A.

BISTORT

or

THE

FKOTSSTANT

"REFORMATION,"
IN

ENGLAND

AND

IRELAND;
and

Showing

how

that

event

has

impoverished
in

degraded

the

main

body

of the

People
SERIES

those

Countries.

IN

A

OF

LETTERS,
and

Addressed

to

all sensible

just Englishmen.

B

V

WILLIAM

COBBXSTT.

X

LONDON
PRINTED STREET AND PUBLISHED
BY

:

CHARLES ALL BOOKSELLERS EACH

CLEMENT,
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183,

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1 * *" .THE NEW YORK. PUBLIC LIBRARY] 150304" TILOEN FOOWOATIOW8.

estdbttshfd\J that. and who is the Treasurer or education religious wine This called The and same concern. Joshua 01 money Watson. My 1 .". . We have the recently of seen a rescript to cause from the them King to to the Bishops. a LETTER L INTRODUCTION.- and firm supporter. their to a conveying direct them their to instructions. send in the subject! collected Clergy. it seems. says.No. 39lh November 1034. several cause collections of money for to he parishes throughout whatThe to England. who. -the Society for of promoting Winchester. A HISTORY OF THE PROTESTANT "" REFORMATION. religious the purpose " of promoting people. Churcff . this a London. spirit dealer. Mr. and he accordingly a strong " recommends. head of a society. " in Mincing-lane. I. their the object to which was call made upon in Clergy. is. Friends. man Watson. this thus is called the in " education of the on Bishops. Mr. Kensington. of gelical.society is the "correct expounder of the. is also the Fenchurch-street. evan- truth. lately was. Christian in Knowledge" first present of Bishop his his charge to the Clergy diocese^ that this. 2 .

2. [Letter into the publications put of the above-mentioned forth by this be put society scholars of those schools. to which. for society " observe. was the -PdPE. make the " that peopleof England believe. the tame and head of they all acknowledge the Church. ought not enjoy the for nine that rights we Protestants same enjoy. part of are of destined eternal are fellow-subjects and that perdition. a upon for parishioners that a " sent to wine merchant. the proceedfurther.further of a on. same they. which religion. called universal. Before we 3. Catholic takes this of people and \tniversat. and. this the Catholic- religion was. and the Catholic course. while they swallow. they cannot and. who. what in We sort shall. . spirit country that this to he may' the children of the not to have religiouseducation" pray But. PnoTfeSTAtfT. is religion idolatrous damnable whole to to .to promote were which. in Fttfoce. itto acknowledge because be the one . \*ho. my friends. JUbS if fa Church ia/fci^and. money be. stop.of our the one-third and idolaters. These calumniators know well. This is a known to our only Christian religion fact which disguisefrom intelligent persons . for this purpose. and which took two change goes by the us of REFORMATION. therefore. hundred forefathers. means and the Reformation. that years. " * " " c t .though h* generally tn Spain. and this was the Hauled at Rome. of course. England their and eight millions to be cause a year. collections made by royal authority. was epithet." and that. let words: meaning of these understand clearly Catholic*.like hundred the the Protestant Clergy. are place about name stantly con- applauding the change which years ago. all Christian every nation because and only true religion. at present. they. " promoting Christian knowledge the is is the object of continually puttingforth publications. have an opportunityof_asking call and Clergythis must about Ireland.Protestant the hands the Reformation.

" fed by ^t is called. have contrived giveit a good 4.that hunnow that us everlasting wranglingand stun " which spite. broughtforth cherished and innocent remote hypocrisy and devastation. and there. also againstthe the authorityof their former head.en- abundantly. there is full of great ai*d pressing practical importance. the Chri^ian was religion some professed. Irish hlood . declared. rather.cast off the do authorityof course. when nations.] in Introduction. and doctrines of that Church. Were this inquiry. alteration indeed As to the Reformation.or.that beggary. and which the and Reformation has given us and so in ease exchange for^the happiness and so harmony for Christian many ages. Now.no enteringon motive other than that of bare love of justice 9 the abstract that motive alone would.or Protestants this is now the appelword . A our pqrt of fellow-subjects are stillCatholics. or protested. rivers of its morje beastlylust. and not an Protestors. that. the as time. But. joyed charity. 5. some before us.parts of Pope.(. that this was alteration as greatlyfor the worse . had been the only Christian Church. to now they are. These ledged him of the Christian against nations.for the a by our tholic Ca- forefathers. that the " Reformation. and it would have it means. Residesthis motive. at stare in the face and " our ears every turn. I hope. another third But. . as of them. until now. nakedness. and. been for to the better of hard not if the makers this great alteration could name. and .and by plunder. ' given to all who are Catholics. in that misery. part of the world where there some came a * in every short. longer-acknowChurch. lation called themselves They.that ger. therefore. of the head nations. a fair and honestinquiry an us.be sufficientwith far greater part of Englishmen. which. and Englishand consequences. ox parts of nations.was in engendered in and perfidy. my will teach friends.

and vengeance . [Letter "Reformation" from their in we a we consider. devastating1. and country. that as the principlesof the the put forward the also ground for excluding them as civil manner rights.Protestant when are Reformation. spiteof dred hunthe ligion re- persecutions unparalleled. which presses our bare well we induce owe itself duty which to ourselves. arose of.and the most ground for treatingthem cruel . and But. con- it is necessary more to offer you calculated observations make us of a general nature. 6. Ounin the in of Lord Russell's of in the recommending. despiteful and not when to consider.adhered of our of their and fathers : when we consider a these love of upon us our things. has a and that and and detestable makers the which of made Jews paper-money in this large part I enter on of the estates kingdom. in order independence of union is are consider. on to enter. and united.of the truth of what we have heard the Catfcoagainst . years and of only because. people. on. they have. until its natural the result. scornful. owners misery indescribable and classes Ireland. before this series of deeds some of sequences. real 7. and to doubt.I will first show what how on thing called and then Reformation*9 began. labouring odious present England system. you it If you how this out will follow me in this the " inquiry. for without wishing for. I will it marched the torments inflicting plundering. children. two to because. naturally our we foes. when we how necessary to preserve it is that the should all be our cordially country . i" dle-Plan schemes of Parson John Malthus. at least. show you its progress. one-third thut of such the utterlyimpossible as treated in as long as j"art people outcasts. such that it is in human nature for men endure treatment. I show I will trace you in it downward through the all its stages. that fair and justicemight as a honest us inquiry. and shedding their innocent blood. the opportunities taking consider present formidable attitude of foreignnations. when without wc seeking.

and -by. of spoils Church.' and. we to hardly brii" * listen any thing said you Catholic and in defence of it. if those enjoy these not revenues. from to big folios down think an ha tracts.. and us th" ' close connexions in this country. friends. the vicic . TI produces great discontents. of these for the with persons always to strongest possible motive up in causing Catholic horror. nobles gentlemen. i ' apology for it possession of of those those the Those whom the will. a Catholic " to false. find . religion.I. and the Catholic had a Chui v 1 Ireland. " wretch our and popery we and slavery on have the been ears. was have be a taught to bclicA that be . by.we they were have inevitablycome.or.makes the country continually of ferment.] Kc INTRODUCTION. have been the change countr religionof and mense body and of people are that there these Bishops without Parsons enjoying the if :e ' having scarcely any flocks. The in of all sizes. not indee of the the Catholic poor. and " blooc rung in ihi . take many such years. which. was "'' the conclusion.that to religion was. had made believ ' . cruel. for so trouble / "" publish books Now. till. that vile.take instance the " immense property of mind. pains take to deceive W wr they. poor to the share. you may every thing that body. why should any and us partit ? to to * larlyour should and penny countrymen. But say. we people be broug and infanc the belief. at first. in order my make us ill of this Cathc in answer s ? religion this in why. % '" taken from and the Catholics These the main given never Protestant able of to Bish( t Parsons. Our minds hare been so completely can filled wit' ' the abuse ourselves of this to that.whether their looked Catholics ' or private public capacity. causes a state to Engla'n enormous expenses revenues ' f and war.. " ' religion. exposes the whole kingdom who to great danger in case Now. and 8. hare the forgettii had t' . From been our something on inspireus of our very the to knees mothers.

we been so should very bad have a said. and pains that been fakon to deceive order Even blacken Scripture Catholics. doctrines that were worship was idolatrous. owners! 9. was no after the death of Christ. church. have possibly be better to and religion. were we scarlet whore? which mentioned in the Revelations. that it could that hundred If they not had told us this. to himself hud to given the Pope . have that why down they put ? to all this told us. Protestant revenues that. all that to numerous of fellow-subjects who you adhere that ancient will have When think of the power the of this motive. you incessant the the be at Ijirprised great us. and Catholic that ency consistwill the of these not. the our all the calumnies upon that have heaped body faith. expense and for keeping religion that our They never they never tell us. us bad." and that her damnable.it were would better for ginal ori- to go again the my friends ! here hideous we have the real motive been for all the upon abuse. beast. wicked not. {he Catholic long ago. dred for f/leen hunmay say. since be to there scarcely any if the Church all. religionwas CHRISTIAN years in the religion. They indeed. that God the " the of sin. be able to and form to a teachers of the shall quickly just estimate modesty. and we or two to ourselves. Now these let our us put a plain question . deny. very we [Letter and hostile in asked there was something should religion. ONLY because revilers of the religion. They this world they cannot. Pope that for the first three hundred years there . and have her " all been taught " believe of the Catholic Church. it would and leave were us the Irish people still to enjoy it. Ah ! flocks. not Catholic and religion." 10. sincerity. itself has In books we been of all been in perverted to and lijzes from our the pulpit of every have man taught from and jjames the infancy. to this own Catholic forefathers religionwas for nine the only religionknown years.Protestant that Reformation.

they thus or forward must bold unblushing blasphemy. and from whose begin- . of America. . {hep. Then. who the means died who sinners.there the we was no Christian.warm ? tianity Chrisfrom a Protestant victory like that of Skibbereen begun. and gave be led up in hundreds darkness upon to hundreds of millions of people to one their eternal had nated denomi- perditionby the "man whom his inspiredfollowers Christ gave hundred stand ofsiv and the scarlet whore"? tell us. nor had any other been thought to save believe. indeed. no! The one more work was and ended by the we Popes. who settled Canterbury. that forth his suffered Christian Will " Christ. during all the period. in Can world. tent gospelas of their salvation. for twelve hundred that years there had and been some and. true Christians the to world ? be Will the that Christ. years became Christians And the six hundred after the death Who of Christ. their head matters religious other Christian ever Church known of. that " Will they. But. in short.1 seated Introduction.would no have fake and false Christian religion. doubtless. then. shall see of whom Monks at (ofwhom by-and- by). who to promised of the with teachers of his word the end world. sent over some Oh. other men than a religion..1. Wholly left them. there they tell us. acknowledged the Pope as and. that. continued. in all . guilty of the most they confess themselves atrocious calumny against the Catholic home. how name did they become to this to Christians? first pronounced the of Christ land? Who ? converted Some English from paganism saint. for no twelve bunin dred years least. at Rome. and closer about religion.to these modest to be known amongst all this their while? and our assailants of the faith of our were "ancestors at assert faces. and part. to t" dare to up the world ? wholly this Antichrist for twelve must years Yet with they and must do. our coming ancestors nearer to our own bosoms. 11. had become nations of Europe.

then. horrid must thought! tell the us Yet. feet flesh and bones the earth tell us. coming the present time. that all gospel into England millions and hundreds of millions English people. they must confess calumny. " that it scarlet whore the the and who Will brought they tell of the us. all the church-yards the . how lucky have been Clergy flock. suffered Antichrist" this reign Has wholly made the unin- terruptedeven testant unto day he ? Christ the the " Pro- Church? Did suggest Reformation"? of " And does to he. rapidly over part the Whatever. with religion.like the land. suffer out-number his own followers to Anti-" christ" nine followers. England years. in " calling trous" idola- Pope and 13. [Letter grain of mustard other - nings the religion spread. Antichrist. ? smallest our chance Will tell us. expired without they and in now who the all died during those nine hundred of salvation our years.these their the presumptuous base . one? the ." and its doctrines to we " Catholic worship damnable. will they the all these are howling in our regions of us Nature the men beats at bosom.any known of the Pope world might have of before Christianity head became the settled and at acknowledged never of the of any was Church.who form first built churches. round ninethe the days in which we we ourselves now. whose that fathers. to What. Christian the England. glad tidingsof too. almost then. even or " this.Protestant Christian Reformation. if even look about are world. the seed. any than rate. be its head. therefore.But* in*this view of our of the matter. the *' then: will " our teachers Antichrist ! tell us. 12. that had the the known other religion and in this to at head Pope for of which at Pope. established by law! Her . tenths of all those professto Christ be Christians " Catlwlics. this." But. after all. was continued firmly kind " fixed nine hundred What. shall find who has that now. damned at for many that ? deep . and bids shudder the impious. live. Protestant Church.

