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SCHOOL OF

CIVIL

ENGINEERING

INDIANA

DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS

JOINT HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROJECT


JHRP-85/5

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY AUDIT MANUAL FOR INDIANA DEPARTMENT


OF HIGHWAYS BUILDINGS

FINAL REPORT

Brett Michael Partridge

^^.

%.

UNIVERSITY

JOINT HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROJECT


JHRP-85/5

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY AUDIT MANUAL FOR INDIANA DEPARTMENT


OF HIGHWAYS BUILDINGS

FINAL REPORT

Brett Michael Partridge

Final Report

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY AUDIT MANUAL FOR INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS BUILDINGS

by

Brett Michael Partridge Graduate Instructor in Research

JOINT HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROJECT


File: Project:

9-11-18 C-36-67R

Prepared as Part of an Investigation Conducted by Joint Highway Research Project Engineering Experiment Station, Purdue
University, in Cooperation with the Indiana Department of Highways.

Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana

January 30, 1985

Digitized by the Internet Arciiive


in

2011 with funding from Indiana Department of Transportation

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation;

http://www.archive.org/details/developmentofeneOOpart

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author would like to thank the


of

Indiana
of

Department

Highways for their financial support


He would also like to thank his

the

research.
Dr.

major

professor,

Donn

E.

Hancher, who allowed him the freedom to work on the

research while at the same time


dance,

offering

the He

needed

gui-

suggestions

and

encouragement.
Walker
for

would like to
his

recognize professor Richard 0.

input

and

efforts in providing valuable research material.


The suggestions of Mr. Gary R.

Smith

in

putting
and
a

the

manual

together

were

greatly
for

appreciated,
her

special
the

thanks to Mrs. Sally Munson

help

in

typing

manuscript.
Finally,
the support

and encouragement

from

his

wife

Kimm throughout the graduate course work and during the long
hours spent
on

this

research was greatly appreciated.

ill

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF TABLES

vi

LIST OF FIGURES

viii
"

ABSTRACT
CHAPTER
1.1 1.2 1.3
1

xii
1

INTRODUCTION

Statement of Purpose... Objectives Energy Audit Process


2

2 3
7

CHAPTER
2.1

BUILDING SELECTION

2.2 2.3

Introduction Procedures for Selecting a Building Building Selection Example


3

14
29

CHAPTER
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

BUILDING INFORMATION FORM

Introduction Required Material for Completing the BIF Form.... Procedures for Completing the BIF Form Instructions for Filling Out the BIF Form with Examples Major Section I, Division A,B,C 3.4.1 Major Section II, Division A 3.4.2 Major Section II, Division B, Part 1 3.4.3
and 2.

29 29 32

35 44 48

50

3.4.4
3.4.5 3.4.6
3.4.7

3.4.8 3.4.9

Major Section II, Division C, and 2, Sections a and b Major Section II, Division D, Sections a and b Major Section II, Division D, Continued, Sections c, d, e Major Section II, Division D, Sections a and b Major Section II, Division E, Sections a, b, c, d, and e Major Section III, Division A

Part
Part

53
1,

55

Part Part Part

58
2,

62
1,

64 68

iv

3. A. 10

3.4.11 3.4.12 3.4.13 3.4.14

Major Major Major Major Major

Section Section Section Section Section

III, III,
IV
V

Division Division

B C

69 73 75
78 78

VI

CHAPTER
4.1 4.2

BUILDING SITE VISIT

99
99

4.3

4.4

Introduction Required Material to Complete the Building Site Visit Procedures for Completing the Site Visit.. 4.3.1 Interior Building Inspection 4.3.2 Exterior Building Inspection Procedures for Completing a Building Survey 4.4.1 Determining Building Dimensions 4.4.2 Building Material Identification 4.4.3 Major Energy Using Systems Identification
5

100 101 102 105 106 107 110

112

CHAPTER
5.1 5.2

HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS

114
114 115 128
131

5.3 5.4
5.5

5.6

5.7 5.8

Introduction................... Transmission Heat Losses........... Infiltration Heat Losses Required Material to Complete Heat Loss Calculations.... Procedures to Complete Heat Loss Calculations... 5.5.1 Instructions for Form 5.1 5.5.2 Instructions for Form 5.2.. Transmission Heat Loss Calculations... 5.6.1 Floor-on-Grade. 5.6.2 Floor-Below-Grade 5.6.3 Wall-Below-Grade 5.6.4 Wall-Above-Grade.... 5.6.5 Partitions Separating Conditioned and Unconditioned Space 5.6.6 Roof.... 5.6.7 Windows and Skylights 5.6.8 Doors Infiltration Heat Loss Calculations Determining Annual Heating Requirements 5.8.1 Annual Heating Requirement Example
. .
.

132 132 138


141 141 145 150 155

162 166 172 177 180 189 192 195

CHAPTER
6.1 6.2

LIGHTING CALCULATIONS

6.3 6.4

Introduction Lighting Systems 6.2.1 Fluorescent Lighting. Required Material for Completing Lighting Calculations Lighting Calculation Procedures

195 197 201 206 206

6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4

Lighting Level Determination Lighting Level Determination Example Zonal Cavity Lighting Calculations Zonal Cavity Calculation Example

207 217 218 235

CHAPTER
7.1

ENERGY CONSUMPTION SURVEY

242
242 243 245 253

7.2 7.3 7.4

Introduction..... Required Material for Completing the Energy Consumption Survey.. Procedures for Calculating the EUI EUI Example
8

CHAPTER
8.1

ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS

256
256 259 259 259

8.2 8.3

8.4

Introduction Required Material to Complete ECO Analysis Procedure for Completing ECO Analysis..... 8.3.1 Instructions for Form 8.1 8.3.2 Energy Conservation Opportunity Analysis Example..... Potential Capital ECOs..
9

265 272 279


279 281 284
28
6

CHAPTER
9.1

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS.....

9.2
9.3

Introduction Energy Audit Manual Recommendations... Recommendations for Continued Study

REFERENCES APPENDICES

Appendix A Energy Audit Forms... Appendix B Noncapital Energy Conservation Opportunity Check List

287
315

vi

LIST OF TABLES

Table
3.1
5.1

Page

Climatic Data for Indiana


Thermal Properties of Typical Building and Insulating Materials - (Design Values)
Surface Conductances and Resistances for Air

76

120

5.2

123

5.3
5.4

Thermal Resistances

of

Plane Air Spaces

....124

Construction Percentages For Walls and Roof Framing................


Heat Loss of Concrete Floors at or Near Grade Level per Foot of Exposed Edge
Soil Temperature for State of Indiana
Heat Loss
for Below-Grade Walls...

135

5.5

143 147 153

5.6

5.7
5

.8A

Overall Coefficients of Heat Transmission of Windows and Skylights, BTU/ (hr /f t /F )

175

5.8B
5.9

Adjustment Factors for Windows (Multiply U-values in Part A by These Factors)


Coefficients of Transmission (U) for Slab Doors, Btu/(hr/ft /F )
Curtain Wall Classification
Window Classification....

176

178

5.10
5.11

184
185 185
191

5.12

Residential-Type Door Classification


Full Load Efficiency (n)

5.13

vil

5.14
6.1

Fuel Heating Value

192 200

Typical Surface Reflectances

6.2
6.3

Typical Fluorescent Lamp Data Currently Recommended Illuminance Categories and Illuminance Values for Lighting Design-Target Maintained Levels. Illuminance Values, Maintained, in Lux, for a Combination of Illuminance Categories and User, Room and Task Characteristics

205

209

6.4

216

6.5

Percent Effective Ceiling or Floor Cavity Reflectance for Various Reflectance Combi nat ions ... 229

6.6

Coefficients of Utilization for Typical Luminaires


Factors for Effective Floor Cavity Reflectances Other Than 20%..

231

6.7

235 274
275
276
277

8.1

Building Type

Alternatives....

8.2
8.3

Building Type II Alternatives Building Type III Alternatives Building Type IV Alternatives..... Building Type
V

8.4
8.5

Alternatives.

278

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure
1.1

Page

Energy Audit Flow Diagram


Form 2.1 Building Selection

2.1

13 16 18

2.2

Form 2.1 Building Selection Example

2.3
3.1

Building Type Classification....,


Building Type IV With Separate BIF Forms For Each Section

30

3.2

Location of Heat Losses Through Major Building Components


Example Building Floor Plans..
Example Building South Elevation

33

3.3

36
37
37

3.4
3.5

Example Building North Elevation


Example Building West Elevation..

3.6
3.7

38
38

Example Building East Elevation..

3.8
3.9

Typical Roof Section

39
39

Typical Brick/Block Wall Section

3.10
3.11

Typical Exterior Sheeting Section


Typical Basement Wall Section
Typical Basement Floor Section

40
40
41 41

3.12
3.13

Typical Garage Floor Section

ix

3.14

Typical Wood Siding For Office Area


BIF Form Breakdown by Major Sections
BIF Example Major Section I, Divisions A, B, and C BIF Example Major Section II,

41 43

3.15
3.16

47

3.17

Division A.....

49

3.18
3.19

BIF Example Major Section II, Division B, Part 1 BIF Example Major Section II, Division B, Part 2.. BIF Example Major Section II, Division C, Part 1 and 2, Section a and b BIF Example Major Section II, Division D, Section a and b

51

52

3.20

54

3.21

.57

3.22
3.23

Window Frame Width Measurement


Part
BIF Example Major Section II, 1, Section c, d, and e

...

58

Division D,
61

3.24

BIF Example Major Section II, Division D, Part 2, Section a and b....

63

3.25

Location

of

Roof Measurement s .............

65

3.26

BIF Example Major Section II, Division E, Part 1, Sections a, b, c, d and e BIF Example Major Section III,

67

3.27

Division A

69

3.28

Example Building Basement Floor Plan With Li gh ting Information.......


BIF Example Major Section III,

71

3.29

Division
Division

B C

73 74

3.30
3.31

BIF Example Major Section III,

BIF Example Major Section IV.,...,.,.

75

3.32
5.1

Form 3.1 Building Information Form (BIF) Example..

79

Location of Thin Air Films


Location of Plane Air Spaces,,

119
119

5.2

5.3

Major Building Components for Determining Heat Losses

127

5.4

Infiltration Caused by Broadside and Quartering Wind


Exterior Wall Heat Transfer Paths
Form 5.1 Transmission (U) Calculation Sheet
Form 5.2 Heat Loss Calculation Sheet

130

5.5

133
137

5.6
5.7

140
141

5.8
5.9

Floor- on-Grade
Plan View of Floor-on-Grade From Which the . . , Perimeter of the Floor is Calculat ed
, . .

142
144

5.10
5.11

Floor Section for Example


Floor -Be low-Grade

<..

145

5.12

Plan View of Floor-Be low-Grade


Floor Section for Example
2

146
148 149 150

5.13
5.14

Example

Form 5.1

5.15
5.16

Wall- Be low-Grade

Section of Wall-Below-Grade from which the Area is Calculated in sq ft


.

152
154
155 157

5.17

Wall Section for Example 3.

5.18
5.19

Wall- Above-Grade
Wall Section for Example 4A

5.20
5.21

Example 4A Form 5.1


Wall Section for Example 4B

158 159

5.22
5.23

Example 4B Form 5.1


Wall and Floor Partitions Separating Conditioned and Unconditioned Space
Wall Partition for Example
5

160

163
164

5.24

5.25 5.26

Example

Form 5.1

165
167

Typical Roof Construction

^1

5.27

Roof Area Calculation

168
169
171

5.28 5.29

Example 6A Form 5.1

Example 6B Form 5.1 Typical Window and Skylight

5.30
5.31

173 183

Velocity Head vs Wind Velocity


or One

5.32

Curtain Wall Infiltration For One Room Floor

183

5.33
5.34
6.1

Window and Residential Type Door Infiltration Characteristics

184
191

Correction Factor,

vs.

Degree Days.

Typical Interior Lighting and Reflectance Values

199

6.2

Fluorescent Lamp Construction Details


Form 6.1 Zonal Cavity Calculation Form Zonal Cavity Room Cavities

.202
219
221

6.3
6.4

6.5
6.6
7.1

Luminaire Dirt Depreciation Factor (LDD)


Form 6.1 Zonal Cavity Example
Form 7.1 Energy Management Form....

228

.....240
252
254
255

7.2

Utility Data for EUI Example.


EUI

7.3
8.1

Calculation Example

Form 8.1 Potential Energy Conservation Opportunities Simple Payback Analysis Form Form 8.2 Estimate Work Sheet
Form 8.1 Potential Energy Conservation Opportunities Simple Payback Analysis Form Example
,

263
264

8.2 8.3

267

8.4

Form 8.2 Estimate Work Sheet for ECO Example

268

xii

ABSTRACT

May MSCE, Purdue University, Brett Michael. Partridge, An Energy Audit Manual For Indiana of Development 1985, Donn E. Department of Highway Buildings. Major Professor: Hancher
.

The purpose of

this study

was

to

develop

an

Energy

Audit
in

Manual for the Indiana Department of Highways for use


of

completing in-house audits


major

their

existing

buildings.
a

The

objective in writing the manual was to provide


that

series of step by step procedures

would allow an

indiis

vidual to effectively audit an IDOH facility.

The manual
a

divided into seven chapters with each one covering


step in completing an energy audit.

major

The manual Instructs

the user

through

data

gathering

process.

This

data

Is

then used to determine how the build-

ing is using Its

energy supply*

Based on this

information,

alternative
cally

energy
to

conservation opportunities are economidetermine


which
energy

evaluated

conservation
A

opportunities can be cost effectively implemented.


payback period of four to five years
the
is

simple

used to determine If

energy conservation opportunities are cost effective.

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

. 1

Statement of Purpose
the

An energy audit

is

evaluation

of

energy consumption
of

within

facility to enable the determination

energy congoal
of

servation opportunities within that facility.


energy

The

in

conservation
a

is

to

reduce

the

amount

energy

required to operate

facility and still maintain an acceptA

able working environment.


a

reduction in the energy use for

facility will decrease the

dollar

amount

that

must

be

spent on its utility bills.

The purpose of

this

study

was

to

develop
of

an

Energy
The

Audit

Manual

for

the Indiana Department


is

Highways.
to

purpose of
energy

the manual
on

to

enable

the

IDOH

perform

audits

their

maintenance and office buildings.


constructed
prior
to

The majority of
the

these buildings were


of

energy

crunch

the

early seventies. Prior to this


to

time,

buildings were constructed without any regard


the

the

energy efficiency of

facility;

therefore,

several energy
of

conservation opportunities exist within this group


ings
.

build-

.2

Objectives
this

The primary objective of

study was

to

develop

an

Energy
of

Audit Manual that will enable the Indiana Department

Highways to continue their energy

conservation

program.
The

In

developing the manual four key objectives were set.


to

first objective was

write the manual

so

that

person

without

lot

of

experience in the energy auditing process


a

can effectively audit

building by using this manual.

The

first-time user

of

this manual should read

through the whole


more

manual and then study those


detail that seem unclear.
The second objective was

sections

of

the manual in

to

cover the major energy con-

servation
ings.

opportunities
this

that

exist within existing buildfocus on the physical comof


a

To do

the manual will

ponents

and

lighting

systems
floors,

building. The physical


roof,

components include the


doors.
The

walls,

windows

and

lighting
lighting.

system includes all interior lighting

and exterior

These two areas

of

building

can

often

have changes made in either the physical characteristo

tics or maintenance procedures

increase the

energy
of

con-

sumption

efficiency

of

the

building.

Other areas

energy

conservation such as electrical building loads and


cal
of

mechaniAnalysis
the

equipment will not be covered in this manual.


these systems
this

requires an expertise that goes beyond

scope of

manual.

However,

this

is

an important area in

energy conservation and analysis of


vide cost

these systems will

proThe

effective energy conservation opportunities.


manual
is

goal of tion

this

to

cover the major

energy

conserva-

opportunities that exist within the building structure


by

and lighting systems which can be identified


of

Department

Highway's personnel using this manual.


The third objective

was

to

identify

specific

areas

within
tunities

building where possible energy conservation opporexist.


Once these areas are identified,

alterna-

tive solutions
are the most

can then be evaluated to determine which ones

cost

effective.
on

These
of

alternative
a

solutions

will

be

evaluated

the basis

minimum four to five

year payback period.

The fourth objective was

to

present an evaluation

pro-

cedure
are

to

determine which energy conservation opportunities


economical, and are within the prescribed
pay-

the most

back periods.

This will enable the energy auditor to deter-

mine which energy conservation opportunities will return the

optimal energy dollar savings per dollar spent on implementing


the

energy

conservation

opportunities

within

the

prescribed payback period.

Energy Audit Process


in

This manual proposes seven major steps

the
a

energy
separate

audit

process.

Each

major

step

is

covered in

chapter.

Chapter
2

is
8

the

Introduction
the seven

to

this

manual.
of

Chapters

through

cover

major steps

the

energy audit process.

Chapter

2,

Building

Selection,
a

presents
of

selection

procedure to aid in selecting

building out

the possible

candidates for an energy audit.


mation
manual.
is
a

Chapter

3,

Building

Inforthe

Form,

is

probably the most

important chapter of
,

The Building Information Form

referred to as BIF,

data

gathering form used

to

collect the necessary data


If

for

completing an energy audit.


out,
if

the

BIF

is

properly

filled

experts

in the

energy audit field can be con-

sulted

the need arises

and the information

regarding

the

particular
Chapter
4,

problem can be effectively communicated to them.

Building Site Visit, explains the steps

to

take

when the energy auditor walks


to
5,

through the building, and what


energy conservation.

be

looking for in terms

of

Chapter

Heat Loss Calculations,

explains how to use the informaa

tion on the BIF for determining


ing
the

building's heat
6,

loss

dur-

winter

months.

Chapter

Lighting Calculations,

explains how to use the information on the BIF for analyzing


the

lighting systems. Chapter


a

7,

Energy Consumption Survey,

explains how to determine


using
bills.
a

comparable

energy

consumption

standard measure for each building from the utility

Chapter

8,

Energy Conservation Opportunity Analysis,


for determining what
a

outlines

the procedures

energy conser-

vation opportunities have

cost effective

return.

The flow of
l.l.

the

energy audit process

is

shown in Figure
that
the

Due to the age of some buildings and the fact

State purchased some buildings from previous

owners,

blue-

prints are not available for all IDOH buildings.

Therefore,

depending upon whether or not

set

of

blueprints are availIs

able will determine in which order the BIF and Site Visit

completed

CHAPTER

Building Selection

YES

NO

CHfiPTER Form

CHAPTER

Buiiajng Infomation

Site Visit wltn

BullOlng Survey

CHAPTER

CHAPTER
Form

Site Visit

Bullolng InronnaUon

CHAPTER

Heat LOSS Calculations

CHAPTER

Lighting CalculatJons

CHAPTER

Energy Consumption Survey

CHAPTER

Energy Conservation

Opporurlty Analysis

Figure 1.1

Energy Audit Flow Diagram

CHAPTER
2.1

BUILDING SELECTION

Introduction
of

The Indiana Department


the

Highways
of

Is

responsible

for

operation and maintenance


of

several hundred buildings.


ranges from good to

The energy efficiency

these buildings

poor.

Newer

buildings

constructed

after the 1973 energy

crisis are more energy efficient than buildings

constructed

prior

to

this

time.
or

Therefore,

it

makes sense to audit the

older buildings,

least energy efficient


to

buildings,

first.

To determine which buildings

audit

first would require an

in-depth study and would not be worth the expense.


few

Using

key
a

variables

that

affect

building's utility bills,


to

however,
can
of

quick estimate of which buildings

audit

first

be

made.

Based on the age

of

the
is

building,
in

the number

hours per week that the building


per
a

operation,

and the

dollars
bills,

square

foot

spent

on

the

building's utility
to

quick estimate of which buildings

audit

first

can be made

2.2

P roce

du res

for

S electing

Building
manageable,
It

To make the building selection process


Is

suggested

that

it

be

done
a

on a

district by district
the

basis.
task
ings
of

Within each district

person would be assigned

gathering the necessary data to select which buildaudit first.

to

Analyzing the buildings

by

districts

will

divide the several hundred buildings within the State

into six manageable groups.


A previous

study entitled "An Investigation

of

Poten-

tial

Energy
of

Conservation Opportunities for Indiana Depart[1]

ment

Highway Buildings" by G. Smith

classified

the

buildings within the State into six major building types and

buildings that did not resemble


sified
chapter,
as

particular type were claslocated at the end


of

"other".
the

Figure 2.3,

this

shows
of

six major building types and gives


type.

brief

descriptions

each

The selection process presented below is based on three

assumptions

that

should

be

understood prior to, and when


The

using this selection procedure.


that

first

assumption

is

all

buildings

that

have been previously audited are

excluded from the selection process.


Second,

buildings
the
of

that

are

of

similar construction

and

operate

under

same conditions should consume the same

relative amount

energy.

Operating conditions that effect

building's energy consumption Include many factors.


the major

Some
use

of

ones are

the weather,

peoples' habits

who

the

building,

and the building's energized systems.

Ener-

gized systems include lighting, HVAC equipment and any other

system

that

requires

energy

to

operate.

Two

buildings of

similar construction will have different energy


patterns
example,
State
a

consumption
For
the
a

if

the

operating
is

conditions are different.


in

building that
consume

the

northern section

of

will

more

energy
of

during the winter than


the

building in the southern section

State

due

to

Che

difference

in

weather.
is

However,

the

weather conditions
By

within each district


the

relatively the same.

evaluating
the

buildings against each other according to district,


be

majority of the weather bias will


example

eliminated.

Another

would
a

be a

building that

required large electrical


this would

loads to run

heavy piece of equipment,


then
a a

consume

more

energy
if

similar building without the operation.


an

Therefore,
group,
it
.

building has
not
be

operation

unique

to

the

should

grouped and ranked with the other

buildings

Third,

buildings that have been put


can
not
be

into

the

"Other"

classification

ranked against each other using

the procedure presented below.


the

These buildings
their
type

along

with

unique

buildings
a

within

will have to be

evaluated on

building by building basis.

10

Within each district,

the following procedures would be

followed to rank and select which buildings to audit first.


STEP

1:

Group the buildings into

type

through

VI

and

Other as shown in Figure 2.3.


STEP
2:

Determine the following items for each building.


*

year of construction

hours per week the building


gross

is

operated

conditioned floor area in square feet


12

utility expense for the previous

months
Form follows:
2.1,

STEP 3:

Enter the information from step

onto
as

Building Selection,

see Figure

2.1,

Column

Enter

descriptive

name

for

each

building and group according to type


Column
2

Year of

construction
"Year
1,

Column

Rank each building according to


of

construction," oldest year, No.

etc...

Column

Enter the hours per week the


is

building

occupied

11

Column

Rank the buildings according to "hours

used," most hours, No.l,

etc...

Column

Enter the area In square Feat

of

con-

ditioned floor space

Column

Enter the total utility


the preceding

expenses

for

twelve month period.

Column

Divide the utility expenses


by

(Col.

7)

area

(Col. 6)

Column

Rank the buildings

by
8),

unit

cost

of

utilities

(Col.
1,

with the highest

cost equal to

etc.*.

Column

10

Total the numbers in columns


9.

3,5

and

Column

11

Rank the buildings


total
in
.

according
10

to

the

column
1
,

with the lowest

total No

et c

The

buildings should
in

he

audited

according

to

their

ranking

column 11, with the lowest number audited first


One may audit

and so on.

each building

within
or,

each

group

first,

before going to the next group;

the worst

build-

ings within each group

could be audited first.

12

This selection process


to help
in

Is

offered only as

suggestion
This

determining which buildings to audit first.


audited

method will not guarantee that the buildings


will
have the greatest amount
of

first

energy conservation opporfirst

tunities.
the

To determine which building to audit

from imporA

"other"

group should be based on the building's


the State Highway

tance to the operation of


copy
of

Department.

Form 2.1 can be found in Appendix A.

13

Form

2.1

Building Selection

^iidltor

DISTRICT
. .
.

Date
.

Type
Building

2
3

8 9

10

11

Year

Usage

Area

Utility

$/SF

Tot

Ro*

Figure 2.1

Form 2.1

Building Selection

14

2.3

Bu ilding Selection Example

The following example Is presented

to

i.

llus

ra

(^.

Che

building
is

selection procedure.

The

data used In the example


a

fictitious but would resemble the data for

given

dis-

trict.

Figure 2.2
with
the

is

Form 2.1

Building

Selection

filled

in

fictitious data.

Entries for Building A from the

type IV

group are explained below.


I-

Column

Buildlng
1935
1

Column 2Column 3Column 4Column 5-

Year of construction
Of the type I building A is the oldest

40

40

Building A is occupied hours a week

Building A is occupied the second highest time (NOTE A,B,C all 2's)
600

Column 6Column
7-

Building A has 600 sq ft of conditioned space


Building A had 2100 dollars in utility bills over the last twelve months
2100/600
=

2100

Column 8-

3.5
2

3.5

Column 9Column 10Co lumn


11-

3.5 is the second highest No. in column 8

Columns 3,5 and 9 5 for building A

sura

to

Building A has the lowest Total in column 10 for buildings A to E of type I

15

Looking at the results


ing
A

of

the

type IV buildings,

buildC

should

probably be audited first,


B

buildings

and

second,

building
we

third and building

fourth.

If

look,

at

types
C

to

IV

collectively,

building

from
III,

type

I,

building

from type II,

building A from type

and building A from type IV should be the first

build-

ings

audited.
but
it

The
is

final

order

would depend on personal

judgement,
bui Idings
.

suggested that one start with the older

16

Form

2.1

Building Selection

A.Kiitnr

Joe smltn

ni?;TR!nT

Exaiiple

....
4 6 5

Date
_
. .
1

Type
Bullolng

8 9 $/SF

10

11
Rank

Year

usage

Area

Udllty $

TOL

Type!
Building

A
c

1980
1981

40
40 40

1 1 1

2852

5740
3000 naao

130

4
6

EMldlngB
Building

Z 3

2852
2852

LOO
1.40

3
1

3 2

1982

Typen
BUlldJf^
Bulldir^

A
B

1970 1965

3 2
1

40
40

2 2
1

1900
20(H1

1870

LOO
LIO

4
2
1

3 2
1

2200 3000
1700
16tK]

6 3
11

Building

1960
1971

50
40

25W
190)
1500

L20
.90

BuUdlngD
BuliaingE

4
1

5
3

4 2

1960

40

L07

Type ra
Building
Building

A
B

1960 1965 1970

50
40 40

6420 5oao 4000

6003 55ra 5000

.90

3 2
1

5
6 6

2 3

2
2

LIO
1.25

2
2

Building

Type IV
Building

A
B

1935

40

2 2 2
1 1

600

2100 2700 2400


18OT

33
3

2
3
1

5
8
7 7
11

Building

1950 1960 1940 1965

3 4
2

40
40

900 600 900


1000

3
2 2

BidldlngC
Building Building

4
2

D
E

50 50

1500

L5

Figure 2.2

Form 2.1

Building Selection Example

17

Figure 2.3

Building Type Classification

Building Type

I:

New Block, Design

General Description:
Frame
-

Block construction with

gabled roof

Length:
Widths
Roof

62

feet
feet

46

Wood truss construction and an asphalt

shingle roof

Walls

12"

concrete blocks filled with granular

Insulat ion.

Use

Maintenance unit building.


-

Picture

One front view and one back view,

IB

_,

^,

T-r^j^^w-r

.,

-:J^--

"^l?^^

I-C-V- '"It^^-'^'.'^^^^-lh.'

'."'

'

!^-^

Building Type

Figure 2.3

Building Type

las

L F I

cat

on

19

Figure 2.3

Continued

Building Type II:

Small Metal Building

General Description;

Frame

Steel frame construction with

gabled roof

Length
Width:

63,5 feet

30.0 feet

Roof

Galvanized metal roofing with two


inches of insulation.

Walls

Galvanized corrugated metal siding


with two inches
of

insulation.

Use

Unit

storage building.

Picture

One

front

view.

20

Building Type

II

Figure 2.3

Continued

21

Figure 2.3

Continued

Building Type III:


General Description:
Frame

Large Metal Building

Steel frame construction with

gabled roof.
Length:
Width:
160.5 feet
40.0 feet

Roof

Galvanized metal roofing with


two inches
of

insulation.

Walls

Galvanized metal siding with


three inches
of

insulation.

Use

Traffic operations building.


One front

Picture

view and one back view,

22

Building Type III

Figure 2.3

Continued

23

Figure 2.3

Continued

Building Type IV:


General Description:
Frame
-

Regular Block Design

Block wall construction

Gabled roof for center section


Flat
roof for end sections.

Length:
Width:

165.8 feet

63.0 feet

Roof

Center:

Insulated metal panels.

Outside:

Concrete slab with


bui
1

t-up

roof

Wall

East section:

8" block and

bri ck veneer

Center section;
Wes
At
t
t

12" block.

sect Ion

12" block.

ic

walls

Insulated raetal
s

Ld

ng

Use

Office and maintenance building.


One front

Picture

view and one rear view,

24

!^^rr*j^-;;'i;,*-^'-"^^^^^'':''"~"'v

Building Type IV

Figure 2.3

Continued

25

Figure 2.3

Continued

Building Type

V:

Arched Roof Brick Design

General Description:
Frame

Masonry wall construction with


an arch roof

Length:
Width:
Roof

121.8

f-eet

52.8 feet

Arched steel joist construction


with
a

built-up roof.

Walls
Use

Brick and concrete pilasters.

Sub-district garage.
One front

Picture

view and one side view

26

Building Type

Figure 2.3

Continued

27

Figure 2.3

Continued

Building Type VI:


General Description:
Frame

Shed Type Building

Wooden frame construction with


a

flat pitched roof.

Roof

Roll roofing with wood truss


const ruction
.

Wall

Paneling (outside walls insulated


)

Use

Supply building;
Two front

storage

Picture

views and one back view..

28

Building Type VI

Figure 2.3

Continued

29

CHAPTER

BUILDING INFORMATION FORM


Int roduc t ion

3.1

After

building has been selected for an energy audit,


to

the next step is

fill out the Building Information Form


.

referred to as
to

BIF

complete set

of

BIF

forms

that

are

be

used

in

the
is

energy
a

audit process can be found in

Appendix A.

The BIF

data g'athering form

used

by

the

person doing the audit to collect the necessary physical and

operational information about the facility


audit
.

to

do

an

energy

3 .2

Required Material for Completing the BIF Form


out the information

To fill

required
a

on

the

BIF
of

the

energy

auditor

will need to obtain

complete set
If
of

bluethis
.

prints for the building being audited.


set
of

possible,

blueprints
to

should
a

be

set

as-built drav/ings
the

Also,
ing.
the

try

obtain

set

of

specifications for
the

build-

This will help in filling out


BIF.

descriptive part of

In most

situations,
a

only one set

of

BIF

forms

will

be

needed

to

audit

building.

However,

for

buildings such as

30

the Type

IV

that have

multiple

sections,

it

is

suggested
there are

that

the

energy auditor use as many BIF forms as


For example,
for
a

sections.
BIF

the

energy auditor would

use

three

forms

Type IV building that had three distinct


below.

sections,

see Figure 3.1

SECTION A

SECTION B

SECTION C

common

wall section

and B

Common

wall section B and

Elevation

Common

BIF
Walls

SEC A

BIF SEC B

BIF SEC

Plan

NORTH

Figure 3.1

Building Type IV With Separate BIF Form; For Each Section

When auditing
using
3.1,
a

building with
for

multiple
as

sections

and

separate

BIF

each section,

shown in Figure
to

special attention will have to be paid

the

common

walls

between

the

different
B

sections.

The
B

common walls
and
C

between section A and

and between sections

would

31

not

be

identified
C

on

the BIF

if

the inside

temperature in
is

sections A,B, and

were the same.


there is

When the temperature


no heat

the same in all sections,

loss
the

between secsame

tions.

If

in Figure

3.1

each section had


A.

inside

temperature,

then the BIF for section

would have descriponly.

tions for the West, North,

and EAST walls

Section

would

have descriptions for the West and East walls and for
of

the portions

the North and South walls


B

that were not

com-

mon with section


for the Eastj

and C,

Section

would have descriptions

South and West walls


an inside

of

section C,

When there
two sections,
to
be

is

temperature difference

between

heat

losses between the two sections will have


For example,
of

accounted for.
temperature
of

assume section A
B

had

an

inside

60

and section

had an inside tem12


F

perature
in be

72

Therefore,

there is

difference

temperature between the two sections and heat loss would

occurring from section


sections A and B.

to

section A

at

the

common
the

wall

between

Under this condition,

energy
secin

auditor would have to identify the common wall between


tions
A

and
loss

on

the

BIF and account

for

the heat be

loss

the heat

calculations.
5.

This point

will

discussed

further in Chapter
If

building that does not have


is

set
to

of

blueprints
filled out

available

selected,

the

BIF will have

be

during the site visit.


without
a

The specifics of filling out the BIF

set

of

blueprints are covered in the next section.

32

3.3

Procedures for Completing the BIF Form.


to

The purpose of filling out the BIF Is


that

collect

data

will enable the energy auditor to do the heat


5

loss and In

lighting calculations in Chapters


order
to

and 6,

respectively.
it
is

do

the heat

loss

calculations

necessary to

identify each exterior building component


ponent
that

and interior com-

separates conditioned and unconditioned space.


is

A conditioned space

defined as one that has

heat
one

added
that

via

mechanical systems.

An unconditioned space is

does not have heat added.

Figure 3,2
the

indicates

the

major

building
space.
the

components

and

conditioned and unconditioned


taking
place

Areas that heat loss will be


floorsj
roof,

include
that

exterior walls,

and walls and floors

surround the unconditioned space.


It
is

important to identify the building components


and

by

material

dimensions, and to identify the areas

of

dif-

ferent construction within the same component.


if

For example,

the North wall


8

in Figure

3.2 was

constructed of block for


remaining
9

the first

feet and wood for the


the
of

feet.

The

section

of

BIF

for

the

North

wall
with

would have one


its

description

the
a

block construction,

respective

dimensions and
tion with
its

separate description for the wood construcdimensions


listed.
This

point

will

be

explained in more detail in section 3.4.

33

BuUding Components Where Heat Losses Take Place

LEGEND

mi
r/.v.'!

Roof

&

Ceiling

r.'sW^vl

Basement Floor
Interior Partition

b^Y>:^ Exterior Wall (wood)


Wall Below Grade (concrete)

IXsWi

Pitched roof

Exterior Wall
(nortji side)

Figure 3.2

Location of Heat Losses Through Major Building Components

34

The general procedures


are

to

follow in filling out the BIF


a

explained

below for
Next,
a

building that has

set

of

blue-

prints available.
out the

the
of

general procedures for

filling
The

BIF without
of

set

blueprints are explained.

specifics
are

filling out the BIF form along with an

example

covered in section 3,4,


The general procedures for filling out the BIF

with

set

of

blueprints are as follows:


major

1,

Review the blueprints and identify the


components.

building

2,

Fill out the BIF as completely as


the

possible.

