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Nian Zhang

Applied Computational Intelligence Lab Dent. of Electrical and Comnuter Eneineerinn University of Missouri-Rolla 1870 Miner Circle Rolla, MO 65409 USA nzhanrtiZi,umr.eQi

L

I

Donald C. Wunsch 1 1

Applied Computational Intelligence Lab Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Universitv of Missouri-Rolla 18% Miner Circle Rolla, MO 65409 USA du,unsch(Ziece.unir.edu

Absfracf- Fuzzy attributed graph (FAG) is not only widely used

2.

FUZZY ATTRIBUTED GRAPH

in the fields of image understanding and pattern recognition, hut is useful to fuzzy graph matching problem. One of the applications of fuzzy graph matching is the subcircuit extraction problem. Subcircuit extraction problem is very important for VLSl testing, layout versus schematic (LVS) check, and circuit partition, etc. In this paper, fuzzy attributed graph (FAG) is first effectively applied to the subgraph isomorphism problem. And then we provide an efficient fuzzy attributed graph algorithm based on the solution to subgraph isomorphism for the subcircuit extraction problem. Similarity measurement makes a significant contribution to both the subgraph isomorphism problem and the subcircuit extraction problem.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Attributed graph was introduced by Tsai an Fu for pattern analysis [8]. It gives a straigh..nward representation of structural patterns. The vertices of the graph represent pattem primitives describing the pattern while the arcs are the relations between these primitives. However, the pattern often possess properties that are fuzzy in nature and it has been extended to include fuzzy information into the attributes. In a fuzzy attributed graph, each vertex may take attributes from the set Z = (zi 1 i = l,2,..., I] [9]. For each fuzzy attributezi, it will take values fiom

The subcircuit extraction is a very important application in many fields of computer aided design, especially for the present advanced VLSI design. For example, as VLSl design gets larger and larger every year, semiconductor industries have to ensure that there are no hugs in the design and that the manufactured chips are defect-free. Hence, it is desirable to identify the complete or partial set of invalid states before test generation [I]. In addition, subcircuit extraction is one of the operations in the.layout vs. schematic (LVS) testing, which is a useful means of minimizing mask errors. Moreover, it is also an important application in circuit partition, and so on. Several methods have been proposed to solve the subcircuit extraction problem. Yokomizo uses logic tree representation of a circuit. It is unsuitable for BiCMOS, bipolar and analog circuits [2]. .SuhGemini uses the partitioning and relabeling algorithm to recognize the subcircuits [3]. SUBGEN employs the partitioning and genetic algorithm to identify the subcircuits [4]. Ling [5] uses circuit decomposition and partition, as well as resource management paradigm to extract subcircuits. DECIDE algorithm [6] adopts a recursive scheme to achieve identification operation. It achieves faster speed than all the previous publications. In 2002, Wunscb and Zhang employed an adaptive critic design family -- heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) algorithm named SubHDP to solve the subcircuit extraction problem [7]. When compared with the DECIDE algorithm, the SubHDP algorithm can identify the NAND gate from the main circuit much faster when the main circuit has no more than 20,000 transistors. However, when the main circuit has more than 20,000 transistors, the DECIDE algorithm is faster. In this paper, we propose a novel fuzzy attributed graph approach to implement subcircuit extraction.

**Si = (s..I j = 1,2,..:,Ji}.The set of all possible B attribute-value pairs is Lv = ( ( z i , A s , ) I i = 1,...I),where AS,is a fuzzy set
**

I

on the attribute-value set Si. A valid pattem primitive is just a subset of Lv in which each attribute appears represent the set of all those valid only once, and pattem primitives. Thus, each vertex will be represented by an element of , Similarly, each arc may take attributes from, the set

n

n.

F =

(4 1 i = I, ..., 1 ]in

from

=

1

which each' f i may take

values

Ti= ( t ...I j = l ,...,Ji}.

B

And

La = ( ( f i , B T ,) I i

1,..., I )denotes the set of all

possible relational attribute value pairs, where B, is a fuzzy set on the relational attributcvalue set Ti. A valid relation is just a subset of La in which each attribute appears only once. The set of all those valid relations is denoted as 4 . Definition 1: A Fuzzy Attributed Graph (FAG) over L=(Lv,La), with an underlying graph structure H=(N,E) is defined to be an ordered pair (V,A), where V=(N,a) is called a fuzzy vertex set and A=(E,6) is called a fuzzy arc set. The mapping a: Y + Il and 6: E + 4 are called fuzzy vertex interpreter and fuzzy arc interpreter, respectively [lo].

