Revised and enlarged by Rev. Nicholas M. Wilwers, S.A.C.; M.A.; S.T.B. NIHI !BSTAT" H. B. RI#S Censor libror$% IM&RIMI &!T#ST" !TT! B!#N'I, S.A.C. S$(erior Maior The idea o) *he )o$r *e%(era%en*s (resen*ed below s(rings )ro% *he wri*ings o) *he ancien* +ree,s, in (ar*ic$lar &la*o-s older con*e%(orary, *he ./a*her o) Medicine. Hi((ocra*es 01234533 B.C.6, and *he .&rince o) &hysicians. +alen 07584988 A.:.6. +alen was also heavily in)l$enced in his *rea*%en* o) (sychology by .*he &hiloso(her. Aris*o*le 05;14599 B.C.6. The Angelic$% Acade%y believes *ha* an $nders*anding o) *he *e%(era%en*s o) *heir children is essen*ial )or (aren*s *o g$ide *he% along *he (a*hs *o %a*$ri*y and (er)ec*ion.
< #lisabe*h A. Car%ac,, &h:., N.: 0angelic$*6

CONTENTS /!R#W!R:C!NT#NTS...............................................................................................................5 CHA&T#R I......................................................................................................................................1 TH# /!=R T#M&#RAM#NTSC!NT#NTS.............................................................................1 INTR!:=CTI!NC!NT#NTS...............................................................................................1 TH# /!=R T#M&#RAM#NTS IN +#N#RA C!NT#NTS................................................1 H!W T! :#T#RMIN# !N#-S T#M&#RAM#NTC!NT#NTS..........................................2 TH# 'N!W #:+# !/ T#M&#RAM#NTS IS >#R? IM&!RTANT................................; CHA&T#R II...................................................................................................................................78 TH# CH! #RIC T#M&#RAM#NTC!NT#NTS....................................................................78 CHARACT#RISTICS !/ TH# CH! #RIC T#M&#RAM#NT.........................................78 :AR' SI:#S !/ TH# CH! #RIC T#M&#RAM#NT......................................................77 BRI+HT SI:# !/ TH# CH! #RIC....................................................................................75 THIN+S T! B# !:S#R>#: B? TH# CH! #RIC IN HIS TRAININ+..........................71 C!NSI:#RATI!NS IN TH# TRAININ+ @ TR#ATM#NT !/ A CH! #RIC...............7A CHA&T#R III.................................................................................................................................72 TH# SAN+=IN# T#M&#RAM#NTC!NT#NTS...................................................................72 CHARACT#R !/ TH# SAN+=IN# T#M&#RAM#NT.....................................................72 /=N:AM#NTA :IS&!SITI!N........................................................................................72 :AR' SI:# !/ TH# SAN+=IN# T#M&#RAM#NT........................................................7B BRI+HT SI:#S !/ TH# SAN+=IN# T#M&#RAM#NT..................................................7; M#TH!: !/ S# /4TRAININ+ /!R TH# SAN+=IN#...................................................73 C!NSI:#RATI!NS IN TH# TRAININ+ @ TR#ATM#NT !/ A SAN+=IN#...............98 CHA&T#R I>.................................................................................................................................97 TH# M# ANCH! IC T#M&#RAM#NTC!NT#NTS...........................................................97 CHARACT#RISTICS !/ TH# M# ANCH! IC T#M&#RAM#NT................................97 /=N:AM#NTA :IS&!SITI!N !/ TH# M# ANCH! IC...........................................97 &#C= IARITI#S !/ TH# M# ANCH! IC......................................................................99 BRI+HT SI:# !/ TH# M# ANCH! IC T#M&#RAM#NT............................................95 :AR' SI:# !/ TH# M# ANCH! IC T#M&#RAM#NT...............................................95 M#TH!: !/ S# /4TRAININ+ /!R TH# M# ANCH! IC &#RS!N..........................9A C!NSI:#RATI!NS IN TH# TRAININ+ @ TR#ATM#NT !/ A M# ANCH! IC......92 CHA&T#R > .................................................................................................................................9B TH# &H #+MATIC T#M&#RAM#NTC!NT#NTS..............................................................9B CHARACT#RISTICS !/ TH# &H #+MATIC T#M&#RAM#NT...................................9B /=N:AM#NTA :IS&!SITI!N !/ TH# &H #+MATIC &#RS!N..............................9B BRI+HT SI:# !/ TH# &H #+MATIC T#M&#RAM#NT...............................................9B 7

:AR' SI:# !/ TH# &H #+MATIC T#M&#RAM#NT...................................................9B C!NSI:#RATI!NS IN TH# TRAININ+ @ TR#ATM#NT !/ A &H #+MATIC.........9B CHA&T#R >I.................................................................................................................................9; MIC#: T#M&#RAM#NTSC!NT#NTS.................................................................................9; D=#STI!NNAIR# @ CHARACT#R TRAITSC!NT#NTS.......................................................93 D=#STI!NNAIR# ...................................................................................................................93 CHARACT#R TRAITS ARRAN+#: ACC!R:IN+ T! T#M&#RAM#NTSC!NT#NTS. 59


7. Modern ed$ca*ors realiEe %ore and %ore *ha* a well ro$nded, co%(le*e ed$ca*ion de%ands no* only *raining o) *he in*ellec* b$* *raining o) *he will and o) *he hear* as well. In o*her words, *he )or%a*ion o) charac*er is as i%(or*an* as, i) no* %ore i%(or*an* *han, *he acF$isi*ion o) ,nowledge. 9. In*ellec*$al abili*y is no (roo) *ha* a %an will be able *o %as*er *he di))ic$l*ies o) li)e and *o adhere *o righ* (rinci(les o) ac*ion in *i%es o) dis*ress. !nly a s*rong will and a )ir% charac*er enable %an *o s*and s$ch *rials $nsha,en. i)e is )illed wi*h *rials; hence *he necessi*y o) charac*er )or%a*ion. 5. The )or%a*ion o) charac*er reF$ires, )irs* o) all, *he ,nowledge o) an ideal *ha* will .give direc*ion, %eas$re, and val$e *o e))or*,. 0Monsignor Willia% G. 'erby6 )ro% which *he ai% and *he ways and %eans o) ed$ca*ion %$s* be derived. The %an who ai%s a* being *he (er)ec* gen*le%an, i.e., *he Chris*ian, will o) necessi*y )ollow o*her ways and $se o*her %eans *han he whose ai% is only *o %a,e as %$ch %oney as (ossible. 1. I* reF$ires also a )air ,nowledge o) one-s sel), o) one-s (owers o) body and so$l, o) one-s s*rong and wea, (oin*s, o) one-s asse*s and de)ec*s. The old +ree, saying, .'now yo$rsel)H. holds *r$e also *oday. A. There is no lac, o), nor in*eres* in, boo,s on sel)4i%(rove%en*. Man is (ain)$lly conscio$s o) his %any shor*co%ings and )eels a grea* desire *o eli%ina*e $nsa*is)ac*ory (ersonali*y *rai*s in order *o achieve grea*er har%ony wi*hin hi%sel) and wi*h his environ%en*. S$ch sel)4,nowledge is o)*en o))ered in learned and high so$nding (hrases, b$* %ore o)*en *han no* is o) li**le hel( in daily li)e. A ,nowledge o) *he /o$r Te%(era%en*s, 0*ho$gh so%e*i%es )rowned $(on by %ode% (sychology6, has (roved very hel()$l in %ee*ing and %as*ering *he si*$a*ions o) everyday living. A shor* b$* val$able ,nowledge wi*h (rac*ical s$gges*ions is s$((lied by Conrad Hoc,, -The /o$r Te%(era%en*s-. Having been o$* o) (rin* )or so%e years i* is now herewi*h revised, enlarged and o))ered *o *he ($blic. The &allo**ine /a*hers Milwa$,ee


Socra*es, one o) *he %os* renowned o) *he +ree, sages, $sed and *a$gh* as an aIio% *o his hearers" .'now yo$rsel).. !ne o) *he %os* reliable %eans o) learning *o ,now onesel) is *he s*$dy o) *he *e%(era%en*s. /or i) a %an is )$lly cogniEan* o) his *e%(era%en*, he can learn easily *o direc* and con*rol hi%sel). I) he is able *o discern *he *e%(era%en* o) o*hers, he can be**er $nders*and and hel( *he%.

I) we consider *he reac*ion o) vario$s (ersons *o *he sa%e eI(erience, we will )ind *ha* i* is di))eren* in every one o) *he%; i* %ay be F$ic, and las*ing, or slow b$* las*ing; or i* %ay be F$ic, b$* o) shor* d$ra*ion, or slow and o) shor* d$ra*ion. This %anner o) reac*ion, or *he di))eren* degrees o) eIci*abili*y, is wha* we call .*e%(era%en*.. There are )o$r *e%(era%en*s" *he choleric, *he %elancholic, *he sang$ine, and *he (hleg%a*ic. The sang$ine *e%(era%en* is %ar,ed by F$ic, b$* shallow, s$(er)icial eIci*abili*y; *he choleric by F$ic, b$* s*rong and las*ing; *he %elancholic *e%(era%en* by slow b$* dee(; *he (hleg%a*ic by slow b$* shallow eIci*abili*y. The )irs* *wo are also called eI*rover*s, o$*going; *he las* *wo are in*rover*s or reserved. Te%(era%en*, *hen, is a )$nda%en*al dis(osi*ion o) *he so$l, which %ani)es*s i*sel) whenever an i%(ression is %ade $(on *he %ind, be *ha* i%(ression ca$sed by *ho$gh* J by *hin,ing abo$* so%e*hing or by re(resen*a*ion *hro$gh *he i%agina*ion J or by eI*ernal s*i%$li. 'nowledge o) *he *e%(era%en* o) any (erson s$((lies *he answer *o *he F$es*ions" How does *his (erson de(or* hi%sel)K How does he )eel %oved *o ac*ion whenever so%e*hing i%(resses hi% s*ronglyK /or ins*ance, how does he reac*" when he is (raised or reb$,ed, when he is o))ended, when he )eels sy%(a*hy )or or aversion agains* so%ebodyK !r, *o $se ano*her eIa%(le, how does he ac* i) in a s*or%, or in a dar, )ores*, or on a dar, nigh* *he *ho$gh* o) i%%inen* danger co%es *o hi%K !n s$ch occasions one %ay as, *he )ollowing F$es*ions" 1. Is the person un er the !n"#uen$e o" su$h !%press!ons& thou'hts& or "($ts& )u!$*#y (n +ehe%ent#y e,$!te & or on#y s#o-#y (n super"!$!(##y. /. Does the person un er su$h !n"#uen$es "ee# !n$#!ne to ($t (t on$e& )u!$*#y& !n or er to oppose the !%press!on0 or oes he "ee# %ore !n$#!ne to re%(!n $(#% (n to -(!t. 1. Does the e,$!te%ent o" the sou# #(st "or ( #on' t!%e or on#y "or ( %o%ent. Does the !%press!on $ont!nue& so th(t (t the re$o##e$t!on o" su$h !%press!on the e,$!te%ent !s rene-e . Or oes he $on)uer su$h e,$!te%ent spee !#y (n e(s!#y& so th(t the re%e%br(n$e o" !t oes not pro u$e ( ne- e,$!te%ent. 1

The re(lies *o *hese F$es*ions direc* $s *o *he )o$r *e%(era%en*s and )$rnish *he ,ey )or *he $nders*anding o) *he *e%(era%en* o) each individ$al. The choleric (erson is F$ic,ly and vehe%en*ly eIci*ed by any i%(ression %ade; he *ends *o reac* i%%edia*ely, and *he i%(ression las*s a long *i%e and easily ind$ces new eIci*e%en*. The (erson o) sang$ine *e%(era%en*, li,e *he choleric, is F$ic,ly and s*rongly eIci*ed by *he sligh*es* i%(ression, and *ends *o reac* i%%edia*ely, b$* *he i%(ression does no* las*; i* soon )ades away. The %elancholic individ$al is a* )irs* only sligh*ly eIci*ed by any i%(ression received; a reac*ion does no* se* in a* all or only a)*er so%e *i%e. B$* *he i%(ression re%ains dee(ly roo*ed, es(ecially i) new i%(ressions o) *he sa%e ,ind are re(ea*ed. The (hleg%a*ic (erson is only sligh*ly eIci*ed by any i%(ression %ade $(on hi%; he has scarcely any inclina*ion *o reac*, and *he i%(ression vanishes F$ic,ly. The choleric and sang$ine *e%(era%en*s are ac*ive, *he %elancholic and (hleg%a*ic *e%(era%en*s are (assive. The choleric and sang$ine show a s*rong *endency *o ac*ion; *he %elancholic and (hleg%a*ic, on *he con*rary, are inclined *o slow %ove%en*. The choleric and %elancholic *e%(era%en*s are o) a (assiona*e na*$re; *hey sha,e *he very so$l and ac* li,e an ear*hF$a,e. The sang$ine and (hleg%a*ic are (assionless *e%(era%en*s; *hey do no* lead *o grea* and las*ing %en*al eIci*e%en*.


0See also *he D$es*ionnaire sec*ion.6

In order *o de*er%ine one-s *e%(era%en*, i* is no* wise *o s*$dy *he brigh* or dar, sides o) each *e%(era%en* and *o a((ly *he% *o onesel); one sho$ld )irs* and )ore%os* a**e%(* *o answer *he *hree F$es*ions 0also %en*ioned above6" 1. Do I re($t !%%e !(te#y (n +ehe%ent#y or s#o-#y (n super"!$!(##y to ( stron' !%press!on %( e upon %e. /. A% I !n$#!ne to ($t (t on$e or to re%(!n $(#% (n to -(!t. 1. Does the e,$!te%ent #(st "or ( #on' t!%e or on#y "or ( short -h!#e. A +ery pr($t!$(# -(y to eter%!ne one2s te%per(%ent $ons!sts !n $ons! er!n' one2s re($t!ons to o""enses& by (s*!n' these )uest!ons3
Do I h(+e !""!$u#ty "or'!+!n' -hen o""en e . Do I be(r 'ru 'es (n resent !nsu#ts. I) one %$s* answer" Yes, usually I cannot forget insults, I brood over them; to think of them excites me anew; I can bear a grudge a long time, several days, nay, weeks if somebody has offended me; I try to evade those who have offended me, refuse to speak to them, etc J *hen one is ei*her o) $ho#er!$ or %e#(n$ho#!$ *e%(era%en*. I) on *he con*rary *he answer is" No, I do not harbor ill will; I cannot be angry with anybody for a long time; I forget even actual insults very soon; sometimes I want to show anger, but I cannot do so, at least not for a long time, at most an hour or two J *hen one is ei*her s(n'u!ne or ph#e'%(t!$.