Some

of

Information

requested

on

the

BIF will have to

be

filled out during the site visite


3,

Complete site visit

(see Chapter 4),

4,

Complete BIF and go on to Chapter

5.

The general procedures


a

for filling out

the BIF

without

set

of

blueprints are as follows;

1.

Complete site visit and perform


Chap ter
4
) .

building

survey

(see

2.

Complete BIF and go on to Chapter

5.

35

3,4

Instructions for Filling Out the BIF Form with Examples


This

section
out

of

Chapter

deals with the

specifics

of

filling
ling out

the BIF form.

Instructions are given for filidentify what type


of

the BIF and to help

informa-

tion

is
of

required

by

the BIF.

To help one understand the

process
is

filling out the BIF and what type of

information
This

required, an example building was created^.

example
The

building was then used to fill out an example BIF,

com-

pleted example BIF can be found at the end of this chapter.


Figures 3.3 to 3.14 on the
the

following
fill
of

pages

represent

example

building

used

to

out

the example BIF.

These figures represent the type

information
that

that

one
to

would
^

obtain

from the blueprints


a

or

one would have

determine from
BIF.
the

building survey in order to

fill

out

the

Following Figure 3.14 are instructions for filling out


BIF

form.

36

28' 0"
18' 0-

-10' 0"

Wall Construction

Mech.
15' 0"

room

s
30" 0"

""

Basement
Concrete

Main Floor
Conference room
Brlck/Block

Storage
15'

wood

Siding

room

BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN

70' 0"

3"

by

r
ooor

man
50'

(metal)

IV by IV ovemead ooor

IV by IV ovemead door

MAIN FLOOR PLAN

Figure 3.3

Example Building Floor Plan;

37

BricK/Block Typical

Basement

Area

Wood

Siding Typical

Figure 3,4

Example Building South Elevation

2S' 0"

42' 0"

Figure 3,5

Example Building North Elevation

38

Exterior Sheating

m-iii'iinn

Brick/Block

Figure 3.6

Example Building West Elevation

II

II

Ext Sheating

Wood

Siding

Figure 3.7

Example Building East Elevation

39

Asphalt shingle roofing

Felt building

membrane

Plywood sheating,

0.5 inch

Nominal 2incn by 6inch ceiling 24 inches o.c.

rafter^

Figure 3.8

Typical Roof Section

i.

8 inch concrete block, cinder aggregate

F=t^
I

V
^ inch face brick

Y-

Figure 3,9

Typical Brick/Block Wall Section

40

Air Space, 3.5 inchies

Gypsum Wallboard,

0.5 inch

Nominal 2inch by 4inch wood studs


16 inches
o.c.

Exterior plywood sheating, o.5 inch

Figure 3,10

Typical Exterior Sheeting Section

8 Incn TnicK concrete

Figure 3.11

Typical Basement Wall Section

41

4 Inch Thick Concrete


K K K K
'
* K K ^ K K K K K K . / . / / y y y ./ / \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ % N \ S < / ^ / . y y y y / / . / y
. .-

*-.

Soil

Figure 3.12

Typical Basement Floor Section

6 inch Thick concrete

y
f

\ \ \ y ^
'^

-^
__

-soil

'

"

Figure 3.13

Typical Garage Floor Section

Siding,

wood

0.5 by 8 inch

Sheating, o.Sinch Asphalt impregnated

Nominal 2 by 4inch wood stud 16


Batt Insulation, 3.5 Inch

in. o.c.

Gypsum Wall Board

Figure 3.14

Typical Wood Siding For Office Area

42

In

order to explain in greater detail how to


the

fill

out

the

BIF,

example BIF

at

the

end

of

this

chapter has been


a

divided into figures.


the

Each figure

represents

portion

of

BIF

and is accompanied with instructions


the BIF.

for filling out

that portion of
the
BIF

The instructions for


by

filling

out

are

followed

the figure

that

the

instructions

pertain to
A word of

caution;

each building is unique


that
is

and
a

thereBIF will

fore

the

information

contained within
The

vary from building to building.

example

building

was
the

created

to

try

to

cover

the

basic information that


to

energy auditor will be required

determine

for

his/her

buildings.

Therefore,

the

buildings
the

that will be audited


is

may or may not contain some of


on

information that

shown

the

example.
divided into six major
Roman numerals
the
I

The BIF is

sections

which

are

identified
section
The
3
I

by

to VI.

For example,
of

major

covers

general description

the

building.

breakdown
.

under

each major section is

shown in Figure

.15

43

I.

-MAJOR SECTION
A.

General Description
A,

-Major Section, DIVISION

General

-Division A, PART
a.

-Part
-Part

1,

SECTION

b.

1,

SECTION
PART

2,

-Division
a.

A.

-Part -Part

2,

SECTION

b.

2,

SECTION

B.

-Major Section

I,

DIVISION
(repeated )

B,

Buildng Type

II.

-MAJOR SECTION 11

Building Characteristics
to VI)

(repeated for MAJOR SECTIONS III

Figure 3.15

BIF

Form Breakdown by Major Sections

44

Each figure has been identified with its Roman

numeral

major
are

section,

and what divisions within the major section For example,


C

discussed in the Instructions.


I,

Figure 3.16
the

covers major section


BIF.

divisions A,B, and

for

example
BIF

Figure 3.17 covers major section II


etc.

of

the example

and includes Division A,

3.4.1

Major Section
covers
the
3

I,

Division A,B,C
of

Major section

general description

the

building
as

and is broken into

divisions^

The divisions are

follows:

Division A General

Division
Division
is

Building Type

Operating Schedule
the

Division A

general information about


is

building.

This

portion of the BIF


the

straight forward with the exception of


The

"contact person".

contact person should be

person

who

works

in

the building or who is


of

familiar with the conThis person should

struction and operation


be

the

building.

able to walk the energy auditor through the building durthe site

ing

visit and answer any questions about

the

build-

ing he/she might have.

Division Describe
the

is

brief

description

of

the

building type.
the

major building materials used to construct

45

exterior
and roof

of

the

building.

This

includes the exterior

walls

Next,
ing
was

indicate the year or approximate year the

buildof

constructed.
(

Year(s)

and

description

modif ica t ion


that

pertains to any modification to the building


the

may have affected

energy consumption
items as additional

of

the

build-

ing.

This

can include such

insulation,

storm windows,
may not be

new roofs,
on

and additions to the building that

shown

the
can

blueprints.
be

Information

about

building
visit
.

modifications

filled out during the site

Division
The

is

the

operating schedule
is

of

the

building.
evening,

times

the

building

in use

during the day,


This

weekend and other times will be indicated.


can
f

information

be

obtained during the site visit.

The entries are as

ollows
This
that

Days /wk

refers
the

to

the number of
is

days

per

week

building
3.16

occupied.
is

For example,

in Figure

the building

occupied

days a week

Time

This

refers
it

to

the

time the

building

opens

and when

closes.
total hours
that

Hou rs

This

is

the

the building is

operated

between opening and closing times.

46

For example,

in Figure

3.16

the

building

is

occupied
This
a

days
a

week
5

from SAM to 5PM.


days or 45 hours

is

hours

day for

week.

Ope rat Ing

Tempera tu re

This

is

the

normal

operating

temperature

(thermostat

setting)
.

during the summer and

winter months
No.
of

Occupant s

This

refers

to

the average number of


the

people

who

work

in

building during the time

specified.
time
of

This may vary depending upon the

the year and

should be noted.

47

FORM

3.

BUILDING INFORMATION FORM (BIF)

I.

General Description
A)

General:

Name of Suilding
==.T

Address

^TF^ELT
Telephone Number

City UE'ST lAFA-fen&

^^^-QOOO

District

<^gAt^Fg'^Cl>'^iLlE-

Sub-District

(:;lp=4-iFt7^C>^^ltLE.

Contact Person
Building use:

!(:?.
MAII-tTEhiAMcE.

Position

(^fAPA^E-

Q)

Building Type:
6rA^A/:^h

Description

A^A

6gl6l^
g'U

g)U76l^

kUlL

^fFi6

Ae&A-

jJgg^i?

"^ic7ii-J<:^

iJa^g-t?

^Tucx

Year of Construction

\^ jC/
(

Year(s) and Description of Modif icat ion

iJaLL

uJiTi4

t^ufrLs- CK^-i^C>.

C)

Operating Schedule:
Time Days from per to
u)k

Hours

Operating Temperature
SUM. WIN.

No.

of

Occupants

DAY

"^

g,A^_
_

^fH

Eveninq Ueekend
Other

Figure 3.16

BIF Example Major Section Divisions A,B, and C

I,

48

3. A.

Major Section II, Division A


II
5

Major section
and is broken into

covers

the

building
C,

characteristics
and E.

divisions A, B,
of

D,

Division A Photographs
Division
B

Building

Building Floor Plans


Floors
Walls
Roof

Division
Division

Division
A will

Division building
B,C,D,
the

be

completed during the site visit.


has
a

If

the

being

audited

set

of

blueprints,

divisions
If

and E

can be

completed prior to the site visits


audited
does
to

building

being

not have
be

set

of

blue-

prints,

these divisions will have

completed during the

sitevisit.
Division
the
A

provides room for

exterior

photographs
of

of
of be

building*

During the site visit photos

all sides

the building should be taken.

Photographs

should

also

taken

of

building conditions that may be causing energy con-

servation problems.
attached
tion of
on

These

additional

photographs
is
a

can

be

separate sheets.
of

Figure 3.17

representa-

two photographs

the example

building.

49

II.

Building Characteristics
A) Photographs of Building:

.^^[^
\

^plli"
fti6Sigi!isi^i
1'

ffgr^

p
\

"

--...-,..,-,.-...----.-.

6^7UT^1

Elevation

Uie^T

Elavation

Elevation

Elevation

Figure 3.17

BIF Example Major Section II, Division A

50

3.4.3

Major Section II. Division


for
the

B,

Part

and

Division
plans.

is

preparation

of

building

floor

Building floor plans are prepared so that the energy


build-

auditor can enter Information about the rooms in the


ing

during

the

site visit.

This
of

information will include

lighting layouts and location


lems
.

energy

conservation

prob-

From the blueprints,


floor.
If
a

sketch the

floor

plan

for

each

set

of

blueprints are not available, floor


after

plans will have to be prepared

measuring

the

rooms

during

the site

visit.
1

The BIF has


2,

room for describing two


many

floor plans. Part sheets


as

and Part

but use as

additional

needed.

During the site visit,

verify the floor


any

plans prepared from the

blueprints
floor

and

record

major

changes

in

the

building

plans.
for

On the floor plan


its

identify what each room is

used
is

and

approximate

dimensions.

Figure 3,18

the

basement floor plan for the


is

example building and Figure 3.19


the

the main floor plan


of
a

for

example

building.

The

use

numbering system to
plan

identify each room will leave enough room on the floor


for entering the information during
the

site visit.

51

D)

Building Floor Plan:

Floor ^A-serjEKiT

MECK RCOM

10'

Dy 15'

STORAGE ROOM

10'

by

15'

CONFERENCE ROOM

18"

by 30'

Figure 3.18

BIF Example Major Section II, Division B Part 1


,

52

!)

Floor

Ma1|4

r^-

'~

(l)

GARAGE AREA
REST ROOMS
ID'

42' Dy 30"

(?) OFFICE

la'oy lo'

(D
(T)

Dy 12*

OFFICE
(t)

13'

by

ID*

STCRAGE

14"

by

12'

STAIRS

(a) HALL

Figure 3.19

BIF Example Major Section II Division B, Part 2

53

Major Section II, Division Sections a and b

C,

Part

and

2,

Division
is

Is

for the description of

the floors.
1

There
Sec-

room for describing two floors,


"a'
is

part

and part
in

2.

tion

for describing the material used

the

floor

construction
dimensions.
ditioned
the floor
the

and

section
that

'b'

is

for

describing the floor

For floors

are

on

grade or separating con-

and unconditioned space,

sketch

cross

section of

construction.
of

Describe the material and

indicate

thickness

each material

Figure 3,20 Indicates the two floor sections

that

are

identified
4

for the example

building.

The basement

floor is
in

inch thick concrete and Is approximately 28 feet


In width.

length

and 30 feet

The garage area is

inch

thick conIt
is

crete and is 42 feet in length and 30 feet


not

in

width.

necessary to identify the floor construction between the


since

basement and the office area in this example building


both

areas are conditioned space.

However,

if

the

basement
floor floor

in the example

building were
to be

not

heated

then
,

this

would

not
be

have

identified on the BIF

This

would now
and
the

separating conditioned and unconditioned


loss

space

heat

through the floor to the basement would

have to be accounted for.

5A

C> Floors:
1)

Location
a)

f^A^EKlE^T

Floor Construction

Description

U"

THICK CONCRETE

/L
'yjjjx

SOIL

Cross Section

b)

Floor Dimensions
Ulidth

Length__&__
2) Location
a) Floor

"^^

6j'AgA(;-jE.

Construction
Description
6"

THICK CONCRETE

SOIL

Cross Section

b) Floor

Dimensions
Width

Length

^l.

^^

Figure 3.20

BIF E Example Major Section II, Division C, Part 1 and 2, Section a and b

55

3.4.5

Major Section II, Division D, Part Sections a and b


for the description of

1,

Division
tion.

is

the wall construc-

There are four parts to Division D.


a

Each part

is

for the

describing
four

separate wall.

This will usually


If

include

exterior walls.

However,

there

is

an Interior wall
it

separating conditioned and unconditioned space,


to

will have
if

be

identified

on

the

BIF

Use additional sheets

required.

Section
wall

*a'

is

for describing the material used in

the

construction

and

for
a

sketching

the wall elevation.

From the blueprints sketch


ical
As cal

cross section through each typ-

wall

section and describe the material and thickness.


it

discussed earlier,

is
a

important to identify each typigiven wall.


For example,

construction

within

Figure

3.21,
of

section *a' represents the North wall example building.

cross

sections

the

Note that for this particular wall


The wood siding

there are three typical wall constructions.


is

the

exterior

construction

of

the

office

area.

The

brick/block combination is the construction for the exterior


garage walls.
The

concrete

is

the

construction

of

the

base-

ment wall under the office area.


Next,

sketch the wall elevation

from

the

blueprints.

During
ble

the site visit,

inspect the exterior wall for possiIt

energy conservation problems and note

on

the

sketch.

This

should

be

done for the type of

information that will

56

not

show up in
as

the

photographs.
the

This

can

include

such

Information
doors,

condition of

sealants around windows and


The North elevation in
the

cracks in the wall,

etc.

example

building has

broken window pane and this has been


3.21

noted on the sketch,

see Figure

section ^a'.

Section *b'
and dimensions.

is

for
a

the

wall

construction

description

Enter

descriptive name for each wall sec*a'

tion identified in section

and

enter

the

length

and

width

of

each

wall section.

Figure 3.21, section ^b' has


there were three typical

three wall descriptions since


sect ions
.

wall

'

57

D)

uns
1)

Location

.jJ^EOl
Description
siding,

a) Wall Construction

wood

Q.5

by Sinch
aspnalt Impregnaxeo

WOOD
SIOiNG

sheallng, ttBincn

nominal 2 by 4lnch wood stud 16 la


Datl insuiallon, 3.51ncn

aa

gypsum wall board, dSinch

BLOCK

^
*

. ; l ;
!

i |

.n
I I

.
;

^^^^^^

4"

face brick

8" concrete block

BASEMENT WALL
Cross Section

8"

iWck concrete

Ditxen wiTOT^

pam

Elevation
b) Wall

Construction Description and Dimensions

Construction
Construction

Uo?^

^''^I^^ Length

1^
M"^'

Height

\^
\^
1^

feJ^^^K - l^LonK.

Length

Height Height

Construction W^ME>^T UklJLength

2g>'

Figure 3.21

BIF Example Major Section II, Division D, Section a and b

58

Major Section II, Division Sections c, d,

D,
e

Part

Continued,

Section
in

*c'

is

for describing the

window

construction

the

exterior walls.

Single,

double and Insulating glazed


layers of glass
of

refers to the type and number of


dow.

in

the winis

Enter the area for each type

glazing.

This area
of

calculated
dow

from outside to outside measurements


The space

the win-

frame.

refers to the distance in inches


of

that

separates the two layers


have

glass.

Indicate
of

if

the

windows

storm

windows

or

any other type

window and their


inside

approximate areas.
This
ft
of

Windows may also

have

shading.

can

be

provided by curtains,

blinds,

etc.

Enter the sq
the

window that the shading covers.


type.

Indicate

window

frame

This will usually be aluminum,


The width
edge
of

steel or wood.
is

Indicate the frame width in inches.


from
the

measured
frame,

edge
3
.

of
,

the

glass
>.

to

the

the window

see Figure

22

'

in

Figure 3.22

Window Frame Width Measurement

59

Section *d'
The

Is

for describing

the

door

construction.

entries are as follows:


-

Description
NO. -

Describe the door construction and type. Indicate the number


of

each type of

door.

Usage -

Estimate the number


use

of
If

people per
the

hour

that

these doors.

doors are used only

in emergency

situations,
of

enter zero.
door in inches.

Thkness -

Enter the thickness


-

the

Height/Width

Enter the height and width


feet and inches.

of

the

door

in

Area -

Calculate the area for each door type by multiplying the NO., height, and width together

Section 'e' is for describing the infiltration


the

through

exterior
a

walls.

Infiltration

refers to the air that

enters into

building through cracks in the exterior


and

wall,

around
lets

window

door frames, and any other opening that


be

air into the building where the flow or air can not

controlled.
are None,
of

Indicate
or Many.

if

the

cracks in the exterior walls


and

Few,

Indicate the condition

number

loose-fitting windows.
loose-fitting doors.
weather

Indicate the condition and number


Also,

of

indicate
the

if

the
of

doors
the

are

properly
hold.

stripped

and

condition

thres-

Indicate the condition of the seal between the window

60

air-conditioners
ducts do
not

and

the building.

Indicate

if

the

exhaust

have

properly

working

back-draft

dampers.

Draft
the

dampers

prevent
Is

air entering into the building when


In use.

exhaust duct
of

not

Finally,

indicate any other


into the

type

crack

and/or opening that

lets air enter

building uncontrolled.
Figure 3.23

is

Major Section 11, Division

D,

Part

1,

Sections
that feet

c,

and e.
of

Section 'c' of Figure 3.23 indicates


the example

the North wall


of

building

has

60

square

singled glazed window with no shading.


2

The window

frame type is aluminum and is

inches wide.

Section *d' of
no

Figure

3.23 indicates
the In

that

the North wall has

doors.
doors
a,

In
or
b,

some cases

exterior walls will not


these situations
^e'

have

any

windows.
and e.
no

just

fill out sections


that

Section

of

Figure 3.23 indicates

there

is

special infiltration problems with the North wall.


it

Genwill

erally

is

expected that newer constructed buildings

have fewer infiltration problems.

61

c> Window Construction

Single Glazed Double Olaied


(space

G^C?

sq,

ft. ft.

sq.

inches)
sq. ft.

Insulating Glazed
(space

inches)
sq. ft.

Storm Windows
Other (specify)

sq.

ft.
ft.

Shading (soecifu)

H/A-

s^.

Window Frame Tgpe


Frame Width
d>

ALlirllMUKl
(z.

inches

Door Construction

Description

No.

Usage
(Per/hr)

Thkness (inches)

Height
(ft-in)

Width
(ft)

Area
<sf)

M/A

>

Infiltration
Cracks through walls None

Few
e>fe^l^Ehi

Many

Loose-fitting windows
Loose-fitting doors
hi

^
/A

'4

^^C^\a>^

Loose-fitting air conditioner s

jJA
H/A

Ventilation exhaust ducts without dampers


Others observed (describe)
v^'P^

Figure 3.23

BIF Example Major Section II, Division D, Part 1, Sections c,d, and e

62

3.4.7

Major Section II, Division


Sect ions
a

D,

Part

2,

and

The Instructions same


for part
1

for division D,

part
3

are
4

exactly the

of

division D.

Parts

and

of

division

will also be the same and therefore are not

Included in
3

the

instructions.

However,

division
at

D,

parts
the

and 4,

are

Included in the example BIF

the end of
is

chapter and it

should noted how the Information


Once
a

entered for these parts.


a

wall section has been des cri bed on


it is

previous
the

wall

section,

not

necessary

to

repeat

description.

Figure 3.24

illustrates this point.


of

Section *a' section


the East
of

part

in Figure

3.24 describes
the

the wall

plywood siding that occurs at

roof
of
it

level on

and West

elevations.

Since this

type

wall
is

con-

struction

was

not
it

described on the North wall


here.

neces-

sary to describe

Next,
on

notice in Figure 3.24

that

there are

no

comments

the

East

elevation.

This

indicates that
Also,

there are no

noticeable problems with the East wall.


even
not
be

notice

that

though

the wood

siding and concrete wall sections were


the

Identified on this page,


entered.

length and width must still

63

2> Location

Z^>^
Description
exterior plywood sneaiing. 0.51ncn

a) Uall Construction

PLYWOOD
SIDING

^<fm !
WOOD
SIDING

nominal 2 by alnch wood studs 161a

ac

gypsum wall Doard, asincn

SEE

NORTH WALL

WOOD

SIDIM3 CeSCRIPTlON

BASEMENT WALL

SEE NORTH WALL CONCRETE DESCRIPTION

Cross Section'

Elevation
b> Uall

Construction Description and Dimensions


l'^'

Can.trurtion fWulg^'^g'^lC'igtfLenoth Construction


Ult:t?(?'olPlU6r

Height
Height

g'
\^

^'

Length

^^'
^<^'

Can. trtiction &A^hEMTl^U. Length

Height

1^

Figure 3.24

BIF Example Major Section II, Part 2, Section a and b

Division D,

6A

3.4.8

Major Section II, Division Sections a, b, c, d, and


for
2

E,
e

Part

1,

Division
tion.
and
2

is

the description of

the

roof

construcPart
1

There

are

parts with five sections each.


roof

are for describing two different

constructions.
the

Section 'a'
roof

is

for

describing the material used in


sketch
a

construction.

From the blueprints,

cross

sec-

tion through each typical roof


of

section.

Describe the

pitch

the

roof,

material used,
for the

and material thickness.

Section ^b'
in

is

dimensions
the width

of

the

roof

described
the

section
distance

^a'.
is

Enter

and

length of

roof.
of

This

measured from the outside to outside


It

the

exterior
that

wall.

does

not

include any portion


If

of

the

roof

overhangs the exterior wall.


the
of

the

roof

is

pitched,
3.25
for

enter

distance

along

the pitch.

See Figure

location

measurements.

65

Figure 3.25

Location of Roof Measurements

Section
of

*c'

is

for describing the color


to the

and

condition

the

roof.

The color refers

exterior portion of
is

the

roof

and for most

roofs
of

the

color
if

usually

dark.

Indicate the condition


the age of
the
of

the

roof and

possible determine
may

roof.
its

The age of

the

roof

give

some

Indication

condition.
for describing skylights that may
a

Section 'd'
in

is

exist

the
a

roof.

From the blueprints,

sketch

cross section

thru

typical skylight and describe the construction.


*e'
is

Section

for

determining

the

area
of

of

the
,

skylights
the

in

section *d'.

Enter the number

skylights

length and width measured from outside to outside of


t f

the

sky li gh

rame

66

Figure 3.26
ing. roof
For
this

is

the

roof

section

of

the

example

build-

example building,
2

there is
is

only one typical

section and therefore part

not

necessary.

67

E) Roof:
1)

Location

Eh4Tigg.

g>Uilpi'-'6r

a) Roof Construction

Description
AspTialt sfilfigles

Felt building

membrane
0.5 i^c^es

Plywood shealing,

Nominal 2inch by 6inch ceiling rafter


2fl

Inches

on center

Cross Soction
b)

Roof Dimensions

le'

Width

-ho

Length

70

8'^"

Pitch

c> Roof

Color and Condition


light
dark

Color

^
poor

Condition

good age

fair

d)

Skv Lights

Descr iption
Single pane glass

Cross Section
e)

Skglight Area
No.
'2-

Length

lO

Width
eUidth

4
S(l.

No.

Length

ft.

Figure 3.26

BIF Example Major Section II, Division E, Part 1, Sections a, b, c, d and e

68

3.4.9

Major Section III, Division

Major Section III covers the major energy using systems


and
is

broken Into
A -

divisions A,B and C.


Cooling, Hot water and

Division

Heating,

Kitchen Systems

Division
Division

B C

Lighting Interior

Lighting Exterior
is

Division A

for

describing the space


of

heating,
equipment

space
that

cooling and hot water systems and the type


is

located in the kitchen areas.


is

page of

numbered

codes

follows Division A that


ate information.

used for filling in the appropri-

Figure 3.27 indicates how this section was


for
the
a

filled

out

example

building.

The

energy auditor may need to

consult
the

building systems book to familiarize himself

with

different mechanical systems.

69

III

Major Energy Uiing Sgstvns


A) Fill
in the approprlatv numbers for items numbered codes listed on the neit page:
1

thru S using the

Fuel Tgpe(A>

Mechanical Equipment (B>

Terminal Unit <C)

Thermostat Setting- F
Sum. Win.

1.

Space Heating

O'^
OT.

l-=b

vJ/A

7<=^

2.

Space Cool ing


Hot Water

ZZ
Z'^

t^/A

lo
no"
>J/A

\\o

3.

37
hJA

4.
9.

Kitchen

(J/A

(J/A

KiA

Kitchen equipment description

Figure 3.27

BIF Example Major Section III,

Division

3.4.10

Major Section III. Division


for a

Division

is

lighting survey

of

the

interior.
been

During

the

site

visit

use the floor plans


a

that have

prepared from either the blueprints or from


vey
to

building

sur-

enter information about the lighting systems.

This sys-

information will then be used to evaluate the lighting


tem using the procedures discussed in Chapter 6.
On
the

floor plan for each room indicate the followin g

the number of

fixtures in use

the

ceiling height for each ro om

70

the fixture height

distance from floor to bottom of

fixture)

number

of

lamps per fixture

lamp

abbreviation

number

(see

Chapter

section

6.2.1)
*

the footcandle

level for

several

locations

in

the

room.

The footcandles

can be

measured

with
of

light

meter

described
cedures,

in

the

equipment section
4

the site

visit pro-

see Chapter

section 4.2,

Figure 3.28

is

the

basement floor plan

of

the

example

building after the lighting information has been filled out.


If

the

floor plan

is

large enough,

the

energy auditor should


This

indicate the light fixture locations.


be

information will
if

useful in

determining what fixtures to eliminate


can
6.

the

lighting

levels

be

reduced.

This will be discussed

further in Chapter

71

ceiling- 9 ft

(T)

MECK ROOM

10'

Dy

15*

90 fC

^
y

(F)

STORAGE ROOM

10'

Dy

15'

80 fc

90 fc

CONFERENCE ROOM

18'

by

30'

15- 4 lamp flxlui es

lamp abb. FAOTlJZCW


fc

Figure 3.28

Example Building Basement Floor Plan With Lighting Information

After the energy auditor has completed the site

visit,

he/she

can

finish

the lighting survey back at

the office.

This will involve the transfer of information from the floor

plans

to

Division

of

Major Section III and some simple


follows:

calculations.
Room
-

The entries and calculations are as

Enter

descriptive name
of

of

the

room.

Area -

Enter the area

each room in square feet

Ceil Hght. Fix. Hght.


-

Enter the ceiling height in feet Enter the fixture height in feet
-

Total Watts

Calculate the total watts


The

for

each

room.

total

watts

is

the

number of

fixtures
6

times

the watts

per fixture.

See Chapter

7 2

section 6.2.1
lamp of
ple,
a

for

determining the watts per


For

fluorescent fixture.

exam-

the
15

conference
4

room in the basement


lamps

has

fixtures with
per
4

each

at

46

watts
ture is

lamp.

The total watts per fix-

times 46 watts or 184

watts

per
for

fixture.
the

Therefore,

the
15

total watts

conference room is

fixtures

times

184 watts

per fixture or 2,760

total watts.

Avg. Lgt. Lev. - Calculate

the
is

average lighting level in the


the total number
of

room.
dles

This

footcan-

divide by the number of

measurements.
room
4

For

example,

the

conference
from

had

total of 330 footcandles

measurefootcan-

ments
dles.

or

an average

level of

82.5

73

B) Lighting

Interior:

Room

Area
(sf
)

Ceil. Hght.
<ft.
)

Fi Hght. <ft

Total Matts

Avg.

Lgt Lev.
<fc)

Usage (hrs/uk)

-ZO
tjibeACxt-

l<oO

\o

^
Zlf^O

\o
gz.^

hJ/A

^MFeeei^iCE

^.Mo

c^AeAi^t

lZd:P<5'

IL'

M860

7^
^bo

M'S

PKT &r^4
'=b-TT>eA6rt.

\zc
\(og

3
lO

8
^

^<^g S7fc

lo
=.

3o

O-aLL
(5FFvce
C>PPI6.

(OA
loo
\^>o

8
.^

Ms

'^TAl^^

Figure 3.29

BIF Example Major Section III,

Division

3.4.11

Major Section III, Division


for
1

C,

Division
lighting.

is

lighting
for
the

survey

of

the

exterior

Part

is is

perimeter lighting of the


The major

building and part


cern
how
this for

for the parking area.

con-

with the exterior lighting is


the

the method of

control or
for

lights are

turned on and off.

The

information

section can be placed directly on the BIF.


the

The entries

perimeter and the parking area are as follows:

74

Location
Type -

Enter the location

of

the

llght(s).

Enter the type


-

of

light fixture

Total-watts

Enter the total watts for the


-

location,

Method-of -cont rol

Describe how the lights

are

activated.
or

Manual,
(specify)
Usage
-

Photocell,

Timer

Other

Determine the
that
the

average

hours

per

week

lights are on.

C)

Lighting Exterior:
1)

Building Perimeter

Location

Type

Total Uatts

Method of control

Usage
(hrs/uik)
|\g>

^ E^T
-SoottA

FLg'g'p

2QOO
'5

Mai^uaL
Mat^u/^L

f Lgcc?

coo

U&

2) Parking Area

Location

Tgpe

Total Watts

Method of control Ma>ooa.L

Usage (hrs/uk
'-^'^

'^ootA

Zccxx>

Figure 3.30

BIF Example Major Section III,

Division

75

3.4.12

Major Section IV
for entering the climatic
5

Major section IV
will
be

is

data

that

used

in Chapter

for

the heat

loss

calculations.
by

The climatic
in Table

data is provided for Indiana

cities

district

3.1.

Select the city nearest to the building being


data.
1

audited and enter the necessary climatic

heating
a

degree-day
base over
a

(HDD)

is

an average temperature

below
day

65

24-hour period.
of

For
F

example,
15

with

an

average
days.
1

temperature
A

50

would have
is

heating degree-

cooling degree-day
a

(CDD)

an average

temperature

over

65

base.

Heating

degree-days and cooling

degree-days are one parameter used to estimate fuel consumption.

IV.

Climatic Data
0ut3icle Temperature

(winter)

^"='F
CEplcit=>

Average Annual Heating Degree Days Average Annual Cooling Degree Days
Main Wind Direction and Velocity

ns^
>^^P-T^

/lO '^fA

Figure 3.31

BIF Example Major Section IV

76

Table 3.1

Climatic Data for Indiana

Dislricf
City

OuUlde
Temperature

AVG
Annual

AVG
Annual

AVG
Winter

HDD

ODD

Wind

Vel.

MPH
CRAWFORDSVILLE
crawfordsvllle
3 3

5755
5351

983
1110

10

Lafayette
Terre Haute

6223

818

FORT WAYNE
Fort Wayne
1 1
1

6209 6272 5914

74a

Gosnen
Huntington

708

15

830 794
1081

Marlon
Penj
-1

6125
5585

GREENFIELD
Anderson
indlaiapolls

6
2

5580
5577

981

974
10
1081

Kokomo
Muncle
2 2

5585 5500
5897

900
702

Ricnmond
snelDvllie

5399

1025

LAPCDRTE
Laporte 3 2
2
1

6349
6036

796 830
15

Gary
HoDart
Soutn Bend
Valparaiso

6036
6462
6277

830 695
705

77

Table 3.1

Con t 1 nued

Outside
District/

AVG
Anrninl

AVG
Annual

AVG
Winter

CUy

Temperature

HDD
SEYMOR
Bloomlngton
5
7

ODD

wina

vei.

MPH

4905

1177

Columous
Jeffersonvllle

5266
4132 4132 5187

889
10

10
10

1461

New

Albany

1416
1157

Seymor

VINCENTS
Beafora
5 9 6

4790 4624 4946

1139
1364

10

EvansvUle
vincermes

1295

CXitslde design winter weather condition temperature. Design Dry-BuID at 97.5'8.

78

3.4.13
Major Section

Major Section

pertains to existing energy


can
be

management

programs.

This

section

filled out during the site

visit with the assistance of

the

contact person.

3.4.14

Major Section VI
for field

Major Section VI
during
the

is

inspection
notes

notes

taken

site

visit.

These

should contain any


help

information about the building that will


information
contained
in

clarify

the

the

BIF

or

clarify any possible

energy conservation opportunities.


Note:
The
rest

of

Chapter

is

Form 3.1
the example
of

Building

Informa-

tion Form (BIF) filled out for

building shown in
how
a

Figures 3.3 to 3.4.


BIF would appear.

This

is

an example

completed

79

FORM

3.

BUILDINC INFORMATION FORM (BIF)

General Description
A)

General;

Nam. of Building
Address _J

E/AMPL ^U\10\^C^
Telephone Number 4'^'^-gig'gO

'^TPEE-T

City UE'^T LApAtenE.

Diatrlct

<:^gAUfg'g<?^v^illfc

Sub-District Cp^Fc^O^'-^^^^i.
Position

Contact Person
Building use:

lg?IJAlMTEhlAI-i^E

(^Al^^rE.

B)

Building Type:

Description

^AgA/^L

A^A

6gl6|C
g>i-|

|5>U7^|C

|JaLL

^FFl^E A/w-

l^g-tyP

^it7ii-J<S^-

UJgg'l?

^TLjg^

Year of Construction

M Ax
)

Year<s) and Description of Modif ication(s

C> Operating Schedule:

Days
per
uik

Time from to

Hours

Operating Temperature
SUM.

No.

of

Occupants

DAY

"^

g^_
_

^m

WIN.