every to count only member all Christendom u five hundred that Church members (taking together)of Church against which the law'9 protested and still protests? ."as paw we was George deep in used purses the of " to . whom Justices are we of to the Peace ! 14. contain are one-fve-hu ndrcdth-part Catholics." law. while bad been his grasping case. blished" law-esta- religion. abandoned tenths to of the people of Europe " Antichrist V believe. and her ministers reverend" She her her talks her worship about she trines docliance re- evangelical" support upon in much for "founder" claims " fas her calls him) Christ. fruits believe. behold tianity holy religion"(the sons of which in those and worthy of the church. that of Antichrist:" that the " had to our " believe. Catholics a Protestants " a?f blished. but. while. the " that.that Rose our holy the religion. at Vital the end one Chris* of two Jocelyn have Roden) been able hundred for about years. and her sometimes are 'wants bayonet collected to enforce it. if this Ano-established" the been religionhad religion are we been religionof Christ. observe' all the number who not more Clergy Catholic receive only than than Clergy of all nation*. never " stating and W the qualities. fairly of those more.that Dutch the holy are we John that Bowles. calls She* holy" godly. tithes not unfrequently command of her by the help of soldiers. not.] does of her die ImoDvcnoir. if this and Catholic the case. nineAre we that Christ has. this " day. that " the Commissioner. would." however. even To unto to return believe." " good deal and very besides. This fails to conclude with. by LA established. if the counted. under the law has made . bat all the and Clergy of all the Christian people in the world.she. if this are to " believe gion" relito we that law-established" religion. call it. then.I." esta- put together! She herself calls her " " She never " calls herself omits Church by law She this part of her and a tide. the ministers.

that re- this book ceived came from what to through have I what channel it. that and "word distributed New Testament. believe. if this be They are questions the book. and teacher of religion spirit of England : come. of But. of quietpossession spoils shall. ajid of the." we it is called. in this place. were for. my with this foul abuse of the friends.99 it points out we can we the means. then. because. by this genuine these that life. Catholic of about which.or as professto believe. belongto amongst this Protestant the us. gave how us Testament? real and we word words of Ood? and From whom receive of eternal life?" Come. everlasting come This is what Now. after all.in due instance Catholic how the two of the of these revilers of the consistency We Church and faith. answer ? these questions people of great importance.poor. moment time.is the religion religion. wine to the merchant. But. and always has been. to and the means only book. clearly same despoiledat time that the Church 16. there remains or to be noticed. established. R"?o"ication" [Letter Away. I will as here speak only of hy who law Church England. the of the Catholic Church. 1 nine-tenths of ajl the Christians in the wpr}d this Away the with shameful calumny. the sole object of to secure a which is. Church. was. saved by New " which possiblybe believe. and proof we Watson of its Alas! authenticity. were they began theyr JRefor* dozens and scores mationy'K each splitup the into of sects. we how the poor see by-and-by. know very well. Joshua Watson. condemning " the other " to eternal flames. interest to us. true printed genuine contains the the" and of God:" that it contains to us words and the of eternal only means'. that we. Who " from did this did we fire.an shall. Joshua. it is manifest. who it was we it is matter of deep us.TTT9 Protectant 15. wine and 17^QhI Joshua spirit ." Now. " see the Protestants. of which our contains instructions relative that the a saving souls.

after laid the gospels. and that and death a of the of authors. Christian chetler and Oh who 1 jNTaqpucua*. which the of the gospels were genuine It retained four gospels of Matthew. written pels gos- of about as a guide to the Christian the At the were of laid four hundred a years. trous last is idolaand are doctrines damnable. Mark. art at the head which of a Society " Sot promoting of Win* Knowledge/' call*the firm " Society the Bishop correct " expounder of the of evangelicaltruth. your now. publishing and into tion circula- less than After seventeen different books tracts! 18. Luke and John. whore make believe that first of whom the is the of Babylon. churches written it was were preached in those much several countries.JJ merchant. were.that this "word Protestants should and ceived re- N?w Testament. Luke other of the All had apostles.9' book that the we only meant. or early disciples. that should Catholic have received this book to from us Pops that that Church. Christian Joshua. who. But. as these. the I have . or. were of which the Pope head. several and gospelsbesides John written ! Several those of Matthew." points out : "words the means.. it . these to a us this -real genuine of God.long before of.long before churches. the Parsons who a eight millions do this a-year employ thee to teaching: Oh I Joshua. the death the Jt of was Christ. of eternal and that and the this life. pay six of to religion people of England. Societyfor "promoting at Knowledge/' pushing and a this very no moment. we what have shocking thing it is. before council Catholic Churcji council which determined not. there put into in was long space of time before gospel was any thing like its present shape. before was council the of the Catholic there Church. Church-: the supporter teacher or fato-established the to Joshua. of salvation what shocking fact. long just said. and and her the worship of you. anal the established known countries. Ma"k. at gospel was made end use least.

should be [Letti*. the- scarlet we whore. from the that a Society. without God. yet. lawchrist. i" calumniators. grossest 21. proclaim rests on the world. hare " received and church. another Must Council not to a of that with Church Pope be and Parson the of thk Pope " pretty impudent. but we "idolatrous?" even Pretty impudent*. in this Calendar there under . then. to call Church call the Catholic . see the of inconsistency our all. and 19. which applies all Protestants. that in a only hope which we of salvation have promises contained the no book. and. a Liturgy there first in great part are Catholic and service but. pretty state do" reduce by our tame to stupidlistening those on who the we calumniate the it. state because we they when to live we. the I " of sin. and beUeve" determined that these all the here four be received in. a was composed Church promulgated by the Council second was tholic Ca- and to Pope. and. of the that received from we Scarlet voucher Whore. this do reduce ourselves the by giving to to foul-mouthed calumny we against ourselves Catholic Church: and a. are whose worship ! is " idolatrous19 This doctrines but "damnable" 20. by its head. that Joshua any Watson's other any Society is word of without. the adopted. spoilsof still listen our To these pretty do come. still this. The of the the two creeds. Antichrist To in a pretty state. Church. to Catholic a Church. and Nicene Athanasian. To law-Church Prayer-Book there is are. without as other than that which. indeed do not. to is pretty complete. a lendar Ca- prefixed.as which all the rest of us. of made is not enough of inconsistency to satisfy That the Zatp-Church England* up the of the Church has . any any that So rest should rejected. guide-to eternal well life . of that Society " calls idolatrous" man head " which it calls and the beast. other and than authenticityof which Scarlet Whore and whose and have that Church." Anti- and ordered the be at used. then.Protestant Reformation. without other gospel.

Judge I "have Ba yley (one of a the present on twelve the the Judges) Common says in has. Luther.*9 and in its that their Church in its is.. by to this odd.I. here how now. . up rate. But." first any seems of the testant sight.] different women. as Catholic well as Bishops. Prayer-Book. Pro- "j * but the race. about this these Protestant way was I should like to what Judge Catholic Saints (and We Others) being placed in was Calendar. and those that their anniversaries to. nor saint Cranmer. nor holy persons Not one! ? Some not Pro* saint testant he sure? nor What. due time. " down reign of in Charles there had II. some But. it was preserve order of the long revered kmour. in which this shall. . with the Catholic even Saints to " in the the lendar.a Hc whole Popes. the " VIRGIN list of saint Elizabeth soul of them and Catho- bat. nor Several one virgins . attended who to are attended religiously hy die people. "VIRGIN At was Queen. idolatrous worship and damnable doctrines! 22. it new-modelled to time. incessantly dinning " in our that the have and all been Antichrists. the last that. written Commentary know no Prayer-Booh. not female male. Saints. At any and by to the lead people. names. the appeared any Saint supply place of the old Catholic ones. Popes was. see the and it is curibus Prayer-Book from time to first made. for.when not improvement Protestant was made to it. the so is.in them to keep the them new in better by degrees into religion. are certain names of holy men and names put here in order to. even this day. Introduction. whole list of holding Popes and for our respect and of other those who same i persons teach us belonging to to the to Catholic Church. Now. days of Their may he the year. holy persons. the contents while read are and repeat of this ears. here reverence is the a Prayer-Book. this T Calendar troth made necessary Act of Parliament. " saint Edward ? Not a the Sixth. Ca- whence it seems. heard.

set of lownever minded. What situation . indefatigable. mind. Catholic And the But. with dozen of persons it gaol for offendingagainst it. ami when eNpt'i'iulty have a we ashamed of. that. equal to inconsistencyand have miueiitv When tite we those of our which eyes and we just taken into the a view? we tlnm opeu look matter. to make norelylepent having long been of the crafty Were in- It ud iiel I'mli re vile in ever of the religion of there impudence. there is still a dilemma swear on fur these revilers of the Pope religion. what figuredoes a a part and parcel of in the law of the land make. what if we figuredoes the that we make. if follow every part and Joshua parcel make. a^ of 'this m book handed down and were by "Antichrist"? if the inconsistencies absurdities to have " springing out end.Protestant Reformation. the this iiiuio that reflect.We we four and Pope Evangelists) a these. if those that ever the falsest and are we most malignant wretches upon a breathed." if those taught to and ahhor the Catholics. nntniiihhetl ut. [Lbtt?^ tt^e 23. if the who be have not Anti^ abuse that christ. here to us swearing And. adopt the abuse I and a falsehood of revilers " of the Catholic " Church What our figuredoes teachers.and. that " Protestant calumny the no Christianthe what the this New law is ttyi"which judges that same say.9' taught in this Testament and this away. is part and no parcel of other than Take of the land. Catholic get from So the Council be us " of Church. and say that the Pope (from wml got the "part and ! parcel")is than the our " Antichrist" the . scarlet whore" 2-1 ti* Kuough! Aye. greedy creatures but. is to say. if we brawler from whom " in the ever)' tub we country. pirnuiiiption. -by . our credulity. Watson's if we follow follow Society. " is Christianity New Testament. to own far greater men part of ing possess- us HiilTered ourselves pint of our be misled by not a tenth capacity. of ami much so more enough dupes fathers. . is not a and there is our particleof a "port parcel left.

oppressed to now plundered. the Catholics constant state Protestants been * kept in a of hostile feelingtowards have each in other .and show. at day of the after day. late of " sense the old silly lie about King having But. din. Truth in has.9' most there and those By and the means of the have great Protestant n" lie. all men might laugh the been have at been " merely laughed the the at. on there is yet topicto 26." it is called. must great good in this Reverend enlightening.I. allerton. lie got sucked with no as habit the in for gospel-truth. one was engendered be by beastly lust . religion of England the vile from Catholic Pro- having exposed and selfish calumniators. that heaped but no on the ! religion of monstrous. Men are " in now England. and having could be good reason to for altering the testant . there absurd. for that fair : and duly prepared the mind and honest done of every I just person inquiry. with impunity the oppressors and the plunderers.] Introduction. incessantly. of Skibbereen. how touched " this " Reformation. in this preliminary Number this of my Uttle Work. who . the with regard to subject. monstrous until from din. and one both. at have^greatly has we enlightened done Morrit. the ears people from childhood. as the' first " place. I should enter that' inquiry. Nor Father in a Right forget Protestant God. made within away in the great last progress dozen ciy public mind. country. or but the former. like all Parson work over Parson the Dent. and. dreadful. Having our shown. of which now spoke in paragraph 4 on having in this. for ages. li ~[ J! shape another. and at and the Church danger* at Parson Manchester. din. North- their us. to years. not be " carried by the of " No-Popery. particularly and been. censure 25. of the close losingsight year after very " spoil. conse- independentof v Crown.* made have Judges quences. forefathers shown is not that only unjust. and their mere year. Had it i- the lie been sc attended consequences. Hay." but.