0-7803-7810-5/03r$17.00W O 0 3 IEEE

1063

The IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems

and terminal vertices only connect to device vertices. A 2input NAND gate serving as the subcircuit (i. and the edge between n i a n d ni in G2 can be represented by a vector of e?. device is represented as a square.J))T. FUZZY CIRCUIT GRAPH REPRESENTATION 3. and the others are named free nodes. respectively. GI. in which we will find the instances of the pattern circuit. A graph G consists of a finite nonempty set V = V (G) of p points together with a prescribed set X of q unordered pairs of distinct points of V [I I]. 2 Main Circuit As we know. a netlist is shown as the main circuit. The circuit graph is a bipartite graph. The definition of the similarity is adapted from [12]. to find all the subgraphs of T which are identified wifh S. 1 (a). The vertex in GI and G2 can be expressed as ai . Each pair x = (U.. since a crisp (non-fuzzy) set can always be represented as a special case of a fuzzy set.aL[2]. the other is a candidate subcircuit graph.e. Our goal is to verify that the netlist composed of M8.I Subgraph Isomorphism The problem of subcircuit extraction can be transformed to the subgraph isomorphism problem.This definition also applies when there are non-fuzzy attributes. a circuit graph is a graph with electric elements and nodes as graph vertices. with = Oor 1being 1064 membership that indicate The IEEE International Conferenceon F u u y Systems .ui. respectively: Any node n : and nican be represented by a vector of The edge between U: and U:.ay[2]. M10 and M11 in the main circuit is isomorphic to the pattem circuit. The subgraph isomorphism problem is defined as: Given a graph S and another larger graph T. In Fig.[s]. In Fig. G2. A subgraph of G is a graph having all of its points and lines in G. 3. nodes that are not paired but have branches directly connected to core nodes are named goal nodes. where Fig.[l]. 1 (b).e?) and e?). Assume we have a FAG pair: one is the pattem circuit graph.a. The ith vertex in G1 and G2 is denoted as n: and Vdd n i . Definition 2: In pairing two fuzzy attributed graphs. respectively. A circuit graph contains two types of vertices: device and terminal. Its corresponding circuit graph is shown in Fig. 1 (a) A CMOS circuit.[3])Tand i ai y = (ay[1]. Fig. in which device vertices only connect to terminal vertices.1 Similarity of a Fuzzy Attributed Graph Pair . i i 0 5 a. nodes that are paired are named core nodes.ay[s] S 1.3) are memberships that count how much an actual component belongs to a N-type device. 1 @). M9. v) of points in X is a line of G . = (a. while terminal is represented as a circle. i i i respectively. We apply it to our subcircuit extraction problem. It serves as the pattern circuit.. n : and n : in G1 can be represented by a vector of e?). and x is said to join U and v. And e. (U) =(F. 1 (a). Similarly. pattem circuit) is shown in Fig.2. (b) Corresponding graph representation of Fig. the subcircuit extraction problem is to determine whether one given pattem circuit bas any isomorphic subcircuits in another larger model circuit. 4. (s = 1. FUZZY ATTRIBUTED GRAPH MATCHING ALGORITH ON SUBCIRCUIT EXTRACTION PROBLEM 4. Similarity between G1 and G2 is GND calculated with all the a.ay[3])T. 2. a P-type device and a terminal.