Eveninq

Weekend

Other

Figure 3.32

Form 3.1 Examp le

Building Information Form (BIF)

80

II.

Building Charactariatic*
A) Photographs of Building:

li--^:.

-^

'^LmL. Elavation

Oi^r

Elevation

Elevation

Eltvation

Figure 3.32

Continued

81

D) Oullding Floor Plan


1)

Floor &A^tt^i->^T

ceiling- 9 ft

(T)

MECH.

ROOM

10'

Dy

15'

V"^

90 fc

(?)

STORAGE ROOM

10"

Dy

15'

15-

90 fc

70 ^c

CONFERENCE ROOM

18'

by 30'

a lamp fixtures

larp ID F40T12CW
80 fc

Figure 3,32

Continued

82

>)

Floor

MA)H

(2) 60fC
eofc

(r20fc

20fc

85fC

7Qfc

2-a lamp

3-2 lamp

27-2
70fC

lamp fixtures
SfC

F40T12CW
flOfC

FaOT12CW
30fC 30fc

22
75fc

F60T12CW/HO
75fC


65fc

4-2 lamp
60fC
65fc 70fc

Oy
10'

5-2 lamp

_Li
(?)

F4QT12CW
90fC

F40T12CW
90fC

(T)

G/V^AGE AREA

42'

Dy

30'

OFFICE

10"

(2)

REST ROOMS

10'

Dy

12'

(?)
(7)

OFFICE

13'

Dy

10'

(?)

STORAGE
HALL

Ifl'

by

12'

STAIRS

(4)

Figure 3.32

Continued

83

C> Floarc:
1>

Location

f^A^et^EMT

a) Floor Construction

Dotcription

4"

THICK CONCRETE

SOIL

Cros* Section

b) Floor Oincnsions

Lngth_^^_
2) Location

Width

'^'^

G^/^9~^C-^^

a> Floor Construction

Dtscription
6"

THICK CONCRETE

SOIL

Cross Soction

b) Floor Dimonsions

Lonoth

^t

Width

'^tP

Figure 3.32

Continued

'

84

0> Mai If
1)

Location
i)

\-dCP^\\i

Wall Construction

Dticrlption
Siding,

wood as by 81nch
aspnalt Impregnaied
Alncfi

WOOD

sheallng, asinch

nominal 2 by

wood said 16 ia

o.c.

Datt insuiailoa 3.51ncn

BRICK/

BLCK

gypsiffn wall board, OSincfi

I
I

"

face brick

8" concrete block


I;!;!;!;!;.''!
'

- ^

-'-'--

BASEMENT
W(OiLL

8"

tnick concrete

Cross Section

otm

winoK' pajn

Elevation
b) Wall

Construction Description and Dimensions

Construction

Uio^
'

"^'t^'^^ Length
^loc\C. Lenoth

"Zg'
M'^'

Height Halght Height

\Lff

Construction t^\C^

Construction ^/VbEMl-'T UAll-Lenoth

gg>'

|C?

Figure 3.32

Continued

85

c)

Uindew Construction
Singl* eiaiad
Doublt 01id
<spc
C^CZ^
sq.
s<i.

ft. ft.
>

inchas
sq.

Insulating Olazod
(spac*

ft.

inches)
sq. sq.

Storm Windows
Othar (spcifv>

ft.

ft. ft.

Shading <sp*cifg>

^i/A

sq.

Window Fram* Tgpa


Fram* Width
d)

ALUMIt-l

UK
inches

Ooor Construction

Description

No.

Usage
<Per./hr)

Thkness
(inches)

Height
<ft-in)

Width
(ft)

Area
(sf)

hi/A

>

Infiltration Cracks through walls


None

Few

Many

Loose-fitting windows Loose-fitting doors

t^I^

Loose-fitting air conditioners

M/A
H/A

Ventilation exhaust ducts without dampers


Others observed (describe)

H'A

Figure 3.32

Cont Inued

86

2) Location

.^T
Description

a> Wall Construction

PLYWOOD
SIDING

m ^^^
?,

exterior plywood srteattr^ O.Slnch

'V/^ g

? l^:^ ^ .^^^ ^/// .

^'^i^

rwmlnal 2 Dy lnch wood sluds


gypsitfn wall Doard, o.5lrx5n

l61n.

o.a

WOOD
SIDING

SEE

NORTH WALL

WOOD

SIDING CCSCRIP-nOM

BASEMENT WALL

SEE NORTH WALL CONCRETE DESCRIPTION

Cross Section

Elevation

Construction Description and Dimensions g'^'' Construction f^b<t'^g^<g^g^'PlUTLength 1^' Height


b) Mali

Construction

Ulcfe'C?4>lPl>J6r

Length
Length

^^'
^g^'

Height Heioht

1^'

Construction &^'^HEf-lT

l4^ll

Ig'

Figure 3.32

Continued

87

c)

Uindew Construction
Singl* 01itd Doubl* dated
(space
sq. sq.
ft.

ft.

inches)

Insulating Glazed
(space

__^_^____

sq.

ft.

inches)
sq.

Storm Windows^'
Other (specifg)

ft.
ft.

_^______

sq.

Shading (specify)
UindoiD Frame Tgpe

sq.

ft.

____________^_^___^.^^.^^_^_
inches

Frame Width
d)

Door Construction

Description

No.

Usage (Per/hr)

Thkness (inches)

Height
(ft-in)

Ulidth

Area
(sf)

(ft)

e)

Infiltration
Cracks through walls

Nona ____ Few ____ Many

Loose-fitting windows Loose-fitting doors

Loose-fitting air conditioners

Ventilation exhaust ducts without dampers


Others observed (describe)

Figure 3,32

Continued

88

I)

Location
a> Wall

'^^L^TP
Construction

DsBcription

f ^tt

hl^i2Tr]

Ui/^LL

p^^ifTic7hJ^ )

Cross Section

Qan^ " "


psral

i.

n
irwn

n D
v\x pnverly

'

nor

does net

Elevation
b> Uall

Construction Description and Dimensions


Length Length

Contruction U<^(7 ^H?|M6r Construction


fe^l^>^ -&Lt?dl^

Z^
'^'Z-'

Height Height

\^
^'^

Construction 6A^W\Et^ UaLL Length

2^'

Height

'O

Figure 3.32

Continued

89

c)

Window Construction
Single Olaied
Double eiid
(space
q
S(i.

t.
it.

inches)

Insulating Glazed
(space

"^^ ^'^
__^_^.^^_

sq-

^t.

inches)
<!

Storm Windows
Other (specify)
Shading (snecifu)

*' *t.

^^'^

sq.

ft.

Window Frame Type


Frame Width
d)

ALUHlKJOti

inches

Door Construction

Description
i^tpo
-riAvi

No.

Usage (Per/hr)

Thkness (inches)
i.-s

Height
(ft-in)

Width
(ft)

Area
(sf)

\o

7'

zi

\Aooo-6if^^.
\Ae3oO-

^2
-7'
z.\

MAti

to

l-"^

e)

Infiltration
Cracks through walls
None

Feu

Many

Loose-fitting windows
Loose-fitting doors

^TAgACf^ - Mai4
\^/A^

Cfcg-e

Loose-fitting air conditioners

Ventilation eihaust ducts without dampers


Others observed (describe)

r*/^

>^/A

Figure 3,32

Continued

90

4) Location

i^^'^

a) Wall Construction

DBtcription

( ^tL a^T UaLL

fP^

^\.-<\Aoa^

^l(?l(J(ir

Cross Section

NOTE: Even mougn me


basement wall occurs
at tne office area you
(lusi account for tr

neat loss tnrou7> tne


wall on (Ms elevatloa

Elevation
b)

Uall Construction Description and Dimensions


I'o'
^=?<?'

Construe tionfll!iW.^llU^ Length

Height
Height

5'*=^'
\iA

Construction

6g-'<^t

- 6Lg!::.K-

Length Lpnnth

Construction 6A'SEHEUT

l4tIl

'^xg'

Height

lO'

Figure 3,32

Continued

91

c>

Window Construction
Single 01zd Double Olated
(pace
sq.
sq..

ft.
ft.

___^.^^.^ inches)
sq.

Insulating Glazed
(space

ft.

inches)

Storm Windows
Other (specify)
Shading (specify)

_____^_^^

sq. sq.
sq.

ft. ft.
ft.

Window Frame Type


Frame Width
d)

________^____________^_^__
inches

Door Construction

Description

No.

Usage
(Per/hr)
>^/a

Thknets (inches)

Height
(ft-in)

Width
(ft)

Area
(sf)
t.1

MTAL-MAr4

U/A

7*

^'

e>

Infiltration
Cracks through wall*
None

Few

Many

Loose-fitting windows Loose-fitting doors Loose-fitting air conditioners

Ventilation exhaust ducts without dampers


Others observed (describe)

Figure 3,32

Continued

92

E) Roof:
1)

Location

EhJTlgg.

g'Ullpll-l^

) Roof Conttruction

Description
Asphalt shingles
Felt building

membrane
0.5 inches

Plywood sheating,

Nominal 2inch by 6inch ceiling rafter


2a Inches

on center

Cross Ssction
b) Roof Oifliensions
I

\'i'

Width

3C7

Lonoth

70

8'^"

>itch_\

c> Roof Color and

Condition
dark

Color

light
good ag
^

Condition
d>

fair

poor

14

Skv Lights

Description
Single pane glass

Cross Ssction
)

Skglight Area
No. No.

Length

^O

Width
eUidth

5<^

sq.

ft. ft.

Length

sq.

Figure 3,32

Continued

93

2) Location.
a) Roof Construction

Otccription

Cross Section
b> Roof Difliensions

Width
c> Roof Color and

Length

Condition
dark

Color

light
good

Condition
d)

fair _____

poor

Sky Lights

Dascription

Cross Saction
)

Sky Light Arta


No. No.

Length Length

.Width.

sq.
sq.

ft.

Width.

ft.

Figure 3,32

Continued

94

III.

Major Energy Using Systems


in the appropriate numbers for items numbered codes listed on the next page:
1

A> Fill

thru 3 using the

Fuel Tupe(A)

Mechanical Equipment (B)

Terminal Unit (C)

Thermos tat Setting - F


Sum.
Win.

1.

Space Heating

'

VJ/A

7<^

2.

Space Cooling
Hot Water

tz
ZM
rJ/A

l^/A

_
wo"
Vi/A

3.

37

\\o

4.
5.

Kitchen

lO/A

tJA

Kitchen eciuipment description

Figure 3.32

Continued

95

A.

Furl Typ:
01 Coal

02 Electricity 03 No. 2 Fuel Oil 04 No. 6 Fuel Oil 05 Natural Qa%


B

06 07 08 09

Propane Purchased Stean Mood Other (specify)

Mechanical Etiuipment: Heating Systein ' 10 Lou pressure steam boiler 11 High pressure steam boiler 12 Hot uater boiler 13 Forced air furnace 14 Resistance 15 Heat pump 16 Other (specify
)

Cooling System 17 Absorption 18 Centrifugal 19 Reciprocating 20 Mindoui/uall unit 21 Heat pump 22 Other CEjOT^LAjg. (specify)

Hot Mater System 24 Hot uater heater 29 Boiler heat exchanger 26 Booster/reheat 27 Solar assisted 28 Other (specify)

C.

Terminal Units
29 Radiator 30 Fan coil/radiator 31 Single zone 32 Multi-zone

33 34 35 36

Dual duct Variable air vol. Induction Terminal unit

37 38 39 40

Self-contained Circulating Non-circulating Other (specify)

D.

Efficiency analysis
Unit Description

Nameplate Output(BTU/hr).
Unit Description

Namep late Input(BTU/hr).

_=

Efficiency.

Nameplate Output(DTU/hr)
Unit Description

Nameplate Input(BTU/hr).

_=

Efficiency.

Nameplate Output (BTU/hr)

Nameplate lnput(BTU/hr).

_=

Efficiency.

Figure 3.32

Continued

96

B)

Lighting Interior:

Room

Araa
(sf.
>

Ceil. Hght.
<ft.
)

Fi. Hght.
(ft.
>

Total Watts

Avg.

Lgt.Lov.
<fc)

Usage (hrs/uk)

-^-T&gAdt^

)(pg

to

276.

3c

4>TA\es

Figure 3.32

Continued

97

C> Lighting Eiterior:


1)

Building Perimeter

Location

Tgpe

Total Uatts

Method of control

Usage (hrs/uk>

Ue^T
-^OOTjA

FLc7ct7

2Ct>o
'=5>COO

HamoaL
MA)^U/s.L

H&
\\t>

PU5&C7

2> Parking Area

Location

Type

Total Watts

Method of control
Majoa.L

Usage (hrs/uk
=0(^

'Soot A

Z.CCOO

Figure 3.32

Continued

98

IV.

Climatic Data

OutsidB Temperature

(winter)

^"F

Average Annual Heating Degree Days

Average Annual Cooling Degree Days


Main Mind Direction and Velocltg
V.

^ ^^ ^P^
i

SIdP-tA

/tO ^fA

Description of Energg Management Activities


Energy Management Team Formed
Energg Management Coordinator Designated
Yea Yes

NO NO
None

Energg Audit

Completed

Started

Detailed Studg bg Architect or Engineer

Completed

Started

None

Energg Management Measures Implemented and Dates

VI.

Field Inspection Notes

Figure 3.32

Continued

99

CHAPTER

BUILDING SITE VISIT

4.1

Introduction
the

building site visit enables


filling
in the information
the
in

energy

auditor

to

finish
to

requested on the BIF and


conditions
this
is
a

become familiar with

operating
mind

of

the day day

building.

However,

keep

that

one
to

observation and operating conditions change from day


and season to season.

Arrangements for the building site visit should be made


after completing as much of
the site visit
the
BIF
as

possible.

Preferably

should be done during regular business hours.


is

However,

if

it

necessary to do
to

complete building survey


a

the energy auditor may wish

arrange

time

when

the

building

will

not

be

occupied. This will allow ample time


and investigations
of

for making the necessary measurements


the

building for completing the building survey. See section


for

4.4

general instructions on completing the building surthe

vey.

After

energy

auditor has completed the building


site

survey,

arrangements should be made for completing the

visit during the normal business hours.


to

This will allow him

inspect the facility under normal operating conditions.

100

4 .2

Required Material to Complete the Building Site Visit


*

Form 3,1

Building Information Form (BIF)

Clip board with paper and pencil


50 and

12

ft.

tape measures

flashlight
light meter

35

mm camera

thermometer
contact thermometer

With the exception of the light meter and contact


ter
the

thermomeA

equipment

should

be

readily available.

light

meter can be purchased from the following companies:

General Electric Lamp Business Division Nela Park Cleveland, OH 4A112 Phone (216) 266-2121

Huygen Corporation
0. Box 316 Wauconda, XL 60084 Phone (312) 381-4050
P.

It

is

highly recommended that

each
of

auditor

obtain

light meter since an important part

the

lighting survey

101

is

to

determine existing lighting levels.


is

However,

light

meter

not

mandatory for completing the lighting survey.


thermometer or surface pyrometer
is

The

contact

used in

assessing heat losses through walls when the material in the


wall can not be identified.
face
250
to

There are two classes


is

of

surof

pyrometers. The first class


deg F and
the

good to temperatures

second class

is

good for

temperatures

up

600-700 deg F.

The first class surface pyrometer will be

more than sufficient for this energy

auditing

process.

surface
panies:

pyrometer

can be purchased from the following com-

Alnor Instrument Company 7301 N. Caldwell Avenue 60648 Niles, IL Phone (312) 647-7866

4,3

Procedures for Completing the Site Visit


gath-

During the site visit the energy auditor will be


ering
data
and

inspecting

the building to determine what

energy conservation opportunities

(ECOs) exist.

ECOs

are

divided into two groups.


type;

The first group are the noncapital


if

implementing

noncapital ECOs involves little,


The second group are of

any,

monetary expense.
and to implement
a

the capital
of

type,

capital ECO requires the outlay


ECOs,

money.
must be

Therefore,

for

capital

an economic analysis

completed to determine which capital ECOs

are

economically

102

feasible.
is

The

economic analysis procedure for capital ECOs

covered in Chapter 8,

Several of the noncapital ECOs that exist can be determined


by

visual inspection.

check list of possible non-

capital ECOs can be found in Appendix B.


visit,

During

the

site

simply check off the items pertaining to the building


is

being audited. This list

not

inclusive of all energy cona

servation
idea
of

measures,

but will
to

give the energy auditor


be

good

the

type of items

looking for during the

site

visit.

4.3.1

Interior Building Inspection


and

After meeting with the contact person

having

any

questions
blueprints,
begin.

answered
a

about

the
of

building from reviewing the


building's interior should
room by
the

walk-through
at

the

Begin

one end of

the building and do a

room inspection of the building.

For each

room,

mark

necessary

information

on the floor plan sketches

that have

been prepared

beforehand.

The

following

items

require

visual
can not

inspection in order to determine their condition and


be

determined from the blueprints. Note


on

the

condi-

tion of

the following items

the the floor plan sketches.

A.

Window Construction
*

Inspect the windows for

cracks

between

the

window

103

frame

and the wall and between the windows' operable

sections.
*

Inspect windows for broken panes. Inspect windows for curtains,


ing.

blinds,

etc.

for

shad-

Identify window frame type and width.


Verify
the window

types

as

described

on

the

blue-

prints and note any changes. Door Construction Inspect doors for weather stripping and the condition
of

the

thresholds.

Inspect the bottom gasket seal on garage doors.

Verify the door types described on the blueprints and


note any changes.

C.

Infiltration
*

Inspect the exterior walls on the inside

for

cracks

oropenings.
*

Inspect the

exhaust

ducts
.

for
-.

proper

back

draft

dampe r s

104

D.

Lighting System
Identify the type of light fixtures

and

lamps,

see

Chapter 6.

Determine the number of light fixtures in use.

Determine

If

ballasts

have

been

disconnected

for

light fixtures not in use.

Measure the average footcandles with the light


in

meter

three or four locations. More measurements may be


This
that
is

required for larger areas.


of

the

only
be

section
completed

the
a

lighting

survey

can not

without

light meter.

Verify

the

lighting

system

layout

and

note

any

changes from the blueprints.


E

General Inspection
*

Photograph any unusual conditions within the building


that are

causing excessive energy waste.


they
of

Ask the people who work in the building if


any

have
the

comments

about

the

operating conditions
in

building,
levels
to

such as,
low

drafts

the

winter,

lighting

to high,

lighting or windows causing


etc.

glare on the task plane,

105

Identify the major equipment used in the building.


Inspect
the

overall conditions of walls,


for

floors,

and

light fixtures
and

dirt

and dust. Clean walls,

floors

light fixtures will improve the lighting


.

systems

perf ormance

A. 3.

Exterior Building Inspection


the

After completing the interior building inspection,

energy

auditor

should

then inspect the building exterior.


the

The main concerns with

exterior inspection

is

the

condi-

tion

of

the

building's walls and roof. The following items

should be identified on the BIF or on the building elevation

sketches prepared beforehand.

A.

Exterior Walls
*

Photograph all sides

of

the

building.

Inspect the exterior walls for cracks or openings and


loose construction joints.

Inspect the windows for

cracks

between

the

window

frame and the exterior siding.

Verify the building component


from
the

descriptions

obtained
i.e.

blueprints and note any changes,


etc.

room

additions, additional insulation,

106

B.

Roof

Inspect the roof

to

determine its color and condition

Identify the major equipment on the roof


Inspect any skylights

Verify the roof dimensions and the material


the

used

in

construction and note any changes.

By following the outline of

the
as

building
building

information
is

form
the

(BIF)

and

filling

it

out

the

inspected,
be

proper information to do an energy audit will


It

obtained.

may

also be

good idea to rewrite the field inspection

notes after getting back to the office.

This will

help

to

clarify the information and may also prompt the energy auditor
to remember

items forgotten during the site visit.

A .4

Procedures for Completing


is

Building Survey
when
the

The building survey

necessary
of

building

being

audited

does

not have a set


is

existing blueprints.
determine the
same

The purpose of

the building survey


a

to

information available from


This
tion,

set

of

architectual blueprints.

includes the physical dimensions, material


and major energy using systems the
of

identificaIt

the

building.
energy

is

strongly suggested that

inexperienced

auditor

107

does
of

not

audit

building for the first time without


a

set

blueprints. After he/she has audited

building,

he/she

will
and

know what building dimensions, material identification


major energy using systems are important to Identify.

4.4.1

Determining Building Dimensions


are

Measure the building components that


heat
loss
of

experiencing

as

identified

in
is

Figure 3.2 of Chapter 3. The


not

accuracy
cal

the

measurements

critical,
doors,

but

each typimust be

building component,

i.e. walls,

windows,

measured.

The following general steps

should be followed in

measuring the building dimensions.


STEP
1:

Sketch the building floor

outline

and

enter

the

dimensions.
on

These

sketches can be drawn directly

the

BIF.

Floor Plan

108

'

1^10 '-^

k-10'-^

'

;4';

:4'; :4';

4'

L4
.J....

7.

West Eievauon

STEP

2:

Sketch the building


doors and windows.

elevations

and

identify

th.

Enter the dimensions.

Garage Area
85
fc

Cell 14'

80 fc

Storage

Light Fix. 12*

30-4
90 fc

lamp fixtures
Office
Ceil 8'
I

lamp aod. F96ti2CW


82
fc

0 fc Lght 8* 85 fc

4-2 Imp fix. F40T12CU

-80'-

20'100*-

STEP

3:

Sketch the rooms on the floor plan sketch from step


1.

Identify

the

rooms

ceiling heights and fix-

ture heights.

109

STEP 4:

Sketch the roof and measure the length,

width

and

pitch

no
4,4.2

Building Material Identification material


used

Identifying the
building
of
Is

in

constructing

the

necessary for determining the thermal properties

the

building's
only
be

materials.

Again,

the

energy

auditor

should
the

concerned with identifying the material in

components

experiencing

heat

loss

as

identified

In

Chapter 3.

For each typical building material,


Is

identify Its

composition and thickness. It


the

not

difficult to

determine

composition

of

the exterior and

interior material that


it

can be viewed with the naked eye. However,

may

be

very

difficult

to

determine the thickness


the

of

the

material.
component.

For
It

the material on the interior of

building

may

be If

impossible

to

determine its composition and thickor

ness.

the thickness

the

composition

of

building

material cannot be Identified,

then it is Impossible to cal-

culate its R value and U coefficient without first measuring


the

indoor and outdoor air temperatures and the inside surthe building component.

face temperature of
For buildings

that

the

building components can be idenprepare sketches for each typi-

tified by visual inspection,


cal component and identify
of

its

composition and the thickness


that

each

material.

For

buildings
by

the building com-

ponents can not be

identified
determine
[2].

visual

Inspection,

the

energy
with
the

auditor

can

the U coefficient

for walls

following method

Ill

STEP

1:

Measure the indoor

and

outdoor

air

temperatures
a

with an accurately calibrated thermometer on


less

sun-

day or at

night.

STEP

2:

Measure at the same time the


perature
of

inside

surface

tem-

the wall with an accurately

calibrated

contact thermometer.
STEP

3:

Calculate the rate


with
the

of

heat flow

through

the

wall

inside

air

temperature,

inside surface The


5

temperature, and the inside film coefficient.


inside
film

coefficient
Values
of

is

described in Chapter
inside film
of
.

in section 5.2,

the

coeffiThe

cient

can be found in Table

5.2

Chapter 5.
as

heat flow is calculated using Eq

4.1

follows:
,^ (4.1)
,,

Heat flow

- inside surface temp. inside air temp. '^ ^. , ,,. inside film coefficient
,
.

STEP

4:

Using the calculated rate


late
the

of

heat flow,

now

calcu-

overall

value using formula 4,2:

heat flow inside air temperature - outside air temperature

(A. 2)

For example,

determine the

coefficient for

an

exte-

rior wall with

the

following conditions:
68 F
20 F

Inside air temperature

Outdoor temperature
Inside wall surface temperature

59.4F

11 2

Inside film coefficient, from Table 5.2


68 59 .4
=

0.68

Rate

of

heat

flow

12.65

Btu/h

0.68

12 .6

Overall

value

0.263

68

20

This

calculation procedure

would be repeated for

each
it

typical exterior wall section. During the building survey


is

only necessary to enter


on
a

the

temperature readings and


The calculations
a

the

locations

the

wall

sketches.
It
is

can be

completed at
several

later time.
at

also

good idea

to

take

readings

different

locations for each typical


U

wall section. This will allow an average

value to be

cal-

culated and will be more accurate than


This method does not enable the U roof
or

single reading.

coefficient
if
a

of

the

floors to be calculated. Generally,

roof has an
to

attic,

identifying

the

building materials
U

is

not

diffi-

cult.

To determine the

coefficient for floors may require


the
U

an approximation based from similar type floors where

value is known.

4.4.3

Major Energy Using Systems Identification


systems,
to

Identifying the building's major energy using


such
as

the heating and lighting systems,


a

is

not

diffiIn

cult for buildings without

set

of

existing blueprints.

113

most

cases,

the

majority

of

the

older buildings will not

have the original energy using systems as

identified on
of

the
the

original blueprints.
BIF,
the the

By

completing major section III


visual

energy auditor will identify by energy using systems


that

inspection

major

are

necessary for com-

pleting the energy audit.

114

CHAPTER

HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS


Int roduc t ion

5.1

The

basic principles of heat


the

transfer will be
is

used

to

determine

amount

of

heat

that

lost from a building the

during the heating season.

Indiana's heating season on

average

is

from October to May.

This will vary from year to


The
a

year and location to


of
of

location within the state.

amount

heat

that

is

lost during the heating season is

function
with
the

many variables.

This manual will be concerned


loss

major contributing variables to heat


season.
To account
is

during the heating


a

for all

the heat

losses within

given

facility
the

beyond the scope of this manual.


a

By focusing on
a

major variables,

good understanding of how

building

losses heat

during the winter will be gained.

After
is

building's heat losses have been calculated,


of

it

possible to calculate the fuel consumption


The

the

buildcon-

ing during the heating season.

calculated

energy

sumption
tion.
ing
loss

can then be

compared to the actual energy consumpif

This will make it possible to determine

the

build-

components

have

been properly identified and the heat


In

calculations completed properly.

order to

evaluate

115

energy
point,
in

conservation

alternatives
of

from

an economic stand-

the existing condition


to

the

building must be

known
on

order

determine

what

impact

the ECOs will have

energy consumption.
Heat
lost

is

from

building
of

via

transmission
losses
is
a

and

infiltration.

Determination

these heat
It will

major

step in the energy audit process.

enable the energy

auditor

to

determine

what sections of

the

building can be
effi-

improved to enable the building to become more energy


cient.

5.2

Transmission Heat Losses


con-

Transmission heat losses can occur by conduction,


vection,
and

radiation

[3,4]

This

is

constant process
flow
of

during the heating season and


from
ture

is

simply

the

heat

inside the building to the outside due to the temperabeing hotter indoors
a

than outdoors.

Heat always

flows

from

hot

body to

cold body or in this case from the warm

indoors to the cold outdoors.

During the cooling season the

process

is

reversed and heat transfer takes place from out-

side the building to the inside.


of

Therefore,
reduced,

if

the

amount
of

heat

lost

in

the winter can be

the amount

heat

gained in the summer


The basic equation for

will also be reduced.

determining

transmission

heat

loss es

is

116

(U)

(A)

(TD)

(5.1)

whe re

is

the heat

loss

thru

the

building

component,

BTU/hr.
the heat

is

transfer coef f cient BTU /hr /f t /TD.


,

is

the area

of

building component, ft

2
.

TD

is

the
of

temperature
the

difference

between

the

two

sides

building component,

degrees F.

The heat transfer coefficient

is

calculated for

each
floor,

building
and roof

component

separately.

Each typical wall,

section along with each

typical
The

window

and

door

will

have its own value of U.

value of U is

determined

from the materials' resistance values.

Resistance
of

is

materials ability to resist the


a

flow

heat

and is
A

directly proportional to

materials insulatR

ing

value.

materials insulating value increases as its

value

Increases in magnitude.

Resistance can be determined

from values of conductivity and conductance.

Conductivity
conduct
heat
in

is

defined as

materials

ability

to

BTU/hr per square foot of area per inch of

thickness per degree difference in temperature


two sides
of

between

the

the

material perpendicular to the heat flow.

117

Conductance
in

is

materials ability to
of

transfer

heat

BTU/hr

per square foot

area per degree difference in


of

temperature between the two sides


k
is

the material.

Whereas

in

terms
of

of

per inch

thickness,

values

of

are for the

thickness

the material stated.

In terms

of

conductivity and conductance R

is

equal to:
(5.2)

whe re

is

the

resistance
thickness

of

the material.

is

the

of

the

material,

inches.

is

the

conductivity coefficient, BTU/hr/ft /in./TD

^ =

(5.3)

whe re:

is

the

resistance

of

the material.

is

the

conductance coef f cient BTU/hr /ft /TD


,

Table 5.1* list values


and

of

conductivity,

conductance,
In

resistance
U

for

common building materials.


a

order to each
be

determine the

coefficient for
to

building
component

component

material
*

used

construct

the

must first

With permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Ai r-Cond i t i oning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA 30329.

118

defined and then located in Table 5.1.

This

table does
it

not
be

contain

all

of

the

building materials used and

may

necessary to consult other references.


Air has

Insulating properties that must


U

be

considered
At

when

calculating
of
a

values for

building component.
a

the

surface
that

building component,
to

thin layer of air


of

exists

adds

the

insulating value
these
thin

the

other materials.
of
of

Figure 5.1 shows where


Table 5.2* list
the

layers

air
this

exist.
thin

values for the resistance

layer

of

air.

Plane air spaces also add to the resistive values

of

building

component.

plane air space


smooth,

is

of

uniform thickand are

ness bounded by plane,

parallel

surfaces

usually
5.2.

located

in
of

wall

and ceiling cavities,


a

see Figure

The amount
a

resistive value that

plane

air

space

can add to

building component depends upon the position of


the direction of
the heat the

the air space,

flow,

the mean

air

temperature inside the air space,

difference in the temof

perature between the inside and outside


the

the

air

space,

thickness
of

of

the

air space,

and the effective emmittance

value

the air

space.

Table

5.3*

lists

the

resistance

values for plane air spaces.


*

With permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Ai r-Condi t 1 oning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA 30329
.

119

INSIDE

I^4SIDE

msloe
film

air

--

insiae ali

film

Exterior

Interior Partition

Wall Section

OLTTSIDE

Outside aJr
film

INSIDE

INSIDE

Roof & Celling


Section

Floor Section
KOTE: only on< air filn

Figure 5.1

Location of Thin Air Fil ms

Plane ait space


In wall cavity

Plane

air

space
cavity

in ceiling

Interior brick

W^
wall SecUon

Tnlckness of air space Ja

Tnlckness of
air

space

Ja

Roof Section

Figure 5.2

Location

of

Plane Air Spaces

120

Table 5.1
iiKh ihkbncsa.

Thermal Properties of Typical Building and Insulating Materials - (Design Values)


in ITlu pt-f

ConJuciivily jnij ainJuL(an(.c arc rxprc^vcj

and conjui'tdnkci

HI

are fur ihRknrsiiu mnslfoiliun stated not per inch ihickncM All values arc for a
I'

(hiiuo (square fool) (degree lahrenhctl Icmpcralurc dilTcrence). ConduclivHici Ik} Mt per mean temperature iif 7^ r.

CKCcpl a% fltKfd by an a^lcnih (*} which have been reported at Ji

DwcfipiioB
Oenslly Ob/ll>)

Ctulomiry Unll
Conduc'
Uvlly

Conductance

Relsmsee>W)
Per Inch
tblehaeil

Sptdlk
Hral,
Bto/flb)

Mm Capacity
Jb.
fl'

(O

For Ihlekacss listed

Blu

IdegF)

(l/>

(I/O

BUILDING BOARO(
BoariJf. PinrU, Subfloorlng, Sheathing Woodbocrd Panri Producti Aibestoi-cemcni board AibcslOKcmcnt board Asbestos-cement board Gypsum or plaster board Gypsum or piaster boaid Gypsum or plaster board Plywood Douglas Fij) Plywood (Douglas FIj) Plywood (Douglas Fir) Plywood (Douglas Fir) Plywood (Douglas Fir)
(

0.125 in 0.23 in 0.373 in


0.5 in

0.625 in
0.25 in 0.375 in.
0.3 In 0.623 in

120 120 120 50 50 50


34 34 34 34 34

0,24

25

30

28 K 2H X
28 8 111! 111!

33.00 16.50 3.10


2.22
1.78

0.03 O.OS 0.32 0.4! 0.16

2 511
1

060
041
54

0.26

56 08

26(1

068
021
31

110
9 86 9 K6
9 Nft 9 K6 9 86

029
3.20 2.13 1.60 1.29
I

71
1

03) Oil

06 42
77

062
0,77

041 051

Plywood or wood panels Vegetable Fiber Board Sheathing, regular density


Sheathing intermediate density Nail-base sheathing Shingle baclcer Shingle backer Sound deadening board TiJe and lay-in panels, plain or
acoustic

0.75 in
0.5
in,

34
IS 18

07

093
1.32 2.06 1.22 1.14

0.29
0.31
1

0.78125

in

0.76 0.49

75
17

021
36 28 0.32
17

5 5

58 58

0.5 in 0-5 in

22 25

082
0,88 06 28 74
I 1

031 031
0,31

0.375 0.3125
.

in

m
18

0.94 0.7a
1.3!

0.5 in

30
14

93 U4 56 47 62

68:
7''5
5 58 5 *8 4 50

IS
19

0.40

2.i0

0.5 in

0.75

in.

18 18

080 053
0.50 0.50
0.73 0.82
1.00

1.2! 1.89

75
1

II

2 2

13

16

52 52 52

Laminated paper board Homogeneous board from


repulped paper

30
30

2.00

9 90
8

!0O
1.3?

40

Hardboard

Medium

density High density, service lemp. lervice

50
55 63 37 50 62.5

1760
32 0,32
0,31 0.31 0,31
17 20.
II

underlay

High density, Panicleboard

std.

tempered

12} LOO
1.8! 1.06 O.SS
1

60
1

(.

Low density Medium density


High density Underlayment Wood subnoor
0.625 in 0.75 in.

S4 0.94

l<

47 50

19 IK 2
2

40

22

1.06

0.82 0.94

029
0.33

08 00

II

60

9(iO

BUILDING MEMBRANE
Vapor permeable felt Vapor seal. 2 layers of mopped
15-lbrell

16.70

835
plastic film

Vapor seal,

12 Nesl.

FINISH FLOORING

MATERIALS
0,48
0.81
0.
1

Carpet and fibrous pad Carpet and rubber pad Cork I Ue Terrazzo Tileasphalt. linoleum, vinyl, rubber
viisyl

2.08
1.23

25 in
I

360
1250
20.00

in.