genius I am that it is unfavourable to the producing of to be and talent. that as a total as want of civil unknown in England. Ca- Monkish ignorance Protestant to phrase reign of It that the with you " find in every " historian. and in but a the to causing of prove. country. and the also Protestants general." " happy constitution. from the VIRGIN Elizabeth a present hour. an to Catholic religion to is unfavourable the to civil the unfavourable and talent. pledge myself And now to proof. time. in of this work. that liberty. false the will be proved presently . to bear mind. that that they had But. So that eyes it is to any Bishop means I to ever before by as no hear Protestants the allow. my its kings and abject in due in its people the This most and time that 28. to morals. to very large part that the forward declare. amongst opinion. that." notion and good like. and beg this friends. with in all these just notions. tyrants.Protestant Reformation. to salvation. like " has." nations. that charge only false. from I do this. as faith. Catholics it is time barbarously justice done treated. ill-treated I shall prove and I place. minute. that this charge all the other and source with charges against is superstition" the the a tholics. 27. going. old But king" there to envy of surrounding as the has always. I shall. most them this exerted. namely. is not . " glorious revolution. find place for proving. you. before the same " ridiculously and me stupidly false comes but. . that the moment nobles it lost the horrid protection of the Pope. a Catholic of the religionis quite good enough people of England have been most are and.let observe. and of I slaves. become " sort of magpie-saying. [Letter than now certainlydid that rare as more in the heard opening of of. and them. became most long its religionwas and. charge against to to the other the Catholic religion . a producing the and exerting of genius the course As able suit- former. there exists. by this the melancholy experience of liberty was Catholic .

there it. time them writing these at Commentaries. not the He that would knew been that. placid." he the upon the was Blackstone was fool. LIVING the the spoilsof the Catholic gentry. buildings. magna in his by jury. this Blackstone he was the very roof. been no For cool. he knew and poor ! it. Did beheld not. under was abusing ? our Catholic he any made up to by that these forefathers or. when of those he looked roof. all the of it. he would he was have recollected. of one spoils of knew tholic Cawell. times. and and offices of sheriff. justiceof the peace. arose If days head on of had " monkish not ignorance rendered Catholic and superstition. were greatest of all and died lawyers. motive sufficient always been a very cating for incul- Blackstone. that that gormandizing the spoilsof that remembered. days of " born. still tell us what . He have and also every Church.El I. rest constable. that all who was heard were aware spoils that he wallowing induce him These abuse considerations the quite sufficient and to to Catholic to Church. the which eulogizing." by he his would have been the muddy Church. he He fattening where his lectures in. unruffled the world to seems impudence. of the were besides. to knew. in his Commentaries never "I on the Laws England. he was. had his due."But. if had he was. affect to look back with contempt Catholic 29. the have " there have " people in and a equal to Reformation inherited of the the I gentry. and reading dents stu- Oxford. that all charta. of " for instance. fore- bred. Monkish no lets slip and an opportunity when to to rail against ignorance At and the very superstition. has Introduction. . in defiance of time. Edward youngJProtestant had his not Sixth. our Fortescue.] be. i Blackstone direct line from this qualityin of that Blackstone some altar-robber reign If t sweet saint. lived in the did which not monkish ignorance know. trial things. superstition. Lyttleton. and that fathers. the lics Catho- actually felt the spoilsof sticking to those ribs. when he noble which.

that. and foundations to learning at brought perfection. 31. " son-justice. it strange notion hardly how mentioned there but without suspecting. Part years At 220. for He Oxford knew. feel those 30. in about hundred the enlightening there are. indeed. he [Lettie he beheld any were not. by monks." That Life [Phillip*' is to " of Cardinal a Pole. that laid. I against the genius. institutions to baseness. compared abuse ? or with " the impudence some When or hear Orange-man. the I this time Halls (1824) am formed. It is here confine myself being the can some this charge to Catholic religion. of railingagainst must monastic generally. " that Abbeys having were one publicschools more for education. whom that he we he had pigmy Jew. show more folly. mind. the Those bottom of the apparently nothing stupid who put ." we It Oxford from to but. of in . at other. not tion" ReformaI a began. pecuthere liar residence in those and the universities and. but.Protestant those forefathers . set of them the to or " persons apart to instruct expense youth of the neigh' the " bourhood. ip the great part. did was a Reformation. talk turn about him monkish with silent in and rance ignotempt: con- and superstition. century. and tingle fully the shall.and. only school. unfavourable talent. when in' to or of * these. that " without each in any parents. " of the greater monasteries . " times.] say.there the middle not above EIGHT remaining *' towards of the I. well were another when at where he the was reading. have to. after 1 7th p. not He only in monkish knew. is plunder idea.99 He had a knew. but. was is be he treated wrote. each " times. whereas "were. nearly SCHOOLS THREE at HUtyDREP Oxford. in another the place. in- FIVE remaining. Blackstone manner. and. besides HALLS the PRIVATE were " colleges. a shortyto and one powers of the hear or mind. his Commentaries. par- Jocelyn saint.

then.\. They not themselves of any with assertion. Edward's " people had had in and robbed all the altars. if we carefullyexamine men produced of such men by France in these and Jrears. well . 1600. account. for if we do this. no exclaim the fire-shovels. they know this is a is secure. " " VIRGIN that Queen put the be-* hand finishing come as to the pillage. and this is not contains people. we Therefore. So as all was. pretty nearly completed all the " by and 1600. men Sir their the number knowledge of such the and genius . supposing that it as it admits thing like disproof. young the Tbe monasteries Saint all pretty nearly knocked down. tfhion " time monkish ignorance were super* were swept away. same Scotland Ireland. But. will make allowance of one-third . have fire-shovels'. this for favour piece of rare impudence the do not us with such that believing content Catholic religionhas tbe bare any tendency. in a question that does which their depends triumph of mouth. these" say. tion/' Reformathe year England. Protestant France " heart could buried wish. number produced by England. and !" generally called is a these learning.] forward reasons Introduction. " " Oh. " " . more " France than great deal Islands bigger. when an got the numbers. at a during the period . genius. the contain' twenty-one hive ttiey and French we thirty millions. gbftd Mauds that According to your . in " Very monkish is to . They . and fair play millions ! Bo own not be frightened. if we of Protestant number framed into 187 examine of into the of 1 men remarkable for great powers or mind. 99. we the shall get of pretty good foundation judging their of effects oh the two religionswith what regard is to fluence in- knowledge. 187 | superstition until the year stood 1787: in a that blaze after happy England IJftars carefully light! Now. the i kingdom of tad remained ignorance say. look upon assertion on mere against assertion hardness and. very question The " that admit of in proof By that and was good proof too.

Cameronians. This Bibliographical is every where work. : Knox.- Here. If." kingdom. the men three famous the to every two of ours. than Qathc But I are we to a ascertain work these has numbers a ? in V ev well. Quakers.for instance. that law-established Church and family Muggletonians. a" Church. arc and liv this very day! statement . shall refer the to which I mean. sr. sciences : It will necessary to into all the arts It may the be as eight or take that and the nine will be suffici* as well. place " good library in Historical. unto unplundered souls. 34. which received of all natic to authority celebrated ft as to facts. are is the more knowledge how genius. and the Univers D Critical. of numbers.Protestant Reformation. c place in these person really considered tinguished . [Lett French then its I h. in not our favour accordingly. then. sent their followers. we to Italians were well ir French " . worthy. contains lists of persons for their published the lists. is ." superstition t they.' and. vourable Church. From lists I shall take be before and proposed. forth mer. from was the 1787." ranee Blackstone monkish and were superstition . then. during in a same period. hare been been h. for all know they living in and so shocking monkish unfortunate ignorance and . perhaps. confess. then. his her works must have these not universal as notice. TIONARY. that were figures represent art or the number of persons name famous for the science oppositethe of wh year what 1( yoi the to figuresare placed. or works.th by Lutii: Islands Cran statement blaze and of light. is the the you have onlj \ observe. Shak" Protestant the rest of the and litter. during Rose and period France the " under George dark despotism calls the of " the Cath. 33. Here. and to Jumpers. Unitarians. poor. which calls what The period is. must But.

.but checks. per .. and Scotland. exceeds number of of mind derably consi- of ours. inimit- notes.. that. do I not.I.. in the scale in the than Throughout Europe. does Scotchman capacity make.annuities stock-jobbing. however... and to our then will remain 451 a 132 times all ! So as that they lect intelin had. Protestants that more Catholics " neighbourhood those at a of intellectual is a " distance from them. Writers 19 7 38 Grammarians Poets 2 157 34 44 .. Ireland. the while. writer " Here is that the very other " SCALE. exchequer -bills. Painters 5. we.. But. 72 33 139 66 42 """""" Natural History 6 21 22't 6 .bonds." This The it... bills.. fine " specimen scale " of upstart Protestant impudence.." to us had ! no Protestant the . answer above is. . monkish ignorance and though they superstition. not misunderstand the matter? the by intellect... England. 64 132 676 164 35. FnuMta ' Italy. not books and able pictures... when which he rank told a modest the Scotch spoke of public. we population their equal men to that of which boast. And. Law 6 17 " 51 52 0 Mathematicians 15 21 11 Physicians Writers Historians Dramatic on and Surgeons 13 . to all this while.] i Writers on Introduction... to the a- complete on to Allow one-third more French there man account to of their them and are superiorpopulousness..." day. neighbours surpass their and that the mean catch the intellect from Even Italians in is this not lect rivalship for intel- for. for man. three half much as " though they and buried.. . and and the like ? Does he not mean loan-jobbing at ten insurance-booking. of intellect than Protestants and are higher " Catholics...

desire. then. compared and with that at impoverished that " degraded that it banished. in that the in obviously our just I to for I dare how it an teration al- religion minds. this it shall of a country. and Here.. even I have from grossly I have of the of their we deceived. a and that. 36. the that( of hospitality. our very infancy* absurdity shown abuse and you. of kite-flying. but the on heaped our by interested deluders shown you the religion. that at a say. only our the injustice. there was no I have enough cause vince you. made observe. know say.Protestant Reformation* cent. more Jewish. by any forgetting ? Ah ! like I those and Fauktleroy On should in confess he is right. poor . alteration be was made . 'Change of not. to con* fathers. Old English but Hospitality" the name of which in lieu have of since known nothing it gave us . " proceedings works that case. . desire have. " intellectual than if he . the main what them my object the show. Englishyou how introductory been not Letter. I in this think scale it Protestants next to do rank high a indeed! to And live impossible being of a for Catholic more their " neighbourhood is to without much much. sensible just shown men. very name never before England. alteration body they . all the " intellectual means. lived distance from them. which was pauperism. Alley As that lett and . my anxious endeavour chief fully is to gratify that and it this this But. we once. came awakened to your that strong pass. this have my friends. and. I close then. knave. in the to following Letters. of were people before miserable. known in thing.

person.No II.and against present view the that feel and just portion of indignation their you devastators. which better than are called "Histories of England" of romances. and nobles: and that intrigues of contain little the else. It was a reformation. main this a devastation the in impoverished But. its true order may may light. in degraded you the see body devastation of people. Kensington. 37. the necessary. at but a devastation. any use the read of young persons. and. business to that had this . it is against first. Origin History of . chief and that you perhaps. which the the time when the this world that took ever place. . knows but. of scandal kings. it is my show. any who them or through. not was. Reformation. down to the time Beginning of "Reformation" by King Henry VIII. B The great history. negociations. and are times." the England. in the " Church. courts. event of England. They amours treat battles.of of the the Catholic Church. My FRIENDS. queens of former they very gossip There for has use. 38. The far greater part of are those little books. of possible of than he before. young Goxdsmith. histories use of no Dr. she know more.that their eulogists take a of the day. 30* A December. LETTER II. on correct were of things which devastating powers exercised. is. 1824. seen happiest country. like of England.

if least. "reformation" have more people. when little have read about this Number of my than you dreds hun- work.or acknowledge. and and you that of Saint we xxi. "on I build xvi.how and these they promoted public things are happiness.Pro*! kstavt Reformation. [Letter arose. one satisfied. came monasteries.therefore.if of the have neither of these at mannei a advantages. We a never understand well as the we nature and have constituent made the parts of thing so to when ourselves thing: we next malting it is the seeing of it made: but. devastated I am you will by Henry VIII." Christ Church. of those will learn. 19. of Saint Matthew.to get thing and to tiue origin of the to in which put together. that must deny was a of the the Scriptures. head I shall the then have of to the England. and how churches. died a Rome in about years after the birth of Christ. tithes. or Jesus himself. But another hi* supplied . Look he said. I have speak Church you in of I he Catholic under the It Church which generally. what " to were teach their us how I ws. This Peter Simon stone. the monasteries. my church. parish-e of the you how Church. the at possible. speak of other the lunches. Church Histories with England. the 15. martyr at 41. his and at Master called Peter." at the Gospel John. church this was revenues to be in well England understand and the you When what it you was information. truth will see. The Catholic He selected originated to . and that revenues is. 39. I precisely themselves. And. be head of his name Apostle's was a but. you will know or ever your the country learned. as they call of no consequence.we description of it was ought. usages and institutions effectson or the people. promised Peter for all that here head of 60 Church Saint generations. from called " reading of of bulky \olumes. that. necessary Church other have which arose I explain to Catholic tithes and . rock will which means rock. him this 40. . the to greater pai think of historians. what seem otheiwise. and onward 18.