))2 If p y and . Thus. [SI) D/LCi = (1) 3 where DAC' is a unified distance (0 5 DAC' 5 I).f. M). we should measure how much one FAG is a part of another. We partition the input circuit file into several netlists based on the characteristics of the input file [13]. Thus. A synthesis square distance caused by all nodes then can be I +Jl +J2 where I is the number of core nodes. COM = (10) max{SIM(COREX ( C N ) .2 Furry Graph Matching Algorithm on Subcircuit Extraction Problem Given two fuzzy attributed graphs GI and G2.y. which are both set to 0. In addition. And then we construct a graph for each candidate netlist by connecting devices to their three neighbors. . and L2 the number of other branches in G2. Similarly.. the corresponding square distances can be given by: 1 D. shown in (IO).1. nodes n: and n! are paired with n: and n: . The procedure to create Hash table is as follows: for a device. I.G2) = 1 . We denote the measurement as COM.edges can also be given as: where K is the number of paired branches whose both end nodes are core nodes..whether there is an edge between a device and a terminal..G2)) where CN is the number of core nodes. respectively. (5) can DECk =(by)4 ) 2 For other branches in GI and G2. it is important for us to create a Hash table because it has the following advantages: 1 .2. neighbor n 1. and G2 is the candidate subcircuit graph. such as type. and G2 has N nodes. GI is the pattem circuit graph.. the number of goal nodes and free nodes in G I ..1) = (p. If the integer array length of any netlist after the breadth-first search is the same as that of the pattem circuit. N).. L. It is necessary to help to find out how many edges there are in the core node set. The algorithm is given below: 4. . then it will be added to the candidate subcircuit list. all of its connected devices will be added to its neighbor list. It plays an indispensable role to find whether there is an edge between the core node and the element in the goal node set. x -/ x .5 in our algorithm. We can easily get -access to each vertex's information. 2.. For goal nodes and free nodes in G1 and G2. 3. a square distance between two paired branches whose both end nodes are core nodes can be given as: DA = (4) 4. To determine the subgraph isomorphism between the two fuzzy attributed graphs. COREX(CN)and COREy(CN) are two fuzzy attributed graphs consisting of only the core nodes in GI and G2. This notation provides us a fast way to determine graph matching based on the percentage of the core nodes in each graph.e. The IEEE International Conferenceon Fuzzy Systems 1065 . : ' " and e(r''r') are paired branches (i. the corresponding square distances can he defined as distances to an zero vector as follows: 3 (ai[s~)~ j s=l DAO. 2 .) m (5) Circuit Setup 1s the kth branch pair. since there is no pair node. which has a universal structure as [type Jag neighbor I .. all of its three terminals will be added to its neighbor list. If n: is a core node in G I and its pair node in G2 is n: . SIM(COREy (CN). if branches e . .wa .a square distance between the two core nodes can be given by 3 r. DEc(f. G1 has M nodes.0: = (p: 12 (7) A synthesis square distance caused by all. which is represented as n: (i=l . the number of other branches in GI.a.j) -p. respectively). for a terminal. (2) 3 It is clear that both DA and DE are unified. Assume Vdd is the start node for both graphs.ni (i=l . So a similarity measure between a FAG pair can be defmed directly with SIM(GI. all the information of a device or a terminal is stored in a vector. flag and itsneighhors. D E (9) wa + we where w. and J2 the number of goal and free nodes in G2. Value ' I ' means a complete part. D A + w . and w e are properly selected weights.GI). then DEC"")can also be represented as also be written as: DECk . which is represented as .

Count this candidate subcircuit as an instance of the pattern circuit. the total run time of the SubFuzzy algorithm is approximately a smooth linear curve versus the number of transistors. 3.. NAND gate) from the main circuit. and then break.. . 5. Exchange TB(tt) and TB(P). Thus. CompMPPnBeauem$eFluq&ibuled G d W n " and SubHOPAlgorWm. SubFuzzy. for ss = l:length(TA) for tt = P:length(TB) if s(ss) == t(tt) Add the goal node TA(ss) to the core node set.4. CNA. while that of the SubHDP is a sharp curve with the main circuit size exceeding 50. CONCLUSION From the experiments. % break the while loop break. end Find out the number of paired branches between the two graphs whose both end nodes are core nodes. P=P+l. The following pseudo code is to implement the subcircuit identification for each candidate subcircuit. In this paper.TA = [ 1. The red solid curve represents the SubHDP algorithm. as shown in Fig. end fork = l:length(TA) s(k) = 0. our SubFuzzy algorithm is faster. %break the while loop. The x-axis denotes the number of transistors in the main circuit. the SubHDP algorithm can identify the NAND gates from the main circuit faster in comparison with the SubFuzzy approach when the main circuit has no more than 15. Intel Pentium I11 processors Up to. OldCNA = 0.Set the flag attribute of Vdd to '1'. end % if end % if end % for end % for if length(CNA) -= length(CNB) Display error message and break.. % s(k) means the number of branches from all the core nodes in CNA towards TA(k). respectively. Vdd in GI and Vdd in G2 is a core node pair. However.e.2 Subcircuit Identification Apparently. we find that: first. end P = I.2. end % if end % while 4 The maximum SIM of the above process is the similarity between G I and G2. .800MHz. This condition ensures that all the nodes of both graphs are core nodes. and add the goal node TB(tt) to CNB. if length(TA) length(TB) Display error message. % a variable storing the length of the old CNA % similarity measurement 1 while SIM . 3 Run time comparison between ow fuzzy attributed graph algorithm and the SubHDP algorithm 6. we use the NAND gate as our pattern circuit. else if all the elements in TB has been explored break the dual 'for' loops. t(k) = 0.000 transistors. and the blue dashed curve represents the fuzzy attributed graph algorithm. end Find out all the goal nodes corresponding to the current core node sets. From Fig. if SIM = 1 & length (CNB) == IO % value 'IO' is the number of vertices in the pattern circuit (i.000 transistors. and 256MB memory to do the experiments. %set goal node sets to empty % if the core node set if length(CNA) == OldCNA didn't change break.o s .e. and the yaxis denotes the total run time. NAND gate). The IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems 1066 . OldCNA = length(CNA). second.000 transistors. when the main circuit has more than 15. ' Fig. we prove that the fuzzy attributed graph algorithm is an efficient approach to implement the subcircuit extraction problem. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS We use the Dell Precision Workstation 420. Calculate the similarity measurement. CNA. We compare the total run time of our fuzzy attributed graph algorithm with the SubHDP algorithm. It can successfully find out all the instances of the pattem circuit (i. break. CNA and CNB. we first put Vdd of G I into the core node set. We try to identify the 2-input NAND gate from different size of RAM circuits. Find out the number of edges from all the core nodes towards each element in the goal node set for hotb G I and G2. The corresponding core node pairs represent the optimal matching result. TB = [ 1. and put Vdd of C2 into the core node set CNB. 3.