28 08
0.01

asbestos
finish

ceramic

0,34 0,33 0,43 0,19 30 24 0,19

Wood, hardwood

0.7}

In.

INSULATING MATERIALS
BLASttCT AMDBaTT Mineral Fiber, nbrotis form processed

from rock.
approx.* approx.* approx.* approx.* approx.

stag, or glass

2-2.75 in 3-3.3 in 3.50-6.5

0,3-2,0 0,3-2.0 0.3-2.0

C.I43
0.091 0,053 0,045
190
22^'

12-40 16-54
10- 98
.10-1

02-09
,03-12

t-0

1-0
I

05-23
05-,25 07- 32
1)

-0

6-7

03-2,0
0.3-2.0

10

1-0
I

<*

8.5 in

0033
0,38
2, 6 J 4.00 4.11

301

4(1-1

42

-<!

46 46 46 46 46

BoabdakdSlais
Cellular glass
8 5 4 9 4,5

0.24

264
9 2
I

Class fiber, organic bonded Expanded rubber (rigid) Expanded polystyrene extruded Cut <;cll surface ExpAjtded polystyrene extrtidcd Smooth skin surface Expanded polystyrene extruded Smooth skin surface Expanded polystyrene, molded beads Expanded potyurethaitcf (R-I I cxp.) .^ (Thickness I In. or greaier)

025
0,22
0,25

023 040
0,29

0,20
3

029
1 26
I

19

1.0

0,28
16

3.!7

IS
2.3

6 2!

29 0.38

02 29
57

121

Table 5.1

Cont i nued
DofriprioB
Denslljr

CmlocKfy
ConducU>ll;

Unit

Coaduclance

ResisHnee'W)
Per Inch IhklineM
.y/.i...-

db/d')

Specinc Heal,
Biu/flb)
(ileiF)

Wl
Btu
til

(O

For Ihlekoeaa lilted

(I'.K

...J>/Q_.

Mincrfel ntxT ii)i rnin binder

)4S
16-17
18
21

o.n
22-2.4
0.19

Mineral nberboard, wet felted Core Of roof insuUtion

0.34 0.35 0.37

2.9J

Acouilkal
Acoustical

(ile

tile

Si ! 70
2.

342 2.M

Mineral fiberboard, wet molded Acouiilcal lilel

0.14
0.3 In

Wood orcine
Acouilical Acouitical

fiberboard

tiler

080
0.53
15

l-2i

'

0.31

tiler

0.7S In 0.35

I.S9

Interior finish (plank, tile)

l.Si
1.67

0.32

4IIU
6,82

Wood shredded (cemented in


preformed
slabs)

22

0.60

031

LOOSE FILL
Ceilulosic insulation (milled paper or

wood pulpl
Sawdust or shavings Wood fiber, softwoods Perliie, expanded
Mineral fiber (rock, slag or glass) approx.r 3-75-3 in approx.r 6.3-8.75 in approx.* 7.3- to in approx.r 10.25-13.75 in
Vermiculite. exfoliated

23-32
8.0-15.0
2.0-3.3

0-8.0

0.27-0.32 43 30 0.37

J ;j-J,70 2.22

033
0.33

76-1.06

2.64-145
66-1 Id
1.3
-2

3 33 2.70
11

033
0.26
0.17

08

0,6-2.0

03-71
.31-1 27

.04-12

06-2.0
0.6-2.0 0.6-2.0 7.0-8.2 4.0-6.0

19 22 30

45-1 46

06-22 07-25
1

1I-

34
.14
..34

NI-202

-.14
1

1-

0.47 0.44

2.13

4-1.64

!.2f

0.8-1 2

Roof I'^SULAflON^
Preformed, for use above deck Different roof insulations are available in different thicknesses to prov ide he design C values listed Consult individual manufacturers for actual
l i*
.

Ihtckness o/ Iheir moierlol

MASONRY MATERIALS
CoNCRLTea Cement mono/
Cypsum-fiber concrete 87.51t gypsum, 12.3% woodvhitH
Lightwcighl aggiega'es including expandejshale. clay or slate; expanded
slags; cinders; pumice; vetnilculite: also cellular concretes
51

50
1

0.20

23.2 10 71

6A

60
0.19 0.28

120 100 80 60 40 30
20

5 2

24
20.0
I6.U 12

36
2 5

40
0.59

1.7

1.15

86
1

0.90 70
0.')3

II

80 60
4
12.8

1.43
1.0.1

Perliie.

expanded

40 30 20

0.7t

0.30

41 2.00
I

9 6

0.32 0.22

64
30-8

Sand and gravel or stone aggregate


(oven dried)

90
.

0.1

Sand and gravel or stone aggregate


(not dried)
.

Stucco

140 116

12.0

08
0.20

280
23.2

5U
5

MASONRY UNITS
Brtck, common' Brick, face'

120 130
3 in
,

20

0.19

9.0
1.23

on
80
I.

22.8 '24.7

Clay
I 1

tile,

hollow;

2 ceth 2 2
3

deep deep deep celJs deep cells deep cells deep


cell

021

150
16

32
3.4 5 25

12.6

cell

in. in.

8 in. 10 in.
1

2 in

0.90 0.66 0.54 0.45 0.40

II

101
10.3

S2

I.Si

2.13 2 50

25 30 35

63

95
8.8 8.4

400
0.22
23 43 63
5.1

Conaete
Sand

blocki. three oval cort:

aitd gravel

aggregate

4 Sin. I2in.
3 in.

I 40 0.90 0.78

Cinder aggregale

1.16

;..

4in. 8 in. 12 m.
3 in.

090
0,38 0.53 79 0.67

Lighlwdghl aggregate (expanded shale, clay. or slag; pumice)

tUttc

in.

0.71 I. II 1.28 0.86 I. II 1.72 1.89 1.27 1.50

13-2
14.1

94
139

13.9 14.3 12.6

0.21

170

36
4.2
7.9

200 370
53
0.21

IIS
111

111

150
17.0

26
3

126
10.9
10.1

8 in.

050
0.44

I2in.

2.00 2.37

320
43

6.7

90

90

Concrete blocks, recungularcorc.*!

Sand and gravel aggregate


2

Same with

core, (In. 361b.k* filled corai *

0.96 0.52

1.04 1.93

0.22 0.22

..

122

Table 5.1

Cont
DcrtgtkB

nued
C lomary Unit
Denilly
(Ib/tl'l

CoodM
tlvlly
(It)

CoadiiC'
liner

ReiliuCT>(ff >

SpnUle
Heal,
Bta/flkl

(O

Per laeh

For luck-

iMdrnrn

(degFI

(I/O
Ltghlwdihl aurrgiir
(cipandflil ihalc. cliy. line or ili|, puinK):

)cort,ln. nib.'* filled ctxn'" 2cofe.8in.24lb.*

Same with Same wiih

061

03] 046
20

in
lis
t.03
>

Its

Corel'* 3corc. 12m. jaili.'* Same with filled Corel'* Slone. lime or find Qypium panition tile;

filled

040
17

SI

3 11
J I2

JOiniolid
)0iii.4-cell

12- lOin 3-cell PLASTFHINC MATF.RIAIJ


Cemcni ptosier. Mndifgreiaie Sand luretaie Sand aurctaie
0. J75 In

0.79 74

26 IS

ONI
0-20 20 20

1] 3

Gyp&um

0.75 in
0.3 in

ooa
IS

II
1

11
-1^

6(<6
3 12

iy 1

planer' Lighlweighl Bigrciaie (-ighiwcight aggregate Light weighi 8gg. on meul lath Perliie aggregate Sand aggregate Sand aggregale Sand aggregate Sand aggregate on melal laih Vgrmiculile aggregate

21

0.623 0.73
105 105
1115

2.67

oil 019 04?


0I>7
in
32

11.47

Mil

0S7

0.5 0.623 0.73

020
0.09

II

10

9.10 7.70

Oil

on
oil
IS

HOOFING
Aibeitoi<mnl ihingWl
Asphalt
roll

120

rooring

476
6 50
2.27
3 110

...

AjphaU

shingli

70 70 373
.'..'..'

024
0.36 0.30
35 25 2 24-5

Buill.up roofing Slate ood ihmgles. plain

44

in
in.

70

01]
o.os

0.3

and

20.00
1.06

plailic film faced

030
03I

094

SIDING MATEIUALS(OKFuTSuwita)
Shinglei

AibuoiKenient Wood. 16m..7.3 tuposure

Wood, double. 16-in.. 12-in.eKpciiire ... Wood. Phil intul. backer board, 0.3123 u..
Siding

4-75 I 15

Oil
0.87
1.19 1.40 0.11
0.31

0S4
4,76 6-50

02
31

AibdioKemcni, 0.23 ill., lapped


Asphalt roll lidlng Alphali iniulaiing tiding (0-3 in bed.) . . Wood, drop, 1 1 In Wood, bevel, 0.3 < I m., lapped Wood. bcnel. 0.75 lOiji., lapped. Wood, plywood. 0.373 in, .lapped Wood, medium demily ilding, 0.4373 in.
.

OIS
I4S
0.79
O.tl

069
1

024 035
0-35 0.28 0.21

29 5 24 3

27

1.2]

0.95
1.59
.

101
0.19

02a
0.29

028

Aluminum or Sled*, over ihealhing


Hollo.bicked
Iruulating-board backed Domlnal 0.373 in

InniUilng-bovd backed nominal 0.375 in. foil backed


Arttiliccljnl gtaii
,

034

ion
43
1.10 9/
1

WOODS
Maple, oak. and iimilai hard<codi pine, and limilar softivoodi Fb. pine, and similar loflwoodi
Fir
,

196 OIO
0.30 0.33 33

32
0.75 in
1.3 In.

O.SO
1.06

II
0.94 I.S9 1 II 4.11

32

05)
0.32 0-23

20
411

066
1

133 lOi 106


10 6

2.3in. 3.3in.

.12

6
9

7 1

2 20

JOg

IU6 106

KoUHftcr *ilues

irc ih

*Abom tniulsunsMaicmb. Bovd.


v.lue of
(

rtpfocU of

C befoie rourdiO| off Clo r.o dimi placet

manuficluren

..r .pici: fn, .h .pprupnc fT., cm.tuncr nd iempcr..u,c ^^unJ.i.nn, of the .pe ondutLvii* vinei wiih Qbei J.amelci IuuI^Ihwi u pmducej hy JifTctcnl ilcriMUf* (hofcri N.. t(T,.rt UuiukJ be mode lo feUie any vpenfit K^t\at lu jny ipenfic ih.cUcvt

^
3

J J

imi

f..

"6
amnni
1977

wiJc vatiatHvn

ihicknc^

>r

ihc \aine A-waluc

ViJoo tt Um aged board tkiit I o change m romiucin.iy FurHiime nub Volume ln.ol...n| ..lue, of o.ile,l i.le v.nr. depcfidm, on d.urr of .he

jce of e.pjnJcd ufeih

e <

hjpicf

19. l-atior* Affctiinj

Ihem

bowd and on trt*.

i.ze. ..^d

depih of pet forar.ow


'^

IJJ.J J. re^oinuet ihe ipecificaiion of f oof iniolaiioo on ihe tiai of ihe C-valuet ibo*n. Boof 'Fbct brttk and common bnck do not liwain h*( these ipwrifK; denwiiei. When denuty <t

for

Prrfofm^ Abovr
ihichnesiei lo meet
ilicce -ill

Dnk

Ron/ IfiMtaaom. No

)n
I

It

made in
ihii

<beK valuei

from

tfucti'

ihon.

be a chjfi|e is ihetmal con-

ferencn
all

Oau on fcctaoiular coieconoeie blocli diffw frorti ihe above data or> oxi core blocli due lo m omi weighu Wo|hc d>U on ihe oval core blocki leiieiJ are noi available. :iof uniliapproiimaieJr 7 JJ in hifh and IJ 7)in lon| Thew weighu r liven a) a
fOf
I

;onri|uraiion. diffcieni

mean

icmperaiurci. and potubfy dif-

ft

It

f[^

of de^cnbini the blocti leiied, but conductance valuei are

'_Vm.h.,.peTli,e^o.rr,tnef.lwool.n.uUUon Whoe in,.U.ion i, ud. ..p b,kc.. othet p.ecauuon. most becor,de<l lokerp.n.ula.ion dry Valui eul .Jm applied flat .uifam *., wnldy. dependm, on amourvl of ven-,lat,cr. of air ,pe beneath the .Jmg. -iiha air ,p.c7lt refk^ii.e ihicknetj. lype, Bf>d appltcai;on of imutili Valueiiivenareaverago for e ai dei.in (uKlei. and ere obtained frwB leveril guvded hoibot teiu (ASTM C2 16) or eilibraied holbo'.'"f^_'"*"'^''*^ (BSS Tl) hollo* backed rypei and typei made uuni backing board) of *ood fiber, foafflcd pbatk. and gtau (tbcr Drparitim of50W or (Bore from the -aluea given may occur

nonreneciive: and on

om

123

Table 5.2
A

Surface Conductances and Resistances for Air


AH
Nit tictlii lor
ci>n(Jui'l3ni.r vnliics
;iir

cApmieO
vputc

in

Uiu

Itir- fl'

h).

MirfiiLT csnniii take credil Inr httlh iin

rckinliinct.'
i^iitliu'c

\jlur nJ a mrfiitc ickiii[;inn ^alue


l.iiinit

an

ait

spM,t

^nliic

citii

Ik:

litk^n tur

!)>

un mr iparc

t>l

lo* thnn

SK.(

HON

\. Surfacr ( undiu-lincei and

SK
e

TION

B. Urnrctancf

BnJ tmlllincr Vilufl of Virlwii SurfAcri


Effeeilve

nU

Rfsi\lBnc'^
Surrace Emilltini

Kfferdvr Kmillincr^ uf Air SpBccs

Emiiiance

ofAirSpaet
Pusltlon of
Surfftc*

Dlrrctlon

Nonrcneellvc
.

Rcflccllvc Rcflccllve

One
Surftcc
Refleclinct
In rrrccnl

of

Hal

-0.20

= 0.05

Flow

- 0.90

Average Emittancet

urfac*
emit-

Both wrfactl
cinll-

Unci
h,

IS

lh< other

taneei

b,

h,

0.90

STILL AIR
Horizontal

Sloping45 des
Verlical

Upward Upward
Horizonial

1.63 0.61 0.91 l.\0 3 76 1.32

1.60 0.62 0.88

I.

14 3.73 1.37

Sloping 45 dcg Horizonial

1.46 0.6S 0.74 l.3i 3.59 /.70


1.32 0.74 0.60 t.67 3,45 2.22

Aluminum foil, bright .... Aluminum sheet Aluminum coated paper.


Steel, galvanized, bright.
.

92 to 97 80 to 95

0.05

005
12

003
0.06
0.11

0.12

Downward Downward

75to84
70 to 80 30 to 70

0.20
0.2?

1.08

o.n

37 .2.70 3.22 <.5J

0.20 0.24
0.47

0.15

Aluminum paint

050

0.J5

MOVING AIR
(Any Pojilion)

h.

h,

h,

Building materials; wood,


paper, masonry, nonmetallic paints

15-mphWind
(for winter)

Any Any

6.00 0.17
4.00
25

Regular glass

5lol5 5tol5

0.90 0.84

0.82
0.77

0.82 0.72

7.5-mph Wind (for lummer)

Fof vcniilated jinci or spaces above ceilings under summer conditions (heat flnw down) sec Tahlc

Co^lJuc^JIlcc^ are for vurfaces of the slated emmilant:e facing MriuaJ blackbody surroundings at ihc same lempcrature as ihcambicn) a Values arc haicd on a -.urface-air icmpcraiure difference of 10 ileg F and for surface icmpcralurc ol 70 F.

124

Table 5.3 Thermal Resistances of Plane Air Spaces


All resistance values, expressed in (hour) (square fmn) (degree Fahrcnheil tcmpcrulurc difference) per Blu Valuci apply only (o air spacer of uniform thickness bounded by plane, smnoih, parallel surfaces with no leakage of air 10 nr from (Ik space. Thermal resjsiance valuci (or multiple air spaces must be bated on careful etlirruiici of mean lempcrarurc differences for each air space
Pmliloii of Al'

Dlrnllon
of

All Spaa

OJIa.AliSptct

Mna
Tmp
(F)

O.TS-ln.Ak Spall

Ttmp
DIft*
(d.t F| to 10
0.0.1

Htil

Sparv

How

Villi, of E'K 0.2 0.0S

Vily<o(E*->
e.i

J1
0.7) 0.75

D.U 234
1,71
2
1

0J9
222
1

OJ
1.61
1

.9

Dja

90 JO SO

20 10 20
10 10

M)
1

2.03
1.37

51

62
7)

1.29
1

0.99 0.96
1

66

2 1)
1

20J
1.70 2.04
1

60
45 70 49

II

084
0.91
1

HorU.

Up
-JO -JO
90 JO JO

2.10
1

1.12 1.27
1

30 8)

2 21

)5 70

04 99
16
16

07S
77

17
0.93
1.02 1.07 1.20

00

2 23
1.77
2 16
2

69

66

2)

2.04
2 2 2 2

200
2.31 1.98

1.75 1.65
1

1,40
1

1.04 1 16

1.79 2 16 1.74
2 11

52 1.78
1 1 1

1)1
1 1

55

27

84
88 52

46

30
10

44 06 20 6]

06
10

56

0.76 83

96

2.78
1

1.99

92

15 1.01
1 1

081
82

45'

2 !!

Slope

Up
-so -JO
90 so
JO

20
10

2.44 2 14 2 54

1.83

1.76

22 30

090
1

02

2.03
1

1.44

20 10
10

2.08 2.62
2

204
2 !6
2

78

1.42
1

1.10 1.17

2.90 2.13 2.72

2.75 2.07 2.62

200
1

29
28
1

94

72

00

208
1.76 2 10

1.47
1.41

112
1.16
1

205
2.53
)

201
2.47
3

2.17
1.67

66 06
24

13)
0.77

162
1

30
84

47

34

SO

24

208
201
2.35
2 2

22
)0

JO
10

2 J7

46

266
2.82

2 54

Verticil

Hoiit.

20
10

293
2,90
3

-50 -50
90 JO SO

20
10 10

2.72 2.82 2 82
3

1.84 1.88 2.14


2

1,23
1

090
0.91 1 13
1

2.91

2 77

094
1.01

)70
3 14
3

346
3 3

1.4)
1

50 76 87

20

1.53
1 1

1)

77

02 39

32 )6

51

2.64
2 87

20

10

2.35 2.54

)9

290
372
3.5)

1.46

2.8) 3.60
3.27

1.73 1.77
2

11 1.26
1

1)9
J

04

56

M
10

2.4S

2 34

67

06
25

0.77
0.91

2.10

1.22
1

084
99
1.02
1

264
2

45' Slopt

67

2.52 2.55

Down
-JO -JO

20
10

2.91

280
2.8) ).07
)

87 1 1.89 2.19

1.24
1

343
381
7) 4.12
3

323
3.57 ).57
3.91

0.92
1 1

224 240
2.6)

39

1.45

20
10
10

2.94 3.16
3

22J
2.52
2

1.52 1.53 1.86


1

15 15

1.72
1

281

80

1
1

26 30
57

1,45
1

26

16

58

89

47

378 435
3.55 3.77 3,84

)65
4 18
)

290 322
2.10 2 38
2.41

2.05

221
1.22 1.44
1

66

90 50 JO

248
2

2)4
2.54
2

1.67
1

106
1.24 1.25 1.53

077
091
0.92
1.15 1.16
1

29

085
102
1

30
10

66

88

352
3.59

Hani.

Oowg
-JO -JO

20
10

2 67 2.94

35

89

45
82

02

20
10

2,96 3 23
3.28

2.8) 2.8) 1.15

3.18

2.20 2.22 2 58 2.60

4.18

)96
4.02

2.8)

1.81
I

1.30

15)
1,89 1.90

425
4.60

217
3

47 47

441
4 51

36

471

342

2.28 2.30

1)1 69
1

1.71

125

Table 5.3

Continued
OknUM
9l 1

Ak

Mm
(Fl

Air

kpMt
TMIi

^
l.i-la.AkiMM*
ilel'
0.03
2

}JA:Akttm>'

IfM

IIM riM

Tfp, >
90 SO

IMl}
(dti'l
10 10 10 20
10

a.os

0.)
1

M2
6.77

0.01

CM
264
201

vaiM<rr><
*.2
1.83 1.38 1.93 1.79

.J
'l.l3

(.82

JS

241
1

71

Hofil

1.87
2

81

1.45

1.01 1.04
1.21

"284
2.09 2.80 2.25
2.71

080
0.84 0.9)
1.03 1.12

50

2
1

40
95

Up
-30 -SO
90 SO JO

2.01

2-43
1

2.35
1.91

20
10 10

94

2.37
2.92 2.14 2.89

2.31

SI 1 1.6) 1.90 1.68 1.99

1.23

0.10 0.89 0.97


1.06
1.13

266
2.11 2,62
2 14

1.10 1.28

1.38

1)6
I.3S

2 19

1.26

2.65
3.18

2.58 2.96 2.17

2.07 l.Si 2.18


1.97 1.67

1)2 147
1.47

1.20
1.33

1.67
l.ll 1.13

2.73

1.86
1.61
1

Stop*

Up
-JO -50
90 JO SO

30 10 20 10 20
10 10

206
2.74

30 2.79
2

223 269
2.17 2.64
3

99 82

1.14 1.12 1.29

0.80 0.84

0.82

2.26
3 12

0.86

094
1.04 1.1)
1.21
1

295
2.35 2.87

210
190
2.2)
1.97 2.33

1)4
1

2.42

1)4 1)1
1.34 1.54
I.7S 1.24

09<
1.06 16 1.25
1

2.12
1.88

49

298
2.34

2.22

271
3.99 2.58 3 79 2.76
3

2.23 2.25
1

1.49 1.69
1.27 1.2)
1

35

287
3.69 2.67

2.29 2.79
3

1.39

66

30
10

246
355
2.66 3.35 2.58

84

0.87 0.90
1.02

40

255
3.40 2.71

2)9
2 10 2.51

45

363
2.88

Vcniul

Hull.
-50 -JO
90 30 JO

20 10 20 10
10

51

1.48 1.67

1.12 1.2)
1.3)

349
2.82

33)
2.75
3

2.13 1.89 2.32 2.17 2.50

0.85
0.91 1 01 1 14
1

123
1.42
1.51

167
1.73

23 SO

2.64
3 31

321

2.18 2.62 2.56


2.31
2 83

1.66
1.91

230
2.67 2.49 2.2> 2,73 2.66 3.02 2.90
).31
3.41

1.37
1

1.48

340
4.81
3.51

30

194
1

30

5.07 3.58

45*

Slope

Don

U
10

10

5.10 3.15

455 336 466


3.66 4.62 3 SO 4.47

2.68
3

4.92

16

1.36 1,42 1.60 1.74 1.94

0.91 1.00 1.09 1.27 1.37


1.S4
1

433
3.30 4 36
3.63

34

0.90
1.00 1.08 1.27 1.34 1.57 1.68 1.00
1.22 1.24 1.62 1.64

1.40
1

4.74
3.11

37

4.39
3.77

4.32
3.64 4.32

-30 -SO
90 SO SO
Hoita.

20
10
10

362 467
6.09 6.27
6.61
7

280
.

201
2.29

3.40

70

4.30
10.01

1.74 1.88 2.03 2.23


1.57

533
5.63

30
10

Down
-50 -50

20 10 20
10

03

590 643
6.66
7.20 7.52

2.79 3.18 3 27

143
1.70

0.94
1.14
1.13

1.19
8.17

9.6
11.13 10.90 11.97 11.64 12.98

391
4.00 4.77

73 2.19
1

9 27
9.52

1.49
1.51
1

3.86 4.09 4.87


3

181
1

93

2.47

7 31

2.22

7.73

285
2.89

99

1032 1049
11.39

08

2!2
3.25

6.02

8.09

491

2.01

6.)6

334

2.18 2.22

Mnicrpolahiin

is

pcrmi\ablt for oihcr values of

nioditaic exirapol.iimn for air spaces greaUT ihan


'tffcciivc cmiitancc of ihc space
/.'is

mean lempcraiure. tcmperalure 33 in. are aUu pcrmiHsable.


=
!/Pi

Jiffercnccs.

and

cffeciivc emiiiancc

".

Inlerpolalion and

given by

I//:"

I/c;

I.

where

e^

and

r- nrc

thecmiliancnofthesurfacesof (he

air

apace

(S

tnnn B

of

( jhlf

.\

1)

CrcJii for an air >pace rc!>isUncc value cannoi he taken

more (han once and only

for ihc

boundary conditions ChlahUahcd.

RcM^Mncc
I

ol hori/onial spaces with heat flow

downward

are subManlially independent of icmpcralurc difference.


I

hermal rcsiitancc values were determined from the relation R = C. uV^rr C = A. + AVi.. h, is the conduction-convection cocfTicicnt. Wi, E ((460 + /i)j'. and /,.. is the mean icmpcralurc of Ihc air space. For inlerpolalion from Table 3,4 to air 0016) and compute W values from the above relations space thicknesses less than 5 in (as in msulaimg window glass). >issumc/f, = 0.795 (+
IS

Ihc rddi.iiion coelficient ^0.0(NS86

ior a n air |.pace thickness of

2 in, in

__^__^^
Housing Kesearch
i*aper

Kiscd on National Uureau of Standards data presented (lovcrnmcni Printing Office. Washington 20402.

No. 32. Housmgand

Home Finance Agency

1954. U.S.

::

126

After each material

resistance
the

has
U

been

determined

for

the

and air,

total

coefficient for each building


the

component can then be determined with


tion:

following

equa-

Rj

+ R2 + R3 +

+ R

(5.4)

whe re

is

the

heat

transfer

coefficient,

BTU/hr/ft /TD.
and R_ are
the resistances
of

R. ,R

materials

1,

and 3.

is

the

resistance

of

the

nth material in

the

building component.

or

U =

(5.5)

where
is

R-

the

total resistance of

the

material

in

the building component.

The

calculation
are

procedures
for

for

transmission

heat

losses
,

explained

the

major
5.6.

building components

shown in Figure 5.3,

in section

127

Sky-light

Windows

Figure 5.3

Major Building Components for Determining Heat Loss es

128

5.3

Infiltration Heat Lo sses


is

Infiltration
cracks
in

the

leakage of air into

building thru
cracks

the

building's facade,

cracks around doors,

around windows, and opened doors and windows.


is

Infiltration
is

often confused with ventilation.


of

Ventilation
provide

the

proair

cess
for

bringing air into

building to

fresh

the

occupants

and to supply enough additional air for

combustion processes.
and

The difference
the way

between

Infiltration

ventilation

is

in

the air enters

into the buildin

ing.

Infiltration enters into the

building

an

uncon-

trolled
in a

manner and ventilation air enters into the building

controlled manner.
a

Ventilation air
fans,
in

is

usually

brought

into

building
is

with

controlled dampers or vents.

Ventilation
ment.
that
the
to an

very important

providing

safe

environ-

On

the

other

hand,

infiltration
is

is

additional air
increase
bills
in

enters

into building and the result


of

an

in

amount

money

that

must

be

spent

on utility

due

increased heating load.


audit

Therefore,

one

goal

the
is

energy

process

is

to

determine where infiltration

occurring and reduce its quantity.


The major driving force
one
to

that

produces Infiltration in

two story

building

is

wind pressure.

The major fac-

tors

affecting wind pressure include average velocity,


direction,
and

pre-

vailing
and

seasonal and daily variation in velocity


local

direction,

obstructions

such

as

nearby

129

buildings,

hills,

trees,

and shrubbery

[3].

To analyze

building for infiltration,


is

first determine
The two situa-

from what
tions
a

direction the wind

coming from.
a

in which wind

applys pressure to

building is through

broadside

or

quartering wind.

Figure 5.4 shows the two applys


pres-

wind pressure situations.


sure
to

The broadside wind


the

only one side of

building while the quartering


of

wind applys pressure to two sides

the

building.

If

the

building

being

audited has

broadside wind,
doors,
and

then only the

infiltration through the windows,


side
of

walls
is

on

the

the

building that

the

broadside wind
wind
is

blowing on
only

will be analyzed.
the

In the quartering
the quartering wind

situation,

two walls

that

blowing on will be

analyzed
The best way
is

to

determine

the prevaling wind direction

to

ask.

people who work in the building.

Table 3.1 con-

tains

limited data on wind velocity.

When air enters into


same

building

via

infiltration
This air is

the
re-

amount of air must exit the building.


as

ferred to

exf lit ration,


to

see Fig.

5.4,

and is always

equal

in quantity
of is

the infiltration air.


the

By

limiting the amount


of

air

that

exits

building,

the amount, the

infiltration

also

reduced.

Therefore,

energy auditor will still


begins
to

be

concerned with all exterior walls when he/she


to

recommend actions

limit

infiltration.

\
130

T Exfliuatlon
I
,

(5 sides)
1

\\V^VV \v ExfmraUon\^2
sides)
| '

'

'

'

Lkkkkkkkkkk
tttttt
inflllrat

^^:

infiltration ^(2 sides)

on

1 side)

BROADSIDE WIND

QUARTERING WIND

Figure 5.4

Infiltration Caused Quartering Wind.

by

Broadside and

Because
sure

of

the

many varying factors

that

effect

wind

pres-

and

the

difficulties
is

in

determining

magnitude and Calculaof


a

direction,
tion

infiltration

very hard to quantify.

procedures will be presented to estimate how much


is

building's heat loss


important
thing

contributed

by

infiltration,

but

the
to
a

to remember when auditing a building is


it

understand what causes infiltration, where


building,
of

occurs

in

and what

measures can be taken to limit the amount

inf

It

ration.

The basic equation for


loss
is

determining

infiltration

heat

131

.08

TD

cf m

(5.6)

whe re
the heat

is

loss

due

to

infiltration in BTU/hr

1.08

has units

of

BTU/hr/cfm/ F.
temperature difference in
degrees

TD

Ins ide-ou ts ide


F.

cfm

is

the

infiltration in cubic feet per minute,

cfm.

The

difficult part in using equation 5.6

is

in

deter-

mining the cfm.


heat

The calculation procedures for infiltration

losses

through doors, windows, and walls are


5.7.

explained

in section

5 .4

Required Material to Complete Heat Loss Calculations


*

Completed BIF
Copies
of

FORM 5.1 Transmission Coefficient


Form
and

(U)

Cal-

culation
Form,

FORM

5.2

Heat Loss Calculation

see Appendix A.

Tables
Pencil

5 .1

to

.12

Calculator

'132
5 .5

Procedures to Complete Heat Loss Calculations


and
5.2 are

Form 5.1

provided to enable the heat


a

loss

calculations to be done in
ing procedures

systematic manner.
to

The follow-

explain the steps


by

take

in

using

the

forms

followed

the procedures

for

determining the heat

losses

through the major building components.

5.5.1

Instructions for Form 5.1


the

STEP

I:

Fill out the top portion of


5.6,

form,

see

Figure

page 13

7.

STEP

2:

Complete Section
1.

of

the form.

Sketch the cross section

of

the

building

com-

ponent.

Do

this

for each building component

identified on the BIF.


2.

Describe the material in the cross section


enough detail that
tables
.

in

it

can be identified in the

3.

Indicate the
inches.
This

thickness
is

of

the

material
important

in

especially

for

materials that have their resistances given in


terms
of

conductivity per inch.


2

STEP

3:

Complete Section
component

of

the form

for
1.

each

building

identified in Section

133

1.

Enter the path location where the


of

coefficient

transmission
two columns

is

being calculated.
values of
l/K,

Section
This
is

has

for

R,

and

U.

required

for
As

building
an example,

components
a

with two heat

transmission paths.
nal
2

wall built from


on

nomi-

in.

by

in.

wood studs 16 in.


in.

center, 3.5 inches


heat
of

batt

insulation,

and 0.5

gypsum wall board has two


5.5

transmission
two heat

paths.

Figure

shows

the

location

the

transfer paths.

PATH ONE

PATH TWO

PATH ONE PATH TWO

0.5 In,

gypsum wall Doard,


0.5

3.5 In. oalt Insulation,


.

0.5

ia sheating and

by 8 la lapped siding
In

0.5 Ut.

gypsum wall boaid, nominal 2 Dy a


sheating aral

wood

sUid,

05

in.

05 by

in.

lapped siding.

Figure 5.5 Exterior Wall Heat Transfer Paths

The

combination
total

of

the
of

material in path

has

difof

ferent

value

resistance

and

coefficient

'

134

ra

nsmlss i vi t y than path

due

to

the

different combinations
the

of

material

in

the

two paths.
of

By weighting

transmls-

slvlty (U) with the percentage


an average

construction for each path

value of

ransmis s i vl ty can be calculated for the


the

wall.

The size and spacing of

studs

in

the wall or

roof

sections
the
t

determines

the

percentages to be multiplied with

ransmiss ivity to arrive at an average value.


An average U value for a wall or

roof

section

is

calcu-

lated using Eq. 5.7 as foil o w s


U

avg = (% P1)(U PI) + (% P2)(U P2)

(5.7)

avg-

is

the average U value for

the

wall

or

roof

sect ion

PI-

is

the construction percentage

for path

from

Table 5.4.
PI-

is

the

calculated

value for path 1.

P2-

is

the

construction percentage for path

from

Table 5.4.
P2-

is

the

calculated

value for path 2.

Table 5.4 lists


ing

the percentages

for

the

different fram-

sizes

and spacings.
that

This point will further be illus-

trated in the examples

follow.

135

Table 5.4

Construction Percentages For Walls and Roof Framing


Percentage
Spacing

Percentage

Material
Ind-ies

Between Framing

At Framing

12 16
1

by

24 32 12
16

94 95 97 98

06 OS 03 02 12
10 06

2 by

24
32

88 90 94 95

05

by

12 16

79

24 32

84 90 92

21 16
10 08

4 by

12 16

71

29 22 15
11

24 32

78 85 89

136

STEP

CONTINUED
Using Table 5.1 enter
tivity
1.

2.

the

value

of

conduc-

for

the

material described in section

3.

To determine the R value multiply

the

Thick-

ness with

the

Conductivity.
enter
the

4.

Using Tables 5.1 to 5.3

value
of

of

resistance for the remaining materials


tion one
.

sec-

5.

For each building

component

sum

the
of

resisthe sec-

tances

to

get

total resistance

tion.

6.

Calculate the total


For components with

value where
paths,
.

1/R

7.

two

calculate
5.4.

an

average

value using Eq

5.7 and Table

137

Foim

5.1

Transmission

Coefficient

(LI )

Calculation

Form

Building
1.