Upon (s$ert(!n!n' th(t one2s te%per(%ent !s e!ther $ho#er!$ or %e#(n$ho#!$& the "o##o-!n' )uest!ons shou# be (ns-ere 3
A% I )u!$*#y e,$!te (t o""enses. o I %(n!"est %y resent%ent by -or s or ($t!on. Do I "ee# !n$#!ne to oppose (n !nsu#t !%%e !(te#y (n ret(#!(te. -OR- Do I (t o""enses re$e!+e re%(!n $(#% out-(r #y !n sp!te o" !ntern(# e,$!te%ent. A% I "r!'htene by o""enses& !sturbe & espon ent& so th(t I o not "!n the r!'ht -or s nor the $our('e "or ( rep#y& (n there"ore& re%(!n s!#ent. Does !t h(ppen repe(te #y th(t I h(r #y "ee# the o""ense (t the %o%ent -hen I re$e!+e !t& but ( "e- hours #(ter& or e+en the "o##o-!n' (y& "ee# !t so %u$h %ore *een#y. In *he )irs* case, *he (erson is $ho#er!$; 4 in *he second, %e#(n$ho#!$.

Upon (s$ert(!n!n' th(t one2s te%per(%ent !s e!ther sanguine or phlegmatic& one %ust !n)u!re "urther (s "o##o-s3
A% I su en#y !n"#(%e -!th (n'er (t o""enses re$e!+e 0 o I "ee# !n$#!ne to "#(re up (n to ($t r(sh#y. -ORDo I re%(!n )u!et. In !""erent. A% I not e(s!#y s-(ye by %y "ee#!n's. In *he )irs* case, *he (erson is s(n'u!ne, 4 in *he second, ph#e'%(t!$.

I* is very i%(or*an*, and indeed necessary *o de*er%ine, )irs* o) all, one-s basic *e%(era%en* by answering *hese F$es*ions, *o be able *o re)er *he vario$s sy%(*o%s o) *he di))eren* *e%(era%en*s *o *heir (ro(er so$rce. !nly *hen can sel)4,nowledge be dee(ened *o a )$ll realiEa*ion o) how )ar *he vario$s ligh* and dar, sides o) one-s *e%(era%en* are develo(ed, and o) *he %odi)ica*ions and 2

varia*ions one-s (redo%inan* *e%(era%en* %ay have $ndergone by %iIing wi*h ano*her *e%(era%en*. I* is $s$ally considered very di))ic$l* *o recogniEe one-s own *e%(era%en* or *ha* o) ano*her (erson. #I(erience, however, *eaches *ha* wi*h (ro(er g$idance, even (ersons o) %odera*e ed$ca*ion can F$i*e easily learn *o ,now *heir own *e%(era%en*, and *ha* o) associa*es and s$bordina*es. +rea*er di))ic$l*ies, however, arise in discovering *he *e%(era%en* in *he )ollowing ins*ances" 7. A (erson is habi*$ally given *o sin. In s$ch cases *he sin)$l (assion in)l$ences %an %ore *han *he *e%(era%en*; )or ins*ance, a sang$ine (erson, who by na*$re is very %$ch inclined *o live in (eace and har%ony wi*h o*hers can beco%e very annoying and ca$se grea* *ro$ble by giving way *o envy and anger. 9. A (erson has (rogressed very )ar on *he (a*h o) (er)ec*ion. In s$ch cases *he dar, sides o) *he *e%(era%en*, as *hey %ani)es* *he%selves, $s$ally, in ordinary (ersons, can hardly be no*iced a* all. Th$s, S*. Igna*i$s oyola, who by na*$re was (assiona*ely choleric, had conF$ered his (assion *o s$ch an eI*en*, *ha* eI*ernally he a((eared *o be a %an wi*ho$* (assions and was o)*en loo,ed $(on as a ($re (hleg%a*ic. In *he sang$ine b$* sain*ly /rancis de Sales, *he hea* o) %o%en*ary, ira*e eIci*e%en*, (ro(er *o his sang$ine *e%(era%en*, was co%(le*ely s$bd$ed, b$* only a* *he cos* o) con*in$al co%ba* )or years agains* his na*$ral dis(osi*ion. Sain*ly (eo(le o) %elancholic *e%(era%en* never allow *heir na*$rally sad, %orose, disco$raging *e%(era%en* *o show i*sel), b$* by a loo, $(on *heir cr$ci)ied ord and Mas*er, Ges$s Chris*, conF$er F$ic,ly *hese $n(leasan* %oods. 5. A (erson (ossesses only sligh* ,nowledge o) hi%sel). He nei*her recogniEes his good or evil dis(osi*ion, nor does he $nders*and *he in*ensi*y o) his own evil inclina*ions and *he degree o) his eIci*abili*y; conseF$en*ly he will no* have a clear idea o) his *e%(era%en*. I) anyone *ries *o assis* hi% *o ,now hi%sel) by F$es*ioning hi%, he gives )alse answers, no* in*en*ionally, b$* si%(ly beca$se he does no* ,now hi%sel). I) s$ch (ersons begin *o devo*e *he%selves *o a %ore s(iri*$al li)e, *hey can $s$ally acF$ire a )airly reliable diagnosis o) *heir *e%(era%en* only a)*er *hey have (rac*iced %edi*a*ion and eIa%ina*ion o) conscience )or so%e leng*h o) *i%e. 1. A (erson is very nervo$s. Wi*h s$ch (ersons *he signs o) nervo$sness, as res*lessness, irri*abili*y, incons*ancy o) h$%or and resol$*ion, *he inclina*ion *o %elancholy and disco$rage%en*, %ani)es* *he%selves so )orcibly *ha* *he sy%(*o%s o) *e%(era%en* are %ore or less obsc$red. I* is es(ecially di))ic$l* *o discern *he *e%(era%en* o) hys*erical (ersons, i) *he so4 called hys*erical charac*er is already )$lly develo(ed. A. A (erson has a so4called %iIed *e%(era%en*. MiIed *e%(era%en*s are *hose in which one *e%(era%en* (redo%ina*es while ano*her *e%(era%en* also %ani)es*s i*sel). I* will be a grea* hel( in s$ch cases *o ,now *he *e%(era%en*s o) *he (aren*s o) s$ch (erson. I) )a*her and %o*her are o) *he sa%e *e%(era%en*, *he children will (robably inheri* *he *e%(era%en* o) *he (aren*s. I) )a*her and %o*her are o) a choleric *e%(era%en*, *he children will also be choleric. I), however, *he )a*her and %o*her are o) di))eren* *e%(era%en*s, *he children will inheri* *he di))eren* *e%(era%en*s. I), )or ins*ance, *he )a*her is o) a choleric *e%(era%en* and *he %o*her %elancholic, *he children will be ei*her choleric wi*h a %elancholic %iI*$re, or %elancholic wi*h a choleric *endency, according *o *he degree o) in)l$ence o) ei*her o) *he *wo (aren*s. In order *o learn *he (redo%inan* *e%(era%en*, i* is absol$*ely necessary *o )ollow closely *he above4 B

%en*ioned F$es*ions concerning *he *e%(era%en*s. B$* i* also ha((ens, al*ho$gh no* so o)*en as %any believe, *ha* in one (erson *wo *e%(era%en*s are so %iIed *ha* bo*h are eF$ally s*rong. In *his case i* is na*$rally very hard *o L$dge wi*h which *e%(era%en* *he res(ec*ive (erson is *o be classi)ied. I* is (robable, however, *ha* in *he co$rse o) *i%e, e.g. on occasion o) ordeals or di))ic$l*ies one o) *he *e%(era%en*s will %ani)es* i*sel) (redo%inan*ly. A very val$able hel( )or *he discern%en* o) *he %iIed, and es(ecially o) *he ($re, *e%(era%en*s is *he eI(ression o) *he eye and %ore or less *he %anner in which a (erson wal,s. The eye o) *he choleric is resol$*e, )ir%, energe*ic, )iery; *he eye o) *he sang$ine is cheer)$l, )riendly, and careless; *he eye o) *he %elancholic loo,s %ore or less sad and *ro$bled; *he eye o) *he (hleg%a*ic is )ain*, devoid o) eI(ression. The choleric s*e(s $( )ir%ly, resol$*ely, is %ore or less always in a h$rry; *he sang$ine is ligh*4 )oo*ed and F$ic,, his wal,ing is o)*en li,e dancing; *he gai* o) *he %elancholic is slow and heavy; *ha* o) *he (hleg%a*ic is laEy and sl$ggish. The eI(ression o) *he eye ra*her F$ic,ly reveals *he choleric *e%(era%en* 0*he well4,nown *y(e o) Na(oleon, Bis%ar,6 and *he *e%(era%en* o) *he %elancholic 0(erha(s *he C$re o) Ars6. I), )ro% *he eI(ression o) *he eye nei*her *he resol$*eness and energy o) *he choleric nor *he gloo% o) *he %elancholic can be discerned, i* is sa)e *o concl$de *ha* a (erson is ei*her sang$ine or (hleg%a*ic. A)*er a li**le eI(erience, one F$i*e easily de*er%ines a (erson-s *e%(era%en*, even a* *he )irs* %ee*ing, or even a)*er a cas$al observa*ion on *he s*ree*. &hysical sy%(*o%s o) di))eren* *e%(era%en*s, however, s$ch as *he sha(e o) *he head, co%(leIion, color o) *he hair, siEe o) *he nec,, e*c., are wor*hless des(i*e *he insis*ence on s$ch li,e charac*eris*ics )reF$en*ly )o$nd in (o($lar wri*ings.

I* %ay be di))ic$l* in %any cases *o decide $(on *he *e%(era%en* o) any (ar*ic$lar (erson; s*ill we sho$ld no* (er%i* o$rselves *o be disco$raged in *he a**e%(* *o $nders*and o$r own *e%(era%en* and *ha* o) *hose (ersons wi*h who% we live or wi*h who% we co%e o)*en in*o con*ac*, )or *he advan*ages o) s$ch insigh* are very grea*. To ,now *he *e%(era%en*s o) o$r )ellow %en hel(s $s *o $nders*and *he% be**er, *rea* *he% %ore correc*ly, bear wi*h *he% %ore (a*ien*ly. These are eviden*ly advan*ages )or social li)e which can hardly be a((recia*ed eno$gh. A choleric (erson is won by F$ie* eI(lana*ion o) reasons and %o*ives; whereas by harsh co%%ands he is e%bi**ered, hardened, driven *o s*rong4headed resis*ance. A %elancholic (erson is %ade s$s(icio$s and re*icen* by a r$de word or an $n)riendly %ien; by con*in$o$s ,ind *rea*%en*, on *he con*rary, he is %ade (liable, *r$s*ing, a))ec*iona*e. The choleric (erson can be relied $(on, b$* wi*h a sang$ine (erson we can hardly co$n* even $(on his a((aren*ly serio$s (ro%ises. Wi*ho$* a ,nowledge o) *he *e%(era%en*s o) o$r )ellow %en we will *rea* *he% o)*en wrongly, *o *heir and *o o$r own disadvan*age. Wi*h a ,nowledge o) *he *e%(era%en*s, one bears wi*h )ellow %en %ore (a*ien*ly. I) one ,nows *ha* *heir de)ec*s are *he conseF$ence o) *heir *e%(era%en*, he eIc$ses *he% %ore readily and will no* so easily be eIci*ed or angered by *he%. He re%ains F$ie*, )or ins*ance, even i) a choleric is severe, shar(4edged, i%(e*$o$s, or obs*ina*e. And i) a %elancholic (erson is slow, hesi*a*ing, $ndecided; i) he does no* s(ea, %$ch and even i) he says aw,wardly *he li**le he has *o say; or i) a sang$ine (erson is very *al,a*ive, ligh*4%inded, and )rivolo$s; i) a (hleg%a*ic canno* be aro$sed )ro% his $s$al indi))erence, he does no* beco%e irri*a*ed. ;

I* is o) *he grea*es* bene)i* )$r*her%ore *o recogniEe )$lly one-s own *e%(era%en*. !nly i) one ,nows i*, can he L$dge correc*ly hi%sel), his %oods, his (ec$liari*ies, his (as* li)e. An elderly gen*le%an, o) wide eI(erience in *he s(iri*$al li)e, who ha((ened *o read *he )ollowing *rea*ise on *e%(era%en*s said" .I have never learned *o ,now %ysel) so well, as I )ind %ysel) de(ic*ed in *hese lines, beca$se nobody dared *o *ell %e *he *r$*h so (lainly as *hese lines have done.. I) one ,nows one-s own *e%(era%en*, he can wor, o$* his own (er)ec*ion wi*h grea*er ass$rance, beca$se )inally *he whole e))or* *oward sel)4(er)ec*ion consis*s in *he (er)ec*ion o) *he good and in *he co%ba*ing o) *he evil dis(osi*ions. Th$s *he choleric will have *o conF$er, in *he )irs* (lace, his obs*inacy, his anger, his (ride; *he %elancholic, his lac, o) co$rage and his dread o) s$))ering; *he sang$ine, his *al,a*iveness, his inconsis*ency; *he (hleg%a*ic, his slo*h, his lac, o) energy. The (erson who ,nows hi%sel) will beco%e %ore h$%ble, realiEing *ha* %any good *rai*s which he considered *o be vir*$es are %erely good dis(osi*ions and *he na*$ral res$l* o) his *e%(era%en*, ra*her *han acF$ired vir*$es. ConseF$en*ly *he choleric will L$dge %ore h$%bly o) his s*rong will, his energy, and his )earlessness; *he sang$ine o) his cheer)$lness, o) his )acili*y *o ge* along well wi*h di))ic$l* (ersons; *he %elancholic will L$dge %ore h$%bly abo$* his sy%(a*hy )or o*hers, abo$* his love )or soli*$de and (rayer; *he (hleg%a*ic abo$* his good na*$re and his re(ose o) %ind. The *e%(era%en* is inna*e in each (erson, *here)ore i* canno* be eIchanged )or ano*her *e%(era%en*. B$* %an can and %$s* c$l*iva*e and (er)ec* *he good ele%en*s o) his *e%(era%en* and co%ba* and eradica*e *he evil ones. #very *e%(era%en* is in i*sel) good and wi*h each one %an can do good and wor, o$* his salva*ion. I* is, *here)ore, i%(r$den* and $ngra*e)$l *o wish *o have ano*her *e%(era%en*. .All *he s(iri*s shall (raise *he ord. 0&s. 7A8,26. All o) %an-s inclina*ions and (ec$liari*ies sho$ld be $sed )or *he service o) *he ord and con*rib$*e *o His honor and *o %an-s wel)are. &ersons o) vario$s *e%(era%en*s who live *oge*her sho$ld learn no* *o o((ose b$* *o s$((or* and s$((le%en* one ano*her.