'Vijaykrishnan and N. ~~ ~~~~~ 1067 The IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems .H Poon. C. 1996. " 9'* International Conference on VLSl Design. "A Similarity Measure of Fuzzy Attributed Graphs and its Application to Object Recognition. 1993. Frank Harary and Donald C. [I31 Nian Zhang." fEEE Transactions on Systems. . Carl Ebeling. Dallas. Wunsch 11.2002." Proceeding ofthe Second International Conference of ASIC. 570 . OAl gate. pp.. St. . REFERENCES Michael John Sebastian Smith. Nevada. vol. pp. Wen-Hsiang Tsai and King-Sun Fu. pp. vol. 1979.however. I18 .123. 9. Pattem Based Circuit Simulation. M.T. ~"A New Circuit R&&ition Method for f CICC. Man and Cybernetics.China. Yousuke. ISBN 0-201500%2-1. "Leaming Templates from Fuzzy Examples in Structural Pattem Recognition. 26. IEEE Transactions on Systems. " 2002 International Conference on VLSI. 767 . "SUBGEN: A Genetic Approach for Subcircuit Extraction. G . "An Efficient Subcircuit Algorithm by Resource Management. Mivama. Las Vegas. January 1996. and Cybernetics. Part B. lune 24 . 1998. Miles ohlrich. Louis. Yoshida. Nov. " Proceedings of ANNIE '02.Wei-Hsin Chang." Addison-Wesley. Man. it can also be NOR gate. MO. pp." Proceedings of the Fifrh IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy SysTems. 2001.Yun. . Sugeno. [I 11 Frank Harary. Ranganathan. 757-768. [12] Wei-lie Liu and M. 1996. M." Narosa Publishing :House." 2001 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. "Application-Spec$c Inteprated Circuits. "A Fuzzy-attributed Graph Approach to Handwritten Character Recognition.10 . Zong Ling and David Y. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would l i e to acknowledge supporl of NSF and the MK Finley endowment. "Error-Correcting Isomorphisms of Attributed Relational Graphs for Pattern Analysis". Yokomizo. "CMOS IC Topology Design Verification By Heuristic Dynamic Programming. issue: 1. or RAM cell etc. " Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Conference on Fuzq Systems. 2002. and K. "A Novel Subcircuit Extraction Algorithm Using Heuristic Dynamic Programming (HDP). 1997. Shuem-Der Tzeng. M. June 14 18. Texas. Australia. Nian Zhang and Ponald C.Y.1993 N. Nakajo. Wunsch 11.21." 3Uh ACMIEEE Design Automation Conference. 1996." Proceeding o May 1990.575. 2.13. . [lo] Kwok-Ping Chan. " A Novel Extraction Algorithm By Recursive Identification Scheme.M.Galy and J.C.R. vol. 1. "Graph Theov.772. Feb. P. vol. Shanghai. Eka Ginting. and Chen-yi Lee. and Lisa Sather. "SubGemini: Identifying Subcircuit using a Fast Subgraph Isomorphism Algorithm.

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