STEP

nnatinn

Sheet No.

Date
Dale

SECTION
Cross
section

STEP 2
Thk.

SECTION
1
1/k

STEP 3
1

ConslitJcUon

IN.

1/k

3 4

NOTE:

Eacil form can be used for several. COflnpooents by separating each cornponent wlUi a solid dark line.""
1

mill

-_

J. II

I'll!

lllHl.y

IIHILIIU

Figure 5.6

Form 5.1 Transmission

(U)

Calculation Sheet

'

138

5.5.2

Instructions for Form 5.2

STEP

1:

Complete the top portion


5.7
.

of

the

form,

see

Figure

STEP

2:

Complete section
1.

Transmission Heat Losses


description
of

Enter
ponent

brief

the

building com-

2.

Enter the

Value calculated from Form 5.1


of

3.

Enter the area


square feet

the

building

component

in

4.

Calculate
between
ponent
.

the
the

temperature
two

difference
the

TD

sides

of

building com-

5.

Calculate the heat loss in BTU per hr for


building
component by multiplying the
U,

the

Area

and TD together.

6.

Repeat steps
ponent

thru

for each

building

com-

7.

Sub-total the transmission heat losses for the


entire building.

STEP

3:

Complete Section

INFILTRATION

139

1.

Enter the location

of

the

infiltration

and

calculate

the

heat

loss

due to infiltration

through each component.


2.

Enter the amount

of

heat

loss.

3.

Sub-total the infiltration heat losses.


Total the transmission and
losses
.

4.

infiltration

heat

140

Form

5.2

Heat Loss CalculaUon Form

Building
1

^^EP

Heal Loss Calc.


Sheet No.

nraMnn

Aiirlltnr

Dale

r.hrk'r1

Ry
(^IF)

Dale

TnslrlR Tftrnperature

Op

OutslfiR

TempRrature

CTable 3.1)

Op

SECTION

TRANSMISSION HEAT LOSSES

SItH 2

BUILDING COMPONENT

U
VALUE

AREA
SO.
FT.

TD

Q
BTU/HR

Op
4

SuD-total

SECTION 2

INFILTRATION HEAT LOSSES


1

SIbP 3
2

sijo- total

3
1

TOTAL

Figure 5.7

Form 5.2 Heat Loss Calculation Sheet

141

5.6

Transmission Heat Loss Calculations


given
for

Instructions are
heat losses
thru
the

determining

transmission

major building components followed by

an example calculation for each component.

5.6.1

Floor-on-Grade
grade,
3

DESCRIPTION:
s

A floor
is
a

on

sometimes referred to as
and
less

lab-on-grade,

floor

ft

below-grade and in
5.8.

most cases constructed of concrete,

see F.igure

Location of Eage
Insulation

Grade

Floor

A
A
is

Floor

Floor
is

a typical floor-on-grade and Floor B

also considered a floor-on-grade, as long as the

dimension shown does not exceed 3 feet

Figure 5.8

Floor-on-Grade

14 2

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS


STEP
1:

Calculate the perimeter distance


feet,

of

the

floor

in

see

Figure

5.9.

The perimeter

distance is

calculated as follows:

perimeter
whe re

2(L) + 2(W)

(5.8)

perimeter

is

the

outside

distance

around

the

floor in ft.
L
-

is

the

length of

the

floor in ft

W -

is

the width of

the floor in ft.

NOTE: A
to
is

loor-on-grade does not require


Therefore,
the use

value

be

determined.
required.

of

Form 5.1

not

T
widui ,w
(ft)

i
Lengtn

,L

(ft)-

Figure

5.9

Plan View of Floor-on-Grade From Which the Perimeter of the Floor is Calculated

IA3

STEP

2:

Enter Table 5.5* to select


of
eXpo8 ed ed ge
.

the heat

loss

per

foot

STEP

3:

Calculate the heat loss through the floor by multiplying the heat loss factor with the perimeter.

Table 5.5

Heat Loss of Concrete Floors at or Near Grade Level per Foot of Exposed Edge

Heat Loss per Foot of Exposed Edge, Btu/(hr ft)

Outdoor Tempe rature


-20 to -30 -10 to -20 to -10 +10 to +20 to +10

R =

5.0 Edge Insulat ion


50 45 40
35 30

R =

2.5

Edge

Insulation
60 55 50 45 40

No Edge Insulation
75 65 60 55 50

EXAMPLE

FLOOR-ON-GRADE
heat
loss

Calculate the

through

the

loor-on-grade

shown below in Figure 5.10 with the following conditions:

Outside Temperature
Floor Dimensions

100

ft

by

50

ft

Insulation
*

None

With permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Ai r-Condi t i oning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA 30329
.

144

Outside
Partial

section of

6 inch thick concrete floor

Figure 5.10

Floor Section for Example

SOLUTION
STEP

1:

The perimeter distance is

perimeter

2(L) +

2(W)

perimeter
perimeter
STEP

= =

2(100) + 2(50)
300
ft

2:

From Table 5.5

the

out

door

design

temperature

falls within the +10 to


tion the heat STEP 3:
loss

range and with no insula-

factor is 55 BTU/(hr ft)

The heat

loss

is

q
q

=
=
=

perimeter
(300

heat

loss

factor

ft)(55 BTU/(hr ft))

16,500 BTU/hr

145

5.6.2

Floor-Below-Grade
see Fig.

DESCRIPTION:
3

A floor-be low-grade

5.11,

is

located

ft

or

greater below-grade.

Exterior wall

""

fc

J
T

Distance 3 feel or greater

Floor-Below-Grade

umm

Mi

mw

wiwwiw n w wiw*wwwiytwi

"

"'

"

Figure 5.11

Floor-Below-Grade

PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS


STEP
1:

Determine the total


using

value for the

floor
the

section
value on

Tables

5.1

and

5.2 and enter

Form 5.2.

STEP

2:

Calculate the area


Form 5.2.

of

the

floor

and

enter

it

on

The area is

calculated as follows:
x

Area

(L)

(w)

(5.9)

:
:

146

whe re
the floor

Area L -

is

the area

of

in sq

ft.

is

the

length

of

the

floor

measured

from

inside the exterior wall in ft.


W -

is

the width

of

the

floor

measured

from

inside the exterior wall in ft.

Figure 5.12

Plan View of Floor-Be low-G rade

STEP

3:

Calculate the temperature difference


the

TD

between
of

inside

temperature and the temperature


value
on

the

soil below the floor and enter the


5.2.
The TD
is

Form

calculated as follows:
TD = t,
i

(5.10)

whe re

147

is

the

inside temperature

from

top

of

Form

5.2.

t s

is

the

temperature

of

the soil from Table

5.6

STEP

4:

Calculate the heat loss

using Eq

5.1.

Table 5.6

Soil Temperatures for State of Indian;

WalL Floor
a
Location

soil

Avg
Soil

Deptn
(iothes)

Temp.

Temp.
(degF)

(degF)
34

to 36

North
36 ana deeper
to 36

36.5

39

36
38

central

36 and deeper
to 36

36

South
36 and deeper
Th location refers to the

4Q5
45

top Northern third of the state,

the Central third of the state, and the Southern third of the state.

EXAMPLE

FLOOR-BELOW-GRADE
the

Calculate the heat loss through


shown in Fig. 5.13

loor-be low-grade

below with the following conditions:

148

Inside Temperature
Floor Dimensions
I

70F
50
ft

by

50

ft

nsu lat i on

none

INSIDE
Exterior wall

Direction of heat flow

Partial section of

4 Inch inick concrete floor

Figure 5.13

Floor Section for Example

SOLUTION
STEP
1:

Calculate
the
the

from Tables 5.1

and

5.2

and

transfer

value to Form 5.2,

see Fig.

5.14.

149

SECTION
Cross Section

SECTION
Tnk.

consirucllon
1/k

R
.92

1/k

/ ^
:SoiK>'

.08

.32

1.24

- 1/R

.8065

Figure 5.14

Example

Form 5.1

STEP

2:

The total floor area is

Area

= =

x W ft
x

Area
Area

50

50

ft

2500 sq ft

STEP

3:

The TD is

TD = ti TD = TD =
70
-

ts

40

30F

STEP 4:

The heat
=

loss q

is

q
q q

X A

X X

TD

=
=

0.8065

2500

sq

ft

40 F

80,650 BTU/hr

150

5.6.3

Wall-Below-Grade
extends
more Chan
3

DESCRIPTION:
below grade,

A wall

below grade

ft

see Fig. 5.15.

Distance frpm top of wall


to floor is lised for calculating area

Figure 5.15

Wall-Below-Grade

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS


STEP

1:

Determine the heat

loss

factor from Table 5.7*


U

and

enter this value for the


NOTE:
It

value on Form 5.2.

is

not

necessary to calculate

value

for walls-be low-grade

STEP

2:

Calculate the area,

see Fig.

5.16,

of

the

wall-

With permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Ai r-Condi t oning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA 30329.

151

below-grade and enter the value on Form


area is

5.2.

The

calculated as follows:
[(L)(H)(No. of walls)] - (openings)
(5.11)

Area

where
Area is
sq

the area
ft.

of

wall-below-grade

in

is

the length of wall

in ft.

H -

is

the height

of wall

in ft.

No. of Walls -

is

the number of

walls

with

same

dimensions

Openings

is

the area

of

windows and doors in


sq

the

wall

in

ft.

Methods for
through

calculating
these
in the

heat

losses

openings are presented later

chapter.

152

Length, L

Grade.

Heigth,

Figure 5.16

Section of Wall-Below-Grade From Which the Area is Calculated in sq. ft.

STEP

3:

Calculate the TD between the inside temperature and


the

average

temperature
The TD

of
is

the soil and enter

the

value on Form 5.2.


lows:

calculated

as

fol-

TD =

t.

savg

(5.12)

whe re
the temperature

TD

is

difference.

is

the

inside temperature from Form 5.2.

153

savg

is

the average soil

temperature

from

Table

5.6.

STEP

4:

Calculate the heat loss

using Eq

5.1.

Table 5.7

Heat Loss for Below-Grade Walls

Distance Wall Extends BelowGrade,* ft

Insulation Over Full Surface


R-4 R-8
.075 .071

Wall I'nsulated to a Depth of Two Feet Below Grade


R-4

R-13

R-8

R-13

4 5

.110

6
7

0.102 0.095 0.089

0.067 0.064
3

0.057 0.054 0.052


.050

0.136 0.128 0.120 0.112


less,

0.102 0.100 0.097 0.093


as
a

0.090 0.091 0.089 0.086 slab

For
on

a depth below-grade of grade.

feet

or

treat

EXAMPLE

WALL-BELOW-GRADE
through
the

Calculate the heat loss

wall-below-grade

shown in Fig. 5.17 below with the following conditions:

Inside Temperature
Wall Dimensions

70F

four at
two

ft

high by 50 ft long

Openings

doors at 3 ft by 7 ft four windows at 4 ft by 4 ft

Insulation

R-4 over full surface

154

Direction of heat flow

R-4

floor

Figure 5.17

Wall Section for Example

SOLUTION

STEP

1:

From Table 5.7,

the wall extends

ft

below

grade
the

with
heat STEP

R-4
loss

insulation

over the entire surface,

factor is 0.089.
is

2:

The area

Area

((H)(L)(
[(8

NO.

of

Walls)]

(openings)

Area =

[2(3

ft)(50 ft) 4]ft)(7ft) + 4(4 ft)(4 ft)]


sq sq

Area

= =

1600
1494

ft ft

106

sq

ft

Area
STEP

3:

The TD

is

TD = ti - tsavg
TD
=

70 -

38

155

TD =

32F
loss

STEP 4:

The heat

is

q
q q

Area x TD

=
=

(0.089)(1494)(32)
4255

BTU/hr

5,6,4

Wall-Above-Grade
does
not

DESCRIPTION
than
3

A wall-above-grade

extend

greater

ft

below grade,

see Fig.

5.18,

Wall-above-grade

distance less than 3 ft

Figure 5,18

Wall-Above-Grade

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS


STEP
1:

Determine

for

the wall section and

transfer

the

value to Form 5,2,

156

STEP

2:

Calculate the area


includes
any
of

of

the

wall-above-grade
3

(this

the

portion

ft

or

less

below-

grade) and enter the value on Form 5.2. STEP

3:

Calculate the TD between the inside temperature and


the

outside
:

temperature.

The TD

Is

calculated as

follows

TD =

t, 1

(5.13)

whe re
t.
i

and

are

from top ^ of Form 5.2.


loss

STEP

4:

Calculate the heat

using Eq

5.1

EXAMPLE 4A

WALL-ABOVE-GRADE (one heat flow path)


through
the

Calculate the heat loss

wall-above-grade

shown in Fig. 5.19 below with the following conditions.

Inside Temperature

70
3

Outside Temperature
Wall Dimensions

F
10 10

two at two at

ft ft

high by 25 ft long high by 50 ft long

Openings

two doors at 3 ft by 7 ft five windows at 4 ft by 6 ft

157

DlrecUon of heal flow

Figure 5.19

Wall Section for Example 4A

SOLUTION
STEP
The U value for the wall section is determined and

1:

because

the

wall

has

one heat

transmission path,
see

only one column is required on Form 5.1,


5.20.

Fig.

158

SECTION
Cross
Section

SECTION
TTlk.

Construction

IN.

1/k

R
.17

1/k

'

/
fl.5

.20

.9 .9

<-;

2
4.5 .20 .20

.9
.1

//
0.5

.68

3.65

= 1/R

0.274

Figure 5.20
STEP
The area

Example 4A Form 5.1

2:

is

Area
Area Area

= =

[(H)(L)(

NO.

of Walls)]

(openings)

[(10 ft)(25 [2(3 ft )(7

ft)2 + (10 ft)(50 ft)2]ft) + 5(4 ft)(6 ft)]


162
sq

= =

1500 1338

sq

ft ft

ft

Area
STEP

sq

3:

The TD

ii

TD = ti - to

TD =
TD
=

70 67 F

159

STEP 4:

The heat

loss

is

=
=

Area

x TD

q q

(0.274)(1338
24,563 BTU/hr

sq

ft)(67F)

EXAMPLE 4B

WALL-ABOVE-GRADE (2 heat flow paths)


through
the

Calculate the heat loss

wall-above-grade

shown in Fig. 5.21 below with the following conditions:


Inside Temperature
70 F

Outside Temperature
Wall Dimensions

3F
two at two at
8 8

ft high by 20 ft high by 40

ft ft

long long
ft

Openings

two windows one door at

one garage

ft by 6 by 7 ft door at 10 ft

at

ft

by

ft

Direction of heat flow

Figure 5.21

Wall Section for Example 4B.

'

160

SOLUTION
STEP The

1:

value for
the

the

wall

section
the

Is

determined
see Fig.

between
5.22.

framing

and at

framing,

SECTION
Cross
section

SECTION
ThK.

Between Studs
1/k

At Studs
1/k

Construction

IN.

R
.17
.81

R
.17

- Outside Surface - - Siding Wood 0.5 x 8ln. fi - - Sheallng 0.5 aspnalt Imp. s _ - - 2xaln. wood studs 16 In o.c. /; ^~ - 3.5 In. Bait insulation / / - - sneet Rock /
1 1*

.81

>

1.32

1.32

11
.45 .68

4.38
.45
.68

s s s * s
>.

/
/

--

inside Surface

R U uavg
- 1/R -

7.81

w.a5
.0693

.128

.0752

Figure 5.22

Example 4B Form 5.1

After the
flow

value
U

is

determined for

the

two
.

heat
5.7
as

paths,
:

avg is

calculated using Eq

follows

Between Framing
At

U
U

= =

0.0693
0.128

Framing

161

From Table
2

5 .4

by

16

Inches on center
90
10
% Z

Between Framing
At

Framing

U avg
U

(0,90)(0.0693) +

) (

. 1

28

avg = 0.0752

STEP

2:

The area of

the wall

is

Area
Area

= =

[(H)(L)(No.
[(8
f t
) (

of

Walls)]
2)

(openings)

20

ft)

+ (8 ft)(40 ft)2]
ft) +

[2(4
(10

ft)(6 ft) + (3 ft)(7 ft)(7 ft)]


ft ft
-

Area

960

sq

139

sq

ft

Area = 821

sq

STEP

3:

The TD is
TD = ti - to

TD = 70 TD =

67F

STEP 4:

The heat

loss

is

Area x TD
sq

q q

= =

(0.0752)(960
4,837

ft)(67F)

BTU/hr

162

5.6.5

Partitions Separating Conditioned and Unconditioned Space


A

DESCRIPTION:

partition separating conditioned and


Is

uncon-

ditioned

space

any

interior wall or floor that separates


see Fig.

heated space from unheated space,

5.23,

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS

STEPS

and

are

the

same St ips

and

of

Walls-Above-

Grade
STEP

3:

Calculate the TD between the Inside temperature


the heated space and
the unheated

of is

space.

The TD

calculated as follows:
TD = t^
-

t^.

(5.14)

where
TD
the temperature

is

difference,

degrees F.

t.

is

the
F

inside

temperature

from

Form

5.2,

degrees

is

the

temperature

of

the air in the

uncondi-

tioned space,
STEP
4:

degrees F.

Calculate the heat loss

using Eq. 5.1.

163

Heated Space
Direction of heat flow

Heated space
Direction of heat flow

mmmm^:^:^

wx ^

vmwm

Partitions separating conditioned

and unconditioned space

Figure 5.23

Wall and Floor Partitions Separating Conditioned and Unconditioned Space.

164

EXAMPLE

5
"

WALL PARTITION SEPARATING CONDITIONED AND '~~ UNCONDITIONED SPACE


loss

Calculate the heat

through

the

wall

partition

shown in Fig. 5.24 below with the following conditions:

Inside Temperature

70 F

Unconditioned Temp.
Wall Dimensions

40 F
9

ft

by 50

ft
3

Openings

one

door at

ft

by

ft

Heated Space

ft

Figure 5.24

Wall Partition for Example

SOLUTION
STEP

1:

Calculate the
Fig.
5.25.

values and an average U value,

see

165

SECTION
Cross
section

SECTION
ink.

Between studs
1/k

At Studs
1/k

Constaicilon

IN.

R
.68

R
.68 .45

Inside Surface

Sheet Rock
2x-ln.

0.5

AS
.91

wood stud 24

In

o.a
3.5

4.38

Air Space

Concrete Block
Inside Surface

cinder

1.72

1.72
.68

.68

4.04

7.91

U U

- 1/R

.2252

.1264
.2193

avg

Figure 5.25
U avg

Example

Form 5.1

calculated as foil ows


=

Between Framing
At

0.2252
.1264
at
24

Framing
2

U =

From Table 5.4

by 4

inches

on

center

Between

Framing

94%
6%
(

At Framing
U avg.
U =
=

(0.94)(0.2252) +
0.2193

.06

(0

264

avg.

STEP

2:

Area of wall is Area


[(H)(L)]
-

(openings)

166

Area

= =

[(9

ft)(50 ft)]
sq ft
21

(3

ft)(7 ft)

Area
Area
STEP

450

sq

ft

429 sq

ft

3:

The TD is

TD = tl - ti'

TD TD

70

40

30"F

STEP 4:

The heat

loss

is

q q q

= = =

Area x TD
sq
f t
) (

(0.2193)(429
2822 BTU/hr

30 F

5.6.6

Roof

DESCRIPTION:

roof

consists

of

the

ceiling,

joists
of

and
roofs

waterproofing
are

membrane.
flat

The two most common types


roof,

the pitched and

see Fig. 5.26.

167

water Proofing Memdrane


Water Proofing Memtirane
Joists

celling
Joists or
rafters

Pitched Roof

Flat

Roof

Figure 5.26

Typical Roof Cons ruct i on


t:

PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS


STEP

1:

Determine the
Tables 5.1
to

for

the

roof

construction

using

5.3

and enter the value on Form 5.2.

STEP

2:

Calculate the area

of

the

roof,

see Fig.

5.27,

and

enter the value on Form 5.2.

168

Exterior walls

Front view
Pitched Roof

siae view

Area

[2(L

x W) - openings]

Flat

Roof

/PEA -

(L

xw) - Openings

Figure 5.27

Roof Area Calculation

STEP

3:

Calculate the temperature difference


the inside and outside

(TD)

between
.

temperatures using Eq

5.13.

STEP

4:

Calculate the heat loss (q) using Eq. 5.1,

EXAMPLE 6A

PITCHED ROOF HEAT LOSS


shown

Calculate the heat loss through the pitched roof


in Fig.

5.27 with

the following conditions:

Inside Temperature

70F
3

Outside Temperature

169

Roof Dimensions

21

ft

by

100

ft

Pitch

4:12

SOLUTION
STEP

1:

Calculate
enter
5.28.
the

and

avg from Tables


of
U

5.1,2,3 and

and

value

avg on Form 5.2,

see Fig.

SECTION

SECTION 2
"mk.

Between Rafters
1/k

At Rafters
1/k

Consiaicllon

IN.

R
.17

R
.17

cxilslde Surface

Aspnall snlngies
Fell Paper

M
.06 .77
In

.44
.06
.77

Plywood sneatlng
2x4-la wood rafters 16
Ball Insulation

oc

4.38

11
.as .45

sneel Rock
Inside Surface

.62

.62
*""

^
1J.51

6.89

u U

- l/R

.Q7

.145
.081

avg -

Figure 5.28

Example 6A Form 5.1

U avg

is

calculated as follows
U
=

Between Framing
At

0.074

Framing

U =

0.145

170

From Table 5.4

Between Framing
At

90%
10%

Framing

U
U

avg = (0.90)(0.074) +

10

) (

14

avg

0.081

STEP

2:

The

roof area

Is

A =

2(L X W) - openings

A = A =

2(100
4

ft
sq

21

ft)

200

ft

STEP

3:

The TD is

TD

o
3

TD =

70 -

TD = 67 "f

STEP 4:

The heat

loss

(q)

is

q q
q

= =
=

X A X TD

(0.081)(4200 sq ft)(67F)
22,822 BTU/hr

EXAMPLE 6B

FLAT ROOF
in

Calculate the heat loss through the flat roof shown


Fig. 5.27 with
the same

conditions as Example 6A

171

SOLUTION
STEP

1:

From Tables 5.1,


avg is

5.2,

5.3 and 5.8 the U value and U

calculated,

see Fig. 5.29.

SECTION
Cross
Section

SECTION 2
Constaicllon

IN.

1/k

R
.17

1/k

R
.17

//
.625
7.5

.33 .78

.33 .78

9.06
-

19

AS
l:-x'^:;-.-]
0.5

MS
.61
""

.61

^
21. J4

R u U

11.4

- l/R

.0069

.0877 .0493

avg -

Figure 5.29
U avg

Example 6B Form 5.1

is

calculated as follows:
U
=

Between Framing
At

0.0469

Framing

U =

0.0877

From Table 5.4

Between Framing
At Framing

96%
4%

17 2

avg

=
=

(0.0469)(0.96) +
0.0493

.08

7 7 ) (

.04

avg

STEP

2:

The roof area is

A = A = A =

(L

W) ft
sq
X

openings
100

(40

ft)

4000

ft

STEP

3:

The TD

is

TD

o
3

TD = TD =

70 70
F

STEP 4:

The heat
= =
=

loss

(q)

is

q
q q

X A X

TD

(0.0493)(

4000 sq ft)(67F)

13,212 BTU/hr

5.6.7

Windows and Skylights


skylights
are

DESCRIPTION:

Windows and

composed
for

of

any

translucent

material,

usually

glass,

the purpose of

illumination and/or visual aspects,

see Fig.

5.30.

173

window Frame, wood

y(

Single Glazed

\
Figure 5.30

Typical Window and Skylight

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS


STEP

1:

Determine the coefficient

of

heat

transmission from

Table 5.8A* for type of window.


NOTE: For windows
the use Form 5.1 not

is

required.
Table

STEP

2:

Determine appropriate adjustment factor from


5.8B*,
if

applicable,

and

multiply

it

with the
on

value from Table 5.8A.


5.2.
*

Enter this

value

Form

With permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Ai r-Condit i oning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA 30329.

174

The
glass

procedure

for

determining
is

the

percent

required in Table 5.8B


(W

as

follows:

)(H
S &

percent Glass
whe re

100

(5.15)

W
g

and H
g

are

the width and height


ft.

of

the

exposed

glass,

WW
and H

are

the width

and height '^

of

the

window

measured
ft.

from outside the window frame,

STEP

3:

Calculate the area

of

the window(s)

and

enter

the

value on Form 5.2 using equation 5.16:

A =

(W

)(H

)(No.

of

windows)

(5.16)

whe re

is

the total area


sq.

of

each

typical

window,

ft.

(i.e. One wall


3

may have two windows


and
two

ft
ft

by by
8

ft

windows

4
2

ft.
3

Therefore,
by
4

there are

typical
8

and
a

typical

by

windows

for

total of 88 sq ft.).
in Eq

and H

are the same as

5.15.

'

175

No. of windows -

is

the number of

typical windows

STEP

4:

Calculate the temperature difference

TD

STEP

5:

Calculate the heat loss (q).

Table 5.8A

Overall Coefficients of Heat Transmission of Windows and Sky lights BTU/ (hr /ft /F )
,

Kxlerior \crtinl

PaneK
Winler*

Exterior Morlrontal

Drtcripllon

Panels (SkyUchts)

Summer"*

Summer

Winter

No
Mat Glnss"
Single Glass
Insulating Cibss.
-' 1

Induur

Indoor

No

Indoor

indoor

Shade

Shade
0X1
5X

Shade

Shade"**

04

10

(tKI

OK.l

:i

Double'
space space
*
"^

16

m
in
III,

air
;iir
iiif

OftS

Oh:
5K

1,4
1

(IM
n
'<^

n ^1
s:

'2

sp.icc*

44

52 4K 4:

0.S7
54
4'J

?l)

iH^
0^'

1/2

tn

4ir \p;tcc.

km

i;niilt.incc

coating'
IX

r - 0.20

17

1?
(

m
u
(f

016
42
4(.
1)

4X

<
.

^-

40 W)

0.1S

(144

IX 4
1

0^:
<;/.

(Ml
44
ly

4X

IK

InsuLiling (ilass. Irtple'


1

4 in. atr space**


2 in

1,

air

space'

40 36

U.W
11

11

:h

Slorm Windows
1

in

to 4 in air spaces'*

liO

4M

Mi

(u:

I'laslic

Bubbles*

Single Walled
IJiiubIc

OKO
46

1^

Watled

'0

176

Table 5.8B

Adjustment Factors for Windows (Multiply U-values In Part A by These Factors)


''s,,
|,,).U
I

Mil
.1

I. II

,i.l|i<

ll<'.|'

|i..ll,.

Mi>l|lc
l)rM'rl|tlloil

lrl|>lr

Stiiritl

''

i.Hii.IliiiihK
.i.l

<'l

)
I

(J)t\

(^IKU

Wlndim.
(Id

'

iM|>K i.'Ki

iMIIIiIm'I

.'I

I'^'lUs

.!

^l.^

Wiiul.mA
All (ilass^
1

"(I i:*; Ml (10 'JO


1

,-i'"

(HI

W..od S:i>li, HC; (ilasj Woi.d Sash; 60"; Oln^^

11 (1

D'lS

(I'Hl

'{

.),iliri(;

I'll

L-illiLT
i.iU'it

^;l,^^.

s III.

Id- l.lvinj:

,iif

sp.iLC.

.ill

Ollk-I

^:l.l^^

w
(H/

McMl

Sash; KOCJ Olais

OKS 20
1 1

O.KO
i.:o'"

iiLi'

'=\Vltulo^^ dL-.tin
''Kl'Iltv

:*i-m

til.iw

2Vifi

^:l.l'.^.

II

:*i-.n

^l.r

Sliding Palio

Door
y^
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Wood Frame
Mclal Frame

m
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;i

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75

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(1

24 ilu

EXAMPLE

WINDOW HEAT LOSS


the

Calculate the heat loss through

window

shown

in

Figure 5.30 with the following conditions: Inside temperature


72F

Outside temperature
Type
No.
of

3F

Single glass, wood sash

windows

Shade

None

SOLUTION
STEP

1:

From Table 5.8A


U
=

.10

177

STEP

2:

Using Eq

5.15

the percent

glass

Is

%
%

glass = [(3)(5)/(3.5)(5.5)]
glass 78% use 80%

100

From Table 5. SB the Factor


The ref ore
U
=

0.90

(1

.10)(0.90)

U =

0.99
5.16
the area is

STEP

3:

Using Eq
A =
A =

(3.5

t)(5.5

t)(5)

96.25 ft

STEP 4:

The TD is

TD = TD =

72 69 "f

STEP

5:

The heat loss is


=

(0.99)(96.25 sq ft)(69''F)
6,575 BTU/hr

5.6.8

Doors
and
out

DESCRIPTION:
of
a

Doors are used to allow passage into

building.

17 8

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING HEAT LOSS


STEP

1:

Determine coefficient

of

heat

transmission

from

Table 5.9* and enter the value on Form 5.2.


STEP

2:

Calculate the area


value
on

of

the

Door(s)
of
a

and

enter

the

Form 5.2,

The area

door Is measured

from outside the frame.


STEP

3:

Calculate the TD

STEP 4:

Calculate the heat loss

(q).

Table 5,9

Coefficients of Transmission (U) for Slab Doors, Btu/(hr/ft /?)*


Winter
Solid Wood,

Summer
Storm Door*'
Metal
0.39
0.34

Thickness'
1-in.

No Storm Door
0.64

Wood
0.30 0.28 0.27 0.24

No Storm Door
0.61

1.25-in.
1.5-in.
2-in.

0.55

0.53

0.49
0.43
Steel Door^*

0.33 0.29

0.47
0.42

1.75-in.
A-^

0.59 0.19
0.47

B"

C
'Nominal thickness
''Values lor

50%

0.58
0.18

0.46

wood storm doors are for approximately storm door values apply tor any percent of glass.
fiber

glass; for metal

"A = Mineral

core (2

lb/ft')

"B = Solid urethane loam core with thermal break. C = Solid polystyrene core with thermal break

With permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Ai r-Condi t i oning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA 30329.

179

EXAMPLE

DOOR HEAT LOSS


the

Calculate the heat loss through two man doors with


following conditions:
Inside temperature
70 F

Outside temperature
Type of door
No.

3F

Solid wood,
and
1.25
in.

no storm door

of

doors

SOLUTION
STEP

I:

From Table 5.9 0.55

U =

STEP

2:

The area is

A =

(W)(H)(No. of doors)
(4

A =

ft)(7 ft)(2)

A =

56ft^

STEP 3:

The TD is
70 67 "f

TD =

TD

STEP

4:

The heat
=
=

loss

is

q
q

X A

X TD

(0.55)(56 sq ft)(67F)

180

2,064

BTU/hr

5.7

Infiltration Heat Loss Calculations


first

To

calculate Infiltration heat losses,


of

determine
that
Is

the

amount

air

In

cubic feet per minute

(cfm)

entering the building through the walls,

doors and

windows.

Equation
entering
a

5.17

can

be

used to determine the amount of cfm


[4],

building through the exterior walls


Q
=

(5.17)

where:

is

the

infiltration in cfm.
outside wall area in sq ft.

is

the

is

from Figure 5.32.

The following steps should be


5.17.

followed

in

using

equation

STEP

1:

Determine wind velocity from


BIF.

climatic

section

of

STEP

2:

From Figure 5.31* determine

With permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Ai r-Condi t 1 onlng Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA 30329
.

181

STEP

3:

Solve for Ap

where
=

0.95.

STEP A:

From Table 5.10* determine k.

STEP

5:

Determine

y-

from Figure 5.32* using


4

Ap,,

from step

and k from step

STEP 6:

Calculate the net outside wall area for


ward wall(s).

the
is

windtotal

Where the net wall area


of

the

wall area minus the area


STEP

any windows

and doors.

7:

Calculate

using equation 5.17.

STEP 8:

Calculate the heat loss using equation 5.6.

To

determine the infiltration through doors and windows


is

equation 5.18

used.

xf

(5.18)

whe re
the infiltration in cfm through perimeter the windows and

is

gaps

in

doors.

is

the

total perimeter crack length of the windows


in feet.

and doors

1
P
*

is

from Figure 5.33*.

With permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Condi t ioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA 30329.

182

The following steps are


5

to

be

used

In

applying

Eq

.18;

STEPS

to

same as

for Eq

5.17.

STEP 4:

Determine

for windows using Table

5.11* and doors

using Table 5.12*.


STEP
5.33 using AP from step Determine ^ from Figure w P
"^

5:

and k from step 4.

STEP

6:

Determine

where:

For windows,

is

the

total
of

length

of

the

gap

between

movable

sections

the window and

frame,

and between the frame and exterior wall. doors,


the total

For

is

length of

the

gap

sur-

rounding the door and frame.


STEP

7:

Calculate

using Eq. 5.18.

After
windows,

has

been calculated for the


Q

walls,

doors
is

and
put

the

total

for the walls,

doors and windows


loss
due
to

into Eq. 5.6 to calculate the heat

infiltration.

183

10

IS

20

25

30

35

40

V,

in

mph

Figure 5.31

Velocity Head vs Wind Velocity

0.7
0.6

K = 1.3

d
0.2
0.1

I O S <

0.5 0.4 0.3

/ ^ ^
/ ^^
0. to

\^ /

^^
:=0 .66-

^ -*
K = UJI

0.6

OS20

0.,

0.iK)

a.so

Ap in Inches of Water

Figure 5.32

Curtain Wall Infiltration For One Room or One Floor


184

4.0
3.5

^
k = 6.

-.<

/ ^'

3.0
2.5

2.0
1.5 1.0

7^-

yy

y
- -^
k

/ /H

03

k^
0.10

^ ^ ^
0.20

k =

2.

r^ _
O.SO

0.60

0.30

0.40

Ap in

Inches of Water

Figure 5.33

Window and Residential Type Door Infiltration Characteristics

Table 5.10

Curtain Wall Classification

l.akifte
C'oefflcirni

Description

Curtain Wall Coattruction

--

0.22

Tight Fitting

Wall

Constructed under close supervision of workmanship on wall joints. When joints seals appear inadequate they must be re-done

--

0.66

Average Fitting Conventional construction Wall procedures are used


Loose Fitting Wall

A -1.30

Poor construction quality control or an older building having separated wall joints

185

Table 5.11

Window Classification
Wood
DoMble-Hung (l^ked)
Other Types

light Kitlini!