The choleric (erson is F$ic,ly and vehe%en*ly eIci*ed by any and every in)l$ence. I%%edia*ely *he reac*ion se*s in and *he i%(ression re%ains a long *i%e. The choleric %an is a %an o) en*h$sias%; he is no* sa*is)ied wi*h *he ordinary, b$* as(ires a)*er grea* and lo)*y *hings. He craves )or grea* s$ccess in *e%(oral a))airs; he see,s large )or*$nes, a vas* b$siness, an elegan* ho%e, a dis*ing$ished re($*a*ion or a (redo%inan* (osi*ion. He as(ires *o *he highes* also in %a**ers s(iri*$al; he is swayed wi*h a cons$%ing )ire )or holiness; he is )illed wi*h a yearning desire *o %a,e grea* sacri)ices )or +od and his neighbor, *o lead %any so$ls *o heaven. The na*$ral vir*$e o) *he choleric is a%bi*ion; his desire *o eIcel and s$cceed des(ises *he li**le and v$lgar, and as(ires *o *he noble and heroic. In his as(ira*ion )or grea* *hings *he choleric is s$((or*ed by" 7. A ,een in*ellec*. The choleric (erson is no* always, b$* $s$ally endowed wi*h considerable in*elligence. He is a %an o) reason while his i%agina*ion and his e%o*ions are (oor and s*$n*ed. I* is said *ha* G$li$s Caesar was able *o dic*a*e di))eren* le**ers *o several secre*aries a* *he sa%e *i%e wi*ho$* losing *he line o) *ho$gh* )or each dic*a*ion. 9. A s*rong will. He is no* )righ*ened by di))ic$l*ies, b$* in case o) obs*acles shows his energy so %$ch *he %ore and (erseveres also $nder grea* di))ic$l*ies $n*il he has reached his goal. &$sillani%i*y or des(ondency *he choleric does no* ,now. Ha%ilcar o) Car*hage in Nor*h A)rica *oo, his son Hannibal *o *he al*ar o) *heir god and %ade hi% swear e*ernal ha*red )or Ro%e, *heir i%(lacable ene%y. a*er, Hannibal asse%bled a co%(le*e ar%y and ele(han*s and led *he% *hro$gh S(ain, over *he &yrenees, *hro$gh So$*hern /rance and over *he Al(s in*o I*aly, a )ea* never eF$aled be)ore or a)*er, and ca%e very close *o conF$ering and des*roying Ro%e. 5. S*rong (assions. The choleric is very (assiona*e. Whenever *he choleric is ben* $(on carrying o$* his (lans or )inds o((osi*ion, he is )illed wi*h (assiona*e eIci*e%en*. All dic*a*ors, old and new, are (roo) o) *his s*a*e%en*. 1. An o)*en *i%es s$bconscio$s i%($lse *o do%ina*e o*hers and %a,e *he% s$bservien*. The choleric is %ade *o r$le. He )eels ha((y when he is in a (osi*ion *o co%%and, *o draw o*hers *o hi%, and *o organiEe large gro$(s. A very grea* i%(edi%en* )or *he choleric in his yearning )or grea* *hings is his i%(r$den* has*e. The choleric is i%%edia*ely and *o*ally absorbed by *he ai% he has in %ind and r$shes )or his 78

goal wi*h grea* has*e and i%(e*$osi*y; he considers b$* *oo li**le whe*her he can really reach his goal. A high NaEi o))icial *old a )or%er ch$%, 0la*er a (ries*6" .We canno* bac, o$*; we have gone *oo )ar.. He sees only one road, *he one he in his i%(e*$osi*y has *a,en wi*ho$* s$))icien* considera*ion, and he does no* no*ice *ha* by ano*her road he co$ld reach his goal %ore easily. I) grea* obs*acles %ee* hi% he, beca$se o) his (ride, can hardly %a,e $( his %ind *o *$rn bac,, b$* ins*ead he con*in$es wi*h grea* obs*inacy on *he original co$rse. He dashes his head agains* *he wall ra*her *han *a,e no*ice o) *he door which is righ* near and wide o(en. By *his i%(r$dence *he choleric was*es a grea* deal o) his energy which co$ld be $sed *o be**er advan*age, and he disg$s*s his )riends, so *ha* )inally he s*ands al%os* alone and is disli,ed by %os* (eo(le. He de(rives hi%sel) o) his bes* s$ccesses, even *ho$gh he will no* ad%i* *ha* he hi%sel) is *he %ain ca$se o) his )ail$res. He shows *he sa%e i%(r$dence in selec*ing *he %eans )or *he ($rs$i* o) (er)ec*ion, so *ha* in s(i*e o) grea* e))or*s he does no* acF$ire i*. The choleric can sa)eg$ard hi%sel) )ro% *his danger only by willing and h$%ble s$b%ission *o a s(iri*$al direc*or.

&ride which shows i*sel) in *he )ollowing ins*ances" a6 The choleric is )$ll o) hi%sel). He has a grea* o(inion o) his good F$ali*ies and his s$ccess)$l wor, and considers hi%sel) as so%e*hing eI*raordinary and as one called $(on *o (er)or% grea* )ea*s. He considers even his very de)ec*s as being L$s*i)ied, nay, as so%e*hing grea* and wor*hy o) (raise; )or ins*ance, his (ride, his obs*inacy, his anger. The I*alian dic*a*or M$ssolini had hi%sel) called -II :$ce,- *he eader. Adol) Hi*ler )ollowed his eIa%(le by ass$%ing *he *i*le" -:er /$ehrer,- The eader. b6 The choleric is very s*$bborn and o(iniona*ed. He *hin,s he is always righ*, wan*s *o have *he las* word, *olera*es no con*radic*ion, and is never willing *o give in. The R$ssian dic*a*or S*alin broo,ed no o((osi*ion. A )riend o) his, d$ring a drin,ing bo$*, voiced his disagree%en* wi*h S*alin-s o(inion. /earing )or his sa)e*y so%e o) his )riends a((roached S*alin *he neI* day *o eIc$se *heir )riend on *he gro$nd o) having been dr$n,. S*alin coolly *old *he% *ha* *heir in*erven*ion ca%e *oo la*e. c6 The choleric has a grea* deal o) sel)4con)idence. He relies *oo %$ch $(on his own ,nowledge and abili*y. He re)$ses *he hel( o) o*hers and (re)ers *o wor, alone, (ar*ly beca$se he does no* li,e *o as, )or hel(, (ar*ly beca$se he believes *ha* he is hi%sel) %ore ca(able *han o*hers and is s$re *o s$cceed wi*ho$* *he hel( o) o*hers. Hi*ler relied on his -h$nches- in his war agains* R$ssia des(i*e *he advice o) his generals, convinced *ha* he ,new be**er. He los* *he war and every*hing. I* is no* easy *o convince *he choleric *ha* he is in need o) +od-s hel( even in li**le *hings. There)ore he disli,es *o as, +od-s hel( and (re)ers *o co%ba* even s*rong *e%(*a*ions by his own s*reng*h. Beca$se o) *his sel)4con)idence in s(iri*$al li)e *he choleric o)*en )alls in*o %any and grievo$s sins. This *rai* is one o) *he %ain reasons why so %any cholerics do no* acF$ire sanc*i*y 77

in s(i*e o) grea* e))or*s. They are in)ec*ed *o a grea* eI*en* wi*h *he (ride o) $ci)er. They ac* as i) (er)ec*ion and Heaven were no* in *he )irs* (lace d$e *o grace b$* *o *heir own e))or*s. d6 The choleric des(ises his )ellow %an. To his %ind o*hers are ignoran*, wea,, $ns,illed, slow, a* leas* when co%(ared wi*h hi%sel). He shows his con*e%(* o) his neighbor by des(ising, %oc,ing, %a,ing beli**ling re%ar,s abo$* o*hers and by his (ro$d behavior *oward *hose aro$nd hi%, es(ecially *oward his s$bLec*s. A R$ssian general, as,ed wha* he wo$ld do i) his soldiers ca%e *o a %ine )ield, res(onded *ha* he wo$ld order a co%(any o) soldiers across i*. The )ac* *ha* he wo$ld sacri)ice *he lives o) *hese soldiers %ean* no*hing *o hi%. 0+eneral #isenhower6. e6 The choleric is do%ineering and inordina*ely a%bi*io$s. He wan*s *o hold *he )irs* (lace, *o be ad%ired by o*hers, *o s$bLec* o*hers *o hi%sel). He beli**les, co%ba*s, even (ersec$*es by $n)air %eans *hose who dare *o o((ose his a%bi*ion. G$li$s Caesar said *ha* he wo$ld ra*her be *he )irs* in *he s%alles* Al(ine village *han *he second in Ro%e. AleIander *he +rea*, considered one o) *he grea*es* generals o) all *i%e, was )o$nd by a )riend o) his one clear nigh* loo,ing a* *he s*ars and wee(ing. As,ed why he we(* he said" .See *hose *ho$sands o) s*ars in *he s,y *o be conF$ered, and I canno* even conF$er *his world o) o$rs.. )6 The choleric )eels dee(ly h$r* when he is h$%ilia*ed or ($* *o sha%e. #ven *he recollec*ion o) his sins )ills hi% wi*h grea* dis(leas$re beca$se *hese sins give hi% a lower o(inion o) hi%sel). In his disg$s* over his sins he %ay even de)y +od Hi%sel). 9. Anger. The choleric is vehe%en*ly eIci*ed by con*radic*ion, resis*ance, and (ersonal o))enses. This eIci*e%en* %ani)es*s i*sel) in harsh words which %ay see% very decen* and (oli*e as )ar as (hrasing is concerned, b$* h$r* *o *he core by *he *one in which *hey are s(o,en. Nobody can h$r* his )ellow %an wi*h a )ew words %ore bi**erly *han a choleric (erson. Things are %ade even worse by *he )ac* *ha* *he choleric in his angry i%(e*$osi*y %a,es )alse and eIaggera*ed re(roaches, and %ay go so )ar in his (assion, as *o %iscons*r$e *he in*en*ions and *o (erver* *he words o) *hose who irri*a*ed hi%, *h$s, bla%ing wi*h *he shar(es* o) eI(ressions, )a$l*s which in reali*y were no* co%%i**ed a* all. By s$ch inL$s*ice, which *he choleric in)lic*s in his anger $(on his neighbor he can o))end and aliena*e even his bes* )riends. The choleric %ay even ind$lge in )$rio$s o$*b$rs*s o) anger. His anger easily degenera*es in*o ha*red. +rievo$s o))enses he canno* )orge*. In his anger and (ride he (er%i*s hi%sel) *o be drawn *o ac*ions which he ,nows will be very de*ri%en*al *o hi%sel) and *o o*hers; )or ins*ance, r$in o) his heal*h, his wor,, his )or*$ne, loss o) his (osi*ion, and co%(le*e r$(*$re wi*h in*i%a*e )riends. By reason o) his (ride and anger he %ay *o*ally ignore and cas* aside *he very (lans )or *he realiEa*ion o) which he has wor,ed )or years. &. Schra% says" .The choleric (re)ers *o die ra*her *han *o h$%ble hi%sel).. 5. :ecei*, disg$ise and hy(ocrisy. As noble and %agnani%o$s as *he choleric is by na*$re, *he *endency *o (ride and sel)4will %ay lead hi% *o *he lowes* o) vices, decei* and hy(ocrisy. He (rac*ices decei*, beca$se he is in no way willing *o concede *ha* he s$cc$%bed *o a wea,ness and s$))ered a de)ea*. He $ses hy(ocrisy, dece(*ion, and even o$*righ* lies, i) he realises *ha* he canno* carry o$* his (lans by )orce. 79

/or *he *r$e Co%%$nis* every*hing *ha* will hel( his ca$se is righ* and L$s*" he %a,es and brea,s *rea*ies and (ro%ises; robbery and lies and %$rder are considered L$s*i)ied i) done )or *he &ar*y and *he Ca$se, wi*ho$* considera*ion o) *he cos* in h$%an s$))ering. 1. ac, o) sy%(a*hy. The choleric, as said above, is a %an o) reason. He has *wo heads b$* no hear*. Wars, *or*$re, concen*ra*ion ca%(s, *he dea*h o) %illions o) (eo(le %ean* no*hing *o %odern dic*a*ors li,e enin, Hi*ler, S*alin, Mao Tse T$ng, and *heir li,e. This lac, o) h$%an sen*i%en* and sy%(a*hy is, in a way, o) grea* advan*age *o hi%. He does no* )ind i* hard *o be de(rived o) sensible consola*ions in (rayer and *o re%ain a long *i%e in s(iri*$al aridi*y. #))e%ina*e, sen*i%en*al dis(osi*ions are re($gnan* *o hi%; he ha*es *he caresses and sen*i%en*ali*y which arise be*ween in*i%a*e )riends. /alse sy%(a*hy canno* in)l$ence hi% *o neglec* his d$*ies or abandon his (rinci(les. !n *he o*her hand, *his lac, o) sy%(a*hy has i*s grea* disadvan*ages. The choleric can be eI*re%ely hard, hear*less, even cr$el in regard *o *he s$))erings o) o*hers. He can cold4bloodedly *ra%(le $(on *he wel)are o) o*hers, i) he canno* o*herwise reach his goal. Choleric s$(eriors sho$ld eIa%ine *heir conscience daily, *o discover whe*her *hey have no* shown a lac, o) sy%(a*hy *oward *heir s$bLec*s, es(ecially i) *hese are sic,ly, less *alen*ed, )a*ig$ed, or elderly.

