Save one unit by ticking off two streams at once: Pinch 100 oC 100 oC 43oC 40oC 1 2 C S 30oC 40oC CP 5 4 C 90 oC 15oC S 3 3.

In general:  Branch flow rates = degree of freedom in design  Finding best choice = optimization problem .

SUMMARY Above Pinch Yes CPH≤CPC for Pinch Matches? Stream data at pinch Yes Is NH≤NC ? No Split cold stream Split hot stream No Place matches .

Below Pinch Yes CPH≥CPC for Pinch Matches? Stream data at pinch Yes Is NH≥NC ? No Split cold stream Split hot stream No Place matches .

WORKING SESSION STREAM SPLITTING .

kW/oC 45 40 43 20 1 2 3 4 Hot Hot Cold Cold DTmin = 50oC QHmin = 9200 kW QCmin = 6400 kW Design a network for maximum energy recovery .STREAM DATA Stream Type Supply temperature. oC 350 250 900 550 Heat capacity flowarate (CP). oC 750 550 300 200 Target temperature.

GRID DIAGRAM Pinch CP 45 40 1 750 oC 2 550 oC 550 oC 350 oC 250 oC 43 900 oC 550 oC 500 oC 500 oC 300 oC 3 200 oC 4 20 .