our Church. in language. no paragraph 10. had always . at for hundreds is. Pope at meant at Rome to for the admit first three years. bishops. an and most highest respect the ardent as and sincere to affection. could apply England. converted any to rate. perous varihave Cardinals.II. of settle the the numerous times. called and been in Christianity. Pater comes Patrum. The been seated . became Chief Head Church .assisted by body and Church of at son. which Father of Fathers. r from that. When that there hundred was P*0TESTA3fT REFORMATIO*. French. by the in the Of later date. that religion " The Pope was. not first three hundred : Church the Chief Bishops. Great Councillors. the aries missionwho truth had by the a Pope. Mtny were held in England. world. which give to their fathers. Rome the successor Popes. satisfactory unbroken that that the to chain of succession I remained from it that he day said.but not | to to get rid of pretence was which. the Pope. the always all acknowledged by Christians then 42. Pape. seated means might the said. a I by no fact'. years. Thus. by all the and or all the teachers of existed. Councils hare countries of Christendom. Papa. the say. and where a 1 paragraph 3. then. The Popes themselves hare . is. which in the is an called. which $ent by Christianity of other of years. main* there takingtheir was supremacy a but they always and his supremacy that is to existed was always Chief Bishop. union and In the Latin he of the two is called Latin abbreviatioa mean words. there is the has in most evidence. Chief Bishop has been and. to in the discuss and matters of v deep These Uterest unity and well-being of been held in all the Church. Hence the nations children of all Christian of appellation the appellation of papa. the and Pops. the of openly . successors means f Peter.] flace. the of Saint persecutionswhich. Councils order to held. and tins. for underwent. or each of he the succeeded his pfnce. and as his supreme have observed power in authority were all the nations acknowledged.

but having and servant monastery. principal have its will been show who how have and false.9' is look at matter deep interest it. and people of friends. become became a of ia a m very labouring was . and they sacrificed children th^ altars of their idols. the Asia. in effectually 596 to is to say. with was its Priests. indeed. a bare sketch facts. England." fifteen hundred of England began. famous himself monk. la this . my PAGANS they worshipped gods on with hands . some. Monks. followingeach other in due and The of the A mere History of " the Church a in England. authorities on supposed. that introduced years 45. a a Pope poor he IV. 923 before Henry at VIII. crumbled and at all when pieces . our made the called were the The country were PAGANS. by the so and. of all the [Letter Christian the son taken promiscuously from Adrian man men nations. was an Englishman. during and succession. introwas governed by Heptarchy. of Europe. of of the down to the to time us. part of Africa remained called indeed. England know the year early as a century was But we for certainty. 43. last became Church.Protestant been Reformation. the the " Reformation. the the which was the height of which and glory at beginning of nearly over Christian whole to era. : Yes. dred hunbroken un- sixty Popes. was the this religionwas that whole ancestors state duced. kings. good their side. its Roman Empire. vilified the Catholic its Popes. Head of hit the piety. and . In and there taught. yet the Popedom commonly had the time devastation. and extended. It is how ungratefulthose Church.that . that into Christian the religion second it introduced partially after Christ. talents time he grew at for his the learning.how unjust. Reformation. years. 44. and Popedom. time seven began when destroy it. The or office of Pope. continued in existence of through and all the great and The the repeated revolutions doms kingat empires. there about two been.

to and be nor years of before Christ. Great under the under find the of Gregory that that and these "j the of W 12th March. or. dogmas. perhaps. this this trod that time. they Christian to make f that came there to be pure religion after and two was the to Pope have the visible and acknowledged head. are supreme that agree authority. the time that. that . preach of our the gospel to the into Calendar name Common the Prayer Book. forty monks. please to in the year mind. and of Augustin the that may of 26th to May. were Whence it at clearly follows. still. The this great writers event took U * "w place Protestant to have it out. rites.ceremonies. on It is the probable day. Now ." so corrupt then comes now. some Some 600 300. the " just as they and this all continued as exist to at the time in Reformation/' even they continue exist that Church unto day. aad the impious horrid in- . Pope Austin gave his order Austin on former landed in Kent the year the latter which 46. in England that born. dare they attempt Rome it. radicallybad and it was ia 596 . Reformation. they with their it out. at monk to (or lish. be the days of were on these great benefactors bear 596. There upon this scarcely say that any it of them point. steps of the became Catholic but and in the Church Apostles. after the time. Catholic ceased can the true Church But. Eng- Auovstin) Look and you will of their the head. . the some 400. if the ** Catholic or Church be corrupt be of the now. Church some 500. corrupt. not They applaud do the to same character and acts of Pope Gregory would . Gregory of Austin I. Pope of that of the name England was. the the as religion practised at was that was Catholic year religionthat with all its introduced England and ot 596. to observances. when with a the day.n. it it into was none of them Christian Roman in the deny. or thereabouts. that. was been strangely embarrassed to in their endeavours the make Church that up pure. / regard to names Austin: shame suffer them want leave out of the Calendar was no but.] state sent Protestant Reformation.

the Bear that was in mind. Saxon Saint Austin. cities . mentioned '*' in our paragraph 12. new their were commu-* nity was to members ordained was keep time supply . Norwich. whose to upon* his arrival. Exeter. were other founded at London. of course. all the York* and of or places.Protestant Reformation. majestic we in process the of time. He succeeded the by other Bishops. and fathect and who form are first built the now " churches. He to converted and the king himself. communities. !" (( howling The tree regionsof by as the damned 47. duced introand was the Catholic faith into England by Pope in Gregory what that were Great. in introduction . It earth for many in the deep its now in all the churchyards. Saint Austin was church terbury. and from this homo. of our of possession we boast forefathers. let how faith worked and spite of wars. tions. the Bishop. CanHead was. that it is known fruit" held. so Winchester. together in over common. politicalrevolu- 48. arose Bishops' Churches. and. as As Christ-* like that ianityspread at over island. went the country. who who very gracious him his brethren. Canterlived forth brethren common being monks. there are now Cathedrals. idolatry 2 show . tyrannies. within obtained leave dominions to county and of Kent his lay. and for them at provideddwellings and Saint Austin other and necessaries his bury. success great and was immediate. this hearing mind. other in other Canterbury. invasions. the was number built at or in greatly augmented. applied to the the king. where Hence. diminished up the preaching the gospel. Priest. besides A this. while have the iblly and injustice and inconsistency*to with the brand of these very forefathers charge of grovelling and while we and ignorance* superstition. those which the mory me- and as venerable the work of edifices. us let see us see the of that effects its way. that whose " [Lettia All bones our ference. Worcester. As by death. He was preach the people. feet flesh.

and or sometimes ordered by tithes. a retained whenever right of appointing the priest. is which turned in word. their tenants to au which land-owners to pay. those 49. they attached the plough-land. for the in most or priest. bycomparatively or vassals. as the *H verted to a. by oblations free gifts. endowed the Churches tithe of of their estates. the JiC of vanity. or state collegiate. a they built which we churches. of the on land-owners. owned wero l4 few persons. their vassals.they were^ desirous and to them. clergy owners many years. and means called his glebe. So that the town now township. ready then to perform the offices of religion. which estate a Parish stands is a a means a priestship.T| settled "*: Christianity. priest's . near always upon The land rest of the was having priest* spot. this day we see. The of the The people y 7 tenants. . He the great man's the became parish. own churches for the to estates. the Besides custom these. and i their and houses. itwas As the mode or of supporting the clergy in " times.IL) "r "es Protestant Reformation. the laud-owners. which by the with plough.when became pointed \ and the whole of the endowment the pro- . offspring to corruption. countries.1* or about na and nine times of ten. literally taken. to house. this the was both. i " though general arrival the land- obligation yield La for con* it tithesfor many after the of Saint Austin. cases. then conformity produce Hence land on prevalent with the in other Christian the . And church the now benefit of themselves. their land-owners. they call the some also built house . When the country close by the gentleman'shouse. as parishes arose. parsonage-house or and. for his use meadow-land. over top earth. But in time. 50. tenants. paid themselves. there years was no ha. remained became this collective. vacancy once hap* ap-f pened but. he could not displace a priest. in numerous instances. generally near built therefore. owtt meanness of mind in disfiguringand dishonouring with out our those noble childish buildings by gingerbread " plastering them monuments.

or It was a :K long while. time. the settled two more.Protestant Reformation. more feelingthe performance of those ditions. lt them. in the of such them according first share let them with the contained to u canonical the authority. and and keep divide " written of all that presence paid them.who But. before this became i = ^ law of the to whole this kingdom but. never can in which existed to maintained by law. it did become such. that house. . the for distheir third in " repairs and the second in of the poor and * tribute the and stranger reserve "own " hands mercy humility. without gation obli- on the land-owners them from care care of the necessitous. [Lettv* control. much were property ^ attached . fear God. These the orders At a issued by a Bishop of York." canon. we of the are. should and part of the produce of to a large estate. have no have given no priest. was j established. of the family. and under different somewhat Bishops. different times. it. There a never can have existed which it a state of society . became when the Christianity. the of which charity. and. g to _j "1 by and pay than the to important it behoves . well the as could fact wife. this particular ever. Upon the a a very face . that grants were fur other The " for the was support of the priests. Church these But. was state of things in and proprietorship in was acknowledged. regulations different . : " produce of benefice the to be employed thus Let a the priests receive account tithes of have as the people. purposes the as is. an there have such take a state. The land* and owners to prevent in perishing for want. in the taking of the of the necessitous deposited of the been course.it tenth appears monstrous. that land is to say. attention want for. hands clergy.. even independent of his centuries. perty of the Church. certain conditions possessionof conditions us. of the at present day. Let ornaments to set apart the church. a small farm. so at last. England took of their vassals very basis care and dependents. con- 51. is But. and were part for themselves.

as " the land-owners. dispositionof rich. by-and-bye. were were shall see.was impartialhand of of a the certain. on for. seem to shafts in the quiver of be selected malice ot Protestant have seen always to when We they have rail againstMonks. for their occasional substituted the and sometimes the steady. Blackstone talking about b5 "monkish ignorance and . but. is dictated be by the This dutycould principlesof society. We the unfortunate stranger. ot namely.the the the feeding of hungry. and shall take the full view of the were unparalleled barbarity with at or Irish people treated that time. shall see condition placed in.II.] were Protestant Reformation. that the poor classes and 53. the interest and most Monasteries. revenues tithes other and of die church were we transferred have which not to protectant a married clergy. administering to of fostering the the sick. clothing ot ot in the naked. Thus the providing for uses poor became one of the great duties M and of the It Church. we how all the the moment labouring the to a impoverished and degraded. widow. I have constituent yet noticed another Catholic a great branch. of the which best Church . and married un- constantly well the as resident administrator to bodily as and the of comfort spiritual the poor. part. in no work the the hands of in those of the the the clergy . The choicest and the highly empoisoned writers. adopted . must a This have duty rested* on before. capriciouscharity. the comforting always For fatherless.thus the the f charity. for.came services to company uncertain with performance of the God. Friars and Nuns. jo- bs " " Blackstone a more observes.at to the to hut. right in all the indigent demand the supply sufficient to necessities of life from opulent part of the community. worthy of our form subject full attention. of but there were always the two fourths.church. rested the them "to .99 so as fitly lodged !fc. the annual and produce of to benefice be given the necessitous be employed the in the or repairing in the ornamenting of the. d 62.

extent means of those and institutions. nature manner the originand possible. and that name given to lived.where lived. . whole to ancient nature.orders. again.! merely describe. I unjust. comes English. in this case. word brother. every day. 54. in a virginseparated from religion. foolish they I shall useful the various in greatly how the community in behalf and I shall especiallyshow poorer they operated of the in the of the this labouring and shall classed people. the ^sister persons. As. composing called the a one religioua waa communities. person in solitude. heartily by bawling-tubs are thirty forty mongrel every corner sects* whose erected in 0/ the country. bishop talk* . the to which a they existed residence in England. indeed. some qf these were abbeyst and some^ . in place. sometimes the also were convent. base how which ungrateful. and ways . it is besides* were railingagainst them show to is . 55. Monaster?/ monk or a place of a for monks which were means and a the word comes from Greek word. which. in the are not. of The these whether male or female. world. [LETTER Protestant and superstition. I institutions. French word friars. which and means the from the French nonne. institutions.a nunnery. and parsons the railingagainst what "drones" of those in they call "monkery.PROTEST ANT RePOEMATIOH. shortest But. nuns that. monks. nuns. . to these sha}l speak of them 55. When I were come to apeak how of the measures by which the monasteries and this robbed. devastated shall show and destroyed in England and Ireland.1' we hear. of the persons all as belonging monasteries.as work or something they dtq are grading most human in which the of abuse joitfed. buildings and place where friars enclosures in which lived was community a The monks called that monastery. however. Then. There from lonely person." iog of the monasteries^ and. and habits into inquiring the differences rules. a friary. and we where lived.and word nun The in word friar is comes the frtre. abusisg .