I) *he choleric develo(s his )ac$l*ies and $ses *he% )or good and noble ($r(oses, he %ay do grea* *hings )or *he honor o) +od, )or *he bene)i* o) his )ellow %en, and )or his own *e%(oral and e*ernal wel)are. He is assis*ed by his shar( in*ellec*, his en*h$sias% )or *he noble and *he grea*, *he )orce and resol$*ion o) his will, which shrin,s be)ore no di))ic$l*y, and *he ,een vivaci*y which in)l$ences all his *ho$gh*s and (lans. Sa$l, *he (ersec$*or o) *he in)an* Ch$rch, beca%e &a$l, *he grea* A(os*le who, as he hi%sel) said, did %ore *han any o*her a(os*le )or *he s(read o) Chris*iani*y. He %ade hi%sel) .all *hings *o all %en *ha* I %igh* save all.. 07. Cor. 3"99.6 He s$))ered all ,inds o) *rials and (ersec$*ion 0see 9 Cor. ch. 796 in order *o (reach Chris*, and Hi% Cr$ci)ied, and sealed his %ission by his %ar*yrdo% )or *he +os(el. Many Sain*s, %en and wo%en, have done li,ewise, dedica*ing *heir $nre%i**ing labor and in*ense s$))erings $nder severe (ersec$*ions *o *he service o) Chris*, as is (roved by *he *ho$sands and *ho$sands o) %ar*yrs o) years (as* and o) *he (resen*, o$*s*anding a%ong *he% Gose(h Cardinal MindsEen*y o) H$ngary. The choleric %ay wi*h co%(ara*ive ease beco%e a sain*. The (ersons canoniEed, wi*h )ew eIce(*ions, were choleric or %elancholic. The choleric who is able *o con*rol his *e%(era%en* is recollec*ed in (rayer, beca$se by his s*rong will he can banish dis*rac*ions and es(ecially beca$se by )orce o) his na*$re, he can wi*h grea* )acili*y concen*ra*e his a**en*ion $(on one (oin*. The la**er %ay also be *he ca$se why *he choleric so easily acF$ires *he (rayer o) si%(lici*y, or as S*. /rancis calls i*, *he (rayer o) recollec*ion. Wi*h no o*her *e%(era%en* do we )ind *he s(iri* o) con*e%(la*ion, (ro(erly so called, as o)*en as wi*h *he choleric. The well4*rained choleric is very (a*ien* and )ir% in end$rance o) (hysical (ains, willing *o %a,e sacri)ices in s$))erings, (ersevering in ac*s o) (enance and in*erior %or*i)ica*ion, %agnani%o$s and noble *oward *he indigen* and conF$ered, )$ll o) aversion agains* every*hing ignoble or v$lgar. Al*ho$gh (ride 75

(ene*ra*es *he very so$l o) *he choleric in all i*s )ibers and ra%i)ica*ions, so %$ch so *ha* he see%s *o have only one vice, i.e., (ride, which he shows in every*hing he $nder*a,es, he can, never*heless, i) he earnes*ly as(ires )or (er)ec*ion, easily bear *he grea*es* and %os* degrading h$%ilia*ions and even see, *he%. Beca$se *he choleric has no* a so)* b$* a hard hear*, he na*$rally s$))ers less )ro% *e%(*a*ion o) *he )lesh and can (rac*ice ($ri*y wi*h ease. B$*, i) *he choleric is vol$n*arily addic*ed *o *he vice o) i%($ri*y and see,s his sa*is)ac*ion *herein, *he o$*b$rs*s o) his (assion are *errible and %os* abo%inable. The choleric is very s$ccess)$l also in his (ro)essional wor,. Being o) an ac*ive *e%(era%en*, he )eels a con*in$al inclina*ion *o ac*ivi*y and occ$(a*ion. He canno* be wi*ho$* wor,, and he wor,s F$ic,ly and diligen*ly. In his en*er(rises he is (ersevering and )$ll o) co$rage in s(i*e o) obs*acles. Wi*ho$* hesi*a*ion he can be (laced a* di))ic$l* (os*s and every*hing can be en*r$s*ed *o hi%. In his s(eech *he choleric is brie) and de)ini*e; he abhors $seless re(e*i*ions. This brevi*y, (osi*iveness, )ir%ness in s(eech and a((earance gives hi% a grea* deal o) a$*hori*y es(ecially when engaged in ed$ca*ional wor,. Choleric *eachers have so%e*hing virile abo$* *he%selves and do no* allow a))airs *o ge* beyond *heir con*rol, as is o)*en *he case wi*h slow, irresol$*e, %elancholic (ersons. A choleric can ,ee( a secre* li,e a grave.

7. A choleric needs high ideals and grea* *ho$gh*s; he %$s* draw *he% )ro% *he word o) +od by %edi*a*ion, s(iri*$al reading, ser%ons, and also )ro% *he eI(erience o) his own li)e. There is no need o) a %$l*i(lici*y o) s$ch *ho$gh*s. /or *he choleric S*. Igna*i$s i* was s$))icien* *o *hin," All )or *he grea*er glory o) +od; )or *he choleric S*. /rancis Cavier" Wha* does i* (ro)i* a %an i) he gain *he whole world, b$* s$))er *he loss o) his so$lK !ne good *ho$gh* which dee(ly i%(resses *he choleric ac*s as a %irac$lo$s s*ar which leads hi%, in s(i*e o) all obs*acles, *o *he )ee* o) *he Redee%er. 9. A choleric %$s* learn day by day and re(ea*edly *o i%(lore +od )erven*ly and h$%bly )or His assis*ance. As long as he has no* learned *o beg he will no* %a,e big s*rides on *he road *o (er)ec*ion. To hi% also a((ly *he words o) Chris*" .As, and yo$ shall receive.. The choleric will %a,e s*ill grea*er (rogress i) he can h$%ble hi%sel) *o as, his )ellow %en, a* leas* his s$(eriors, or his con)essor, )or ins*r$c*ions and direc*ion. 5. The choleric %$s* above all ,ee( one s*rong resol$*ion in his %ind" I will never see, %ysel), b$* on *he con*rary I will consider %ysel)" a6 An ins*r$%en* in *he hands o) +od, which He %ay %a,e $se o) a* His (leas$re. b6 A servan* o) %y )ellow %en, who desires *o s(end hi%sel) )or o*hers. He %$s* ac* according *o *he words o) Chris*" .Whosoever will be )irs* a%ong yo$, shall be *he servan* o) all., 0Ma** 98"9B or Mar, 78"116, or as S*. &a$l says o) hi%sel)" He %$s* beco%e all *hings *o all %en, in order *o save *he%. 07 Cor. 3"996. 1. The choleric %$s* co%ba* his (ride and anger con*in$ally. &ride is *he %is)or*$ne o) *he choleric, h$%ili*y his only salva*ion. There)ore he sho$ld %a,e i* a (oin* o) his (ar*ic$lar eIa%ina*ion o) conscience )or years.


A. The choleric %$s* h$%ilia*e hi%sel) vol$n*arily in con)ession, be)ore his s$(eriors, and even be)ore o*hers. As, +od )or h$%ilia*ions and acce(* *he%, when in)lic*ed, %agnani%o$sly. /or a choleric i* is be**er *o (er%i* o*hers *o h$%ilia*e hi%, *han *o h$%ilia*e hi%sel). 2. He %$s* (rac*ice a *r$e and *r$s*ing devo*ion *o *he h$%ble and %ee, Hear* o) Ges$s.

Cholerics are ca(able o) grea* bene)i* *o *heir )a%ily, *heir s$rro$ndings, *heir (arish, or *o *he s*a*e on acco$n* o) *heir abili*y. The choleric is na*$rally *he born and never disco$raged leader and organiEer. The well4*rained choleric a(os*le inde)a*igably and wi*ho$* )ear see,s so$ls who are in danger; (ro(aga*es good li*era*$re (erseveringly, and in s(i*e o) %any )ail$res labors Loy)$lly )or *he Ca*holic (ress and socie*ies and conseF$en*ly is o) grea* service *o *he Ch$rch. !n *he o*her hand, *he choleric can, i) he does no* con*rol *he wea, side o) his *e%(era%en*, ac* as dyna%i*e in (riva*e and ($blic and ca$se grea* dis*$rbance. /or *his reason i* is necessary *o (ay s(ecial a**en*ion *o *he *raining o) *he choleric, which is di))ic$l* b$* )r$i*)$l. 7. The choleric sho$ld be well ins*r$c*ed so *ha* he can a((ly his good *alen*s *o *he bes* advan*age. !*herwise he will in *he co$rse o) *i%e ($rs$e (e* ideas *o *he neglec*, o) his (ro)essional wor,, or wha* is worse, he will be very (ro$d and concei*ed, al*ho$gh in reali*y he has no* c$l*iva*ed his )ac$l*ies and is no*, in )ac*, *horo$gh. Cholerics who are less *alen*ed or no* s$))icien*ly ed$ca*ed can %a,e very %any %is*a,es, once *hey are inde(enden* or have (ower *o co%%and as s$(eriors. They are li,ely *o %a,e li)e bi**er )or *hose aro$nd *he%, beca$se *hey insis* s*$bbornly $(on *he )$l)ill%en* o) *heir orders, al*ho$gh *hey %ay no* )$lly $nders*and *he a))airs in F$es*ion or %ay have al*oge*her )alse ideas abo$* *he%. S$ch cholerics o)*en ac* according *o *he ill4)a%ed %o**o" Sic volo, sic L$beo; s*a* (ro ra*ione vol$n*as" Th$s I wan* i*, *h$s I co%%and i*; %y will is s$))icien* reason. 9. The choleric %$s* be in)l$enced *o acce(* vol$n*arily and gladly wha* is done )or *he h$%ilia*ion o) his (ride and *he soo*hing o) his anger. By hard, (ro$d *rea*%en* *he choleric is no* i%(roved, b$* e%bi**ered and hardened, whereas even a very (ro$d choleric can easily be in)l$enced *o good by reasonable s$gges*ions and s$(erna*$ral %o*ives. In *he *raining o) cholerics *he *eacher sho$ld never allow hi%sel) *o be carried away by anger nor sho$ld he ever give eI(ression *o *he de*er%ina*ion *o -brea,- *he obs*inacy o) *he choleric (erson. I* is absol$*ely necessary *o re%ain cal% and *o allow *he choleric *o -cool o))- and *hen *o (ers$ade hi% *o acce(* g$idance in order *o correc* his )a$l*s and bring o$* *he good in hi%. In *he *raining o) *he choleric child one %$s* (lace high ideas be)ore hi%; a((eal *o his good will, his sense o) honor, his abhorrence o) *he v$lgar, his *e%(oral and e*ernal wel)are; in)l$ence hi% vol$n*arily *o correc* his )a$l*s and develo( his good F$ali*ies. :o no* e%bi**er hi% by h$%ilia*ing (enances, b$* *ry *o show hi% *he necessi*y and L$s*ice o) *he ($nish%en* in)lic*ed; ye* be )ir% in wha* yo$ %$s* de%and.


The sang$ine (erson is F$ic,ly aro$sed and vehe%en*ly eIci*ed by wha*ever in)l$ences hi%. The reac*ion )ollows i%%edia*ely, b$* *he i%(ression las*s b$* a shor* *i%e. ConseF$en*ly *he re%e%brance o) *he i%(ression does no* easily ca$se new eIci*e%en*.

7. S$(er)iciali*y. The sang$ine (erson does no* (ene*ra*e *he de(*h, *he essence o) *hings; he does no* e%brace *he whole, b$* is sa*is)ied wi*h *he s$(er)icial and wi*h a (ar* o) *he whole. Be)ore he has %as*ered one s$bLec*, his in*eres* relaIes beca$se new i%(ressions have already ca(*$red his a**en*ion. He loves ligh* wor, which a**rac*s a**en*ion, where *here is no need o) dee( *ho$gh*, or grea* e))or*. To be s$re, i* is hard *o convince a sang$ine (erson *ha* he is s$(er)icial; on *he con*rary, he i%agines *ha* he has gras(ed *he s$bLec* wholly and (er)ec*ly. 9. Ins*abili*y. Beca$se *he i%(ressions %ade $(on a sang$ine (erson do no* las*, *hey are easily )ollowed by o*hers. The conseF$ence is a grea* ins*abili*y which %$s* be *a,en in*o acco$n* by anyone who deals wi*h s$ch (ersons, i) he does no* wish *o be disa((oin*ed. S* &e*er ass$red o$r ord *ha* he was ready *o go wi*h Hi%, even die )or Hi%, only *o deny a )ew ho$rs la*er *ha* he did no* ,now .*his %an.. The crowds hailed o$r ord wi*h *heir Hosannas on &al% S$nday b$* cried" Cr$ci)y Hi%H a )ew days la*er. The sang$ine is always changing in his %oods; he can F$ic,ly (ass )ro% *ears *o la$gh*er and vice versa; he is )ic,le in his views; *oday he %ay de)end wha* he vehe%en*ly o((osed a wee, ago; he is $ns*able in his resol$*ions. I) a new (oin* o) view (resen*s i*sel) he %ay readily $(se* *he (lans which he has %ade (revio$sly. This inconsis*ency o)*en ca$ses (eo(le *o *hin, *ha* *he sang$ine (erson has no charac*er; *ha* he is no* g$ided by (rinci(les. The sang$ine na*$rally denies s$ch charges, beca$se he always )inds a reason )or his changes. He )orge*s *ha* i* is necessary *o consider every*hing well and *o loo, in*o and inves*iga*e every*hing care)$lly be)orehand, in order no* *o be ca(*iva*ed by every new idea or %ood. He is also inconsis*en* a* his wor, or en*er*ain%en*; he loves varie*y in every*hing; he rese%bles a bee which )lies )ro% )lower *o )lower; or *he child who soon *ires o) *he new *oy. 5. Tendency *o *he eI*ernal. The sang$ine does no* li,e *o en*er in*o hi%sel), b$* direc*s his a**en*ion *o *he eI*ernal. In *his res(ec* he is *he very o((osi*e o) *he %elancholic (erson who is given *o in*ros(ec*ion, who (re)ers *o be absorbed by dee( *ho$gh*s and %ore or less ignores *he eI*ernal. This leaning *o *he eI*ernal is shown in *he ,een in*eres* which *he sang$ine (ays *o his own a((earance, as well as *o *ha* o) o*hers; *o a bea$*i)$l )ace, *o )ine and %odern clo*hes, and *o good %anners. In *he sang$ine *he )ive senses are es(ecially ac*ive, while *he choleric $ses ra*her his reason and will and *he %elancholic his )eelings. The sang$ine sees every*hing, hears 72

every*hing, *al,s abo$* every*hing. He is no*ed )or his )acili*y and vivaci*y o) s(eech, his ineIha$s*ible varie*y o) *o(ics and )low o) words which o)*en %a,e hi% disagreeable *o o*hers. The sang$ine (erson in conseF$ence o) his vivaci*y has an eye )or de*ails, an advan*ageo$s dis(osi*ion which is %ore or less lac,ing in choleric and %elancholic (ersons. 1. !(*i%is%. The sang$ine loo,s a* every*hing )ro% *he brigh* side. He is o(*i%is*ic, overloo,s di))ic$l*ies, and is always s$re o) s$ccess. I) he )ails, he does no* worry abo$* i* *oo long b$* consoles hi%sel) easily. His vivaci*y eI(lains his inclina*ion *o (o,e )$n a* o*hers, *o *ease *he% and *o (lay *ric,s on *he%. He *a,es i* )or gran*ed. *ha* o*hers are willing *o *a,e s$ch *hings in good h$%or and he is very %$ch s$r(rised i) *hey are veIed on acco$n* o) his %oc,ery or i%(ro(er Lo,es. A. Absence o) dee( (assions. The (assions o) *he sang$ine are F$ic,ly eIci*ed, b$* *hey do no* %a,e a dee( and las*ing i%(ression; *hey %ay be co%(ared *o a s*raw )ire which )lares $( s$ddenly, b$* L$s* as F$ic,ly dies down, while *he (assions o) a choleric are *o be co%(ared *o a raging, all4devo$ring con)lagra*ion. This lac, o) dee( (assions is o) grea* advan*age *o *he sang$ine in s(iri*$al li)e, inso)ar as he is $s$ally s(ared grea* in*erior *rials and can serve +od as a r$le wi*h co%(ara*ive Loy and ease. He see%s *o re%ain )ree o) *he violen* (assions o) *he choleric and *he ($sillani%i*y and anIie*y o) *he %elancholic.