Weatherstripped

Wood Casement

Windiiw
k
--

Average

Cap

and Awning Windows; Weatherstripped

1.0

(1/64 in crack)

MeUl Casement Windows; Weathentripped


Average Fitting NonWindow Weatherstripped k - 2.0 Average Gap (1/64 in. crack)
or
All

Types of Vertical and

Horizontal Sliding Windows; Weatherstripped. Note: if average gap (1/64 in. crack)
this

could be tight

fitting

Weatherstripped

window

Urge Gap
(3/32
in.

crack)

Metal Casement Windows; Non-Weatherstripped Note: if large gap (3/32 in.


crack) this could be a loose
fitting

window
and Horizontal Windows; Non-

l.misc Filling

NonWeatherst ripped Large Gap (3/32 in. crack)

Vertical

Window
k
6.0

Sliding

Weatherstripped

Table 5.12
light Fitting
A = 1.0

Residential-Type Door Classification


Door
Very small perimeter gap and perfect
wealherstripping
istic
fit

often character-

of new doors

Average Fitting Door


A
--

Small perimeter gap having stop trim fitting properly around door and Weatherstripped
Large perimeter gap having poor and weatherstripped
or

Loose Fitting Door


k
=

fitting stop trim

6.0

Small perimeter gap with no


wealherstripping

186

EXAMPLE

INFILTRATION HEAT LOSSES


loss

Calculate the Infiltration heat

through

the

wall

shown in Fig. 5.19 with the following conditions: Inside Temperature


70 F

Outside Temperature

3F

Windward side
North Wall
10
1

North
ft

by

50

ft
ft
4

Openings
Window condition
Wind Velocity

door at 3 windows at

by ft

ft
6

by

ft

non-weather stripped,
large gap
15

mph

SOLUTION Calculate cfm through North wall,


STEP
1:

firs.

Wind velocity

15

mph

STEP

2:

From Fig. 5.31

-=
Ap
c

0.12

STEP

3:

Therefore
Ap

0.12

and

(C

P)

0.95

Solving for Ap w

187

Ap

0.12(0.95)
=

Ap

w
=

0.114
0.66

STEP

4:

From Table 5.10

k.

(Average fitting wall)

STEP

5:

With Ap

0.114 and

0.66,

from

Fig.

5.32

?= A
STEP
6:

0.16

Calculate the outside windward net wall area.

Total Wall Area

10

ft

50

ft

500

sq

ft

Openings
Door
3

ft

X
x

ft

(21

sq

ft)

Windows

2(4

ft

ft)

(48

sq

ft)

Net Wall Area

431

sq

ft

STEP

7:

Calculate
A *
X

using Eq

5.17

Q Q

^
A
sq

431

ft

0.16

68.96 use 69 cfm

Next,

calculate the cfm through the door and windows.


From calculating the wall cfm Ap
is

STEP

to

3:

equal

to

0.114.

188

STEP

4:

From Table 5.11

k.

6.0

for

non-weather

stripped

windows
From Table 5.12,
STEP
5:
=

k.

6.0

for

loose fitting doors.

From Fig. 5.33 doors


.

1.45

for

both

windows

and

STEP

6:

Determining total crack length


doors:

for

windows

and

For the door,

=
P

2(3
=

ft

ft)

20
24

ft

For each window

2(6) +

3(4) =
=

ft
ft

per window

Therefore
Total
STEP
7:

2(24ft per window)


ft + 48
ft
=

48

20

68

ft

Calculate
Q Q =
= = P
X

using

Eq

5.18.

I
ft
(1 .45)

68

98.6 use 99 cfm

The total Q for the wall, windows and doors


cfm + 99

equals

69

cfm or

168

cfm.

Calculate the heat loss due to infiltration


5.6.
q q =
1

using

Eq

.08

X X

TD

cfm
x

.08

(70-3)

168cfm

189

12,156 BTU/hr

5.8

Determining Annual Heating Requirements


a

After

building's transmission and

Infiltration
Its

heat

losses have been calculated,


ing

an estimate of

annual heat-

requirements can be calculated using the modified degree


formula
[3]
.

day

This Is an empirical formula and will give

an approximate heating

requirement

for

an

average
a

year.

Therefore,

the

actual

energy consumption for

given year

will not equal the calculated


The best results will occur if
is

average

energy

consumption.
consumption

the actual energy

averaged over several years and then compared to the calvalue.


The

culated

data

may

be

difficult to obtain for


have

several years and In this case the energy auditor will


to

use

his

best

Judgement as to how accurately the calcuthe actual.

lated heating requirement matches


The importance

of

the actual energy lies


in
of

consumption

being

equal

to

the

calculated

the
a

economic evaluation.
building
are

The better the actual heat


the

losses

known,

better

will

be

the economic evaluation of

the energy

conservation alternatives.
The annual heating requirement is calculated using
the

modified degree day formula as follows:


q
X

24

FC =

TD

X 'n

x~V

(5.19)

190

whe re

FC

is

the average annual

fuel consumption.

is

the

total hourly heat

load due to
in

Infiltration

and transmission heat

losses

BTU/hr.

is

the Heating Degree Days

for the

building

from

the BIF.

is

the

interim

correction
see Fig.

factor
5.34

for

heating

effect degree days,

below.

TD

is

the ins ide-ou ts ide

temperature difference
of

from

the

climatic section
the

the BIF.

is

rated

full

load

efficiency

factor,

see

Table 5.13.
V

is

the heating value

of

the

fuel

used

in

the

building's heating system,

see Table 5.14.

The units of
in

the annual energy


a

consumption
the units
of

calculated
V.
V

Eq.

5.19
a

are

function

of

should

always be in
ties

unit

of
of

Btu per quantity.


fuel:
lbs,
of

Where the
watts,
oil
is

quantietc.

are

in

units

gallons,
#2
of

For

example,

the

heating

value
the

fuel

140,000

BTU/gal,

Therefore,

units

the heating requirement

will be in gallons.

This point will be shown further in the

191

following
5.19.

example

and

will also illustrate the use

of

Eq

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

DEGREE DAYS
Figure 5,34

Correction Factor,

vs. Degree Days

[3]

Table 5.13

Full Load Efficiency

(n)

Heating System Fuel


Electric Resistance
Oil

0.65
0.55

Gas

192

Table 5.14

Fuel Heating Value

Fuel
Oil
#2
//6

Heating Value

140,000 Btu/Gal 150,000 Btu/Gal,


3,413 Btu/kWh
1,040 Btu/cf
570 Btu/cf

Electricity
Natural Gas

Manufactured Gas
Anthracite Coal
Bitumonous Coal

14,000 Btu/lb
12,000 Btu/lb

5.8.1

Annual Heating Requirement Example

Determine the annual heating requirement for


with the following conditions:

building

Transmission Heat Losses


Infiltration Heat Losses
Heating Degree Days
Inside Temperature

140,000 BTU/hr
20,000 BTU/hr
5000

70F

Outside Temperature
Fuel
Fuel Cost
#2

3F
oil per gal

$1 .25

SOLUTION

Calculate the total gallons

of

fuel oil used

per

year

193

us ing Eq

5.19.

140,000 + 20,000
5000

160,000 BTU/hr

0.6 from Fig. 5.34

TD

70F

3F

67*'f

0.65 for

//2

oil from Table 5.13.

140,000 BTU/gal for

ifl

oil from Table

5.14

Enter the values In Eq


FC

5.19

(160,000BTU/hr)(5000)(24)(0.6)
(

67 F)(

0.65) (140, 000 BTU/gal)

FC =

1889.5 gal

Calculate the cost per year to heat the building during


the winter.

Fuel Cost Fuel Cost

=
=

(fuel quant ity

)(

price per gallon)

(1889.5 gal)($1.25 per gal)

Fuel Cost

$2,361.88 per year


to heat

Therefore,

the

cost

this

building

during

the

winter

is

approximately

$2,362.

The energy auditor will

194

then be able to look at

the actual oil


if

consumption from past

utility bills
tion matches
can
be

to

determine

the

calculated energy consumpis


a

the actual.
by

If

there

large difference,

it

caused

several factors.

The two major factors

being the

building
or the

component

materials

were

incorrectly

identified
proper value

variables used in Eq. 5.17 were not the

The best results will be achieved if

the actual

energy
The

consumption

is

based

on

several years of past data.


.

energy consumption calculated from Eq


yearly

5.17

is

an

average

consumption.
actual

Chapter

explains the procedures for

determining
losses

energy

consumption.

After

the

heat

have been determined and the energy consumption calsee

culated,

Chapter

to

calculate the actual energy

con-

sumption.

195

CHAPTER

LIGHTING CALCULATIONS
Int roduct Ion

6.1

Energy conservation in

building's

existing

lighting
is

system

can

be

achieved

in two ways.
is

The first way

to

reduce the time the lighting system


rior

activated.

For exte-

lighting,

this

can be accomplished through the use of


that shut
to shut

timers or photocells

off

the

lights

automatically.

Timers

can

be

set

off

the

lights at predetermined

times when exterior lighting is not


time

needed.

However,

the

schedule has to be adjusted throughout the year as the changes.


at
a

hours of available sunlight


not
as

Timers

are

therefore

efficient

as

photocells

controlling exterior
sensitive
device

lighting demands.
that

Photocells are

light

automatically turns lights on and off with the setting


the sun.

and rising of
is

The evaluation of

exterior

lighting

not

that
of

detailed

and

will

only require an economic


The steps
for
8.

analysis

installing the photocells.

com-

pleting the economic analysis are covered in Chapter


The second way to conserve energy in
is

lighting
This

system
can be

to

reduce
by

the

amount

of

power consumed.

accomplished

replacing existing lighting systems

with

196

more

efficient

one,

by

replacing individual lighting comand/or


by

ponents with more efficient ones,

reducing

the

number
to as

of

light fixtures,
,

light fixtures are also referred

"luminal res"
with

in

use.

Replacing
ones

existing
an
the

lighting economic
cost
of

systems

more

efficient

requires
for

analysis to determine the payback period

replacing

the

existing

system.

This

analysis
of

will

be

covered in Chapter 8.
tures,

Reducing the

number

light

fix-

however,

requires the energy auditor to evaluate the


if

existing system and determine


the

reductions can be

made

in

number of

light fixtures in use.

The purpose of

this

chapter

is

to

introduce the

energy

auditor

to

the

necessary

calculations for evaluating the


if

existing lighting system in order to determine


ments can be made.
tems should not
for
that
a
is

improve-

The evaluation of

existing lighting sysis


a

be

taken lightly.

Proper lighting

must

safe

and productive work environment.

The material

presented in this chapter relies heavily on the


[5]

lES

Illuminating Engineering Society Lighting Handbook


,

and

Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings


ness,
is

by

McGuiIt

W.,

Stien, B., and Reynolds, J., 6th EDITION

[6].
a

strongly suggested that this material be used as


if

refer-

ence

the

need arises.

Also,

there are consultants who


be

work specifically in this area and their services should


used
if

the

need arises.
at

The procedures presented in this

chapter

should

least

enable

the

energy

auditor

to

197

determine
exist
in

If

possible

energy

conservation

opportunities

the

lighting system.

6.2

Lighting Systems
building's lighting system
con-

The major portion of a

sist

of

the

interior lighting.

Exterior lighting

is

used

primarily for security lighting during the evening hours and


does not
cal
at

constitute
But

major portion of

the

lighting electribe

load.
a

because photocells can usually

installed

low cost,

energy savings can be achieved in the exte-

rior

lighting system without an in depth


this

analysis.

There-

fore,

chapter deals primarily with the interior light-

ing system.

Interior lighting is necessary for individuals to carry


out

their daily tasks in a safe and productive manner.

The
is a

level of

lighting required to provide this environment


of

function
ties
of

the

task being performed and the physical abilithe building.

the people using

Tasks can range from

reading
a

blueprints to repairing automobiles, each requiring


The amount
of

different level of light.

light
of

light

fixture

produces

is

function of the number


of

lamps per

fixture and the light-producing capabilities


The

each
is

lamp.

amount
its

of

light

light fixture produces

stated in
used
a

terms of

luminous output.
luminous

The term "Lumen" is


By

to

quantify

the

output.

definition,

standard

198

candle burning at

the

center
light

of

sphere with

ft

radius
of

will cause one

lumen of
of

to

fall on each square foot

interior surface

the

sphere.

The main concern with evaluating an

existing
on

lighting

system
plane.

is

the

level

of

illumination

the

visual task
is

The visual task plane is where the work activity


The

taking place.
a

visual task plane for


The
is

person sitting at
of

desk is shown in Figure 6.1.


the

amount
a

light
of

that

reaches

visual

task

plane
is

function
acted

the
by

light
the

fixtures luminous output which

then

upon

reflectance
task plane.

values

of

the

ceiling, walls,

floor and visual


as
a

Reflectance values are given


material's
ability
to

percentage
light.
in

and

are

reflect incident

Typical values are shown for ceilings, walls and


Figure
6.1

floors

and

additional reflectance values are given in

Table 6.1*.

Illumination
abbreviated
fc.

is
If

measured
light
is

in

terms

of
a

footcandles,
surface at the
of

falling on
the

level of one lumen per square foot,


tion
at

level

illumina-

the

surface

is

one footcandle.

Footcandles are
is
a

sometimes expressed in terms of "lux" where ten lux


to

equal

one

footcandle.
is

The

level of
a

illumination on
as

visual
in

task plane

measured with

light meter

discussed

Chapter
*

From Shu t t lewor th Riley, Mechanical and Electrical Systems for Construction McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983.
,

199

Ceiling Reflectance 60 to 80%

Typical Fluorescent Fixtures

walls 40 - 60

z
Floors 20

Desks and Bencn Tops^


25 - 45%

Machines and Equipment

Figure 6,1

Typical Interior Lighting and Reflectance Values [7]

200

Table 6.1

Typical Surface Reflectances

Percent
White Plaster White Terra Cotta Limestone, light color Light Marble Concrete stucco light brick Medium-color stone (limestone and sands tone ), tan and gray (rough)
,

90-92 65-80 35-65 70-85 45-70


20-45

Wood finishes Light Birch Dark oak Light oak Dark mahogany and walnut

42
13 34
8

Wallpaper White Medium color Dark color


Paint finishes Gloss white Flat white Eggshell white Ivory white

80 50
25

84

82
81

80
78

Primrose
Pearl gray Ivory Very light gray Cream Medium gray Bronz e Sky blue Tan Dark gray Very dark gray

72
71

70 70 44 38 37
35 28 19

201

The major component of


The are

light

fixture

is

the

lamp.

lamp

uses

electricity to produce Illumination.


lamps used for

There

three major types of

interior

lighting:

incandescent,
(HID).

fluorescent

and

high-intensity-discharge
used
in

Incandescent lamps are mainly

residential

applications
cations.

and are not usually found in commercial appli-

High-intensity-discharge (HID) lamps are


were the color rendition
is

used

in

applications

not

critical.

HID

lamps distort the color of objects due to the type of

light
is

discharged.

The primary lamp used in IDOH buildings

the

fluorescent.
discussion
of

Therefore,

this

chapter will be limited to the


lamps.
If

fluorescent

the

need arises
lES

to

analyze an Incandescent or

HID

system,

the

LIGHTING

HANDBOOK

is

an excellent

reference.

6,2,1

Fluorescent Lighting

The

basic fluorescent lamp consists

of

cylindrical

glass

tube

with an electrode assembly mounted at each end.


glass
a

The cylindrical

tube is filled with a

mixture
An

of

an

inert

gas

and

small

amount

of

mercury.

arc is

activated between the two electrodes and vaporizes the


cury

mer-

which

releases

great amount of ultraviolet light.

The tube is

internally coated with

phosphorescent

material
it

which

fluoresces as the ultraviolet light strikes


Figure 6,2 shows

and is

transformed into visible light.

the

basic

fluorescent lamp construction details.

202

BULB
Utually straight glass
tube.

PHOSPHOR
also be

CATHODE
"Hot cathode"
end of lamp
is

EXHAUST TUBE
Air
is

May

Coating inside the bulb transforms ultraviolet


radiation into visible
light.

circular or

U-haped.

each coated
at

this

exhausted through tube during manu-

Color of

light

with emissive material which emits electrons.


Usually

facture and inert gas

introduced into the bulb.

produced deperufs on composition of phosphor.

made

of coiled-

coil or singlecoil

tungsten wire.

STEM PRESS
BASE
Several different types

The lead-in wires have


an air tight seal here and are made of Dumet wire to assure about the same coefficient of expansion
as Iha glass.

LEAD-IN-WIRES
Connect to the base pins and carry the current to ar>d from the cathodes and the mercury arc.

used to connect the tamp to the electric circuit and to support the lamp in the lampholder.

Figure 6.2

Fluorescent Lamp Construction Details

[6]

203

Fluorescent lamps
letters
and numbers

are

identified

with

series

of

referred to as the "lamp abbreviation".


of

Depending upon the type


viation will indicate:
and color of

fluorescent lamp;

the

lamp abbre-

lamp watts,

lamp diameter and length,


*

light produced.

Table 6.2

gives

data for typ-

ical

fluorescent

lamps.

From this

table,

additional lamp
calcula-

data can be determined for completing the

lighting

tions.

The data that must be obtained from Table 6.2 is the


(

total watts

total watts is equal to the

lamp

watts

plus

the ballast watts) and the initial lumens.

A typical

lamp abbreviation

is

FA0T12CW.

This

lamp

abbreviation Indicates the following:


F -

Fluorescent type lamp


-

40

lamp watts 40

T12 - lamp

diameter 12/8

of

an inch

CW - lamp color Cool White

From Table 6.2, this lamp

is

located under

the

"Rapid

start-preheat
de t ermined

lamps"

and the additional information can be

From McQuiness, W., Stien, B., Reynolds, J., Mechanical Elect rical Equipment for Building 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
and
,

204

Lamp length -

48

inches

Ballast wat t s Total watts


-

46

Lamp life Initial output


lumens -

20,000 hours

3150

Lumens at 40% life -

2770

This
cent
It
to

type of
by

information can be determined for fluores-

lamps

locating the lamp abbreviation in Table 6.2.


lamp
be

may be necessary to consult manufacturers*

catalogs
located in

locate

particular

lamp

if

it

can not

Table 6.2.
A fluorescent

lamp

requires

ballast for proper start-

ing

and continued operation.

Ballasts should be UL labeled

and CBM/ETL certified.

The UL

(Underwriters
CBM

Laboratories)

label

assures

intrinsic

safety.

(Certified Ballast

Manufacturers) establishes high-quality design criteria, and


ETL

(Electrical

Testing Laboratories) tests the ballast to


Ballast

determine that the design standards have been met.


consume power during operation
of

the

light fixture and when


the

figuring the total


should be included.

watts

per

fixture

ballast

watts

'

205

If

lllh

If
i a
t
<"

*
I

^ I

ill
3 5

ss

ISCSSS

ff>

lO

3 i

rl, =
a

to -

f
I

I n
^

lu *^

If
IB

h>
7,

sssssss
8S88SS!S88S SSS8
| 8 S
o 5 o O ID ' Q ID O
i!n

O -

Q 0> n m N fl/^ >ft

ifl

"
_

yi
(/I

>

Si

=1

'i

SI

d^
>-

< <

1|
o.

hi
ft
'5~:
s

e
CO
hT)

U^
Pv

f*

A O O O ft (M (M

i/>

^.

I"

4-1

c
01

a =

o
(0 0) Vj

R8
O

RSS5SS5SSS
P- lO

C S 8 S

s C S S C S

SISSCS?
oo(Mr>rtn

;scs

S^
S

tt

(O

<

iTtDOiAi/io

o 3

8888
o
a.

188888

88SSSSS

S83,'fi;
#

Is
.

,8
I

i I 1

s;
Is

>

00

Q) iD

iC ^.

ff>

H
1

CM

II

o o o o o o e 9

1^

CD

Is
lf
t
:

IB

3 Erj"KoK>*.rtrtdi*,

I
01

iH
n

oO O O O f S I I I I J
:

O O
I I > >
5 a.6 SCI

i i 5 L> S O O
(^'

( (

(J

o
t-

'

r^
f^

C*

rvj

rri

to

C
(Si

lOOOOOOOOO
I
'

^ K K ^

)-

ti )-

<

ft

I-

m V

(SJ

I i

f~

206

6 .3

Required Material for Completing Lighting Calculations


*

Completed BIF
Tables 6.1
to

6.7

Figure

6.5

Form 6.1
A

Zonal Cavity Calculation Form,

see Appendix

Calculator
Pencil

6 .4

Lighting Calculation Procedures


in
a

Illumination levels
directly
using
a

building

can

be

measured

light meter and/or by direct


to

calculation.
lev-

The optimal situation is

first measure the

lighting

els with a light meter during the site visit

and then calcu-

late the
tor
to

lighting levels.

This will enable the energy audi-

double check the two methods.


than the

However,
value

lighting levif

els will be higher

calculated

measured

when natural lighting is present.


The procedure for calculating interior

lighting

is

the

Zonal

Cavity

Method.

The Zonal Cavity Method

allows the

energy auditor to evaluate each room's lighting requirements

separately.

Each

room

is

divided into

celling cavity.

207

room cavity and


each

floor cavity.

The

reflectance

value

of

cavity

and the desired footcandle


the

level are then used

to determine

number of light fixtures that are needed to

provide

the

specified
the

footcandle

level.

Therefore,

the
to

first step in

lighting
of

calculation

procedure

is

determine
task
.

the

level

lighting

required for the visual

After the lighting level


ity Method
is

is

established,

the Zonal Cav-

used to calculate the number of

light fixtures
a

that are

required.
to

Based on this calculated number,


actual number
of

com-

parison

the
If

light fixtures being used


is

can be made.

the calculated
is
a

number

less
a

than

the

actual,

there

good possibility that

change in the

lighting system can be made that will


ings.

produce

energy

sav-

6.4.1

Lighting Level Determination


establish the
lighting
level

The following procedures


for
a
[

given room based on the task or work activity taking


5
]

place

STEP

1:

Define "Visual Task" using


taking

the

type

of
of

activity
a

place

in

the

room.

An example
a

visual

task would be "service repairs" to

vehicle.

208

STEP

2:

Select
Parts

"Illuminance
I

Category"
Nine

from
of

Table

6.3

and

II.

ranges

Illuminance
ranges

Categories have been established.


are

The nine

designated

"A"

through "I",
lux

covering illumior
2

nance
f

levels from 20 to 20,000


.

to

200

ootcandles

STEP

3:

Determine "Illuminance
Category
(Step
2)

Range",
Table

using
6.4

Illuminance
based on the
the

from

average age of the workers in the room,


tance
for

impor-

speed and/or accuracy in completing the


and the task

visual task,

background

reflectance.
of

The illuminance values


lux.

in Table
10

6.4 are in terms

Divide this value by

to

put

the

illumi-

nance value in terms of footcandles.

From lES Lighting Handbook Application Volume 1981 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, 1981.
,

209

Table 6.3

Currently Recommended Illuminance Categories and Illuminance Values for Lighting Design-Target Maintained Levels

Illuminance Categories and illuminance Values lor Generic Types ol Activities

in Interiors

Ranges
Illuminance

ol Illuminances

Type

ol Activity

Reference Work-Plane
Foolcandles

Category

Public spaces with dark surroundings

20-30-50
50-75-100
100-150-200

2--3-S
5--7.5 -10

Simple orientation
visits

lor short

temporary

B C D
E F

General lighting throughout spaces

Working spaces wherp visual tasks are only occasionally perlormed


Performance Performance Performance
of visual tasks ol high

10-15- 20

con-

200-300-500
500-750-1000
1000-1500-2000

20-30-50
50--75- too
Illuminance on task

trast or large size

of visual tasks of

medium
lov,;

contrast or small size


of visual tasks ol

con-

100-150-200

trast or very small size

Perlormance ol visual tasks of low contrast and very small size over a prolonged period Perlormance Performance
of

2000-3000-5000

200-300-500
Illuminance

on

task.

ol very

prolonged and ex-

5000-7500-10000
10000-15000-20000

500-750-1000
1000-1500-2000

obtained by a combinalion ol general

acting visual tasks


ol very special visual tasks

and local (supplementary lighting)

extremely low contrast and small

size

210

Table 6.3

Continued
II
.

Continued
I 1

Area/Activity
Audit or iums

luminance Category

Assembly Social activity


Conference rooms Conferring Critical seeing (refer to individual

task.)

Drafting Mylar High contrast media, India ink, plastic leads, soft graphite leads Low contrast media; hard graphite leads Vellum High contrast Low contrast Tracing paper High contrast Low contrast Overlays Light table Prints
Blue line

E F

E F E F

Blueprints Sepia prints

E E F

Educational facilities
Class rooms General (see Reading) Drafting (see Drafting) Science laboratories Lecture rooms Audience (see Reading) Demons t rat ion Shops (see Part III, Industrial Group) Sight saving rooms Study halls (see Reading) Typing (see Reading)

211

Table 6.3

Continued
II
.

Cont Inued

Area/Act ivity
Elevators,
freight and passenger

Illuminance Category
C
C

Exhibition halls
Food service facilities Dining areas

Cashier Cleaning Dining Kitchen


Grahic design and material Color selection Charting and mapping Graphs Keyllning Layout and artwork Photographs, moderate detail

D
C B E

F F E F F E

Kitchens (see Food service facilities)


Libraries Reading areas (see Reading) Book stacks (vertical 760 millimeters (30 inches) above floor)
Act ice
s

tacks

Inactive stacks Book repair and binding Cataloging Card files Carrels, individual study areas (see Reading) Circulation desks Map, picture and print rooms (see Graphic design and material) Audiovisual areas Audio listening areas Microform areas (see Reading)

D B D D E

D D

Locker rooms

212

Table 6.3

Continued
II

Cont inued
1 1

Area /Act i vl ty

luminance Category

Offices Accounting (see Reading) Conference areas (see Conference rooms) Drafting (see Drafting) General and private offices (see Reading) Libraries (see Libraries) Lobbies, lounges and reception areas Mail sorting Off-set printing and duplicating area

C E

Reading Copied tasks Ditto copy Micro-fiche reader Mimeograph Photographs, moderate detail Thermal copy, poor copy Xerograph Xerography, 3rd generation and greater Electronic data processing tasks CRT screens Impact printer good ribbon poor ribbon 2nd carbon and greater Ink jet printer Keyboard reading Machine rooms Active operations Tape storage Machine area Equipment service Thermal print Handwritten tasks #3 pencil and softer leads #4 pencil and harder leads Ball-point pen Felt-tip pen Handwritten carbon copies Non photographically reproducible colors Chalkboards

E B D E F D E

D E E D D D D
C E E

E F D D E
F E

213

Table 6.3

Continued
II.

Cont inued
1 1

Area/Activity
Printed tasks
6

lumi nance Category

point type and 10 point

type

Glossy magazines Maps Newsp rint Typed originals Typed 2nd carbon and later Telephone books
Service spaces (see also Storage rooms) Stairways, corridors Elevators, reight and passenger Toilets and wash rooms

E D D E D D E E

C C C

Stairways (see Service spaces)


Storage rooms (see Part III, Industrial Grup)

Toilets and washrooms


214

Table 6.3

Continued
III.

Industrial Group
1 1

Area/Activity
Assembly S imple Moderately difficult Difficult Very difficult Exacting
service Garages Repai rs Active traffic areas Write-up

luminance Category

D E F G

E
C

Inspection Simple Moderately difficult Difficult Very difficult Exacting


Machine Shops Rough bench or machine work Medium bench or machine work, ordinary automatic machines, rough grinding, medium buffing and polishing Fine bench or machine work, fine automatic machines, medium grinding, fine buffing and polishing Extra-fine bench or machine work, grinding, fine work
Materials handling Wrapping, packing, labeling Picking stock, classifying Loading, inside truck bodies and freight cars
Paint manufacturing P rocess ing Mix comparison

D E F 6 H

D D

D
F

215

Table 6.3

Cont i nued
III

Cont Inued
I

Area/Act i vi ty
Paint shops Dipping, simple spraying, firing Rubbing, ordinary hand paitlng and finishing art, stencil and special spraying Fine hand painting and finishing Extra-fine hand painting ad finishing

lluminance Category

D E G

Service spaces (see also Storage rooms) Stairways, corridors Elevators, freight and passenger Toilets and wash rooms Storage rooms or warehouses
I

B 6 C

nact ive
C

Active Rough, bulky items Small items

216

Table 6.4

Illuminance Values, Maintained, in Lux, for a Combination of Illuminance Categories and User, Room and Task Characteristics
a

Qonoral Lighting Throughoul

Room
lllumirianco CllogO'iUft

Wotghting FHclort
Avnrflgc ol

CV.mpants Agos

Avorago

Room

3ufln< o

Rofleclniicu (pel cent)

C
100 100
100

Under 40

Over 70

20
20

50 50
50

30-70~'
Under 30

20 20

40-55

Ovor 70

50
75

100 150

30-70
Under 30

30 SO 30 50
50
b
lluminnnce on Task

100
75

200
150

Over 55

Over 70

30-70
Under 30

100 100

200 200

Weigtitiny roclors

Illuminance Categories

Avaragp

of

Work-

Demand

lor

Task Dat.kground

e.b Aq.-s

Speed nnd/or
Accuracy'
Nl

RcUcclnncG {per
cr^rl)

O"
2000 2000 3000 2000

H"
5000

Under 40

Over 70

200

500
500 750 500

1000

10000 10000

30-70
Under 30
1

200 300 200 300 300 300 300 300


200

1000 1500 1000


1500

5000
7500 5000 7500 7500 7500 7500
7600

15000
10000 15O00 15000

Over 70

30-70

750
750

3000 3000
3000 3000

r
'
"

Under 30
Over 70

1500
1500 1500 1500
1000 1600 1500

750
750

15000 15000
15000

30-70
Under 30

750

3000
2000

40-55

Nl

Ovor 70

500
750 760 750

5000
7500 7600

10000 15000
15000

30-70
Under 30
1

300

3000 3000 3000 3000 3000


3000

300 300

Over 70

1500
1500 1500
1500'

7500 7500
7500

15000
15000

30-70
Under 30

300 300
300 300 500

750 750

15000
15000
15000

Over 70

~750
750
1000

7500
1

30-70
Under 30
Ovor 55
Nl

1500

3000 5000 3000


3000

7500
10000
7500

2000
1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

20000
15000 15000 15000
15000

Over 70

300 300
300

750

30-70
Under 30
1

750 750
750 750
1000

7500 7500 7500

3000 3000
3000 5000 3000

Over 70

300
300
500

30-70
Undor 30

7500
10000

15000

2000
1500

20000
15000

Over 70
.-'0-70

300
500

750
1000 1000
ht|hhnc)

7500 10000
10000

2000 2000

5000
5000

20000

Under 30

000

20000

Nl = nol ifnpoflanl.

- (niporltHPt,

'

OtiUnnnO by

,-|

romJiHKition ol

Hud C = critical (jctier;il nnd Supptcmcnt;ify

217

6.4.2

Lighting Level Determination Example


the

Determine the required lighting level for


ence

confer-

room

located

in

the

basement

of

the

example building
has

shown in Figure 3.3.

The

following

information

been

determined from the site visit.

Average ageTask-

40-55 years

Conferring (see Conference rooms and Reading Xerography copies, 3rd generation. Table 6.3)
Important
82.5 fc
(I)

Demand for speedAvg measured

light levelLamp
type-

F40T12CW

SOLUTION
STEP

1:

Define visual task:

conferring

STEP

2;

Select Illuminance Category from Table 6.3.

Conference Rooms

Conferring
Critical seeing (refer to individual task)

Reading Xerography, 3rd generation


STEP
3:

Determine Illuminance Range within the


Category
tion:
"D"

Illuminance

and "E" using the following informa-

218

Average of workers ages

40-55 yrs
I

Demand for speed


Task Background Reflectance

30-70%

From Table 6.4 under illuminance


equal
to

category
flux is 750.
be

the

flux

is

300

and under E

the

Therefore,
in

the

level of illumination

that
750

should

maintained

the
75
of

conference
fc.

room

is

lux divided by 10 which equals

In situations where there are more


task,
the

than

one

type

visual
trols
.

visual task requiring the greater fc con-

6.4.3

Zonal Cavity Lighting Calculations

Form 6.1
tions
to be

is

provided to enable
in
a

the

lighting

calcula6.3.
in

done

systematic manner,
the

see Figure
to

The following instructions explain

steps

take

using this form

[6]

Fill in general information at the


The

top for

of

the
is

form.
the

average

maintained

illumination

design
The

footcandle number determined in section 6.4.2.

remain-

ing information should be determined during the site visit.

219

FORM

6.1

Zonal Cavity Calculalrion

Form

QENCRW. DEFORMATION
Building

ana

Room

loentlflcatlon
for aeslgrc
fc

Average malntatnea lllumlnallcn


Lumlnalre oaia Manufacture:

Lamp

Data:
.

Type and color:

tshjnber per lumlnalre:

Catalog rajmoet:

Total iimens per lumlnalre:.

SELECTION OF COEFFICIENT OF UTILIZATION

STEP

1:

Fill In

sketch at tight

STEP

2:

Detennine Cavity Ratios by formulas.

Room

Cavity Ratlo^

Celling Cavity RaUo,

RCR CCR -

Floor Cavity Ratio,

FCR

STEP S ootaln STEP * ootaln

effective celling cavity reflect^ice (pec) from Taoie 6.5.

effective floor cavity reflectance (pfc) from laDle 6.5.

^fc

STEP

5:

ootaln coefflcieni of utilization (CLO from

Taoie

6.6.

CU-

SELECTION OF
JTEP
6:

UGHT LOSS FACTORS

Determif Ll^t Loss Factors


Recoverable

unrecoveraeie Luninaire errrbient temperature


Voltage to lumlnalre
Ballast factor

Room

surface

am

depreciation

Lamp lumen Lamp


Luminaire
(product of
irelivitlual

depreciation

burnouts factor
dirt depreciation

Luninaire tuifaca ctepreciation


To'lal light loss factor,

LDO

UJF

factors atrove^

CALCtJLATIONS
STEP
7:

Complete Calculations as

follows:

(Average Malntalnea Illumination Level)


(footcandles) x (Area In square feet)

Number of

lurrfnalres -

(Eq. 6.9)

(Lmiens per luminaire) x (CU) x (LLF)

Number

of limlnalres

(Number of lumtnalres) x (Lumens per luminaire) x (CU) x (LLF)


Footcanaies -

(Eq. 6.5)
(

Room

Area,

L x W,

In sq ft)

Footcandles

Calculated by:

OatiK

Figure 6.3

Form 6.1

Zonal Cavity Calculation Form

220

STEP

1:

Fill in sketch.

The

room

is

divided

into

three
is

cavities see Figure 6,4.


space between the fixture

The ceiling cavity


and
the

the

ceiling.

For

most office type applications,


are

fluorescent fixtures
ceiling

mounted

directly

to

the

(surface
is

mounted)
to

and therefore

the ceiling cavity


is

equal
the

zero.