and distinguished by difwe fferent little to do . by-and-bye. friars. to live house. they devise more. made objects ) of great veneration channels of the rich to them.were and these and dresses. This do deeds and of hospitality charity. same. towards a called hermits^ and their conduct or men great respect. living in complete solitude. : left the wholly behind could them they 65 made a solemn each of a celibacy. they when world possess walls . latter. was always masses and the business to of the whole was. revenues had but nothing life-interest. an abbess. them* having similar propensity. and for their gout ^ had different rules were mode With of life. possess hence things came in Women called the And . and These them passing all days drew dedicating themselves were whollyto such men. queens. gentlemen founded and buildings. devastation. nobles. the their benevolence the poor. in time. the belonging were to community but this . Protestast Reformatio it "* of the difference between were which rank it will be sufficient the aij to sis "fc w say. erected die endowed them .a prior. the and particularly. and had an of privileges higher Ad or a abbey had abbot. a 57.] priories . nothing in the monks the ". and persons. The persons in one belonging to and the same monastery lived in could die common . femment there. to say and J prayers. monaste- princes. those places monasteries. and in prayer. the serving of God. howthem volved all in- shall. also priests. property individually. In time.II. for in one common we these distinctions have see ever. !"l u!\ * theylived no building . they vow they entered of the monastery. piety. some of not the " J tad case friars .princesses. orders prioress* Then aims. of monks.'" e by will. different orders a priory.and thatia to say. and works made of kindness them of charity performed by those .formed together in did one selves into societies and and to agreed common. Kings. separating mode from their of life the began by single persons themselves world. and 58. that the former various or of a a superior to value. ries. The the austerities. here.

were side. other to an buildings. of monks. supported by pillars.or bequeathed to their money. a To give you I will clear notion to as I can as of what much a nastery mo- was. monasteries became already erected.Protestant Reformation.. a the back. [Letm* Others. the or piazza. out- side of the court-yard. and. dormihad and\ sleeping-rooms of one monks. and end yard. one two bttle rooms. ^9 prodigious extent. and whole which was an 1792. for his bed. lodging-rooms for them and and vants. or the kitchen. residence a entered monks. or alive. in one with of gates the high as wall. sition. coach-houses. for there on hurying ground. in Here a at a was doorabout the acre place of of of the square half ground of sides form. of it. was cloister . which the each went round1 the four sides. in the - of atonement while for their sins. On the way stables. houses. as describe you. and the little door great gates for This ingress and into a egress of foot-passengers. monasteries had the of great landed manors. was It " oblong square. So :. monastery monks be had which been I saw in out ' France. or building contained the several of whom tories. the estates . especially orders were the monastic always held been in great esteem. they lordshipover innumerable and Z~ had where in the a tenantry of in England. the owners thatj " - in time. yard. a On the four the of this square which was. lands. of this a gate opened On one spacious at one court- very nicely paved. *" J consequence of a Christianityhaving community as introduced into kingdom by 59.and some from at pious dispodeath. roof of the at side at of burying ground. a with exactness my memory in will enable me. supported' by This low building. some a with way estates for their maintenance.gave. just after it space was the to was turned - when the about put up for sale! The acres. and as end the of the sides with a a gate-way. of was enclosed in about about eight English twenty of one fenced by a wall at one feet high. ser- dining eating place for for strangers other we and poor people . and for his books .

confined them with walls. the under the basest pretences. even the altars of county parish churches. there in who one corner long.} to Protbstawt " Reformation. perhaps.which Carthusiaxs. indeed. They had large estates. which. abounded more. which well stocked in the manner. exact on an than In England shall see there average. richly endowed was. The and country most people spoke of great reverence. not large. land- and miles 60. I beliere. sit a in. the other to according these door the rules of the On which Order monks belonged. cloister. they wholly provided for indigent within of their monastery. kitchen and was garden. in institutions.II. ! Here cry / unjust for " tyrant lay bis lawless hands them and was reformation91 gentry to share amongst on a enough. cast piteouslyas they did. a door opened and one led most to church. for the monk was of which the rest pulpit read while to eating in silence. No wonder that bowels Cranmer. such any more than any other and country these more in Europe.was of the these beautiful were. palled down with : we communities shall see. see them robbing.a laid out opened nicest sorts. . into the side of the was cloister. with fruit trees of all On the another side of the cloister. grievously deplored were the loss of them. England. the when and these they on their pious eyes and We on all naments. byand what shall alacrity they ousted. that within their monks by rules. that their I had though ever seen. and all their yearned mongrel litter. plundered. a door and door opened forty ing openthere were into garden side thirty feet wide. twenty those an (we the to a number ! by-and-bye) was a establishments and cruel county to to Here prize for upon. against " make robbers grand scale " out monkish the rance ignoof so and superstition Knox. On one of was a into was a their dining-room. where than of else. little Out of the about the hinder room. all the easy lords. or- farms and tnanors9 to all the silver ! gold belonging and-bye.

have. will it could be? was Henry agreed take wished to to mary Catherine.P"0TK8TAXT down the to REFORMATIO*. but not ment mo- place the until young after the death to Henry VII. whose the marriage was. consum- and. Henry VII. him seems and a happy have people.. exceeded. King succeeded He succeeded to a his father. The tion.. He had had was an eighteen years old elder when his father died. betrothed the early age of fourth twelve years. seventeen had tfcreesons and two \ . to Henry VIII. ava- expectedin which the wisdom to of his father been that without fathers only fault. in amidst of the rejoicings two nation. and have of all to been years. celebrated after the June. lawful to which in dispensation. named had been Arthur. necessary to the of his the deceased as from Pope. was the and whole months 62. in motion. shillings. who. who rice. in the year a great and prosperous and contented kingdom.ETTE* down a the very of five which smallest churches. was weak sicklyboy.the Princess was to England. who sorts was seem With virtues this youth. led the first take view of the motives tyrant. the there eye to the riage mar- in of the be no law. rine. lady. Catheand daughter of Ferdinand. a Catherine being. Henry VIII. in less than beautiful in her ever scarcely King'saccession. 1509. but and the who marriage was a ceremony and formed. and must to value But. died was before the year out. his full treasury. he lived in the married before the end of which be had state. per- Arthur. dispensatained. This 1509. order canon head of the Church. ob- could valid objection. supreme render it was nominally. King Artii ur was of Castile Arragou. on marriage it did by the parents both of the sides. and who the marriage never believe and that the mated. to set their devastatingand plundering faculties 61. sures mea- for his marriage. at brother. indeed. he The took King widow came throne. though only brother. When came four teen years old. of those we [L.

and from he in blood. his there . of he was still But afterwards the end Mary England. long since marriage. had his unanimously which and more* unhesitatingly approved over. dissolving the Pope. hopes that court to might induce by his tyrant relent. the had. upon and making himself upon head else Church be necet* this country. ous zeal- defender 63. he. grant the He. however. him He first He applied was a the divorce queen. attendant a the. his eyes Anne he was young lady. though. Pope to treasure. this England. ried mar- to believe to living in sin. Queen years. very to great were favourite many of the Pope. all of sudden.and back wards the to the the. had. he we affected. of the marriage. doing whatever might . who now. it queen would to been the not. younger a daughter. of who the court. "resolved in upon overthrowing the of the England. Henry his himself as shall hereafter I been. by her) one of whom was only. to it) that in a the Popb not. ordered in be held mine Legate and Before Wolsey. it and he in gratify in beastly lust. never the marriage Catherine and his brother been consummated. his was cost might to reputation. though own parents of both ties. for powerful. named that Boleyn. referred to still refused divorce* The the take any now step granting tyrant power of became the Popb in furious. of the been sanctioned by Pope. his because as was the widow between of brother. Legate. and virtuous did Nto accede it. a of the we faith and observances see. resolved But to the tyrant's passions his were now in what motion. aC of seventeen being thirty-five the queen. par- together with Council. of which head Church. court Queen disdained the plead-. cast and eight years on a than an and- baring queen. the to hear and deter* to ter matto* the ease.daughters alive. and the the have had the seen. on years of age. strong was motives so yielding request have but so that cruel request towards could time full of injustice.

dignity ready just tool then now vacant. on into a chapel. course. By making himself. flames most blasphemous he expired. it was discovered ing sweep- confiscation would means take place. now The tyrant. the not for our knowledge of fact. to be crated conse- according of bim action to swear the usual to pontifical form. to giving the King all authority whatever His a name ecclesiastical matters. he his vengeance. been those which himself the of kindling. of all the property monasteries as of that Churchy and a was that knew of the ! soon His counsellors that tiers cour- this \ and. and which. which which the deserves we be not were held nounce proit most at everlasting execration without almost a name could doubting of the justice of God. master himself he the supreme sword head and of the the Church.most last. a made Canterbury.Protestant Reformatio*. that to in the all matters. so his new Archbishop the once. every was one by no backward in the the Pope and in aiding The his hoping acts to share plunder. being Archbishop become became was a both of Pope and King. Cranmer amidst cause impious.that cold-blooded. here a tyrant still professed to be was Catholic. that. Cranmer.) he was obliged to take. But. chief adviser and abettor to THOMAS in CRANMER. [Letter! and tte gary to insure the of gratification his beastlydesires glutting of 64. caitiff had perfidious. by the the ok that to take. for not sake form. oath there he was declaration oath. Of this adviser ecclesiastical and chief judge for difficulty. show were And us trans-* sort took the he and place will. . he did intend to bind him- . which here required a obedience that Pope. chief 65.* at made having the gibbet hia cluding in- command. all first step and to over pass the taking in as was from authority to power Church England. went the made about to be consecrated. at of what of stuff before "reformation" went to gentry altar a made. the parliament designs.

actually declared.] TE Protestant Reformation. now with imaginable dispatch. that "falsely day. famous course. before oath. that he. lying book occupies highest place of Protestant with so Martyrs. mind give true these if feelings. acknowledged of the House of to such) before being Election Committee how he could J v * Commons. five years since the king and divorce* Cuanmer had begun to hatch the projectof the . to be have quiet to for a while that for. and . perhaps. when he could one next nothing twenty that he all the only for asking for. til self to the any in thing that any tended such to prevent him as from he knew assisting think King making Church who "reforms" ! to - might a usefulin the ire of England sworn 1 a once corrupt t la I* Cornish knave. be* seech first to kind 67. asked possibly give such words. from of a last. we fill ns It was contemplate nothing and or is not with now horror four disgust. to demanding be justice to hands wife and ! Hard indeed compelled have. who imbibed the principles from this very in lyingFox's 66. have " But. for of live to or with a of forty-three. " evidence. to to torn our we eyes must from not read no we further. Archbishop. in having direct he falsehood (and an private. of no / bringing at his his hard ! case before case." ourselves nature to keep cool. and and I am he sought relief had upright What impartial judge. conduct of this going other make to relate of Archbishop is very and of the to cerned conparties ns in the with make transaction our calculated bowels the paper way shudder horror." He. he he left his would his inso many the that taken he an had.II. him. we must reason of our ordinary impulses. a young" A eighteen now really hard got such an case. a to know We out the must history of the ourselves Protestant we Reformation. to make ns heave and to with resolve loathing. within us must . that lodging swear J "in morning. a Having provided himself judge time in in ecclesiastical matters. the King lost.