7. >ani*y and sel)4co%(lacency. The (ride o) *he sang$ine (erson does no* %ani)es* i*sel) as inordina*e a%bi*ion or obs*inacy, as i* does in *he choleric, nor as )ear o) h$%ilia*ion, as in *he %elancholic, b$* as a s*rong inclina*ion *o vani*y and sel)4co%(lacency. The sang$ine (erson )inds a well4nigh childish Loy and sa*is)ac*ion in his o$*ward a((earance, in his clo*hes and wor,. He loves *o behold hi%sel) in *he %irror. He )eels ha((y when (raised and is *here)ore very s$sce(*ible *o )la**ery. By (raise and )la**ery a sang$ine (erson can easily be sed$ced *o (er)or% *he %os* i%(r$den* ac*s and even sha%e)$l sins. 9. Inclina*ion *o )lir*a*ion, Lealo$sy and envy. The sang$ine (erson is inclined *o inordina*e in*i%acy and )lir*a*ion, beca$se he lac,s dee( s(iri*$ali*y and leans *o *he eI*ernal and is willing *o acce(* )la**eries. However, his love is no* dee( and changes easily. An o*herwise well4*rained sang$ine wo$ld be con*en* wi*h s$(er)icial )a%iliari*ies as *o,ens o) a))ec*ion, b$* in conseF$ence o) his levi*y and readiness *o yield, as well as on acco$n* o) his o(*i%is*ic belie) *ha* sin %ay have no evil conseF$ences, he can be easily led *o *he %os* grievo$s aberra*ions. A bad wo%an wi*h a sang$ine *e%(era%en* yields hersel) *o sin wi*ho$* res*rain* and s*i)les *he voice o) conscience easily. >ani*y and *endency *o love4a))airs lead *he sang$ine (erson *o Lealo$sy, envy, and *o all *he (e**y, %ean, and de*es*able )a$l*s agains* chari*y, which are $s$ally *he conseF$ence o) envy. Beca$se he is easily in)l$enced by eI*erior i%(ressions or )eelings o) sy%(a*hy or an*i(a*hy, i* is hard )or *he sang$ine (erson *o be i%(ar*ial and L$s*. S$(eriors o) *his *e%(era%en* o)*en have )avori*es who% *hey (re)er *o o*hers. The sang$ine is grea*ly inclined *o )la**er *hose who% he loves. 5. Cheer)$lness and inordina*e love o) (leas$re. The sang$ine (erson does no* li,e *o be alone; he loves co%(any and a%$se%en*; he wan*s *o enLoy li)e. In his a%$se%en*s s$ch a (erson can be very )rivolo$s. 7B

1. :read o) vir*$es which reF$ire s*ren$o$s e))or*s. #very*hing which reF$ires *he denial o) *he gra*i)ica*ion o) *he senses is very hard on *he sang$ine; )or ins*ance, *o g$ard *he eyes, *he ears, *he *ong$e, *o ,ee( silence. He does no* li,e *o %or*i)y hi%sel) by denying hi%sel) so%e )avori*e )ood. He is a)raid o) cor(oral ac*s o) (enance; only *he eIce(*ionally vir*$o$s sang$ine s$cceeds in (er)or%ing wor,s o) (enance )or %any years )or sins co%%i**ed in earlier yo$*h. The ordinary sang$ine (erson is inclined *o *hin, *ha* wi*h absol$*ion in *he sacra%en* o) (enance all sins are blo**ed o$* and *ha* con*in$ed sorrow )or *he% is $nnecessary and even inL$rio$s. A. !*her disadvan*ages o) *he sang$ine *e%(era%en*" a6 The decisions o) *he sang$ine (erson are li,ely *o be wrong, beca$se his inF$iry in*o *hings is only s$(er)icial and (ar*ial; also beca$se he does no* see di))ic$l*ies; and )inally beca$se, *hro$gh )eelings o) sy%(a*hy or an*i(a*hy he is inclined *o (ar*iali*y. b6 The $nder*a,ings o) *he sang$ine )ail easily beca$se he always *a,es s$ccess )or gran*ed, as a %a**er o) co$rse, and *here)ore does no* give s$))icien* a**en*ion *o (ossible obs*acles, beca$se he lac,s (erseverance, and his in*eres* in *hings )ades F$ic,ly. c6 The sang$ine is $ns*able in *he ($rs$i* o) *he good. He (er%i*s o*hers *o lead hi% and is *here)ore easily led as*ray, i) he )alls in*o *he hands o) $nscr$($lo$s (ersons. His en*h$sias% is F$ic,ly aro$sed )or *he good, b$* i* also vanishes F$ic,ly. Wi*h &e*er he readily L$%(s o$* o) *he boa* in order *o wal, on *he wa*er, b$* i%%edia*ely he is a)raid *ha* he %ay drown. He has*ily draws *he sword wi*h &e*er *o de)end Ges$s, b$* *a,es *o )ligh* a )ew %in$*es la*er. Wi*h &e*er he de)ies *he ene%ies o) Ges$s, only *o deny Hi% in a shor* *i%e. d6 Sel)4,nowledge o) *he sang$ine (erson is de)icien* beca$se he always ca*ers *o *he eI*ernal and is loa*h *o en*er in*o hi%sel), and *o give dee(er *ho$gh* *o his own ac*ions. e6 The li)e o) (rayer o) *he sang$ine s$))ers )ro% *hree obs*acles" He )inds grea* di))ic$l*y in *he so called in*erior (rayer )or which a F$ie*, (rolonged re)lec*ion is necessary; li,ewise in %edi*a*ion, s(iri*$al reading, and eIa%ina*ion o) conscience. He is easily dis*rac*ed on acco$n* o) his ever ac*ive senses and his $ncon*rolled i%agina*ion and is *hereby (reven*ed )ro% a**aining a dee( and las*ing recollec*ion in +od. A* (rayer a sang$ine lays *oo %$ch s*ress $(on e%o*ion and sensible consola*ion, and in conseF$ence beco%es easily disg$s*ed d$ring s(iri*$al aridi*y.

7. The sang$ine (erson has %any F$ali*ies on acco$n* o) which he )ares well wi*h his )ellow %en and endears hi%sel) *o *he%. a6 The sang$ine is an eI*rover*; he readily %a,es acF$ain*ance wi*h o*her (eo(le, is very co%%$nica*ive, loF$acio$s, and associa*es easily wi*h s*rangers. b6 He is )riendly in s(eech and behavior and can (leasan*ly en*er*ain his )ellow %en by his in*eres*ing narra*ives and wi**icis%s. c6 He is very (leasan* and willing *o oblige. He dis(enses his ac*s o) ,indness no* so coldly as a choleric, no* so war%ly and *o$chingly as *he %elancholic, b$* a* leas* in s$ch a Lovial and (leasan* way *ha* *hey are gracio$sly received. 7;

d6 He is co%(assiona*e whenever a %isha( be)alls his neighbor and is always ready *o cheer hi% by a )riendly re%ar,. e6 He has a re%ar,able )ac$l*y o) drawing *he a**en*ion o) his )ellow %en *o *heir )a$l*s wi*ho$* ca$sing i%%edia*e and grea* dis(leas$re. He does no* )ind i* hard *o correc* o*hers. I) i* is necessary *o in)or% so%eone o) bad news, i* is well *o assign a (erson o) sang$ine *e%(era%en* )or *his *as,. )6 A sang$ine is F$ic,ly eIci*ed by an o))ence and %ay show his anger violen*ly and a* *i%es i%(r$den*ly, b$* as soon as he has given ven* *o his wra*h, he is again (leasan* and bears no gr$dge. 9. The sang$ine (erson has %any F$ali*ies by which he wins *he a))ec*ion o) his s$(eriors. a6 He is (liable and docile. The vir*$e o) obedience, which is generally considered as di))ic$l*, is easy )or hi%. b6 He is candid and can easily %a,e ,nown *o his s$(eriors his di))ic$l*ies, *he s*a*e o) his s(iri*$al li)e, and even disgrace)$l sins. c6 When ($nished he hardly ever shows resen*%en*; he is no* de)ian* and obs*ina*e. I* is easy )or a s$(erior *o deal wi*h sang$ine s$bLec*s, b$* le* hi% be on his g$ardH Sang$ine s$bLec*s are (rone *o )la**er *he s$(erior and show a servile a**i*$de; *h$s F$i*e $nin*en*ionally endangering *he (eace o) a co%%$ni*y. Choleric and es(ecially %elancholic (ersons do no* reveal *he%selves so easily, beca$se o) *heir grea*er reserve, and sho$ld no* be scolded or sligh*ed or neglec*ed by *he s$(eriors. 5. The sang$ine is no* obd$ra*e in evil. He is no* s*able in doing good *hings, nei*her is he consis*en* in doing evil. Nobody is so easily sed$ced, b$* on *he o*her hand, nobody is so easily conver*ed as *he sang$ine. 1. The sang$ine does no* long over $n(leasan* ha((enings. Many *hings which ca$se a %elancholic (erson a grea*, deal o) anIie*y and *ro$ble do no* a))ec* *he sang$ine in *he leas*, beca$se he is an o(*i%is* and as s$ch overloo,s di))ic$l*ies and (re)ers *o loo, a* a))airs )ro% *he s$nny side. #ven i) *he sang$ine is occasionally eIas(era*ed and sad, he soon )inds his balance again. His sadness does no* las* long, b$* gives way F$ic,ly *o ha((iness. This s$nny F$ali*y o) *he well *rained sang$ine (erson hel(s hi% *o )ind co%%$ni*y li)e, )or ins*ance, in ins*i*$*ions, se%inaries, conven*s %$ch easier, and *o overco%e *he di))ic$l*ies o) s$ch li)e %ore readily *han do choleric or %elancholic (ersons. Sang$ine (ersons can ge* along well even wi*h (ersons generally di))ic$l* *o wor, wi*h.

7. A sang$ine (erson %$s* give hi%sel) *o re)lec*ion on s(iri*$al $s well as *e%(oral a))airs. I* is es(ecially necessary )or hi% *o c$l*iva*e *hose eIercises o) (rayer in which %edi*a*ion (revails; )or ins*ance, %orning %edi*a*ion, s(iri*$al reading, general and (ar*ic$lar eIa%ina*ion o) conscience, %edi*a*ion on *he %ys*eries o) *he rosary, and *he (resence o) +od. S$(er)iciali*y is *he %is)or*$ne, re)lec*ion *he salva*ion o) *he sang$ine.


In regard *o *e%(oral a))airs *he sang$ine (erson %$s* con*in$ally bear in %ind *ha* he canno* do *oo %$ch *hin,ing abo$* *he%" he %$s* consider every (oin*; an*ici(a*e all (ossible di))ic$l*ies; he %$s* no* be overcon)iden*, over o(*i%is*ic. 9. He %$s* daily (rac*ice %or*i)ica*ion o) *he senses, *he eyes, ears, *ong$e, *he sense o) *o$ch, and g$ard *he (ala*e agains* overind$lging in eIF$isi*e )oods and drin,s. 5. He %$s* absol$*ely see *o i* *ha* he be in)l$enced by *he good and no* by *he bad; *ha* he acce(* co$nsel and direc*ion. A (rac*ical aid agains* dis*rac*ion is a s*ric*ly reg$la*ed li)e, and in a co%%$ni*y *he )ai*h)$l observance o) *he R$les. 1. &rolonged s(iri*$al aridi*y is a very sal$*ary *rial )or hi%, beca$se his $nheal*hy sen*i%en*ali*y is *hereby c$red or ($ri)ied. A. He %$s* c$l*iva*e his good *rai*s, as chari*y, obedience, candor, cheer)$lness, and sanc*i)y *hese na*$ral good F$ali*ies by s$(erna*$ral %o*ives. He %$s* con*in$ally s*r$ggle agains* *hose )a$l*s *o which he is so %$ch inclined by his na*$ral dis(osi*ion, s$ch as, vani*y and sel)4 co%(lacency; love o) (ar*ic$lar )riendshi(s; sen*i%en*ali*y; sens$ali*y; Lealo$sy; levi*y; s$(er)iciali*y; ins*abili*y.

The ed$ca*ion o) *he sang$ine (erson is co%(ara*ively easy. He %$s* be loo,ed a)*er; he %$s* be *old *ha* he is no* allowed *o leave his wor, $n)inished. His asser*ions, resol$*ions, and (ro%ises %$s* no* be *a,en *oo serio$sly; he %$s* con*in$ally be chec,ed as *o whe*her he has really eIec$*ed his wor, care)$lly. /la**eries %$s* no* be acce(*ed )ro% hi% and es(ecially cons*an* g$ard %$s* be ,e(* les* any (re)erence be shown hi% on acco$n* o) his a))able dis(osi*ion. I* %$s* be re%e%bered *ha* *he sang$ine (erson will no* ,ee( *o hi%sel) wha* he is *old or wha* he no*ices abo$* anyone. I* is advisable *o *hin, *wice be)ore *a,ing a sang$ine (erson in*o con)idence. In *he ed$ca*ion o) a sang$ine child *he )ollowing (oin*s sho$ld be observed" 7. The child %$s* be consis*en*ly *a$gh* *o (rac*ice sel)4denial es(ecially by s$bd$ing *he senses. &erseverance a* wor, and observance o) order %$s* be con*in$ally insis*ed $(on. 9. The child %$s* be ,e(* $nder s*ric* s$(ervision and g$idance; he %$s* be care)$lly g$arded agains* bad co%(any, beca$se he can so easily be sed$ced. 5. eave *o hi% his cheer)$lness and le* hi% have his )$n, only g$ard hi% agains* overdoing i*.