The room cavity

the

space between

light fixture and the visual task plane.

The floor
of

cavity is the

space

between

the

bottom
the

the

visual

task

plane

and the top of

floor.
and

The
is

height of the ceiling cavity is


the

labeled h

distance in feet from the ceiling to the light


The room cavity height
is

fixture plane.
h

labeled

and

is

the

distance in feet from the light fixThe height of


is

ture plane to the visual task plane.


the

floor

cavity

is

labeled h^ and

the

dis-

tance in feet from the visual task plane to the top


of

the

floor.

In offices and many other occupan2.5

cies

the work plane is 30 in or


it

ft.

In

draft-

ing rooms

is

36

to

38

in.,

in

shops 42 to 48 in.

Enter the length (L) and width (W)


in feet.

of

the

room

Enter the reflectance values for


cavity,

the

ceiling

room cavity,

and floor cavity.

Reflectance
the

values can be determined by

locating

surface

221

/.

_l

,. '

%%><^</i%^.^"''^g%' ////
///.<

/'/vcavlly ///:

//////////

7 /-"/

////

cc

Light Fixture Plane

7
cavity
re
fc

Room
visual Task Plane

Figure 6.4

Zonal Cavity Room Cavities

[6]

material

of

the

cavity in Table 6.1.


be

If

cavity

material
6.1,

cannot

matched with the ones in Table ceiling

use the following values:

reflectance

80%,
20%.

wall

reflectance

50%,

and floor reflectance

STEP

2:

Determine Room Cavity Ratio (RCR)


Ceiling Cavity Ratio (CCR) using Eq

using
.

Eq.

6.1,

6.2,

and Floor

Cavity Ratio (FCR) using Eq


RCR
whe re
the height
=

6.3.

5h

L+W
re L
X

(6.1)

is
1
.

of

the

room cavity from Step

222

and W

are

the
1.

length and width of

the

room

from

Step

CCR

5h

L+W
cc L
X

(6.2)

where
h

is
1 .

the height

of

the ceiling cavity

from

Step

and W are

the same as

in Eq

6.1

FCR
where;

5h

L+W
fc L
X

(6.3)

is

the height

of

the floor

cavity from Step


6.1.

and W are the same as in Eq

STEP

3:

Obtain effective ceiling cavity

reflectance

(p

cc

from

Table

6.5

Note that the wall reflectance


If

remains as selected in Step 1.

the

light
then CCR

fix=

tures are surface mounted or recessed,


and p^^
=

selected ceiling reflectance.

223

STEP 4:

Obtain effective
from Table 6.5.
FCR
=

floor
If
=

cavity

reflectance

(p^

the floor Is

the working plane,

and p, ^f c

selected floor reflectance,

STEP

5:

Obtain coefficient
*

of
a

utilization (CU)
selection
of

from

Table
light

6.6

Table 6.6 is

common

fixtures.

Select the fixture from this table that


in

resembles the one

the
6.6

particular
does

room
a

being

analyzed.
fixture,

If

Table

not have

similar
coef-

consult the manufacturer's data for


of

ficients

utilization.

Note some interpolation

may be necessary,
an

since all CU data are

given
of

for

effective

floor

cavity

reflectance

20%.

Table 6.7
values
of

gives correction factors for reflectance


30

and

10%,

This

correction factor
floor

should be used

when

the

effective

cavity

reflectance is 30 or 10%.
STEP
6:

Determine Unrecoverable and Recoverable Light


Factors.
Table 6.2
The
is

Loss

luminous output

rating for lamps in


of

the initial

output

the

lamp.
of

This

initial

level is

reduced by the effect


dirt
lamp

temperaon

ture and voltage variations,

accumulation

luminaires and room surfaces,


tion,
and maintenance

output deprecia-

conditions.

These

factors

From McQuiness, W., Stlen, B., Reynolds, J., Mechanical and Elect rical Equipment for Building 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
,

224

are
tor

collectively referred to as the Light Loss Fac(LLF).


The LLP
is

determined by the following

component factors:

Luminaire Ambient Temperature


is

Light

output

reduced

when

fixture operates at other


Use "1" for nor-

than its design temperature.


mal indoor installation.

b.

Voltage to Luminaire
indoor installation.

Use

"1"

for

normal

c.

Ballast Factor
when
a

Lumen

depreciation

occurs

ballast other the one used to test the

lumen output is used in the


value of
1

fixture.

Use

d.

Luminaire Surface Depreciation

- This

results

from deterioration in the fixture's reflecting

surfaces (not dirt), and


the fixtures

is

proportional

to

age.

The component factors

thru

above

are

nonrecoverable and can not be improved through


normal

maintenance.

For

the

purposes

of

analyzing an existing lighting system, use 0.9


for the product
of
a
x

e.

Room Surface

Dirt

This

factor

is

225

self-explanatory and the following values


should be used.

Clean Room, frequent maintenance: Medium conditions and frequency of cleaning Dirty room, infrequent maintenance:
:

0.95.
0.90. 0.85.

f.

Lamp Lumen Depreciation


upon the type
of

This factor

depends

lamp used and the maintenance

routine for replacing

lamps.

Lamps
This
the

can

be

replaced

on
a

group basis.
at

constitutes
same
time

replacing

group of lamps

prior to lamp burnout.


is

The second alternative


as

to

replace individual lamps


Use the following values:

they

bur-

nout.

Group Replacement

Replacement on Burnout
0.88 0.85 0.88

Incandes cent Fluorescent High-pressure Sodium

0.94 0.90 0.94

g.

Burnouts

- This

factor depends on

maintenance
Use the

schedules

and method of

replacement.

following values:
Group replacement of lamps:
.0.

Individual replacement on burnout

0.95.

226

h.

Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD)


tor

This

fac-

depends

on

the

luminaire design,
space,
and

atmo-

sphere conditions in the


nance

mainte-

schedule.

The maintenance

category is
of

obtained from Table 6.6.


sphere
is

The

type

atmo-

determined from visual inspection of


LDD
is

the space during the site visit.

then

selected from the curves in Figure 6.5.

The LLF factors

thru h are

recoverable

and

can be Improved upon by maintaining the room in its

initial state.
light fixtures

This means cleaning the

walls

and

through routine maintenance.

To calculate the total LLF value multiply factors


a

thru h together.

LLF=a xb xc xd xe xf xg xh
STEP
7:

Complete Calculations.

Calculate

the

number

of

luminaires that are required to produce the desired


luminous output using Eq. 6.4.
No. Luminaires =7( Foot candles )( L) ( W) (Lumensperluminalre)(CU)(LLF)

^"

'>'

Calculate the footcandle level produced


6.5
.

using

Eq

227

Footcandles

=
) (

(No .Luminal res )( Lumen per lumlnalre

CU

(LLF)

(L)(W)

(6.5)

The Zonal Cavity Calculation would be done

for

each
etc.,

major
do not

room

In

the

building.

Hallways,

closets,

require this analysis.


it

After analyzing the total


some
rooms
can have

building,

is

possible

that

light fixtures

removed to reduce the energy consumption.

Once it has
a

been

determined
be

that
the

the number

of

light fixtures in

room can
fix-

reduced,
to

critical decision is to
The

decide

which

tures
the

remove.

lighting level at the task plane is

critical
light

location.
the

Therefore,

light

fixtures

that

directly

work plane should be looked at closely


the

before removing

to insure

lighting levels at

the

task

plane will not drop below the standards set in Table 6.3.

"

228

Category

Category

11

1S%
Smidirecl,
II

Of

mote

surlacf

mounlJ vid

i%

uplifhlBopn
Of touvfred

"W
100

Free limcn
louvtr

oAo

Bare limps

(Safes)
Strip

* * *

WsS^C5t?ia.'

'^

JU'' ^
Clean

**

v *" T ~ - \^
V

1 1 1

"*^

- ^ ;:

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C/ea

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^ "^ -. -^ "^ ^ .ITT


^ ~,

3^

TT"
Hole

Lf

\ ., N^
3 6

MM/um

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90"-ll5*2or

'H\
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ranti20-25
1

11

uiitng

.^

--

^
4S 46 St S4 57 60
3

m Dunted mi
t

smooth.

SI aiijhl

_
6 9
12 15 18 21

ve rliul lidM.

12

IS

18

21

24 27

iO 33 36 39 4?

24

2?

30

36 39 42

45 48 51

54 5;

SO

MonIM

Months

Category
Semrdirrct.
tl

III
Less than

Category IV
15%
Direct

T^ TTT TT ^ T
(s*4
100

surface

mounled add

i%

uplightsopen
or louvercd

aio] /-A^

^*^

Louver less
Ihan
t

/<fi*

^^^"<^^
:rlOO

CI<H) top rectssed

\oo^

Suflace suspended

Open louvered
Lighted ceiling louvercd

inch

:::

^
**

^ ^ < ^^
&
80
'"^

^
hk

;;-

l?^"^"^--

"^
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^
^\

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"^ ^

it;

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^X X.
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50
3

^^ =^-..^
21

^"~

12

15

IB

21

24 27

30

33 3 39

42

4b 43

51

5)

57

60

12

15

18

24

2;

30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51

54 5;

60

Months

Months

Category
15%
or

V
more
Direct

Category VI
Totally

difKt

uplight

add

i%

SemtdirKt
Enclosed recessed
Surtace suspended

WW
100

TEZsT
lOO

X
^
^_ '\
"*^

Totally indirect

1,

Semldirect
.
1

Lighted uilings.
covers, urns

^""^-^
A-^^^--.
~
~

^
^^^

"^

^,
'^ ^,

S,

\
\

^^

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3 6

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.,

12

15

16

2t

24 27

30

33 36 39 42

4S 48 51

57

60

12

15

18

21

24 2;

30 33 38 39 42 45 48 51

54

5;

60

Months

Months

Figure 6.5

Lurainaire Dirt Depreciation Factor

(LDD)

[6]

229

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235

Table 6.7
For For

Factors for Effective Floor Cavity Reflectances Other Than 20%


by appropriate factor t>elow below

30% 1 0%

effective floor cavity reflectar<ce, multiply

effective floor cavity reflectance, divide by appropriate factor

Percent Effective
Ceiling Cavity

Reflectance,

p^^

80
50 30
10

70

50
10

10

Percent Wall
Reflectance, p

50

30

50

30

10

50

30

10

Room
Ratio

Cavity 1.08 1.07


1.05 1.08 1.06
1.04

1.07
1.05
1

1.07

1.06 1.05
1.04

1.06
1.04

1.05 1.04 1.03

1.04

1.04 1.03 1.02

1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01


1.01 1.01

1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01


1.01

1.01
1.01

1.06
1.05
1.04 1.03 1.03

1.03 1.03 1.02


1.02

3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10

03

1.03 1.02

1.01

1.05
1.04 1.03

1.03
1.03

1.02 1.02
1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
1.01

1.03 1.02
1.02 1.02

1.03
1.02

1.02
1.01 1,01

1.00 1.00
1.00

1.02
1.01
1.01 1.01

1.02
1.02 1.02
1.01

1.02 1.02 1.02

1.02
1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01

1.03 1.03
1.02

1.03 1.02 1.02 1.02

1.01
1.01 1.01 1.01

1.01

1.00
1.00

1.02
1.01
1.01

1.01 1.01 1.01

1.01
1.01 1.01

1.01
1.01

1.02
1.02

1.00
1.00

1.02

1.01

6.4.4

Zonal Cavity Calculation Example

Determine the lighting requirements for the

conference

room used in section 6.4.2 example and compare to the actual

lighting system.
the

The following information is

known

about

lighting system:

Illumination Range
Area Ceil Height

75

fc
sq

540
9 9

ft

ft ft

Fixture Height
Lamp Abbreviation
No.
of

F40T12CW
15
4

Fixtures

Lamps per Fixture

236

SOLUTION
STEP

1:

Determine the height


and width of room,

of

the

three

cavities,

length

and cavity

reflectances.

Celling Cavity

h h

cc
re
fc

Room Cavity
Floor Cavity
L = 30
18

=9-2.5
=

6.5

ft

h^

2.5

ft

ft ft
=

W =

Ceiling Reflectance
Wall Reflectance

80%

=
=

50%
20%

Floor Reflectance

STEP

2:

Calculate cavity ratios


RCR
=

5(6 .5)

30 + 18

(30)(18)

RCR
CCR
=

.89

(surface mounted fixtures)

FCR

5(2.5)

30 +

18

(30)(18)

FCR

1.11

STEP

3:

Obtain effective ceiling cavity reflectance.


Surface mounted fixtures

therefore

cc

80%

237

STEP 4:

Obtain effective floor cavity reflectance


From Table 6.5:

percent floor reflectance

30

(20)

10

percent wall reflectance

50

50

.1

26
26

11 y

FCR

1
I

.11
.2

26

12

In

order to calculate the

effective

floor

cavity

reflectance will require two interpolations. Interpolate between the FCR:

.1

11 y

.11
.2

12

Solve for y:
y =

(i^-i2)if^ -

1.2) + 12 1.2)

11.1

Interpolate between the Percent Floor Reflectances


30
26
20
X

10

11.1

238

Sol ve for x
(20 -

X =

11.1)

(20 - 10) + 11.1 (30 - 10)

X =

15 .55

use

16%

STEP

5:

Obtain coefficient
6.6.
is

of

utilization (CU)

from

Table

The

light fixture used in the conference room


41

similar to fixture

in Table

6.6.

From Table 6.6


80%

cc

50%

RCR
2

.59
X

2.89
3

.51

Interpolate to solve:
STEP

CU =

0.52

6:

Determine LLP.
Non recoverable
=

0.9

Recoverable
Room Surface Dirt
Lamp Lumen Depreciation
= = =

0.9

0.85
0.95

Burnouts
LDD

(From Table 6.6 Type V From Fig. 6.5 (24 Month)

0.78

239

Calculate LLF:
LLF
LLF
= =

0.9
.51

0.9

0.85

0.95

0.78

STEP

7:

Complete Calculations
No .Luminal res
=

(75fc) (12,600)
=

X x

(30) (0.52)

X
X

(18) (0.51)

No.

of

Luminaires

12.12

use

12

fixtures

Footcandles

(12)

(12.600)
(30)

(0.52)
(18)

(0.51)

Footcandles

74.25

Figure 6.6

is

Form 6.1
of

filled out for the above example


form.

illustrating the use

the

240

FORM

6.1 Zonal

Cavity Calculatilon Form

Building

and

Room

laentiflcatlon

GENCR/\L IhFQRMATlON ex/V^fle


75
f^

Average maintained Illumination


Lumlnalre data: Manufacture:

for design:

Lamp

Data:
color:

Type and

FOOTIZCW
,

NuTibei per lumlnalre:


Total liinens per liinlnalre:

Catalog nurfier:

^2^00

SaCT10N CF COEFFICIENT OF UTILIZATION

CO

STEP
STEP

1; Fill In

sketch at righL
forrrwlas.

2:

Determine Cavity Ratios by

re

65 25

Room

Cavity Ratlo^

Celling Cavity Ratio,

RCR CCR ^

2JB9

n o
J

.1

'c-

Floor Cavity Ratio,

FCR

Ul
/CCC

STEP

3:

ODialn effective celling cavity reflectance (pec) from TaDle 65.


octain effective floor cavity reflectance (pfc) from Taoie 65. cotaln coefficient or utilization (CU) from
Taoie
6.6.

60
.

STEP STEP

*
5:

pfc

16

CU

25
.

SELECTION OF
STEP
fc

UGHT LOSS FACTORS

Determine Llj^t Loss Factors


Recoverable

unrecoveraDle Liminalre ambient temperature


Voltage to lumlnalre
Ballast factor

Room

surface dirt depreciation


0.85

Lafip lunen depreciation

aa

Lamp

burnouts factor

a95

Luninaira surface (tepreclation


Total light loss factor,

LuTiinalre dirt depreciation

LDO

-^

LLF

(pnxKxrt of Individual factors above^

051

CALCULATIONS
STEP
7:

Complete Calculations as

follows:

(Average Maintained Illumlnailon Level)


(footcandles) x (Area In square feet)

Numoer of

li^nlnalres

'

(Eq.6.a)

(Lumens per lumlnalre) x (CU) x (LLF)


(75 fC) X esq) X (IB)

1Z12 use 12
(izara) X (osz) X (051)

fixtures

(Numoer of lumlnalres) x (Lumens per lumlnalre) x (CU) x (LLF)


Footcandles
'

(Eq. 6.5)
(

Room

Area,

L x W,

In sq ft)

(12)

X (12;600) X (a52) x (151)


(30)

X (16)

71.25

fC

Calculated by;

Date:

Figure 6.6

Form 6.1

Zonal Cavity Example

24

The next step after completing the Zonal Cavity

Calcu-

lations

is

to

compare the calculated values with the actual.


the field study
15

The results of

indicated that the conference

room had

total of

fixtures with an average illumination


it

value

of

82,5 fc.
3

Therefore,

can

be

concluded

that

approximately

fixtures can be removed from the conference


for
is

room without reducing the illumination value

the
to

room

below the requirements.


mine which fixtures
to

The

important decision
If

deterhas
a

disconnect.
the

the

room

conference

table

in

center,

then it would probably be


It would

best to disconnect three fixtures along the walls.


not
be

necessary to totally remove the fixtures,


each
a

but

only to
It
is

disconnect the lamps and ballast in


important when removing lamps from
nect the ballast.

fixture.

fixture to also discon-

Ballast will still

continue

to

consume

power even after the lamps are taken out.

242

CHAPTER

ENERGY CONSUMPTION SURVEY

7.1

Introduction
survey
a

An energy

consumption
used
to

is

the

accounting
By

of

actual

energy

operate

building.

obtaining
energy
stating

utility bills for the building being audited

actual

consumption

can be determined.
is

An effective way of
of

energy consumption square


foot
per

in terms

BTU per gross

conditioned

year,

(or month).

This is referred to as

the Energy Utilization Index,

(EUI).

EUI =

BTU (Gross Conditioned Area)(Year)

(7.1)

whe re
the Energy Utilization Index.

EUI-

is

Gross Cond. Area-

is

the area
sq

of

the

building that

is

heated and cooled,


Yearis

ft.

the

time period of

the EUI.

The

energy

consumption

survey
the

is

broken

into

two

periods.
tion.

The first period is

base year energy

consumpprior
to

This covers the year of energy consumption


any

implementing

energy conservation opportunities, ECO's.

243

The

base year EUI indicates


in
its

the amount

of

energy used by the

building

present

state.

The second period starts


By

after the ECO's have been implemented.


EUI's,
the

comparing the two

performance

of

the building after implementing

the ECO's

can be evaluated.

The second period can


A

last

for

several years depending upon the State's needs.


two to three years
is

period of

recommended for an evaluation period.


First,

Several advantages arise from developing EUIs.


a

comparison

of

the

base

year energy consumption to the


give

energy consumption after implementing ECO's will

some

indication
tion.

of

the ECOs'
the

success in reducing energy consumpfor

Second,

data collected

calculating

an

EUI

will enable the energy auditor to determine how well he cal-

culated the theoretical energy consumption for the


during the heating season.
Third,
by

building

calculating an EUI for


conditions leading to

each year after implementing the ECOs,

energy

waste

may

be

noticed by watching for drastic move-

ments in the EUI from year to year.

7.2

Required Material for Completing the Energy Consumption Survey


see Appendix

A.

Form 7.1 Energy Management Form,

B.

Energy

consumption

data

depending

upon

the

energy

source used:

244

1.

ELECTRICITY: The monthly electric


full year.

bills

for

one

2.

FUEL OIL:
To

i.

calculate
of

the

monthly

consumption

the

amount

fuel oil in the tank in the begin-

ning and end of .the month and the quantity in

gallons

of

each

delivery

made during that

month
ii.

is

needed;
oil

The price per gallon of


per gallon;

the

in

dollars

iii.

The type of fuel used

#2, #4,

#5

or

#6.

3.

NATURAL GAS:
i.

The monthly bills for the same full year;


The heat

ii.

content
of

the
gas

number
if

of

BTU
If

per
it

cubic
is

foot)

the

available.
BTU

not available,
.

use

1030

per

cubic

foot

4.

STEAM:
for

If

steam is purchased,
full year,

the

monthly

bills
the

the same

the quantity used and

heat content of the steam for each pound or


foot purchased are needed.

cubic

5.

If

any

other type of fuel

(coal,

wood,

etc.)

is

245

used,
and

the monthly consumption,

the

cost per unit,


per

the heat
.

content

of

the

fuel

unit

is

needed
6.

From the local utility or weather


the

station

obtain

monthly total heating degree days and cooling


of

degree days for the location

the building being

audited during the same year.

7.3

Procedures for Calculating the EUI


see Figure
a

Form 7,1,
to
be

7.1,

is

provided to enable the EUI


The follow-

calculated in

straight forward manner.

ing instructions explain the steps to take in using the form


[8]
.

STEP

1:

Enter the monthly heating degree days in

column

and the monthly cooling degree days in column 3.

STEP

2:

Follow the instructions below for the fuel(s)


in

used

the

building.
-

A.

ELECTRICITY
1.

CONSUMPTION AND COST:

For each monthly electric bill covered by the

majority

of

the

billing period,
from
to be 25
to

(The
40

billing period may vary


days.
If
so,

adjust

it

consistent

246

with the other energy billing periods


the

on

form.)

calculate the Kilowatt-hours


the

(kWh) per day and multiply by


of

number

days

in

the

month or period being used


etc.:

for oil and gas,

a.

enter in column
of

the

total

number

kWh used during the month;


the total

b.

enter in column
the month
that

cost for
.

appears on the bill;


the

c.

to

calculate column

6,

cost

per
5

kilowatt hour (kWh), divide column


by

column

4;

d.

to

calculate the
($/MMBTU)

cost

per

million
6

BTU

multiply column
in

by

293 and enter this

column

7.

2.

After completing
the annual totals

each

month,
.

calculate

and averages

a.

sum column
of

and enter at

the

bottom

the

column;

b.

sum column
of

and enter at

the bottom

the

column;

c.

divide the
sum
of

sura

of
4

column

by

the

column

and enter in the

247

annual
column

average
6;

at

the

bottom

of

multiply
column
6

the
by

annual
293
7.

average

of

and enter at

the

bottom of column
B.

OIL - CONSUMPTION AND COST:

1,

Enter in column

the oil consumption

in

gallons for each month.


2,

Enter the price per gallon in column


dollars
is

in
it

per

gallon.

For example,

if

$1.25 per gallon,

enter 1.25.
and

3,

Calculate the total per month


in

enter
9

column
8,

10.

Multiply

column

by

column
4.

To calculate the

cost

per

million
9

BTU
the
as

(column

11),

divide

column

by

conversion factor for the fuel listed


follows:
No.
No.
2 4 5
6

oil - divide by oil - divide by

.139 MMBTU/gal.
.150

MMBTU/gal.

No.
No.

oil - divide by
oil - divide
by

.152 MMBTU/gal.
.153 MMBTU/gal.

5.

Calculate the annual total and averages:

. ;

24 8

1 .

sura

CO lumn

2.

sum column 10;

3.

divide column

10

by

column

and

enter at
A.

the

bottom of column
by

9;

divide column
above
of

conversion factor
the

(B4.) and enter at


11

bottom

column
-

C.

NATURAL GAS
1.

CONSUMPTION AND COST:


12

Enter in column
each

the

consumption
(MCF).

for
If

month in 1000 cubic feet


in MCF,

the bill is not

use the following

formulas to convert:
a.

if

the bill

is

in

CCF

(100

cubic

feet) divide the total by 10:


CCF
/

10

MCF;

b.

if

the

bill is in

CF

(cubic

feet)

divide the total by 1000:


CF
/

1000

MCF,

c.

if

the bill is
by

in

therms,
(

divide the

total

10.30

This

figure is

based on the 1977


of

national

average
If

1030

BTU

per cubic foot.

the

the actual heat

content of

the

gas

249

is

known,
,

such
I.e.,
/

as

1040,

adjust
1

accordingly

10.40.)
=

therms

10.30

MCF.

2.

Enter the total cost for

each

month

in

column
3.

13

To calculate column 14,

the

cost per MCF,

divide column 13 by column 12.


4.

To calculate column 15,

the

cost per milOr,

lion BTU,
if

divide column 14 by 1.030.

the heat

content of

the particular gas

is

known:

column

14

divided by heat con1000


=

tent per cubic foot times


15.

column

5.

Calculate the annual totals and averages:


sum column 12;

6.

sum column 13

8.

divide column 13 by column


in

12

and

enter

the

bottom of column 14;


of

9.

calculate the average

column

15

by

using one of the following:


-

divide column

14

by

.030

or

250

divide column
per

14

by

the

heat

content

cubic foot and multiply by 1000.

D.

If

the

building uses any other type of fuel or

energy, use the same basic procedures with the


goal of arriving at the cost per

million

BTU

(MMBTU).

Other

sheets may need to be set up

for other types of fuel.

STEP

3:

Determine the monthly total and yearly total energy


cost in column 20.

A.

Column
Sum

20

is

the monthly

total

energy

cost.

the

monthly
For

total cost for each type of

energy used.
used

example,
oil,

if

the

building

electricity,
in

and gas
5,

in February,
10,

add the entries

column

column

and

column

13

and enter the sum in column 20. sum

After each month has been completed,


up

column

20

to

calculate the energy cost for


the

the year.

Enter the total at

bottom

of

column 20,
STEP 4:

Determine the annual energy consumption.


Annual energy consumption
by
is

determined easily
of
a

multiplying
form

the total annual amount

given
the

energy

(Columns

4,8,12,

and

16)

by
in

appropriate

conversion factor.

The result

each

251

case is

the BTU
to

equivalent

of

energy consumed.

Add

together
year
STEP

determine

total BTU consumed for the

5:

Calculate the EUI.

Energy utilization index


ditioned square foot per year)

BTU
is

per gross

con-

determined easily
in

by dividing the total annual energy consumption

BTU

consumed by the total gross conditioned square


of

footage

the building.

252

?
g s

'is
ci

s
s

2
i
CO

1 s Ec 8
1 i

1
1

p 5

I s g 1
1-1

h So
1 1

r^.

LU
1

e o

if

ii
^ a>

o
rH

Hh
d
<u

^
^
s
J?
-

^ >
t-

e
<i>

6 < tH
<tt ft

60
CO

i
s

'...
"

fi

CO
1

a
>.

Is
IN

|g
e
P
> <

HjH
^
i-t

S wi

s -

M
a!

M
0)

d
K
X K

i g O 1
g 8 <*
<?N

y
=>

CO

^ m TH J
iiH

^
B
1

Hi

1 a

i^

O
t i i
!

1 S

i '

1
s

<

CD

hv

l^n
IHffl

i s
a n 3
v
in

^1

t-l

^MH

1
t

|i

I*

n H H
1

u-

s
i

Kl
>

a. CM

IS

H
i

5 < a B s 1
1

8 =

- i a ku i 1

:^

s ^ 8 s

11 if

253

.4

EUI Example

Calculate an EUI for


in Fort

district office building located

Wayne,

Indiana.

The

required utility information is


from
Fig.
7.2, this

shown in Figure 7,2.


office
is

As can be seen

heated

during

the

winter with natural gas and

cooled during the summer with electricity.


The
ft

building

is

two stories with approximately 4,848 sq

per floor.
the

The entire two floors are heated and cooled;


gross

therefore,

conditioned floor area


7.1

is

9,696 sq ft.

The calculations are shown on Form

in

Fig.

7.3.

Follow
EUI

along

with the Instructions above and calculate the The procedure is straight forward.

in Fig.

7.3.

254

Natural Gas Usage


Billing Period
Amount Paid dollars
2781 2743 2581 1590 577
161

CCF Used (100 CF)

1/5/83-2/6/83 2/6/83-3/7/83 3/7/83-4/6/83 4/6/83-5/5/83 5/5/83-6/6/83 6/6/83-7/6/83 7/6/83-8/4/83 8/4/83-9/2/83


10/4/83-11/4/83 11/3/83-12/5/83 12/5/83-1/5/84
Total

5,733 5,627 4,977 3,044 1,114


307 223
20
1
1

118 106 289 905

612 ,973

2086 3605
17541

4,674 8,080

36,565

Electrical Usage
Billing Period
Amount Paid dollars
1304 1593 1264 1145 1167 1873 2047 1936 1456 1162 1378 1859

kWh Used

1/10/83-2/8/83 2/8/83-2/8/83 3/10/83-4/11/83 4/11/83-5/10/83 5/10/83-6/9/83 6/9/83-7/11/83 7/11/83-8/9/83 8/9/83-9/8/83 9/8/83-10/7/83 10/7/83-11/7/83 11/7/83-12/8/83 12/8/83-1/10/84
Total

25,320 33,720
27 ,600

23,880 24,000 37,920 42,000 39,120 28,440 25,200


27

,360

34,920

17.742

369,480

Figure 7,2

Utility Data for EUI Example

255

1^3 B W

in

I ^
in

D
"

R s

i S ^
a Ik

^ K^
II
s

S
a

i S

<0

B 1

?
1"

^
Sf

f^

a
5 =
S - to

i
8

ii 12

w>

S o

256

CHAPTER

ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS


8.1

Introduction
conservation
of

The goal of

an

energy

analysis

is

to

improve

the

energy
As

efficiency

the building in a cost


4,

effective manner.
are

discussed earlier in Chapter

there

two

types of energy conservation opportunities, ECO's.

The noncapital ECOs

require

little if any

monetary

expense

and the capital ECOs require a substantial monetary expense.


The noncapital ECOs were
of

covered in Chapter 4.

The

purpose

this

chapter is to explain the procedures for evaluating

capital ECOs.
tion,

Capital ECOs can range


to

from

adding

insula-

replacing windows,
When implementing

modifying lighting systems, etc.


is
a

capital ECO there


For example,

cost associ-

ated

with its installation.

adding additional
for

insulation to an exterior wall requires


and

cost

material

labor

to

install the insulation.

However, adding the

additional insulation will improve the thermal


tics
of

characteriscost savings.
cost

the

building

resulting
set

in utility

This savings will off

the

installation

over

period

of

time.

The time it takes for the savings to pay

257

for the installation cost

is

referred to as the Simple

Paythat
1

back Period,
it

SPP.

The time,

usually measured in years,


for

takes

for

the savings

to pay

the

Installation

cost

defines the payback period.

There may be several alternatives available.


ple,
the

For examof

exterior wall could have 2,4,6 or

inches

insudue
i

lation added.
to
a

Each alternative would be more expensive

the additional

cost for the material and would result in


By

different payback period for each alternative.

calcu-

lating the payback period for each thickness the optimal one
can be selected.

When evaluating potential capital ECOs,

they

must

be

evaluated
one

by

item.

For example,

adding insulation would be


be

item and replacing the windows would


each

another

item.

Within

item there would be several alternatives.


been selected from each item,

Once
then

the best alternative has

the

items

can be

ranked according to payback period and the

optimal mix of items selected.


The first step in evaluating capital ECOs
to
a

is

gen-

erate

list

of

possible ECO items.


a

In

concept,

capital

ECO is an addition or replacement of

building component or

system that will improve the energy efficiency of the building.

The energy auditor will have to determine what capital

ECOs
to
be

might

work for

particular building.

This will have

based on his/her experience and knowledge of

possible

258

energy

conservation measures.

Later in the chapter results


study
[1]

are presented from the previous

that

will

show
the

what

types of capital ECOs have been determined to meet


the

payback period criteria for


will
ECOs
.

State.

This

information
capital

help

the energy auditor

in selecting possible

Once the list of possible capital ECO

items

has

been

determined,

the

next step is to determine the cost of each

alternative.

The cost must be calculated for each

alterna-

tive within each item and should include any cost associated

with installing
costs
can include

or

implementing

the

alternative.

These

removing the existing component or system,

material and labor costs to install the component or system,


and
the

cost

to

operate the component or system.

Costs for

material and labor can be


vendors
and

determined
if

from

subcontractors,

in-house cost records

available.

Operating

costs can be determined from suppliers or manufactures.

After the cost for each


mined,

alternative

has

been

deter.

each alternative is evaluated by calculating the SPP


is

The procedure for calculating the SPP

presented

in

sec-

tion 8.3

259

8 ,2

Required Material to Complete ECO Analysis

Completed heat loss and lighting calculations


Forms 8.1 and 8.2,
see Appendix A

Calculator

8.3

Procedure for Completing ECO Analysis


dif-

Forms 8.1 and Form 8.2 are provided to enable the

ferent

capital ECOs to be evaluated in


and 8.2.

systematic manner,

see Figures 8,1


the

The following Instructions explain

steps to take in using the forms,

followed by an illus-

trative example to help clarify the process.

8.3,1

Instructions for Form 8.1

STEP

1:

Fill out the top portion of the Form.

STEP

2:

Enter the input data for


each
as

the

current

system

and

alternative

being analyzed.

The entries are

follows:

IC -

Initial cost
Form 8.2
is

is
a

the

cost

of

installing

the

ECO.

typical estimating form used to


The costs
cost
that

estimate construction costs.


be

must

determined

Include

any

associated with

260

removing the existing material


ment
mat e
is

system,

and
the

any

cost

for

and

labor to install
a

system.
in

Equipesti-

included as

material item

the

FC - Fuel

consumption
i.e.,

is

the

amount
for the
is

of

fuel

in

units per year,

gals/yr,
It

current systhat
the

tem and each alternative.

hoped

alternative
nal system.

will consume less fuel than the origiThis


is

where the major

cost

savings
Eq.

should occur.
5.19 in Chapter

The Modified Degree Day Formula,


5,

is

used to determine the

annual

fuel consumption.
FP - Projected Average Fuel Price

is

the

expected

price in dollars per unit for the fuel.


AOC
-

Annual
to

Operating

Costs

are

any

expenses

required
or

operate or maintain the current system

proposed

alternative

after

it

has

been

installed.

STEP

After

the

Input

data
the

has

been

determined
to

and

entered

on Form 8.1,

next step is

calculate

the Simple Payback Period as

follows:
Cost

Calculate
current

the

Annual

Fuel

(AFC)

for

the

system and each alternative by multiplying

261

their respective Fuel Price (FP).


AFC
"

Consumption

(FC)

and

Fuel

'

FC

FP

Calculate the Annual Fuel Savings (AFS)

that

each

alternative

will

have

over the current system by


of

subtracting the Annual Fuel Cost


tive
(AFC
a
)

each

alternaof

from

the
).

Annual
If

Fuel

Cost

the

current system (AFC

this

number is

negative

then there is no fuel savings.

AFS

AFC

AFC

Calculate the Annual Costs (AC)


current

of

operating

the

system

and

each

proposed alternative by
and
the

adding the Annual Fuel Cost (AFC)

Annual

Operating Cost (AOC).