in ." it as a Now. as but give it. he king have two time! Now. if she is your own " record as own conscience well. take you marrying To my daughter. Cranker. the who death he stood firmly on I do is not side of Queen do the I believe I state. it. for then. to amongst wives at an people. Cr not mer. blushingfaculties in him. the king had she kept been Boyluff his -me in more modern for about phrase. [Lettejj Anne " but. ter. " for. three had under let prv*: state. when " the king's (laughto and he that was Lady about ylen. it became it was pregnancy to to avow could her not long disguised. in the meanwhile. in Dr."when There to " became. was I find the writings of excellent man. had she now. her mother. the eulogist (and suffered Catherine.. it might reformation" a seemed aukward. be 1533. was it isposH tively asserted. and. make had the play and. that. " said the the king* reve- marry heed Anne. or. in favourable record 68. . facts that it is necessary un- what to undeniably God than kuoivs. for do in rence " of God. make the partiea blacker they jure made even a by the Protestant historians themselves. Bayley's that life of AnneBoyxen Bo to Bishop Fisher.Protestant Reformatio*. tection" years. to famous ecclesiastical judge. king had Anne about for no three the years " under his protection. the his part . the press* onward rather the trial for the even divorce ." she this the be king replied. with to child. order was an therefore. as I true. what you your well Sir. the though truth a J believe fact. of their horrid The deeds. And. necessary also necessary have marriage. first time." As Anne riage marprivate s took place in January. which shall not " daughter Whose as mine. for. therefore. could if his have hypocrisy did no devil blush. my daughter soever is. woman time A be lost in make honest of her. I give it in thing of which who is undeniable. here.she do wife. other justly) of the because Bishop Fisher.

submit whom this wonderful gravely besought to himself to with this resignation decision of the at will of God. anxious safety of the of and. the King closed from farcical the beginning We and having done see this. resided.-T^1 1L] jpriJ 1533. at i who at had ordered to retire this time.5i" "=. a who. her ! to nei "M smJ J"! with fcing 69. the laws to holy monition ad- Church The and pious then and resigned King yielded held another Cranmer court Lam- . to placeCranmer Queen the open scorn opened before his court sent a citation the to appear him. begging him. he. royal soul . acting according ! . he more court.her marriage . The made trial by this incomparable crite hypo- judge. divorce. he pronounced with sentence against null his declaring. but this to he finished the first. the court. in violation of his clerical had. safety of his the own for the ]s nation. "f . the and he rerJ knew that king knew married at that to it. of food the PAOTEBTANT REFORMATION. and % latter. to " granthis permission no txy the to question of in the divorce. shall thus was. astonishing hypohe ^j crite ! knew. which When citation he she treated " witlj " that it deserved. him doing jobs in the 70. in the private. law. from woman of his to own a . The the time married King of graciously his his condescended who to was listen so this advice ghostly about the as pious primate. in BedfordAt this a little distance Dunstable. and an Is M hmeching him u longer live peril attending a-'A incestuous He intercourse"! and the Matchless. divorcing result known of line . number of the had the kept his court the days required by Queen. the the to King. granted the ghostly father. Head Church. v l-J /i *ay wrote a letter and to to the king. to this ghostly father King granted a licence hold court spiritual for the trial of the been at Queen Catherine. her. that months king had she been }""| actually child Anne when before. the king he knew knew three he that knew. as declared him to in of the spiritual court.Cranvows. without delay. from Amptiiill. for the soul. shire.

The about couplejogged years. moreover. and great call female her. poor hard making religion. any into kingdom country. wanted see." he had to labour deal to manage: new he had. strain hard to Boylen till (whom we the Protestant seen writers whitewash). a for quarrelling three pretty long time. to wanted son. work had. hang.new rules of discipline. shall see. He behead.9' a of the Protestant writers are now little of husband-like vigilance. successors from of the Apostles ! same We him. or rather looseness. as we quarters.being a a head man. had no a devastation. King had that he fully lawcon- z married Anne Boylen. for. new he had as new articles of faith. time a man he time which to jar a with Anne. it : but we assist bastardizing Anne fruit of now follow Mrs. " plentyof at occupation. of the Church. we the going to The freedom. we in the next and that ever Number. begun So the grand he of not confiscation. a is thing own td be thought that of when this " marries woman half his some age . for had that could great deal of time family squabbles. vice opposes had to if we duly and consider the many The now obstacles which peace happiness. as reformer. that the [Letter been now beth. however. Besides some had. lived and in cut of the best or in his to kingdom. . husband. 71. and who this was eight months the from who This did not please king. his the and l firmed which shall declare and must see the he see marriage by derived pastoral and judicial authority. exercisingthe this him new authorityto the marriage in null and void the from beginning. quite monster enough be on displeased apparently with without her on account. no If. however.1 Protestant " Reformation. by-and-bye. rip up. plunder and have 72. She was delivered the of end a daughter (who of was afterwards the date Queen of her a Elizabeth) at marriage. he to boh after her. which and he men things of all sorts shall see to prepare. at which he to declared. have the end of her.

without on a in a her soul by her a all the good. 1536. and excited the mirth a-going the of persons Catherine She had of another died. and husband. earth to a impute to single fault. him by her a most affectionate letter. and In example many offence the chat sober. in Abbey-church 73. she at a was. had had five children the by reformation" husband. whose iron heart seems The King.] of her manners. she died had and herself. not. however. ordered persons about our mourning the day " of her not But. that " in reality in a Queen ! Alas. a buried.It. Protestant Reformation* so very different from court those nation gave 6et of that virtuous had had before to Queen. but dressed in the gayest gaudiest she was former"! re- attire. them more as whom an the English for so and years.amongst spectators match. In the month the of May. for she moment. banished her marriage annulled child who by Cranmer. wear famous great female reformer herself out only mourning. to set suffer her.she of the . tiltinggave to one wich. but.. and on never barbarity keep her separated from. after her ! She banishment. man she had lived. a to have been softened. as her eyes that only child by every died. being incautious. Queen from the court. amidst the bings sobthe and of of vast assemblage of people. bed. expressed her unbounded now joy. did and not dictated him to " to wear from death on bed. Greencom* when. that to husband. Peterborough. ! and charged treason. " only surviving and the by act of -| parliament her. seen description. beloved in the tears and and revered was good the and woman kingdom. and great female this the just three months sixteen days from as day real of her exultation. deeply lamented on Queen died. along with at the King. bastardized had had to and her daughter and . under with death-warrant signed by adultery.which the burial. incest 74. her scaffold . She had been January 1536. for and our said.

quitted her to place. it were the to river. by and. of the Apostles. to this marriage? declare He it unlawful? the 76. that man. by water. and pronounced " marriage by his from Anne to be lawful. room God which 75. as committing against the to virtuous is Queen she it were to her. who never Anne our friend. have ! he perished before had. was the next But. before Cranmer. charged with They were being and of by law." and spiritual think name divorce a Anne ! One it impossible man. But. and her conveyed of the the Tower. to met. had so mainly assisted . that ing thing beardo such a of not should have consented a thing. with we slow in fire rather What the it have " seen paragraph 70." had the any was imprisoned in her very ia she From slept the night before moment coronation ! of her but imprisonment her behaviour innocence. the " see. be she brought. to sign igt the stantly in- attachment. his Would the " as head of church" to Archbishop from any to hold court.Protestant Reformatio*. in only before to hare confirmed He King suspicions which the he entertained. the annul successors pastoral^ " he he derived now. and had confirmed which was judicial authority. all was Roc those ford. the things by halves. who her was also which one seems of her paramours. his as order. which late she remind in say injustice.- [Lette* a batants. after all. that ordered to be confined Greenwich Westminster on night. Thoma-s The had did the him another tough job to perform. than do should it. " King. " cited King court and Queen to appear in his court9' I (Oh ! that !) His citation stated. treason to four gentlemen her of King's household. at to returned Westminster." How was How he to then. to ordered. just. with indicated thing conscious She was charged with the adultery committed and was. that their . all put death. Lord treason. 11 with incest with brother. exe- guilty. and acts she of course. and day. found cuted.

is to say. that At in the the was Tower. for the and were salvation of their should show cause why they to he rated. the " the of " Old Glorious" with as we shall see. but ! who had has to of to marriage that a And yet Burnet " the done such impudence every another he Cranmer appears have thing science con- good as conscience9'! did the Yes. very man bastardized not by the her decision of the mother's that say. void " of Christ. Elizabeth." that / the marriage God will was. afterwards wound up the up ra^ a of Common " Prayer.and should come that. by her commerce been the to guilty of treason? On the the 15th.and she did 'to buried place of innocent.and . stk" * appeared before by their proctors who. to him. how have as she. with deeds Burnet by time which got into the Bishoprick of Salisbury. ! and we always must at not loci beennull and Good or But give step. of her not me pretend to she and there appears some be very littledoubt to having done at least of the things imputed had never her null : but. Cranmer." they not I e ta fery. been unlawful. if her and marriage that could with the King had "always been with been void". Anne. " for the had of God.IE II. she is condemned she is wife of the King. for executed this was the 17th on of the May. dee to They U just going on be separated and was most tally . was by no means disconnected Reformation. " that they were livingin aduU souls. and. Anne was beheaded there. on 17th pronounced never . sepaeffechad was. the Book farcehy honour observe. the they interrupt us every "{ Thus "" was daughter. who to t" sq " been condemned on to death ! be and S the 19th him They both obeyed his citation. if she married other men." On the 19th 77. after having drew * heard these. 15th. in the name blasphemous and pronouncing. **/ way to exclamations.] nniage bad PEOTESTAKT REFORMATIO*. with who had only pronounced been the contriver i marriage lawful. put cution exe- into an elm-coffin. at which.

" we have was seen. aider promoter Cranmer. king. at dressed himself next in day to and. the very day. oar- of innocent. cause. in married Jane v Seymour. been of the the and the guilty she had breaking the had rightful Queen. if sh^ who tha* now we to describe are monsters brought " to the block ? and How that to describe who Head of the Church" of the Archbishop. her crimes how are now her charge the we for. it were. that the in thing called Reformation forth in " engendered and beastly How blood it lust9 brought in hypocrisy and in perfidy" innocent proceeded we devastating to see. the and " friends. of and done She the evening of to before the execution. had heart were others. have been been this it his his event wife. then. and. of the the for upon not a character whether laid to Re ma " tion. 78. ! she is as executed to " f" e having which wife the straw However. to lady the to lieutenant Tower her go to Princess wrongs Mart. my Thus. shedding have yet .Protestant Reformation." innocent were signifies the she were guilty . she beg her There pardon for the to had her. order repay disregard on for her. Marevell Hall. had the management that the religious affairs her England?. Hampshire. execution . of the the her for conduct the white was day on funeral of her of Catherine. of Fisher to caused and she blood been in all of the Moore and of and and be shed. unfaithful has on the 19th. by acting plunged in to which obstinate king The as had kingdom show his her into total confusion and blood. and. whom done of wrongs. begged the It is said. pernicious hard-hearted and his and abettor upon the to those an crafty councils. of she the many she had cause.

" III. My Friends. c still there . the servile the conduct courtiers. 3Ut January. man.No. Pope's and abolishing Supremacy. Englishman base contemplated foul deeds. carries real the worthy with of it can that name.then. the did. of the were merely as prelude was Sunk. with not an without his try. the flagrant injustice. have to they by the time. and of New Catholics conduct Protestants at the same Fire. hypocrisy. finally selfish and plunder of was Church of the and poor. king's councillors. we robbery. s Kensington. blushing for sentiment be a posed in the foregoing Letter. worthy and a of a name along sincerity have love of the ex* justice. which ? have already witnessed. the Defender of Faith. Resistance Effects Death of of to the King's the Measures. of than "" the countryman be we our oi*Cranmer and what Henry are ? be If. 79. to there. however. were some men and to the people's representatives. a LETTER III.that blood and got through which the a those scenes of tyranny. Sir Thomas OF More HoRftfBUfcMURDBRS I Luther Burning Execrable Title of and of the CATHOLICS. such feelings already. 1825. Religion. coun- What is honourable wish to in his mind. Bishop Fisher. they. rather VIII. the to country as by the members in the as parliament the hoping share. No which no Englishman. be who does almost foreigner. Cranmbr. deeds. SO.