The %elancholic (erson is b$* )eebly eIci*ed by wha*ever ac*s $(on hi%. The reac*ion is wea,, b$* *his )eeble i%(ression re%ains )or a long *i%e and by s$bseF$en* si%ilar i%(ressions grows s*ronger and a* las* eIci*es *he %ind so vehe%en*ly *ha* i* is di))ic$l* *o eradica*e i*. S$ch i%(ression %ay be co%(ared *o a (os*, which by re(ea*ed s*ro,es is driven dee(er and dee(er in*o *he gro$nd, so *ha* a* las* i* is hardly (ossible *o ($ll i* o$* again. This (ro(ensi*y o) *he %elancholic needs s(ecial a**en*ion. I* serves as a ,ey *o solve *he %any riddles in his behavior.

7. Inclina*ion *o re)lec*ion. The *hin,ing o) *he %elancholic easily *$rns in*o re)lec*ion. The *ho$gh*s o) *he %elancholic are )ar reaching. He dwells wi*h (leas$re $(on *he (as* and is (reocc$(ied by occ$rrences o) *he long ago; he is (ene*ra*ing; is no* sa*is)ied wi*h *he s$(er)icial, searches )or *he ca$se and correla*ion o) *hings; see,s *he laws which a))ec* h$%an li)e, *he (rinci(les according *o which %an sho$ld ac*. His *ho$gh*s are o) a wide range; he loo,s ahead in*o *he )$*$re; ascends *o *he e*ernal. The %elancholic is o) an eI*re%ely so)*4hear*ed dis(osi*ion. His very *ho$gh*s aro$se his own sy%(a*hy and are acco%(anied by a %ys*erio$s longing. !)*en *hey s*ir hi% $( (ro)o$ndly, (ar*ic$larly religio$s re)lec*ions or (lans which he cherishes; ye* he hardly (er%i*s his )ierce eIci*e%en* *o be no*iced o$*wardly. The $n*rained %elancholic is easily given *o brooding and *o day4drea%ing. 9. ove o) re*ire%en*. The %elancholic does no* )eel a* ho%e a%ong a crowd )or any leng*h o) *i%e; he loves silence and soli*$de. Being inclined *o in*ros(ec*ion he secl$des hi%sel) )ro% *he crowds, )orge*s his environ%en*, and %a,es (oor $se o) his senses J eyes, ears, e*c. In co%(any he is o)*en dis*rac*ed, beca$se he is absorbed by his own *ho$gh*s. By reason o) his lac, o) observa*ion and his drea%ing *he %elancholic (erson has %any a %isha( in his daily li)e and a* his wor,. 5. Serio$s conce(*ion o) li)e. The %elancholic loo,s a* li)e always )ro% *he serio$s side. A* *he core o) his hear* *here is always a cer*ain sadness, -a wee(ing o) *he hear*,- no* beca$se *he %elancholic is sic, or %orbid, as %any clai%, b$* beca$se he is (er%ea*ed wi*h a s*rong longing )or an $l*i%a*e good 0+od6 and e*erni*y, and )eels con*in$ally ha%(ered by ear*hly and *e%(oral a))airs and i%(eded in his cravings. The %elancholic is a s*ranger here below and )eels ho%esic, )or +od and e*erni*y. 1. Inclina*ion *o (assivi*y. The %elancholic is a (assive *e%(era%en*. The (erson (ossessing s$ch a *e%(era%en*, *here)ore, has no* *he vivacio$s, F$ic,, (rogressive, ac*ive (ro(ensi*y, o) *he choleric or sang$ine, b$* is slow, (ensive, re)lec*ive. I* is di))ic$l* *o %ove hi% *o F$ic, ac*ion, since he has a %ar,ed inclina*ion *o (assivi*y and inac*ivi*y. This (ensive (ro(ensi*y o) *he 97

%elancholic acco$n*s )or his )ear o) s$))ering and di))ic$l*ies as well as )or his dread o) in*erior eIer*ion and sel)4denial.

7. He is reserved. He )inds i* di))ic$l* *o )or% new acF$ain*ances and s(ea,s li**le a%ong s*rangers. He reveals his in%os* *ho$gh*s rel$c*an*ly and only *o *hose who% he *r$s*s. He does no* easily )ind *he righ* word *o eI(ress and describe his sen*i%en*s. He yearns o)*en *o eI(ress hi%sel), beca$se i* a))ords hi% real relie), *o con)ide *he sad, de(ressing *ho$gh*s which b$rden his hear* *o a (erson who sy%(a*hiEes wi*h hi%. !n *he o*her hand, i* reF$ires grea* eIer*ion on his (ar* *o %ani)es* hi%sel), and, when he does so, he goes abo$* i* so aw,wardly *ha* he does no* )eel sa*is)ied and )inds no res*. S$ch eI(eriences *end *o %a,e *he %elancholic %ore reserved. A *eacher o) %elancholic ($(ils, *here)ore, %$s* he aware o) *hese (ec$liari*ies and %$s* *a,e *he% in*o considera*ion; o*herwise he will do a grea* deal o) har% *o his charges. Con)ession is a grea* b$rden *o *he %elancholic, while i* is co%(ara*ively easy *o *he sang$ine. The %elancholic wan*s *o %ani)es* hi%sel), b$* canno*; *he choleric can eI(ress hi%sel) easily, b$* does no* wan* *o. 9. The %elancholic is irresol$*e. !n acco$n* o) *oo %any considera*ions and *oo %$ch )ear o) di))ic$l*ies and o) *he (ossibili*y *ha* his (lans or wor,s %ay )ail, *he %elancholic can hardly reach a decision. He is inclined *o de)er his decision. Wha* he co$ld do *oday he (os*(ones )or *o%orrow, *he day a)*er *o%orrow, or even )or *he neI* wee,. Then he )orge*s abo$* i* and *h$s i* ha((ens *ha* wha* he co$ld have done in an ho$r *a,es wee,s and %on*hs. He is never )inished. /or %any a. %elancholic (erson i* %ay *a,e a long *i%e *o decide abo$* his voca*ion *o *he religio$s li)e. The %elancholic is a %an o) %issed o((or*$ni*ies. While he sees *ha* o*hers have crossed *he cree, long ago, he s*ill delibera*es whe*her he *oo sho$ld and can L$%( over i*. Beca$se *he %elancholic discovers %any ways by his re)lec*ion and has di))ic$l*ies in deciding which one *o *a,e, he easily gives way *o o*hers, and does no* s*$bbornly insis* on his own o(inion. 5. The %elancholic is des(onden* and wi*ho$* co$rage. He is ($sillani%o$s and *i%id i) he is called $(on *o begin a new wor,, *o eIec$*e a disagreeable *as,, *o ven*$re on a new $nder*a,ing. He has a s*rong will co$(led wi*h *alen* and (ower, b$* no co$rage. I* has beco%e (roverbial *here)ore" .Throw *he %elancholic in*o *he wa*er and he will learn *o swi%.. I) di))ic$l*ies in his $nder*a,ings are enco$n*ered by *he %elancholic, even i) *hey are only very insigni)ican*, he )eels disco$raged and is *e%(*ed *o give $( *he shi(, ins*ead o) conF$ering *he obs*acle and re(airing *he ill s$ccess by increased e))or*. 1. The %elancholic is slow and aw,ward. a6 He is slow in his *hin,ing. He )eels i* necessary, )irs* o) all, *o consider and reconsider every*hing $n*il he can )or% a cal% and sa)e L$dg%en*. b6 He is slow in his s(eech. I) he is called $(on *o answer F$ic,ly or *o s(ea, wi*ho$* (re(ara*ion, or i) he )ears *ha* *oo %$ch de(ends on his answer, he beco%es res*less and does no* )ind *he righ* word and conseF$en*ly o)*en %a,es a )alse and $nsa*is)ac*ory re(ly. This slow *hin,ing %ay be *he reason why *he %elancholic o)*en s*$**ers, leaves his sen*ences inco%(le*e, $ses wrong (hrases, or searches )or *he righ* eI(ression. He is also slow, no* laEy, a* his wor,. He wor,s care)$lly and reliably, b$* only i) he has a%(le *i%e and is no* (ressed. He hi%sel) na*$rally does no* believe *ha* he is a slow wor,er. 99

A. The (ride o) *he %elancholic has i*s very (ec$liar side. He does no* see, honor or recogni*ion; on *he con*rary, he is loa*he *o a((ear in ($blic and *o be (raised. B$* he is very %$ch a)raid o) disgrace and h$%ilia*ion. He o)*en dis(lays grea* reserve and *hereby gives *he i%(ression o) %odes*y and h$%ili*y; in reali*y he re*ires only beca$se he is a)raid o) being ($* *o sha%e. He allows o*hers *o be (re)erred *o hi%, even i) *hey are less F$ali)ied and ca(able *han hi%sel) )or *he (ar*ic$lar wor,, (osi*ion, or o))ice, b$* a* *he sa%e *i%e he )eels sligh*ed beca$se he is being ignored and his *alen*s are no* a((recia*ed. The %elancholic (erson, i) he really wishes *o beco%e (er)ec*, %$s* (ay very close a**en*ion *o *hese )eelings o) resen*%en* and eIcessive sensi*iveness in *he )ace o) even s%all h$%ilia*ions. /ro% wha* has been said so )ar, i* is eviden* *ha* i* is di))ic$l* *o deal wi*h %elancholic (ersons. Beca$se o) *heir (ec$liari*ies *hey are )reF$en*ly %isL$dged and *rea*ed wrongly. The %elancholic )eels ,eenly and *here)ore re*ires and secl$des hi%sel). Also, *he %elancholic has )ew )riends, beca$se )ew $nders*and hi% and beca$se he *a,es )ew in*o his con)idence.

7. The %elancholic (rac*ices wi*h ease and Loy in*erior (rayer. His serio$s view o) li)e, his love o) soli*$de, and his inclina*ion *o re)lec*ion are a grea* hel( *o hi% in acF$iring *he in*erior li)e o) (rayer. He has, as i* were, a na*$ral inclina*ion *o (ie*y. Medi*a*ing on *he (erishable *hings o) *his world he *hin,s o) *he e*ernal; soLo$rning on ear*h he is a**rac*ed *o Heaven. Many sain*s were o) a %elancholic *e%(era%en*. This *e%(era%en* ca$ses di))ic$l*ies a* (rayer, since *he %elancholic (erson easily loses co$rage in *rials and s$))erings and conseF$en*ly lac,s con)idence in +od, in his (rayers, and can be very %$ch dis*rac*ed by ($sillani%o$s and sad *ho$gh*s. 9. In co%%$nica*ion wi*h +od *he %elancholic )inds a dee( and indescribable (eace. He, be**er *han anyone else, $nders*ands *he words o) S*. A$g$s*ine" .Thee, ! ord, have crea*ed $s )or yo$rsel), and o$r hear* )inds no res*, $n*il i* res*s in Thee.. His hear*, so ca(able o) s*rong a))ec*ions and lo)*y sen*i%en*s, )inds (er)ec* (eace in co%%$nion wi*h +od. This (eace o) hear* he also )eels in his s$))erings, i) he only (reserves his con)idence in +od and his love )or *he Cr$ci)ied. 5. The %elancholic is o)*en a grea* bene)ac*or *o his )ellow %en. He g$ides o*hers *o +od, is a good co$nselor in di))ic$l*ies, and a (r$den*, *r$s*wor*hy, and well4%eaning s$(erior. He has grea* sy%(a*hy wi*h his )ellow %en and a ,een desire *o hel( *he%. I) *he con)idence in +od s$((or*s *he %elancholic and enco$rages hi% *o ac*ion, he is willing *o %a,e grea* sacri)ices )or his neighbor and is s*rong and $nsha,able in *he ba**le )or ideals. Sch$ber*, in his &sychology, says o) *he %elancholic na*$re" .I* has been *he (revailing %en*al dis(osi*ion o) *he %os* s$bli%e (oe*s, ar*is*s, o) *he %os* (ro)o$nd *hin,ers, *he grea*es* inven*ors, legisla*ors, and es(ecially o) *hose s(iri*$al gian*s who a* *heir *i%e %ade ,nown *o *heir na*ions *he en*rance *o a higher and bliss)$l world o) *he :ivine, *o which *hey *he%selves were carried by an insa*iable longing..

7. The %elancholic by co%%i**ing sin )alls in*o *he %os* *errible dis*ress o) %ind, beca$se in *he de(*h o) his hear* he is, %ore *han *hose o) o*her *e%(era%en*s, )illed wi*h a longing desire )or +od, wi*h a ,een (erce(*ion o) *he %alice and conseF$ences o) sin. The conscio$sness o) being 95