AC = AFC + AOC

Calculate the Annual Cost Savings

(ACS)

for
of of

each
the

alternative

by
a
)

subtracting the Annual Cost


from
c
)

alternative (AC

the

Annual

Cost

the

current system (AC

ACS = AC

AC

Calculate the Simple Payback Period (SPP) for

each
of

alternative

by

dividing

the Initial Cost

(IC)

26

2y

the alternative
the alternative.

by

the Annual Cost Savings

(ACS) of

SPP

IC

ACS

After the Simple Payback Period has been calculated for


each
to

alternative,
their
SPP.

the alternatives

can be

ranked according

Only

one
if

alternative
the

per

item

can

be

selected.
2,4,6 or
8

For example,

item was adding insulation of

inches only one thickness would be selected.

263

FORM

8.1

POTENTIAL ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES


SIMPLE

PAYBACK ANALYSIS FORM

Item

Dale

STEP

DescrlpUon

*^

n P u
I

Latiel

Item

Current

Alternative

Alternative

Alternative

System
S IC
Initial Costs (S)
Fuel consunption (units/yr)

NO.

NO. 2

NO. 3

T E 2

D
a
t

FC
FP

Projected Averige Fuel Price (S/Unit)


Arrool Operating Costs (S/yr)

AOC
*

'f.tSSmi/msMi^m^
Annual Fuel Costs
=

C
a
1

AFC
AFS

FC X FP ($/yi)

c u
1

Anmjal Fuel Sav/ings

flFCp- flfC^($/yi)

iiiiiii

a
t
1

^nual Costs

AC
P

(fC

fiOC

Annual Cost Saving

ACS
n
s

flCj- ACp($/yr)

Sinple Payback Period

SPP

IC / ACS ($/yr)

Figure 8.1

Form 8.1 Potential Energy Conservation Opportunities Simple Payback Analysis Form

264

r.ii r.-.'sar ;;%

FORM 8.2 ESTIMATE WORK


>7

S*ET
EjTinnlE NO.
SHEET NO.
OflTE

pRajfr:

f
i'

5;

SljrWflRV BY

CHECCED 6Y
SUB

DESCRIPTION

OUflNTITY

UNIT

IIAI'L

LflB.

nflTERIAL

LABOR

CONTRACT

TOTAL

S 1 1 i
*

1 i
1

1
Ji

1 i 1

1
1
""

,.

1
1
i 1
1

i 1 1
1

1
1 1 1

1 1

1 1
1
1

1
.

1
WM.MWW/.,
jxwmjjv.v.wrL'
,

^ ^

Figure 8.2

Form 8.2 Estimate Work Sheet

265

8,3.2

Energy Conservation Opportunity Analysis Example


does
the

The example building in Chapter

not

have

any
see

insulation in the roof and the walls


Figures 3.6 and 3.7.
for

at

gabled ends,

Calculate the

simple

payback

period

the following three alternatives.

Alternative No.
Alternative No. Alternative No.

Add
to

6 inches of the roof .

insulation

Add 3.5 inches of insulation in the wall and roof .


Add 3.5 inches of insulation to the wall and 6 inches to the roof.

Existing conditions:
Wall (gable end) Roof
q

Area Area

262 2350

U = U =

0.323 0.2253

,wall and roof


5670 + 35,473
=

41,143 BTU/hr

Fuel: Natural Gas Heating Degree Days: 5500

CALCULATIONS
Figure 8.4
is

Form 8.1 filled out with the


in

appropriate
are explained

entries.
below
STEP

The

calculations

Figure

8.4

2:

Input Data
IC- see Figure 8.3. The costs for the alternatives
[9]

were

determined

from the Means Manual

and are

266

for example

only.

True costs should be


local

determined
or

from
cos
t

subcontractors,
da
t

vendors,

in-house

FC- The fuel consumption is

calculated

using

the

modified

degree day formula for the current system

and the three alternatives.


FC Current System
q

FC =

xDx24xC, d
TD
X

(5.19)

FC =

(^1.1^3Btu/hr)(5500)(24)(0.60)

(67F)(0.55)(104,000BTU/CCF)
FC = 850

CCF

FC Alternative No.

1.

Calculate the
6

new

value

for the roof

after adding
U
=

inches of insulation:

roof

0.0511

Calculate the new heat loss rate:


^roof
"

(0.0511)(2350)(67)
^wall

8,045 BTU/hr 5,670 BTU/hr


13,715

q^ =

BTU/hr

Calculate the new fuel consumption, FC:


p^ ^

(13,715Btu/hr)(5500)(24)(0.60) (67F)(0.55)( 10 4,000BTU/CCF)


FC =

283

CCF

267

FORM

8.1

POTENTIAL ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES


SIMPLE PAYBACK ANALYSIS

FORM

Item

Add
1

Insulation to roof and end wall

Date

STEP

Description

Tne roof ana end wans aoove tne celling


will require

line

do not nave Insulation.

To add Insulation to tne end walls


Insulation, and replacing

removing existing sneetrock, adding

new

sneetrock. To add Insulation to the roof will not require

any demolition.

Laoel

Item

Current System

Alternative

Alternative

Alternative

No.

NO. 2

No. 3

IC

Initial Costs (5)


Fusl consunption (units/yr)

1283
850
Q.6Q

lias

isaa
197
0.60

FC
FP

283
0.60

286
0.60

Projsotad Avorugs Fuel Price (S/Unit)


ftnnuul Operating Co^ts

AGO

<$/yr)
.

.i.^sm:iM

'fmmmmimm^^^^^^^^t'^^r
510
169
172

M ^i
^

Annual fuel

CosW
118

AFC
AFS

FC X FP (S/yr)

ftno'jol

Fuel Savings

ttZ^- flfC^($/yi)
fmnual Costs

341

338

392

AC
ACS

ftFC

AOC

510

301

338

392

Annual Cost Saving >


AC

llMl341

J-

AC ^ (S/yr)

338

392

Sinple Payback Period

SPP

IC / ACS ($/yr)

3.76

3.39

3.94

Figure 8.3

Form 8.1 Potential Energy Conservation Opportunities Simple Payback Analysis Form Examp le

-26 8

FOm

8.2 ESnrMTE

ptiojici

MMK S^CET EXAMPLE BUILDING

CSTDIAIC NO.

LOCATIW

SEI
DATE

HO.

SUIIMtY SY

OCCKED ev

1 |

DESCRIPTION

CUMTITY

UNIT

HAT

L.

RATEWW.

LABOR

cortRACT

"^^''''^

1
i

ALTERNATIVE No.
ovemeaa &

Install 6 Inch Insulation

2350

Sf

.30

.12

705

282

987 296

profit

Total

1283

ALTRERNATIVE
Remove
Ada Aoo

No. 2
1

sneeirock
In.

262 262
2350

sf

.18
.18

.17 .11
.11

44
t f

II 44
t

wall Insulation 3.5

sf Sf
sf

47
t t

29

76
I
t
1

It
259 It 42

roof Insulation 5.5 la

423
t
1

682
|-

i ' 1

Replace sneeirocK

262

.15

.16

39

81

Ovemead &

Profit

265l

i
Total

1148 1

ALTERNATIVE
Remove
AOd

No. 3

sneeirocK

262
262

Sf
sf

.18 .30 .15

.17
\

44
t t

44
1

1
S * 1

wall Insulation 3.5 la


roof Insulation 6.0 la

.11 .12 .16

47

29

76

AOd

2350
262

sf
sf

Replace sneetrock

705 It 39

282
t

987
81

if
i

42

ovemeaa &

Profit

565

Total

1544

[i

Figure 8.4

Form 8.2 Estimate Work Sheet for ECO Example

269

FC Alternative No.

2.

Calculate the

new

value

for

the

roof

and wall after adding 3.5 inches of

insulat ion
U U

roof
,, wall

=
=

0.0783
0.0855

Calculate the new heat loss rate:


roof q""""^
=
=

(0

wall

.0783)(2350)(67) (0.0855)(262)(67)
q

= =

12,328 BTU/hr 1,501 BTU/hr


13,829

BTU/hr

Calculate the new fuel consumption, FC:


FC

(13.829Btu/hr)(5500)(24)(0.60)

(67F)(0.55)(104,000BTU/CCF)
FC =

286

CCF

Alternative No.

3.
U

Calculate the new

value for the roof and wall


of

after adding 3.5 inches


U

insulation:

roof
,, wall

= =

0.0511

0.0855

Calculate the new heat loss rate:


q

0^^,

^wall

= =

(0

.0511)(2350)(67) (0.0855)(262)(67)
q

= =

8,045 BTU/hr 1,501 BTU/hr

9,546 BTU/hr

Calculate the new fuel consumption, FC


^^ FC _

(9,546Btu/hr)(5500)(24)(0.60)
(67F)(0.55)(
10

4,000BTU/CCF)
197

FC =

CCF

270

Determine projected average fuel price, FP


can
be

The FP

obtained

from local utility companies and

should be updated accordingly.

Annual operating
zero.

cost

for

adding
is

insulation

is

After

the
to

insulation

added there is no

additional cost

maintain it.

STEP

3:

Calculations
AFC

Current System

Annual Fuel Costs Annual Fuel Costs Annual Fuel Costs

FC

X FP (850 CCF)($0.60/CCF)

$510/yr

Alternative No.

Annual Fuel Costs Annual Fuel Costs

(283 CCF)($0.60/CCF) $169/yr

Alternative No.

Annual Fuel Costs Annual Fuel Costs

(286 CCF)($0.60/CCF) $172/yr

Alternative No.

Annual Fuel Costs Annual Fuel Costs


AFS

(197 CCF)($0.60/CCF) $118/yr

Alternative No.

Annual Fuel Savings

AFC_

AFC

271

Annual Fuel Savings Annual Fuel Savings

= =

($510/yr) $341/yr

($169/yr)

Alternative No.

Annual Fuel Savings Annual Fuel Savings

= =

($510/yr) $338/yr

($172/yr)

Alternative No.

Annual Fuel Savings Annual Fuel Savings


ACS

= =

($510/yr) $392/yr

($118/yr)

The annual cost savings are

equal

to

the

Annual

Fuel
Cos ts

Savings

when

there

are no Annual Operating

SPP

Alternative No.

Simple Payback Period

Simple Payback Period


Simple Payback Period

($/yr) ACS $1283

IC

$341/yr
3

.76

Alternative No.

Simple Payback Period

= =

$ J

^,,o Jo / y
/

Simple Payback Period

3.39

Alternative No.

Simple Payback Period

$1544 $392/yr
=

Simple Payback Period

3.94

272

The results
The SPP

of

the three alternatives

are

very similar.

range from 3.39 to 3.94 years and are all within the

defined payback period.


one

However, as disussed earlier,


be

only

alternative

can

selected.
very

In

this

situation where
No.
3

the payback

periods are
the

similar,

alternative

would

be

best

choice based on its higher Annual Fuel

Savings because it would result in greater savings than Alt.


No.
1

and

over the life of

the

building.

8 .4

Potential Capital ECOs


there

The previous

study concluded that


that

were

several

capital

ECO

items

could be implemented to improve the


[1].
be

energy efficiency of IDOH buildings


items
that

The

capital

ECO
are

were

determined

to

cost

effective

presented in Tables 8.1 to 8.5.


auditor
However,
for
a

This should give the energy


of

feeling

for

the types

items

that will work.

because the items presented in these tables

worked

their

respective building does not mean that they will


This
the
is

work for the next building.

due

to

the

different
under.

operating
Therefore,

conditions

that

buildings

operate
each

each item should be evaluated for


of

building

independently

previous results.
listed
in

The alternatives

Tables
a

8.1

to

8.5

are

presented

to

give the energy auditor


that

listing of potential

capital ECOs

may apply

to

the buildings

currently being

273

audited.

This

list

is

not

inclusive however and the energy


up

auditor should use his imagination and Judgement to come


with

additional

items

that

might

provide potential cost

effective energy consumption reduction.

274

Table 8.1

Building Type

Alternatives

ESTIMATED

ALTERNATIVE
SELECTED

ESTIMATED
INITIAL
COST

ANNUAL
ENERGY

SAVINGS

1.

Natural Gas Furnace (a)


Install Ceiling Fans

$1900.00
278.00

$681.00
110.00

2.

3.

Energy Efficient Lamps


on Security Lights

lU.OO
100.00

111.00

4. Install Timer

111.00

TOTALS

$2392.00

$1013.00

(a) Natural gas will not

be

available at all locations.

275

Table 8.2

Building Type

II

Alternativei

ESTIMATED

ALTERNATIVE
SELECTED

ESTIMATED
INITIAL
COST

ANNUAL
ENERGY SAVINGS $812.00
305.00
137.00

I.

Install New Ceiling


Wall Insulation

$3240.00
2068.00
278.00

2.

3.

Install Ceiling Fans


Doors

4. New Overhead

2854.00

725.00

5. New

Lighting

1270.00

(a)(250.00)

TOTALS

$9710.00

$1609.00

276

Table 8.3

Building Type III Alte rnatf i ves

ESTIMATED

ALTERNATIVE
SELECTED

ESTIMATED
INITIAL
COST

ANNUAL
ENERGY

SAVINGS

.Relnsulate

$7150.00
1430.00 728.00 200.00

$980.00
280.00 242.00
-

2, New

Overhead Door

3,

Energy Efficient Lamps


Timer on Security Lights

4. Install

256.00
166.00

5.

Install Ceiling Fans

525.00

TOTALS

$10,033.00

$1924.00

277

Table 8.4

Building Type IV Alternatives

ESTIMATED
.

ALTERNATIVE
SELECTED

ESTIMATED
INITIAL
COST

ANNUAL ENERGY

SAVINGS
1637.00

1.

Insulate Ceiling

$7250.00

2. Energy

Efficient Lamps

156.00

49.00

3.

Install Ceiling Fans

370.00

379.00

TOTALS

$7776.00

$2065.00

278

Table 8.5

Building Type

Alternatives
ESTIMATED

ALTERNATIVE
SELECTED

ESTIMATED
INITIAL
COST

ANNUAL
ENERGY

SAVINGS

.Insulation
Install Celling Fans

$11 ,570.00

$2113.00

2.

370.00

120.00

3. Remove

Windows

28A9.00

291.00
1042.00

A, New

Overhead Doors

4400.00

TOTALS

$19,189.00

$3566.00

279

CHAPTER

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Introduction
study
was
to

The purpose of

this

develop
of

an

energy

audit
In

manual for the Indiana Department


of

Highways for use


buildings.
to

completing In-house audits


key
a

their

existing

The

objective

in

putting

the manual together was

prepare
an

series of step by step procedures that would allow


to

Individual

effectively
the

audit an IDOH facility.

To

accomplish this objective,


chapters

manual was divided

into

key

with

step

by

step

procedures

for

completing

separate energy evaluations.


to

Several examples were included


the material

Illustrate

the procedures and help clarify

presented.
The methodology used in this manual is

based

on

pro[1].

cedures

used

in

the previous energy study by G.

Smith

However, users of this manual should be aware that there are


some

variations

in

calculation procedures between the iniThese changes are few but

tial study and this manual.

were
An

necessary

to
a

help simplify the calculation procedures.

example

of

change between the first study and

the

manual

280

Is

estimating heat losses through

roof with an attic.


to

The
the

first study estimates an attic temperature

use

as

outside

air temperature.

The manual ignores

the attic temBy


is

perature and uses the outside air temperature.


the

ignoring
simpli-

attic temperature,
results

the heat

loss

calculation

fied and the

that are achieved provide a the user should not


be

sufficient
alarmed by

answer.

In

conclusion,

differences in procedures between the original study and the


manual.
The

calculation procedures outlined in the manual


The

should take precedence over the original study.


are

changes

intended to simplify the procedures without sacrificing

results.

Users of this manual are encouraged to read


study.
This

the

first

study will give the user good background infor-

mation into the energy audit process.


the

Along

with

reading

first

study,

users are strongly encouraged to read the


This

reference material sited in the manual.

will

provide
the

valuable

background

information

for

understanding

material presented in the manual.


Several good recommendations were outlined in the first
study. The

most

important

one

being the formation of an

energy management program.

This

manual
team

was

developed

to

enable

the

energy

management
the

to perform the energy the

audit function of

program.

Implementing

energy
is
a

management program along with the other recommendations

281

decision

that

must

be

made
the

by

IDOH
of

personnel.

The

researcher

feels

that

development
step

an energy manage-

ment team is an

important
The

towards

implementing

the

energy
In the

audit manual.

recommendations that are outlined

remainder

of

this

chapter deal with using the manual*

9.2

Energy Audit Manual Recommendations


commitment

Implementing the manual will require


resources
by
a

of

IDOH.

The

researcher

strived to write the

manual in
for
its

fashion that would require minimal


However,

instructions
is

use.

completing an energy audit


a

not

simple process and to present the material in

form
is

that
not

would

allow

non-engineer
Therefore,
is
a

to

complete

an audit

without problems.
to

training of personnel who


must.
The

are

use

the

manual

amount of training
)

required will depend on

the

IndivlduaKs
It

background
is

and

knowledge

of
)

building energy systems.

suggested that

individual (s
and

selected to use the manual review the material feedback determine


the

with

their

level of

training
type
and

required.

There are several options open for the


can be provided.

level of training that

1.

series of short courses could be prepared in the

use

and

understanding
at

of

the

manual.

These courses could

be held

the Research and

Training

Center

in

West

Lafayette,

Indiana.

'

282

2.

Another possibility
at to

Is

to have

Individuals take courses

Purdue.
the

This will depend on the Individuals access

campus and work schedule.


for

However,
to

if

it

were

possible
it

an IndlvlduaK

take CE 525 and 625,


the

would

allow

them

to

understand

material
the neces-

presented
sary skills

in the manual and develop

some of

required for completing the

analysis

sec-

tions of

the manual.

3.

The selection of

individuals who are interested in peraudits


and are willing to read addiof

forming

energy

tional material in this area will reduce the amount

necessary outside training.

The

collection
is

of

data for

completing the necessary calculations


ward.

straight

for-

However,

when

the

necessary calculations and


the user must have
a

analyses must be completed,

good

understanding

of

the

material presented in the manual.


interested in this area
of

An individual who is
the

can

read

reference

material and gain much

the

necessary

background knowledge.

The amount

of

manpower

and

resources
is

committed
a

to

training individuals in using the manual


to be made by
the IDOH.

again

decision

There are other

options

available
the

that

will

not

require extensive training in the use of

manual

283

1.

Consulting firms can be utilized for the analysis


tions
out,
it

sec-

of

the manual.
be do

Once the BIF is properly filled


to

may
to

possible

hire

outside

consulting
for

firms

the proper calculations and analysis

determining energy
ever,
this

conservation

opportunities.

How-

option will require consultant's fees to be

considered in the economic

evaluation

of

the

energy

conservation opportunities.
2.

Computerizing the manual


and
is
a

is

another

good

possibility
Again,
BIF

recommendation for continued study.


the

individuals would be required to fill out


collect
for

to

the

necessary data to be used by the computer analysis.


This

completing the
the

option

will

not

eliminate
is

necessary judgement and creativity that

required to come up with possible ECOs when auditing

building.

3.

The final recommendation for implementing the manual is


to

remember that the contents presented within are not


through

conclusive and can be improved


Users of

critical

use.

the manual are encouraged to

document problems
down

they have in using the manual and

write

sugges-

tions for improving the contents within the manual.

284

9 .3

Recommendations for Continued Study


users
a

Additional research and Input from future manual


Is

needed to develop the proposed energy audit manual Into

more complete system.

The

following

recommendations

are

proposed for continued study towards solving the energy con-

servation problem.
1.

The feasibility of computerizing


tions,

the
of

evaluation

secbe

chapters

through

8,

the manual should

investigated.
possibly
the types
be
of

An interactive

computer

program

could
of

developed

for these sections. Because

buildings being evaluated in

this

study,

the interactive program would not

require the sophistiof

cation of the DOE-2

United

States
or

Department
of

Energy's

computer

program

the United States Army

Construction Engineering Research Laboratory's Building


Loads

Analysis

and System Thermodynamics

(BLAST)

com-

puter program.
This manual is

2.

limited to the evaluation of the


lighting system.

physiThere

cal building components and the

are cost effective


that

energy

conservation

opportunities

exist

in
is

building's mechanical and electrical


an area

systems.
added
to

This

that should be

researched and

the manual.

Included within the analysis of

mechanical and electrical systems, consideration should

285

be

given

to

the

impact

special

equipment

has

on

ventilation requirements.
3.

The final area of continued research should


the

deal

with

evaluation

of

the

methodology

presented in the

manual.
should

Implementing energy conservation opportunities


occur only when they are cost effective and can

pay for their implementation through


To

utility

savings.
that have

date the energy conservation opportunities

been selected were based on the calculation

procedures
next

presented
step is
to

in

the manual.

Therefore,

the

logical

evaluate the buildings that have been retroif

fitted to determine

there has been an energy savings

and how close the calculated savings match the


The
as
a

actual.
(EUIs),

calculation

of

energy utilization indexes


7,

presented in Chapter

can be used for

determining
By

building's overall energy consumption.

calculat-

ing EUIs for the retrofitted buildings a


of

determination
This

actual energy reduction can be made.

informato

tion can then be utilized to improve the manual and

help in deciding the level of manpower and resources to

commit towards solving the problem.

REFERENCES

286

REFERENCES

1.

of Potential Smith, Gary R., An^ Investigation Energy Opportunities For Indiana Department Conservat Ion of Highway Buildings Master's Thesis, Purdue University, 1984 .
,

2.

Dubin, Fred S. and Long, Chalmers G,, Energy ConservaStandards Mc Graw - Hill Book Company, New York, tion 1978.
,

3.

ASHRAE Handbook 1981 Fundamentals Third Printing, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and AlrConditloning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia, 1982.
,

4.

Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Condi t loning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.
,

lES

1981 Lighting Handbook Application Volume Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New
,

York,

1981.

Mc Guiness, W., Stien,

B., Reynolds, J., Mechanical and Equipment for Buildings 6th Edition, John Electrical Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
,

7.

Systems Shut t leworth, Riley, Mechanical and Electrical 1983. New York, For Construction, Mc Graw-Hlll,
U.S. Energy Audit Buildings Workbook for Office U.S. Printing Office, Department of Energy, Government September 1978.
,

8.

9.

Building Construction Cost Data 1983 41st Annual Edition, Robert Snow Means Company, Inc., Kingston, MA, 1983.
,

APPENDICES

287

APPENDIX A
Energy Audit Forms

288

Form

2.1

Building Selection

Aiirlitnr

nilTRIPT
Type
Building

natP
-

_
9

..

J
11
Rank

2
3

4 5

10

Year

usage

Aiea

UtUlly J

$/SF

Tot

i_

..

--

289

FORM

3.

BUILDING INFORMATION FORM (GIF)

I.

General Description
A)

General:

Name of Building

Address
City

Telephone Number,

District

Sub-District
Position.

Contact Person
Building use:

B)

Building Type:

Description

Year of Construction

Year(s) and Description of Mod if icat ion

C)

Operating Schedule:
Days
per
luk

Time from to

Hours

Operating Temperature
SUM.

No.

of

Occupants

WIN.

DAY

Evening
Weekend
Other

290

II.

Building Characteristics
A)

Photographs of Building:

Elevation

Elevation

Elevation

Elevation

291

B) Building Floor Plan:


1)

Floor

292

2)

Floor

293

C) Floors:
1
)

Location
a) Floor

Construction
Description

Cross Section

b)

Floor Dimensions
Width.

Length
2) Location
a>

Floor Construction

Description

Cross Section

b)

Floor Dimensions
Width.

Length

294

D)

Walls:
1
>

Location
a)

Mall Construction

Description

Cross Section

Elevation
b)

Wall Construction Description and Dimensions

Construction
Construction

Length Length Length

Height
Height Height

Construction

295

c>

Ulindou Construction

Single Glazed Double Glazed


(

sq. sq.

ft.

ft.
)

space
space

inches
sq.

Insulating Glazed
(

ft.
)

inches
sq.

Storm Uindous
Other (specify)

ft.

sq.

ft. ft.

Shading (specify).
Ulindou Frame Type

sq.

Frame Width
Door Construction

inches

d)

Description

No.

Usage (Per/hr)

Thkness
(inches)

Height
(ft-in)

Width
(ft)

Area
(sf)

e)

Infiltration
Cracks through uialls
None
Feu)

Many

Loose-fitting

uiindouis

Loose-fitting doors
Loose fitting air conditioners

Ventilation exhaust ducts without dampers


Others observed (describe)

296

2) Location
a)

Wall Construction

Description

Cross Section

Elevati on
b)

WalJ Construction Description and Dimensions

Construction

Length Length
'

Height
Height

Construction
Construction

Length.

Height

297

c)

Window Construction
Single Glazed
Double Glazed
(space
sq. sq. ft. ft.
)

inches
sq.

Insulating Glazed
(

ft.
)

space

inches
sq.
sq.
ft.

Storm UJindous
Other (specify)

ft. ft.

Shading

(specify).

sq.

Windou/ Frame Type

Frame Width
d)

inches

Door Construction

Description

No.

Usage (Per/hr

Thkness ( inches

Height
)

Width
(ft)

Area
(sf>

(ft-in)

Inf

i 1

trat ion

Cracks through tualls

None

Few

Many

Loose-fitting

uiindotus

Loose-fitting doors

Loose-fitting air conditioners

Ventilation exhaust ducts without dampers


Others observed (describe)

298

3>

Location
a)

Wall Construction

Description

Cross Section

Elevation
b)

Wall Construction Description and Dimensions

Construction

Length Length

Height Height Height

Construction
Construction

Length

299

c)

Mindou) Construction

Single Glazed

sq.
sq.

ft.
ft.

Double Glazed
(space

inches)
sq. ft.

Insulating Glazed
(space

inches)
sq. sq.
sq.

Storm Mindouis
Other (specify)

ft.

ft.
ft.

Shading (specify)
Mindouf Frame Type

Frame Width
Door Construction

inches

d)

Description

No.

Usage (Per/hr)

Thkness (inches)

Height
(ft-in)

Uidth
(ft)

Area
(sf)

e)

Infiltration
Cracks through uialls
None

Few

Many

Loose-fitting uindouis
Loose-fitting doors Loose-fitting air conditioners

Ventilation exhaust ducts uiithout dampers


Others observed (describe)

300

4) Location
a)

Mall Construction

Description

Cross Section

Elevation
b)

Wall Construction Description and Dimensions

Construction
Construction

Length

Height

Length

Height
Height

Construction

Length_

301

c)

Ulindouj

Construction
sq.

Single Glazed
Double Glazed
(

ft. ft.
)

sq.

space

inches
sq.

Insulating Glazed
(space

ft.
)

inches
sq. sq. sq.

Storm UindoiDS
Other (specify)

ft.

ft.
ft.

Shading (specify),
Uindoui Frame Type

Frame Width
Door Construction

inches

d)

Description

No.

Usage (Per/hr

Thkness (inches

Height
)

Width
(ft)

Area
(sf)

(ft-in)

e)

Infiltration
Cracks through ualls
None

Feu

Many

Loose-fitting

uiindotus

Loose-fitting doors Loose-fitting air conditioners

Ventilation exhaust ducts without dampers


Others observed (describe)

302

E) Roof:
1)

Location
a) Roof Construction

Description

Cross Section
b)

Roof Dimensions

Width

Length
Roof Color and Condition
light
good age dark

Pitch

c)

Color

Condition
d)

fair

poor

Sky Lights

Description

Cross Section
e)

Skylight Area
No.

Length Length

_*Width.

sq.

ft. ft.

No.

*Width

sq.

303

2)

Location
a)

Roof Construction

Description

Cross Section
Roof Dimensions

b)

Width

Length
Roof Color and Condition
light
good fair
.

c)

Color

dark
,

Condition
d)
Sk[)

poor

Lights

Description

Cross Section
e)

Sky Light Area


No. No.

Length *

_Width.
(^idth

sq.

ft. ft.

Length

sq.

-3

III.

Major Energy Using Systems


in the appropriate numbers for items numbered codes listed on the next page:
1

A) Fill

thru 5 using the

Fuel Type (A)

Mechanical Equipment <B)

Terminal Unit (C)

Thermostat Setting- F
Sum.

Uin.

Space Heating Space Cool ing


3.

Hot Water

4.

Kitchen

5.

Kitchen equipment description

305

Fuel Type:
01 Coal

02 03 04 05

Electricity No. 2 Fuel Oil


6 Fuel Oil Natural Gas

No

06 07 06 09

Propane Purchased Steam Uood Other (specify)

Mechanical Equipment: Heating System 10 Lou pressure steam boiler 11 High pressure steam boiler 12 Hot water boiler 13 Forced air furnace 14 Resistance 15 Heat pump 16 Other
(

Cooling System 17 Absorption 18 Centrifugal 19 Reciprocating 20 Windou/ual 1 unit 21 Heat pump 22 Other (specify)

Hot Water System 24 Hot water heater 25 Boiler heat exchanger 26 Booster/reheat 27 Solar assisted 28 Other (specify)

spec if y

C.

Terminal Units
29 Radiator 30 Fan coil/radiator 31 Single zone 32 Multi-zone

33 34 35 36

Dual duct

Variable air vol. Induction Terminal unit

37 38 39 40

Self-contained Circulating Non-circulating Other


(specify)

D.

Efficiency analysis
Unit Description

Nameplate Output(BTU/hr)
Unit Description

Nameplate Input (BTU/hr

= Efficiency.

Nameplate Output(BTU/hr

Nameplate
)

Input (BTU/hr

= Efficiency.

Unit Description

Nameplate Output(BTU/hr

Nameplate
)

Input (BTU/hr

= Efficiency.

'306

B) Lighting

Interior:

Room

Area
(sf.
)

Ceil. Hght.
(ft.
)

Fix. Hght.
(ft.
)

Total Watte

Avg. Lgt. Lev. (fc)

Usage
(hr/uik
)

307

C) Lighting Exterior:
1)

Building Perimeter

Location

Type

Total Uatts

Method of control

Usage
(hrs/(i/k)

2) Parking Area

Location

Type

Total Uatts

Method of control

Usage
(hrs/uk)

-30 8

IV.

Climatic Data

Outside Temperature

(winter)

Average Annual Heating Degree Days

Average Annual Cooling Degree Days


Main Wind Direction and Velocity
V.

Description of Energy Management Activities


Energy Management Team Formed
Yes Yes

NO

Energy Management Coordinator Designated


Energy Audit

NO None

Completed

Started

Detailed Study by Architect or Engineer

Completed

Started.

None

Energy Management Measures Implemented and Dates

VI.

Field Inspection Notes

309

Form

5.1

Transmission

Coefficient

(U

Calculation

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SECTION
Cross Section

SECTION
Thk.

Construction

IN.

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313

FORM

8,1

POTENTI/\L

ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIEo

SIMPLE

PAYBACK ANALYSIS FORM

Item

Date

STEP

DescrtpUon

Laoel Item

Current

Altematiue
NO.
1

Altematjve
NO. 2

AltemaLive
NO.
3

n P u
t

System
S IC
IniUal Costs
(5)
.-..//A,.: ../.:/.. ::

E 2
a
I

FC
FP

Ful consuvlion

(unus/yr)
frojct<l Av*rg*

Ful Pric* ($/Unit)

ADC
'IL^.^.I^

^mnl

Cparating Costs
(S/yr)

^!!^.,,-W^s::m'-^y^--'- -'y-'y^
(*miai ful Costs
-

y^z^^fy,.',

.i^.

.^

^-y--,i:\

C
a
1

/FC

FC fP (S/yi)

c u
1

<tnjal Fual Savings

>

S T

AFS

flfC^- flfC|,<$/yi)

a
t
I

Annual Cost^

AC
ACS

flfC

flOe

Amuol Cost Saving OCj- flC^(S/yr)


Sinol* Payback Poriod
=

n
s

SPP

IC

(CS ($/yi)

-314

FORM 8.2 ESTIMATE

WRK

SHEET
ESiinnTE NO.

LOCATIOI

SHEET NO.

DATE

Siimwv BY

CKECKD BY

DESCPIPTION

QUANTlrV

UNIT

HAfL

LAB.

nATEUAL

LABOR

(jQNTftACT

TOTAL

315

APPENDIX

Noncapital Energy Conservation Opportunity Checklist

316

NONCAPITAL ECO CHECKLIST


FOR

MAINTENANCE AND OPERATIONAL CHANGES

The following checklist


site

is

to

be

used

during

the

building

visit.

Items

that

apply to the building being audited

should be checked off and the proper action taken.

A.

General Building
Reduce the use of heating
spaces
peri ods

1.

and

cooling

systems

in

which
of

are

used infrequently or only for short

time

2.

Windows or outside doors left open during the


ing
or

heatif

cooling seasons represent an energy loss

the

heaters or air conditioners are running. Make sure they


are shut.

3.

Involve

building

staff

with

energy

conservation

measures so that each individual has responsibility.


4.

Change

the

spring,

fall

and

winter

day-night

timeclock settings to operate heating,

ventilation, and

cooling equipment fewer hours on the day cycle.


5.

Disconnect

all

refrigerated

water

fountains

if

acceptable to occupants.

317

6.

Be

certain that all operable


and

windows

have

sealing

gaskets

cam

latches

that

are in proper working

order.
Close off unused areas and rooms. Where possible,
be

7.

certain that blinds or other shading devices are drawn,


registers closed,
etc.

8.

Seal ducts and access doors

in

equipment

rooms

to

minimize bypassing
9.

of

hoy and cold air.

Schedule

operating,

maintenance

and

cleaning

to

overlap more with normal working hours or when daylight


is

available and sufficient for the task.


Lower the thermostats during the heating season
and

10.

raise

them

during

the

cooling
fuel

season. You can save


by

about 8% of your heating

bill

lowering

the

thermostats
11. Set

mere five degrees.


lOdeg
F

back the heating season thermostats


.

dur-

ing the night

12.

Lower the domestic hot water to 110 deg


Turn off
the

13.

cooling system during

the

night.

Use

ventilation air to cool the building.

318

B^.

SPACE HEATING - GENERAL


all thermostats

1.

Set

at

68deg

or

less

for

winter

space heating.

2.

Surfaces of radiators,

convectors,
be kept

baseboards,

and

finned-tube
operation.
3.
If

heaters

must

clean for efficient

you use hot water for heating,


a

reduce

the

space
just

heating hot water temperature to


satisfy heating needs.
4.

level that will

Do not heat

storage rooms unless

it

is

necessary for

protection
5.
If

of

stored contents and water lines.


check to

you have infrared heaters,


are

see

if

the
the

reflectors

beamed in the right direction,

and

surface

is

clean.

o <^ o a

I I