- powerful guilt. into But. because is I am that you that water Micaiah I and must tell " truly that I shall eat marriage bread of unlawful .Protestant Reformation. the " and affliction. the of those. were silence.* * of the monks and who friars. dred speak it. I lenow.and were large part. because "Lord nath are put it in my the 44 mouth. Peyto The former. made These. will hate.a * pretty generally did saw known people "t thfe the " large. of the duty calls on to make particular and at of the two friars. mention Elstow. I must yet. from but Pope. our drink " of sorrow. t.greatest miseries princes this he daily abused by flatterers. take in the of lying.rather than abandon at " rifled into there were acquiescence. and. Which It is one blood in licked up by dogs. they from the ^ "- of their country infamy of sub' ' Of all the duties the of the historian. their sermons. or ttoe silent.said. But. of the one. Bishops. Your flatterers four to hun- " prophets.0 The 'kingtook . Ahab's good heed. winch and one giving it we the king. just previous to his text marriage in the Anne. find have his punishment. "to of the.all on shall his presently see integrity. many least. taking for where the passage first book a Kings. of was " Greenwich. 81. being seducid. preaching hh before with the king. sleek spirit lest you. well the as against that great taking of to paratory supremacy measure plunder* the spiritual The . a dying ter- . who most sacred stood attacks is of to recording defend conduct have the for- \ ward helpless hrodcence This conduct against me of . 'was to deceive " you. sur* Mtcaiah with prophesies against An -flatterersand Whom this the you b. [Lettee^ cruelty of the pre* raise divorce their voices of against the as and illegality Catherine. though they calamaties character mission. that which not succeed %n preventing rescued silent they approaching. and. not thus their to acquiesce. Who rounded " lying prophets. by the truth and by eOBversatieas* .who. 4 of the parochialclergy. or. the scaffold.

their not. even challenge unto " thee before all art equal judges one " Curwix. feet." the friars brought them.. waxed hot. shown If bishops. of the to be as ready by by land." 82 Stowe. and. he fled for fear of the w for. "Good " called know at out Curwjk. you that Petto and gone council provincial yoa . could not says. that. who to rebuked a told them. fled for fear who was a having said who was that he had and fame. deliciously. silence . another all those Micaiah. that they deserved into the Thames. and. make him next that Elstow . betraying the kinginto endless perdition. Cur win place before base king. and aloud Father to fellowsaid: to a ^ Bar of Petto. and fare. or only a fourth c2 part of them. we "driven " . Canterbury.] in [itpoof PrOTESTAVT REFORMATION. and beggarly friar. relates this so in his Chronicle. In meanwhile I my "am u here. and day before king'scouncil. which of the four hundred is " prophets. the a Dr.to-morrow. "seekest " ulteryto establish who " succession. things true. with to God. for the hence: heaven discharge 'of thanks to water duty. as will return. and this combat . sack. rich and Elstow said. that the they ' "Mm " cease his speech. but we are chiefest are hope in this world for we esteem our " joyful. . had . Elstow. God I say. having ^ ^ ofied Petto umI traitor + dog9 slanderer. smiling: who are Threaten these in thingsto dainty persons have them "clothed " purple." It is impossible to of these would not speak with men. rebel. as know the way 83. The until two king himself were bade the and hold his peace. and to and which will he lay I down life to prove out hath taugh" thee. " " be put into throwa Whereupon. is not . present.the in the same next Sunday. false and I I " of Holy Scripture.into by ad whom the spiritof lying a entered. and now Sir. sufficient admiration thousand much conduct or Ten so victories in by the had -sea bespeak as was heroism winners of those victories the shown by these friars.

[Lettee that career- equal which The courage. the the to suppression of the Pope's Supremacy.is the all that cruel treatment . and in defence and severe person with they tainty cer- never personally known. that supremacy. how the our not itself.ied. an cept vile pen deeds Burnet. who exerted heads talents block as' prevent than suppression. all the England. But. knowing that this. and learning. oath. and were men Fisher.? half stand made against of the only instance hold and open and even until resistance. 'for Bishop take two Rochester.laid that the the rather we tion sanc- suppression. in by any selfish motive . who was who was the of Chancellor. incurring Before the come that. and we would think to that heroic to of Peyto Elstow talk ought of " be sufficient' make hesitate before monkish was no ignorance] wild could and superstition/' Recollect. actually got injtohis that there the never was murders robberies.Protestant Reformation. was To to was deny refuse king's supremacy. seeiofi ex-T yet of of found Protestant so pen. that fana-': not ticism actuated the had cause of those men they stood be'. and. to for It is long no and faithful services the king of the and his father. was now the on tyrant would the eve hare stopped in so of him producing hy these two many poor horrors. to offer one much as apo*' the' logy for the virtue us this tyrant. take a an made high treason. pen. weak these its presumption two in favour had their Pope's supremacy. John to deemed Lord denial Sir Thomas More. than which cause More of Fisher d.for integrity. that in the conduct there . Of put in death refusingto were this most oath. that they of a forward whom the if of morality. their on that to men. these the famed for for piety. acknowledging of it. too. of death the their most punishments. source Russels to sinks from the sight ! of that We consideration copious of blood. that take it is same refusal of rather Catholic take fellow subjects to and this oath. / friars waiV he had. knowing our do. and now conduct heroism of the Hampdens 84. I. a and.

III.]
which end to
;

PmOTESTAKT

REFORMATION.

the

Irish

people hare

so

long endured,
are now so

and

to

put

an

which

ill treatment that may becomes
are

they
on

arduously struggling
that
war

knowing

it is
rest
us

this very
case

point

the
;

fate of

England herself
these
nature

in

of

another

knowing
is the

things, it
and
to

to

inquire with
this

care

what

what

the

effects of
it be

papal

supremacy,

in order
to

ascertain, whether
to

favourable, or otherwise,

true

religion and
The

civil
us

liberty,
that

85.

scripturetells
in

Christ's

Church

was
"

to

be

ONE,

We,

repeating
Catholic
means

the

Apostle's Creed,
Catholic,
And

say,
as we

I behave

Here in the
seen

Holy

Church." universal.

in

paragraph 3"
an

how

can

we

believe in Church the
is

universal and

church, without
under the

believingthat
of
one

that ? In

ONE,

direction
v.

head
says,

gospel of Saint John, chap. 10,
good shepherd,
and

16,

Christ shall be

that

he is the and
one

that

"

there

one

fold
to

shepherd."
in

He

afterwards In
"

deputes
same

Peter

be 17

the
v.
"

shepherd
and
are

his

stead*
says, I
am

the

gospel,chap.
are

10

11, Christ mine, and
more

And

all mine them.

thine, and
And
now

thine
am no

in glorified but

I and
own

"

in the thee. whom
we

world,

they

are

in the

world,
thine may

u

I

come

to

Holy
thou

Father, keep through
hast

"

name
"

those
as

given
in

me,

that

they

be

ONE,

are,"
"

Saint

Paul,

his

second farewell

epistle to
:

the

Corinthians, says,
be of his

Finally, brethren,
be of ONE

be perfect,
same

good comfort,
to epistle to

MIND."

The
v.

in Apostle,
"

the the

Ephesians, chap. 4, unity
of the
one

3,

says, bond
as

Endeavouring
of
are

keep
is
one

in the spirit
even spirit, one

"

peace. called

Theje
in
one

body
of your

and

ye

"

hope

calling;
God and

lord, ONE
of

"

FAITH,
Now;
Jesus
there I

ONE

BAPTISM,

one

Father

all."

Again, in
" "

his first epistle to the beseech you, ye

Corinthians,
the
same
name

chap. 1, v.
of
our

10,
Lord
that per*

brethren, by
all

Christ, that
he
no

speak

the you

thing,
but that

and he

a

divisions
.

amongst

;

ye

PttOTBSTAJTT

RETOttMATIOlT.

[LeTTIE
and
the
same

"

fectlyjoined together in

the

same

mmd

is \

'

"judgment"
86.
own

But, besides
which
we

these say

evidences
we

of

besides scripture,
the

our

z

creed,

have/row thing.
TWO It is
true

Apostles, there
It cannot
man

^
^
-

is the
to

reasonableness
that there
two
to

oi the
can

monstrous perfectly

suppose
one

be

faiths.
wiH any

be: that
must

of the

musf

be false.
a measure

And

say, ^

we

ought
an

applaud

which, of necessity, 4
of faiths ? If
our

produce

indefinite upon in
not
a
our

number

j eternal,
can

salvation

depend

believing the
of
which such takes
a

truths
have

it be 3

good

to

place people
And does

state

necessity to

different -jj
the head

beliefs ?

that,

away
of
to

^

of the Church, How there be
all is the

inevitablyproduce
all nations
a

state

necessity?
ONE,
who it if
to to
-

faith of

.to continue of the
as

be

be,

in every in

nation,
the

head

Church,
all

appealed to,

last resort,

to

questions, as
"

points of dispute, which
is there to
to

may fold
and the

arise ?
and
one

How,

if this be the
?
are

case,

be
one

"

one

shepherd

How
tie

is there
"

be the

"

faith

one

baptism" ? How
of
what
moment

k
m
m

unity of
?

spiritand
shall

bond
see

peace"
unity
that

to

be

pre*
what

served peace
became

We
were

presently

and
the

there
the To

in

England, the
Church.
to ;
a

King L
j*

head

of the

87.

give
to
a

it

give this supremacy occasionally to a woman
even

King is,in
and still very
we more

our

case,

to

si

frequently f
see

child,
on a

to

a

baby.
years it

We
of

shall age, and

soon

it de- S
see

voire
monstrous

boy,

nine

shall

the

effects that
all his all

produced.
were

But
to

if his die

present Ma*

jesty
only
herd
every
"

and

royal brothers
should old.
to

to-morrow
on

(and girl
"i

fjthey are

mortal), we
five years

see

it devolve would be

a
"

little
one

about

She
our own

the which

shep*
repeat

;" she, according

creed,
of the

we

Sunday,
"

would

be have
a

head
a

"Holy
of
regency.

Vatholic Oh
!

I -\

Church then

!

She would

would
be

council

there

whole

troop oi shepherds. There

j

L"T7|III]
wist

P*Qf:ft*T4XT

REHUtMATJQ*.

then be

pretty

M

and unity of spirit"

a

pretty

"

bond

of peace.* cleg J 89. A* ikeKing
to
or

the

Pope's interference
sbam

with
up
was,

the

authority of
is, that
he

state, the

plea
with

set

and whom

divided the

government
with

the

King,
to

to

belonged
within
out

like sole supremacy realm.
This

regard

every

thing
shut

his

doctrine, pushed
make
the

home,

would

Jesus

Christ himself, and
and Spiritual

King
are

an

object of

adoration.

temporal authority
and

perfectly distinct
in their exercise
;

in
and

their nature,

ought

so

to

be sake

kept
of

that, too,
the sake
testant

net

-only

for the

religion,but

also

for Piothe

of civil

liberty.

It ia curious
most
out

enough that^the
with

sectarians, while

they crying

cordiallyunite against the

established
"

Clergy in
w

Pope

for

usurping

the

King's authority,and
that
"

against the Catholics special care
to
over

for

countenancing
this
same

take usurpation,*9 has any

deny, that
themselves

King

spiritual supremacy
their other Even

! The

have Presbyterians all the
own.

thodists synod, the Me-

their
some
.

conference, and
other

motley mongrels
the hare
"

head

or

of their
of
All

meek"

and.

money-making
and power
to
or

followers

George
these

Fox

their
an

Elders

Yearly Meeting.
over

heads

exercise
or

absolute
tion sanc-

their

members. of

They give
the

refuse their

the

appointment
them
at

hawlers
We
a

;

they

remove
seen

them,
the

break in

pleasure. ordering preaching
the whole in

have

recently
the

Synod
Fl
etch

Scotland
to
cease

preacher of
He

name

of
not to

ek

in London.

appears
seems,

have thrown

obeyed
into

; but

congregation has, it
consequence

been

confusion
or,
to

of this disobedience.

Strange enough,
sects, the
to

rather, impudent

enough,

is it, in these in

refuse
while
not

acknowledge
declaim oath

any

spiritual supremacy
because

King,
will

they
an

against the Catholics, acknowledging
that
can

they
and
sects

take

that

supremacy
these

:

is it not,
can

then, monstrous, Parliament,

persons

belonging to

sit in

sit in the

King'scouncil, can

Retqematioh.
to
and

[Lsttj
all these
and

generals fr
many

admirals

or

judges,while
are

from

others, the Catholics
their

excluded,

.that,too?-

only because
to

consciences, their honourable
not

adherence^
them
to to

the

will religion of their fathers,
this supremacy the
one one

allow
to

knowledge
"

;

but

bids them and
to

belong
none

the^

one
"

fold and
one

shepherd"
faith,and
was one

know

other,

than 89.