se(ara*ed )ro% +od by %or*al sin has a cr$shing e))ec* $(on hi%. I) he )alls in*o grievo$s sin, i* is hard )or hi% *o rise again, beca$se con)ession, in which he is bo$nd *o h$%ilia*e hi%sel) dee(ly, is so hard )or hi%. He is also in grea* danger o) )alling bac, in*o sin; beca$se by his con*in$al brooding over *he sins co%%i**ed he ca$ses new *e%(*a*ions *o arise. When *e%(*ed he ind$lges in sen*i%en*al %oods, *h$s increasing *he danger and *he s*reng*h o) *e%(*a*ions. To re%ain in a s*a*e o) sin or even occasionally *o rela(se in*o sin %ay ca$se hi% a (ro)o$nd and las*ing sadness, and rob hi% grad$ally o) con)idence in +od and in hi%sel). He says *o hi%sel)" .I have no* *he s*reng*h *o rise again and +od does no* hel( %e ei*her by His grace, )or He does no* love %e b$* wan*s *o da%n %e.. This )a*al condi*ion can easily ass$%e *he (ro(or*ion o) des(air. 9. A %elancholic (erson who has no con)idence in +od and love )or *he Cross )alls in*o grea* des(ondency, inac*ivi*y, and even in*o des(air. I) he has con)idence in +od and love )or *he Cr$ci)ied, he is led *o +od and sanc*i)ied %ore F$ic,ly by s$))ering %isha(s, cal$%nia*ion, $n)air *rea*%en*, e*c. B$* i) *hese *wo vir*$es are lac,ing, his condi*ion is very dangero$s and (i*iable. I) s$))erings, al*ho$gh li**le in *he%selves, be)all hi%, *he %elancholic (erson, who has no con)idence in +od and love )or Chris*, beco%es downcas* and de(ressed, ill4h$%ored and sensi*ive. He does no* s(ea,, or he s(ea,s very li**le, is (eevish and disconsola*e and ,ee(s a(ar* )ro% his )ellow %en. Soon he loses co$rage *o con*in$e his wor,, and in*eres* even in his (ro)essional occ$(a*ion. He )eels *ha* he has no*hing b$* sorrow and grie). /inally *his dis(osi*ion %ay c$l%ina*e in ac*$al des(ondency and des(air. 5. The %elancholic who gives way *o sad %oods, )alls in*o %any )a$l*s agains* chari*y and beco%es a real b$rden *o his )ellow %en. a6 He easily loses con)idence in his )ellow %en, 0es(ecially S$(eriors, Con)essors6, beca$se o) sligh* de)ec*s which he discovers in *he%, or on acco$n* o) correc*ions in s%all %a**ers. b6 He is vehe%en*ly eIas(era*ed and (rovo,ed by disorder or inL$s*ice. The ca$se o) his eIas(era*ion is o)*en L$s*i)iable, b$* rarely *o *he degree )el*. c6 He can hardly )orgive o))ences. The )irs* o))ense he ignores F$i*e easily. B$* renewed o))enses (ene*ra*e dee(ly in*o *he so$l and can hardly be )orgo**en. S*rong aversion easily *a,es roo* in his hear* agains* (ersons )ro% who% he has s$))ered, or in who% he )inds *his or *ha* )a$l*. This aversion beco%es so s*rong *ha* he can hardly see *hese (ersons wi*ho$* new eIci*e%en*, *ha* he does no* wan* *o s(ea, *o *he% and is eIas(era*ed by *he very *ho$gh* o) *he%. =s$ally *his aversion is abandoned only a)*er *he %elancholic is se(ara*ed )ro% (ersons who inc$rred his dis(leas$re and a* *i%es only a)*er %on*hs or even years. d6 He is very s$s(icio$s. He rarely *r$s*s (eo(le and is always a)raid *ha* o*hers have a gr$dge agains* hi%. Th$s he o)*en and wi*ho$* ca$se en*er*ains $nchari*able and $nL$s* s$s(icion abo$* his neighbor, conLec*$res evil in*en*ions, and )ears dangers which do no* eIis* a* all. e6 He sees every*hing )ro% *he dar, side. He is (eevish, always draws a**en*ion *o *he serio$s side o) a))airs, co%(lains reg$larly abo$* *he (erversion o) (eo(le, bad *i%es, down)all o) %orals, e*c. His %o**o is" *hings grow worse all along. !))enses, %isha(s, obs*acles he always considers %$ch worse *han *hey really are. The conseF$ence is o)*en eIcessive sadness, $n)o$nded veIa*ion abo$* o*hers, brooding )or wee,s and wee,s on acco$n* o) real or i%aginary ins$l*s. Melancholic (ersons who give way *o *his dis(osi*ion *o loo, a* every*hing *hro$gh a dar, glass, grad$ally 91

beco%e (essi%is*s, *ha* is, (ersons who always eI(ec* a bad res$l*; hy(ochondriacs, *ha* is, (ersons who co%(lain con*in$ally o) insigni)ican* ail%en*s and cons*an*ly )ear grave sic,ness; %isan*hro(es, *ha* is, (ersons who s$))er )ro% )ear and ha*red o) %en. )6 He )inds (ec$liar di))ic$l*ies in correc*ing (eo(le. As said above he is vehe%en*ly eIci*ed a* *he sligh*es* disorder or inL$s*ice and )eels obliged *o correc* s$ch disorders, b$* a* *he sa%e *i%e he has very li**le s,ill or co$rage in %a,ing correc*ions. He delibera*es long on how *o eI(ress *he correc*ion; b$* when he is abo$* *o %a,e i*, *he words )ail hi%, or he goes abo$* i* so care)$lly, so *enderly and rel$c*an*ly *ha* i* can hardly be called a correc*ion. I) *he %elancholic *ries *o %as*er his *i%idi*y, he easily )alls in*o *he o((osi*e )a$l* o) sho$*ing his correc*ion eIci*edly, angrily, in $ns$i*ed or scolding words, so *ha* again his re(roach loses i*s e))ec*. This di))ic$l*y is *he bese**ing cross o) %elancholic s$(eriors. They are $nable *o disc$ss *hings wi*h o*hers, *here)ore, *hey swallow *heir grie) and (er%i* %any disorders *o cree( in, al*ho$gh *heir conscience recogniEes *he d$*y *o in*er)ere. Melancholic ed$ca*ors, *oo, o)*en co%%i* *he )a$l* o) ,ee(ing silen* *oo long abo$* a )a$l* o) *heir charges and when a* las* *hey are )orced *o s(ea,, *hey do i* in s$ch an $n)or*$na*e and harsh %anner, *ha* *he ($(ils beco%e disco$raged and )righ*ened by s$ch ad%oni*ions, ins*ead o) being enco$raged and direc*ed.

7. The %elancholic %$s* c$l*iva*e grea* con)idence in +od and love )or s$))ering, )or his s(iri*$al and *e%(oral wel)are de(end on *hese *wo vir*$es. Con)idence in +od and love o) *he Cr$ci)ied are *he *wo (illars on which he will res* so )ir%ly, *ha* he will no* s$cc$%b *o *he %os* severe *rials arising )ro% his *e%(era%en*. The %is)or*$ne o) *he %elancholic consis*s in re)$sing *o carry his cross; his salva*ion will be )o$nd in *he vol$n*ary and Loy)$l bearing o) *ha* cross. There)ore, he sho$ld %edi*a*e o)*en on *he &rovidence o) +od, and *he goodness o) *he Heavenly /a*her, who sends s$))erings only )or o$r s(iri*$al wel)are, and he %$s* (rac*ice a )erven* devo*ion *o *he &assion o) Chris* and His Sorrow)$l Mo*her Mary. 9. He sho$ld always, es(ecially d$ring a**ac,s o) %elancholy, say *o hi%sel)" --I* is no* so bad as I i%agine. I see *hings *oo dar,ly,. or .I a% a (essi%is*.. 5. He %$s* )ro% *he very beginning resis* every )eeling o) aversion, di))idence, disco$rage%en*, or des(ondency, so *ha* *hese evil i%(ressions can *a,e no roo* in *he so$l. 1. He %$s* ,ee( hi%sel) con*in$ally occ$(ied, so *ha* he )inds no *i%e )or brooding. &ersevering wor, will %as*er all. A. He is bo$nd *o c$l*iva*e *he good side o) his *e%(era%en* and es(ecially his inclina*ion *o in*erior li)e and his sy%(a*hy )or s$))ering )ellow %en. He %$s* s*r$ggle con*in$ally agains* his wea,nesses. 2. S*. Theresa devo*es an en*ire cha(*er *o *he *rea*%en* o) %alicio$s %elancholics. She wri*es" .=(on close observa*ion yo$ will no*ice *ha* %elancholic (ersons are es(ecially inclined *o have *heir own way, *o say every*hing *ha* co%es in*o *heir %ind, *o wa*ch )or *he )a$l*s o) o*hers in order *o hide *heir own and *o )ind (eace in *ha* which is according *o *heir own li,ing.. S*. Theresa, in *his cha(*er *o$ches $(on *wo (oin*s *o which *he %elancholic (erson %$s* (ay s(ecial a**en*ion. He )reF$en*ly is %$ch eIci*ed, )$ll o) disg$s* and bi**erness, beca$se he 9A

occ$(ies hi%sel) *oo %$ch wi*h *he )a$l*s o) o*hers, and again beca$se he wo$ld li,e *o have every*hing according *o his own will and no*ion. He can ge* in*o bad h$%or and disco$rage%en* on acco$n* o) *he %os* insigni)ican* *hings. I) he )eels very downcas* he sho$ld as, hi%sel) whe*her he concerned hi%sel) *oo %$ch abo$* *he )a$l*s o) o*hers. e* o*her (eo(le have *heir own wayH !r whe*her (erha(s *hings do no* go according *o his own will. e* hi% learn *he *r$*h o) *he words o) *he I%i*a*ion 0I, 996, .Who is *here *ha* has all *hings according *o his willK Nei*her I nor yo$, nor any %an on ear*h. There is no %an in *he world wi*ho$* so%e *ro$ble or a))lic*ion be he ,ing or (o(e. Who *hen is *he bes* o))K Tr$ly he *ha* is able *o s$))er so%e*hing )or *he love o) +od..

In *he *rea*%en* o) *he %elancholic s(ecial a**en*ion %$s* be given *o *he )ollowing (oin*s" 7. I* is necessary *o have a sy%(a*he*ic $nders*anding o) *he %elancholic. In his en*ire de(or*%en* he (resen*s %any riddles *o *hose who do no* $nders*and *he (ec$liari*ies o) *he %elancholic *e%(era%en*. I* is necessary, *here)ore, *o s*$dy i* and a* *he sa%e *i%e *o )ind o$* how *his *e%(era%en* %ani)es*s i*sel) in each individ$al. Wi*ho$* *his ,nowledge grea* %is*a,es canno* be avoided. 9. I* is necessary *o gain *he con)idence o) *he %elancholic (erson. This is no* a* all easy and can be done only by giving hi% a good eIa%(le in every*hing and by %ani)es*ing an $nsel)ish and sincere love )or hi%. i,e an $n)olding b$d o(ens *o *he s$n, so *he hear* o) *he %elancholic (erson o(ens *o *he s$nshine o) ,indness and love. 5. !ne %$s* always enco$rage hi%. R$de re(roach, harsh *rea*%en*, hardness o) hear* cas* hi% down and (aralyEe his e))or*s. /riendly advice and (a*ience wi*h his slow ac*ions give hi% co$rage and vigor. He will show hi%sel) very gra*e)$l )or s$ch ,indness. 1. I* is well *o ,ee( hi% always b$sy, b$* do no* overb$rden hi% wi*h wor,. A. Beca$se %elancholics *a,e every*hing *o hear* and are very sensi*ive, *hey are in grea* danger o) wea,ening *heir nerves. I* is necessary, *here)ore, *o wa*ch nervo$s *ro$bles o) *hose en*r$s*ed *o one-s care. Melancholics who s$))er a nervo$s brea,down are in a very bad s*a*e and canno* recover very easily. 2. In *he *raining o) a %elancholic child, s(ecial care %$s* be *a,en *o be always ,ind and )riendly, *o enco$rage and ,ee( hi% b$sy. The child, %oreover, %$s* be *a$gh* always *o (rono$nce words (ro(erly, *o $se his )ive senses, and *o c$l*iva*e (ie*y. S(ecial care %$s* be observed in *he ($nish%en* o) *he %elancholic child, o*herwise obs*inacy and eIcessive reserve %ay res$l*. Necessary ($nish%en* %$s* be given wi*h (reca$*ion and grea* ,indness and *he sligh*es* a((earance o) inL$s*ice %$s* be care)$lly avoided.


The so$l or %ind o) *he (hleg%a*ic (erson is only wea,ly or no* a* all *o$ched by i%(ressions. The reac*ion is )eeble or en*irely %issing. #ven*$al i%(ressions )ade away very soon.

7. He has very li**le in*eres* in wha*ever goes on abo$* hi%. 9. He has li**le inclina*ion *o wor,, b$* (re)ers re(ose and leis$re. Wi*h hi% every*hing (roceeds and develo(s slowly.

7. The (hleg%a*ic wor,s slowly, b$* (erseveringly, i) his wor, does no* reF$ire %$ch *hin,ing. 9. He is no* easily eIas(era*ed ei*her by o))enses, or by )ail$res or s$))erings. He re%ains co%(osed, *ho$gh*)$l, delibera*e, and has a cold, sober, and (rac*ical L$dg%en*. 5. He has no in*ense (assions and does no* de%and %$ch o) li)e.

7. He is very %$ch inclined *o ease, *o ea*ing and drin,ing; is laEy and neglec*s his d$*ies. 9. He has no a%bi*ion, and does no* as(ire *o lo)*y *hings, no* even in his (ie*y.

The *raining o) (hleg%a*ic children is very di))ic$l*, beca$se eI*ernal in)l$ence has li**le e))ec* $(on *he% and in*ernal (ersonal %o*ives are lac,ing. I* is necessary *o eI(lain every*hing %os* %in$*ely *o *he%, and re(ea* i* again and again, so *ha* a* leas* so%e i%(ression %ay be %ade *o las*, and *o acc$s*o% *he% by (a*ience and chari*y *o )ollow s*ric*ly a well4(lanned r$le o) li)e. The a((lica*ion o) cor(oral ($nish%en* is less dangero$s in *he ed$ca*ion o) (hleg%a*ic children; i* is %$ch %ore bene)icial *o *he% *han *o o*her children, es(ecially *o *hose o) choleric or %elancholic *e%(era%en*.


Mos* (eo(le have a %iIed *e%(era%en*. So%e (ersons, however, have one (redo%inan* *e%(era%en*, )or ins*ance, *he choleric; b$* *he )$nda%en*al charac*eris*ics, *he ligh* and dar, sides o) *his (rinci(al *e%(era%en* are eI*en$a*ed or accen*$a*ed by *he in)l$ence o) *he o*her *e%(era%en*s. In general a (erson is ha((ier i) his *e%(era%en* is no* a ($re one. The co%bina*ion s%oo*hes *he ro$gh edges o) *he %ain *e%(era%en*. In order *o )acili*a*e *he recogni*ion o) one-s own *e%(era%en* *hese %iI*$res o) *e%(era%en*s are herewi*h %en*ioned brie)ly. 7. In *he choleric4sang$ine *e%(era%en* *he eIci*e%en* is F$ic,, and *he reac*ion also; b$* *he i%(ression is no* so las*ing as wi*h *he ($re choleric *e%(era%en*. The (ride o) *he choleric is %iIed wi*h vani*y; *he anger and obs*inacy are no* so s*rong, b$* %ore %odera*e *han in *he ($re choleric. This is a very ha((y co%bina*ion. 9. The sang$ine4choleric *e%(era%en* is si%ilar *o *he choleric4sang$ine *e%(era%en*; only *he sang$ine charac*eris*ics (revail, *he choleric ones recede *o *he bac,gro$nd. #Ici*e%en* and reac*ion are F$ic, and vehe%en* and *he i%(ression does no* )ade so F$ic,ly as wi*h *he ($re sang$ine, even *ho$gh i* does no* (ene*ra*e so )ar as wi*h *he ($re choleric. The sang$ine )ic,leness, s$(er)iciali*y, eI*roversion, and garr$li*y are %i*iga*ed by *he serio$sness and s*abili*y o) *he choleric. 5. The choleric4%elancholic and *he %elancholic4choleric *e%(era%en*s. In *his one, *wo serio$s, (assiona*e *e%(era%en*s are %iIed; *he (ride, obs*inacy, and anger o) *he choleric wi*h *he %orose, $nsocial, reserved *e%(er o) *he %elancholic. &ersons who have s$ch a %iI*$re o) *e%(era%en*s %$s* c$l*iva*e a grea* deal o) sel)4con*rol, in order *o acF$ire in*erior (eace and no* *o beco%e a b$rden *o *hose wi*h who% *hey wor, and live. 1. The %elancholic4sang$ine *e%(era%en*. In *his *he i%(ressions are )eeble, *he reac*ion is wea,, and i* does no* las* as long as wi*h *he ($re %elancholic. The sang$ine gives *o *he %elancholic so%e*hing )leIible, )riendly, cheer)$l. The %elancholic (ersons wi*h a sang$ine alloy are *hose cordial, so)*4hear*ed (eo(le who canno* bear *o h$r* anyone, are F$ic,ly *o$ched, h$* $n)or*$na*ely also )ail where energy and s*reng*h are needed. Sang$ine (ersons wi*h a %elancholic %iI*$re are si%ilar. !nly in *his case *he sang$ine s$(er)iciali*y and incons*ancy (revail. A. The %elancholic4(hleg%a*ic *e%(era%en*. &eo(le o) *his *y(e s$cceed be**er in co%%$ni*y li)e *han *he ($re %elancholic. They lac,, %ore or less, *he %orose, gloo%y, brooding (ro(ensi*y o) *he %elancholic and are ha((ily aided by *he F$ie* a(a*hy o) *he (hleg%a*ic. S$ch (eo(le do no* easily *a,e o))ense; *hey can readily bear inL$ries and are con*en*ed and s*eady laborers.


0See also *he How *o :e*er%ine !ne-s Te%(era%en* sec*ion.6

To he#p you !s$o+er your te%per(%ent. 4e $o%p#ete#y honest !n (ns-er!n' the )uest!ons. They re"er to your natural inclination r(ther th(n your present pr($t!$e& ($)u!re by e""ort (n se#" $ontro#. The nu%bers (t the en -!## '!+e the *ey to the respe$t!+e te%per(%ent. 7. Are yo$ F$ic,ly eIci*ed a* o))enses and inclined *o re*alia*e and o((ose an ins$l* i%%edia*elyK 9. :o yo$ loo, a* li)e always )ro% *he serio$s sideK 5. :o yo$ easily lose con)idence in yo$r )ellow %enK 1. Are yo$ grea*ly inclined *o )la**er *hose who% yo$ loveK A. Are yo$ won by F$ie* eI(lana*ion o) reasons and %o*ives, b$* e%bi**ered and driven *o s*rong resis*ance by harsh co%%andsK 2. :o yo$ love co%(any and a%$se%en*sK B. :oes yo$r *hin,ing easily *$rn in*o re)lec*ion which %ay s*ir yo$ $( (ro)o$ndly, ye* no* le* yo$r eIci*e%en* be no*ed o$*wardlyK ;. Are yo$ vehe%en*ly (rovo,ed by disorder or inL$s*iceK 3. :o yo$ have, and show, very li**le in*eres* in wha* goes on abo$* yo$K 78. :o yo$ )ind i* hard *o *r$s* (eo(le, and are yo$ always a)raid *ha* o*hers have a gr$dge agains* yo$K 77. :o yo$ disli,e (rolonged re)lec*ion, and are easily dis*rac*edK 79. :o yo$ $s$ally no* )eel an o))ense a* *he %o%en*, b$* )eel i* so %$ch %ore ,eenly a )ew ho$rs la*er, or even *he neI* dayK 75. Is i* very hard )or yo$ *o deny yo$rsel) so%e )avori*e )oodK 71. :o yo$ easily ge* angered by an o))ense, b$* soon are (leasan* againK 7A. Are yo$ a (erson o) en*h$sias%, i.e. are yo$ no* sa*is)ied wi*h *he ordinary, b$* as(ire a)*er grea* and lo)*y *hings, *e%(oral or s(iri*$alK 72. Are yo$ $nwilling *o ad%i* a wea,ness or a de)ea*, and conseF$en*ly *ry *o deceive o*hers, even by o$*righ* liesK 93

7B. :o yo$ love silence and soli*$de and secl$sion )ro% *he crowdsK 7;. :o yo$ easily beco%e Lealo$s, envio$s, and $nchari*ableK 73. :o yo$ )eel ha((y when in a (osi*ion *o co%%andK 98. :o yo$ s(end %$ch *i%e delibera*ing, ye* reach decisions only wi*h di))ic$l*yK 97. :o yo$ li,e *o be )la**eredK 99. :o yo$ easily co%(lain o) insigni)ican* ail%en*s, cons*an*ly )ear grave sic,nessK 95. Are yo$ very %$ch inclined *o ease, *o ea*ing and drin,ingK 91. :o yo$ )eel disco$raged by di))ic$l*ies in yo$r $nder*a,ingsK 9A. :o yo$ )ind i* di))ic$l* *o )or% new acF$ain*ances, *o s(ea, a%ong s*rangers, *o )ind *he righ* words *o eI(ress yo$r sen*i%en*sK 92. :o yo$ (ay ,een in*eres* *o yo$r a((earance and *ha* o) o*hers; *o a bea$*i)$l )ace, *o )ine and %odern clo*hesK 9B. :o yo$ (ersevere $nder grea* di))ic$l*ies $n*il yo$ reach yo$r goalK 9;. :o yo$ beco%e s$s(icio$s and re*icen* by a r$de word or $n)riendly %ienK 93. Is i* very hard *o g$ard yo$r eyes, ears, *ong$e, and ,ee( silen*K 58. Are yo$ loa*he *o a((ear in ($blic and *o be (raisedK 57. :o yo$ allow o*hers *o be (re)erred *o yo$, b$* a* *he sa%e *i%e )eel sligh*ed beca$se yo$ are being ignoredK 59. :o yo$ disli,e, even ha*e, caresses and sen*i%en*ali*yK 55. Can yo$ be hear*less, even cr$el, in regard *o *he s$))erings o) o*hers, even *ra%(le cold bloodedly $(on *he wel)are o) o*hers, i) yo$ canno* o*herwise reach yo$r goalK 51. :o yo$ have li**le inclina*ion *o wor,, (re)erring re(ose and leis$reK 5A. :o yo$ lac, (erseverance; does in*eres* in *hings )ade F$ic,lyK 52. Are yo$ inclined *o inordina*e in*i%acy and )lir*a*ionK 5B. :o yo$ lac, co$rage in correc*ing (eo(le; i* %ay show i*sel) in *hese *wo )or%s" a6 yo$ go abo$* i* so care)$lly and *enderly *ha* i* can hardly be called a correc*ion, or b6 yo$ sho$* yo$r correc*ion eIci*edly and angrilyK 5;. :o yo$ see every*hing, hear, and *al, abo$* every*hingK


53. :o yo$ love ligh* wor, which a**rac*s a**en*ion, where *here is no need o) dee( *hin,ing or grea* e))or*K 18. :o yo$ consider yo$rsel) as So%ebody; as eI*raordinary, as always righ*, and no* needing *he hel( o) o*hersK 17. :o yo$ beli**le, or by re%ar,s and $n)air %eans even (ersec$*e *hose who dare o((ose yo$K 19. Can yo$ F$ic,ly (ass )ro% *ears *o la$gh*erK and vice versaK 15. Are yo$ easily ca(*iva*ed by every new idea or %oodK 11. :o yo$ love varie*y in every*hingK 1A. :o yo$ re%ain co%(osed, *ho$gh*)$l, delibera*e, wi*h a sober and (rac*ical L$dg%en*, in *he )ace o) s$))ering, )ail$re, o))ensesK 12. :o yo$ li,e *o (o,e )$n a* o*hers, *ease *he%, (lay *ric,s, on *he%K 1B. :oes a s*rong aversion easily *a,e roo* in yo$r hear* agains* (ersons )ro% who% yo$ have s$))ered or in who% yo$ )ind )a$l*, so%e*i%es so s*rong *ha* yo$ do no* wan* *o s(ea, *o *he% or canno* s*and *he sigh* o) *he% wi*ho$* new eIci*e%en*K 1;. :o yo$ ge* vehe%en*ly eIci*ed by con*radic*ion, resis*ance, and (ersonal o))enses and do yo$ show *his eIci*e%en* in harsh words which %ay be, and so$nd li,e being (oli*e, ye* h$r* *o *he coreK 13. Which o) *hese bad dis(osi*ions are yo$rs 0chec, one or *wo6" a6 obs*inacy, anger, (rideK b6 slo*h, lac, o) energyK c6 lac, o) co$rage, dread o) s$))eringK d6 *al,a*iveness, inconsis*encyK A8. Which o) *hese good *rai*s co%e na*$ral *o yo$ 0chec, one or *wo6" a6 good na*$re, re(ose o) %indK b6 sy%(a*hy )or o*hers, love )or soli*$de and (rayerK c6 s*rong will, energy, )earlessness, a%bi*ionK d6 cheer)$lness, )acili*y *o ge* along well wi*h di))ic$l* (eo(leK '#?" So%e o) *he (receding F$es*ions re)er *o *wo or %ore *e%(era%en*s; *hey are overla((ing. The choleric *e%(era%en* is indica*ed by *he )ollowing n$%bers" 7, A, ;, 7A, 72, 73, 9B, 59, 55, 18, 17, 1B, 1;, 13a, A8c. The sang$ine *e%(era%en*" 1, 2, 77, 75, 71, 98, 97, 91, 92, 93, 51, 5A, 52, 5;, 53, 19, 15, 11, 12, 13d, A8d. The %elancholic *e%(era%en*" 9, 5, A, B, 78, 79, 75, 7B, 7;, 98, 99, 91, 9A, 9;, 58, 57, 5B, 1B, 13c, A8b. The (hleg%a*ic *e%(era%en*" 3, 95, 51, 5A, 1A, 13b, A8a. The neI* lis* will arrange *he di))eren* charac*eris*ics according *o each *e%(era%en*. I* will hel( *o ge* an even be**er ,nowledge o) one-s *e%(era%en*0s6.


S(n'u!ne Te%per(%ent
7. Is sel)4co%(osed, seldo% shows signs o) e%barrass%en*, (erha(s )orward or bold. 9. #ager *o eI(ress hi%sel) be)ore a gro$(; li,es *o be heard. 5. &re)ers gro$( ac*ivi*ies; wor, or (lay; no* easily sa*is)ied wi*h individ$al (roLec*s. 1. No* insis*en* $(on acce(*ance o) his ideas or (lans; agrees readily wi*h o*hers- wishes; co%(lian* and yielding. A. +ood in de*ails; (re)ers ac*ivi*ies reF$iring (e( and energy. 2. I%(e*$o$s and i%($lsive; his decisions are o)*en 0$s$ally6 wrong. B. 'eenly alive *o environ%en*, (hysical and social; li,es c$riosi*y. ;. Tends *o *a,e s$ccess )or gran*ed. Is a )ollower; lac,s ini*ia*ive. 3. Hear*y and cordial, even *o s*rangers; )or%s acF$ain*anceshi( easily. 78. Tends *o ela*ion o) s(iri*; no* given *o worry and anIie*y; is care)ree. 77. See,s wide and broad range o) )riendshi(s; is no* selec*ive; no* eIcl$sive in ga%es. 79. D$ic, and decisive in %ove%en*s; (rono$nced or eIcessive energy o$*($*. 75. T$rns )ro% one ac*ivi*y *o ano*her in ra(id s$ccession; li**le (erseverance. 71. Ma,es adL$s*%en*s easily; welco%es changes; %a,es *he bes* a((earance (ossible. 7A. /ran,, *al,a*ive, sociable, e%o*ions readily eI(ressed; does no* s*and on cere%ony. 72. /reF$en* )l$c*$a*ions o) %ood; *ends *o )reF$en* al*era*ions o) ela*ion and de(ression.

Cho#er!$ Te%per(%ent
7. Is sel)4co%(osed; seldo% shows e%barrass%en*, is )orward or bold. 9. #ager *o eI(ress hi%sel) be)ore a gro$( i) he has so%e ($r(ose in view. 5. Insis*en* $(on *he acce(*ance o) his ideas or (lans; arg$%en*a*ive and (ers$asive. 1. I%(e*$o$s and i%($lsive; (l$nges in*o si*$a*ions where )ore*ho$gh* wo$ld have de*erred hi%. A. Sel)4con)iden* and sel)4relian*; *ends *o *a,e s$ccess )or gran*ed. 2. S*rong ini*ia*ive; *ends *o ela*ion o) s(iri*; seldo% gloo%y or %oody; (re)ers *o lead. B. >ery sensi*ive and easily h$r*; reac*s s*rongly *o (raise or bla%e. ;. No* given *o worry or anIie*y. Secl$sive. 3. D$ic, and decisive in %ove%en*; (rono$nced or eIcessive energy o$*($*. 78. Mar,ed *endency *o (ersevere; does no* abandon so%e*hing readily regardless o) s$ccess. 77. #%o*ions no* )reely or s(on*aneo$sly eI(ressed, eIce(* anger. 79. Ma,es bes* a((earance (ossible; (erha(s concei*ed; %ay $se hy(ocrisy, decei*, disg$ise.

Me#(n$ho#!$ te%per(%ent
7. Is sel)4conscio$s, easily e%barrassed, *i%id, bash)$l. 9. Avoids *al,ing be)ore a gro$(; when obliged *o he )inds i* di))ic$l*. 5. &re)ers *o wor, and (lay alone. +ood in de*ails; care)$l. 1. :elibera*ive; slow in %a,ing decisions; (erha(s overca$*io$s even in %inor %a**ers. A. ac,ing in sel)4con)idence and ini*ia*ive; co%(lian* and yielding. 2. Tends *o de*ach%en* )ro% environ%en*; reserved and dis*an* eIce(* *o in*i%a*e )riends. B. Tends *o de(ression; )reF$en*ly %oody or gloo%y; very sensi*ive; easily h$r*. ;. :oes no* )or% acF$ain*ances readily; (re)ers narrow range o) )riends; *ends *o eIcl$de o*hers. 3. Worries over (ossible %is)or*$ne; crosses bridges be)ore co%ing *o *he%. 78. Secre*ive; secl$sive; sh$* in; no* inclined *o s(ea, $nless s(o,en *o. 77. Slow in %ove%en*; delibera*ive or (erha(s indecisive; %oods )reF$en* and cons*an*. 79. !)*en re(resen*s hi%sel) a* a disadvan*age; %odes* and $nass$%ing.

Ph#e'%(t!$ Te%per(%ent
7. :elibera*ive; slow in %a,ing decisions; (erha(s overca$*io$s in %inor %a**ers. 9. Indi))eren* *o eI*ernal a))airs. 5. Reserved and dis*an*. 1. Slow in %ove%en*. A. Mar,ed *endency *o (ersevere. 2. Cons*ancy o) %ood.


Scanned and (roo)ed by Mar, Mans)ield Mar,ed $( by Gohn ane :ece%ber ;*h, 733; /eas* o) *he I%%ac$la*e Conce(*ion


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