Lord,
the

baptism"?
hypocrites pretended
country.
This I
was

But in
a,

Pope

^foreigner* exercising spiritual
this the
the

power
was

England;
to

and

degradation
to

King
Bull,

and who

something
say,

tickle

John
an

has, and

dare

always has had,
in the
we

instinctive

dislike to
be
one an

foreigners Englishman,
of this*

But,
end

firstplace, the
in

Pope might
seen

have
how

paragraph 42,
a

instance
to this

Then,
the Was S00

could it be

thing degrading
with
were

nation,when
nations?

same

thing

existed

regard
all the Did

to

all other

King
years,

Alfred,

and

long line of kings,for
who

degraded
not

beings?
what

those

really

quered con-

France,
did
not

by subsidies and
was

bribes, but

by
what do

arms;
was

they

not

understand
not

degrading, and

? Does

the present

King of France, and
this matter? freedom
is

not

the the less

present

French

people, understand
and
the

Are
latter

-sovereigntyof the former

of the

perfectbecause
fend

the

papal supremacy
its supremacy exercise Colonies

ledged, distinctlyacknowif the

has full effect in France? exercise

And in

Synod
.

in

Scotland Conference in

can

England, and
in

the

in

England
in the
or

its supremacy
; if this
ffre
can
we

Scotland,
any
the

Ireland,and

be
to

without

degradation of king
exercise 90. of the

people,why
as

look upon
to

papal supremacy
there the
was

degrading

either money

? of

'Aye

; but to

the

money.
cannot

The

England
courts

went

Pope.
and

Popes

live, and
state

keep

and
any

ambassadors,
more

maintain

great
A

without
money

money,

than
to

other

people.
;

part of the part also of

of

England

went

the

Pope

but

a

that

of

Ti

III.]
every other

Protestant
Christian not, nation

Reformation.
took
the
same

direction.
It
was so

This
much will
sued, en-

money

was

however, thrown

away.

givenfor
and

the

preservationof unity of faith, peace, morality.
We

good
that

charity,and
and

shall,in
and
to

the

broils
to

in the consequent that the laid
we

subsidies which
went
we

bribes the

foreigners,
was tremely ex-

soon

see

money,
out.

Pope,

well

Eut,

how

Protestants
whole in

strain

at

a

gnat, while
Perceval than
the

swallow
more ever

camels
to

by
from

caravans!*
one

Mr.
year

gave

foreigners
our

single
in

Popes
We
no

received

ancestors to
a

four

centuries. who
was

have
to

bowed,
the
crown

for years,
any
more

Dutchman,
one

heir

than

of

our

workhouse

paupers, veins other than time
iwo

and
; and

who
we

had
now

not

one

drop of English
to

blood in his
and
more

send

annually
the
name

verians Hano-

under foreigners,
was ever

of

half-pay,
years. have heirs of the

money the

sent

to

the

Pope

in twenty
"

From
been

of

the

"

Glorious

Revolution,
a came

we

paying

thousand

pounds
who

year
over

to

the
to

"Marshal Dutchman
are

Schomberg,"
; and

help
as

this

is,mind,

to be

paid

as

long

there
to
use

such

heirs

of Marshal

Schomberg,

which,

the

elegant [and

logical and

philosophicalphrase pf
dare say, be "for

our

great "Reformation
and and
a

"-Poet, will, I
And
have
we

ever

day."
the
rest

forgotten the tribe, who
:

Bentincks
had
we

all

of the

Dutch
them the

estates

of the of the

Crown

heaped
of

upon and the

and

do
money
a

talk, then,
occasioned

degradation
supremrxy
a

loss

of
It

by
that this

the
not

Pope!

is

notorious been wanted for

fact,
in the the

German

soldier would
the last war,
state

have

kingdom, during
and

had

it not

been in

disturbed German
been

dangerous
were

of Ireland,

which have have
to

troops

very have
now

much
to

employed.
pay, and

We

long
to

paying,

and

shall

long
a

pay,

upwards

of

a

hundred

thousand

pounds

year

the
we

half pay

officers of these troops,one
c5

single penny

of which

P"OTESTANT

RlVO"M

ATIOX.

[LSTflAj
dispensed wtt;
Every
one

now

should
oath

not

hare

had

to

pay,
the

if

we

had

the

of supremacy

from

Catholics.
must

to

i

his

taste;
me

but, for
in
to

my

part, if I

pay

foreignersfa!
(oPiTII1

keeping
than

order, I would
Hessian of
to

rather

pay

"pence
Alien
purpose

pounds

Grenadiers.
was

Priories,
of have

thsj
%\

establishment learned
pesons
source

which
come

for

the

indueiig]
been

and

live in

England,

copious
their

of

declamatory

complaint
my

But,

leaving
latter

out utility

of the

question, I, for
to

particularpot,
which short
were

prefer Alien
this country

Priories
has
never

Alien

Armies,

from
very

\

been, except for

'i intervals,

wholly free, from
I wish
not to set

the

day
up

that
as a

the

former

suppressed.
of taste; cloister to the

myself
leave
to

dictator

in matters

but,

I must

take the

say, that I of matins

preferthe
to
9

barrack;
drum
crown

chaunting
to

the

reveille
cap be
; the

by the
shaven with
the

; the to the

cowl

the

brass-fronted
the

hairy
latter
cross

mustachio, though
the rosary,

stiffened
to

black-ball;
belt with

with

the

appendant,

its box
penance
sets
"

of
to

bullets ; and,
the

beyond xallmeasure,
One
must and
or

I the
;
.

preferthe
other

point of*the bayonet.
would
seem,
never

of these the

of

things,it

we

have
never

for^before dreamed,
event

Reformation
a

,"England
as a

knew,
;

of such
has such

thing
in
:

standing soldier
what

since .that
was

she

never,

reality,known
till, at. last,
a

it

to

be

without army,
even

soldiers

thundering standing
is

in time
to the
and

of

profound

peace,

openly avowed

to

be necessary in Church 9 1
.

"preservation of our
State!"

happy

constitution

However,
to

this money
No

part of the affair is now
one

over,

with

regard
at

the any

Pope.

proposes

to

give him

any

money

all,in

shape whatever.
church
to

The
be

Catholics

believe, that they

the

unity of their
in

would

that destroyed,were

would,

short, cease
;

be

Catholics, if they
not

to

abjure

his supremacy iDsist that

and, therefore, they will

abjure it : they
from authority

their teachers

shafl receive their

HI]
bim:
more

Pbqteitavt
and than what do

Ripobm

atiov.

,

they, with regard to the Pope, insist apon
upon and

if insisted

acted

upon

by

the

Presby-

with regard riaot, 92.
as Lastly,

to their

synod?
of the

to

this supremacy
to

Pope,
to

what say,

was

ite efiect with

regard

civil

liberty; that is

with perty pro-

regard to the security,the rightful enjoyment of men's
and fell lives7.

We

shall,, by-and-by,

see,

that

civil liberty

by the

same

tyrannicalhands But, whence
laws
came

that
our

suppressed the
civil

Popes
Whence
calls
"

supremacy.
came

liberty?
Coke each of be

those

of England,
in

which and

Lord
which

the

birth-right"of Englishmen,
America, declares,
the
its

the States of
"

constitution,to
Whence
The
came

the

birth-rightof
Are
to

people thereof ?"
revilere-of the Protestants
to

these laws ?

they of protestant
make the

origin?

bare

question ought
their beads
courts

Catholics

hang
three

for shame.
the

Did

establish the

and

twelve
human
owes

Judges,

which

establishment,
sometimes her fame when
not
a

though, like all other
worked

it has institutions,
so

evil,England
greatness ?
supremacy

large a portionof
This

and the

her

Oh,
was
nor

no

!

institution

arose was

Pope's

in

full

vigour.
nor

It

gift from

Scotchmen

Dutchmen

Hessians;
was

from of and

Lutherans, Calvinists, nor
our own

Hugonots

; but

the work
;

brave Justice

and

wise

English Catholic
is the heir, in which
was an

ancestors

Chief

Abbott

unbroken

line of

succession, to that Bench,
who the
was, at the

erected

by Alfred,
in

very

same

time,
and

most

zealously engaged Pope's

founding

of churches
we

of monasteries.
the macy supre-

93.

If, however,
and its

that stillinsist,

accompanying

circumstances,
us

produced ignorance,
the

superstitionand
consistent and
blow
us 8

slavery,let
men.

act
us

part of

cere, sinor

honest

Let

knock

down,

up, weep

the cathedrals
away

and collegesand
twelve

old churches

; let

the three courts, the

judges,
all that
we

the

cuits cirrit inhe-

and from

the

jury-boxes;

let

us

demolish

those whose

we religion

w.tuutfentingly persecute,

PftorzfcTAKT
and whose

Reformatio*.

[Lette*
let
us

-

memory
all

we

affect
we

so

heartilyto despise:
have

demolish the the

thie, and

shall

left,all

our

own,

the stock-exchange; capacious jailsand penitentiaries; hot and ancle and knee

swelling and standing

s lung-destroying

cotton-factories; the
barracks .splendid
; the

whiskered

army

and

its

parson-lieutenants, parson-captains,
the

parson-ensigns and
which the have 94.

parson-justices ;
no means
"

poor-rates and

the

pauper-houses; and, by
is peculiarly and NATIONAL
you

that blessing forgetting,

doubly and
Ah
! !

gloriously"protestant,
of

DEBT. deceived

people

England,

how

been

But, for argument'ssake, counting the experience of
let
us

antiquity for nothing,
civil

ask

ourselves

what

a

chance

libertycan

stand, if all power,
of the
same man.

and lay, be spiritual That
man

lodged in the hands
4i

must
an

be

despot, or his power must be undermined cky9 or by something. If 4he President,or
the

by
the

Oligar*
they
pointed apno

Congress, of
if

United the

States,had

a

spiritual supremacy;
have would tenths
be
a

Bishops

and

Ministers,, though they have
no

benefices
to

to

give, and would

and

first fruit* in the
a

receive, their* government
time. and the "the

tyranny

very

short of

Montesquieu

observes, that
have been

people
slaves,,
such

Spain

Portugal would
power

absolute

without
a

of

the

Church,
to

which

is, in

case,

only check
we ears

arbitrary sway."
and

Yet,

bow

long have
in
our

had
!

"

papal usurpation
How the had
the
no

tyranny"

-dinned

This

charge against the
was

Pope
to

sw" an

passeth
-usurper,
no

all
or

understanding.

Pope

be

tyrant, in England ?
no

He

fleet, no
not

army,
even a

judge,
"

sheriff, no
or

justice of
at

peace, We tillwe in

constable .single told of the

beadle

his commands

have have

beenr

thunders

of the Vatican"
was

almost

believed, that the
If
we

Pope's residence
belief in
numerous

the skies;
not

and,
passed sur-

had in

believed k quite, the belief would
our felly

have

other

hatched stories,

by the gentry "f

the

"tRe*raittW'

The

tra*

thai it,

the

Iff.] rTIJ
et

Protest

awt

Reformatio*.
he derived

Popehad "J

no

power

but that which

from

the free his

will of the people. 71nJ in his contests with 'f|
lcl
merous

people were kings; and, by Pope
had had
a

The

frequently on
this means,

side,
nu-

they, in

instances, preserved their rights against the attempts
If the
no

of tyrants. sprang power up
an

power,

there must
check
a

have the

or Oligarchy,

to something else,

of the would. VIII.
his

king ;
We
;. we

or, every

king might have
see see
a

been

Nero,
in
pros*
even

if he

shall
shall

soon soon

worse

than

Nero
law

Henry
trate at

him

laying all

feet ; and

plundering his people down
poor.

to

the be
so

patrimony of the
;

But,

reason

says be
now

that it must

and, though this spiritual power
the

nominally
tricks and
most

lodged in
contrivances

hands
have
we

of

the

king;
order
! that

to

how

many

resorted, and
in
to

some

of them

graceful dissessing pos-

and the

fatal ones,

prevent him
are

from

of this power reality
and

We is
to

obliged to effect by
means

by influence
almost

by faction ;

say,

in*
not
was

direct, disguised,and
to

immoral, frequentlyflagitiously
into the

say

seditious
means

bargain, that
that while
"

which

effected,

by

direct, avowed,

frank, honest,
all

and

loyal.
ministers and

Jt
are

is

curious

enough,

Protestant

talkingabout everlastingly
all of

papal usurpation
from the profit what

tyranny"

them, except those who
not
"

establishment, talk
have
no

less

incessantlyabout
would
to

they
Church

scrupleto call,
What had
a

that two-headed

monster*,

and

State."

monster

it have
"

been, then, if
that is to say,

the Catholics
to

submitted

tbe

Veto
the

;"

give the
the

king a

rejectingvoice in.
and thus
to

appointment of
who

Catholic
"

Bishops ;
with

make

him,

is

already
~

Defender

of the Faith"
the

against which
the

he protest*, the him

an

associate

in carrying on Sovereign Pontiff,
to which

affairs of that
to

church,

law

forbids strictly

belong !'*
95.

Thus, then, this
most

so

much
it

abused
was

papal

supremacy

was

a

salutarything:

the

only check, then

neon despotic existing, power, besides it being absolutely

P*0TEST4NT
to that

REFORMATION.
without faith,
name was an

[LETTI*
there could he

oessary

unity

of

which Catholic

nothing worthy of the

of
act

a

Church. also

T"j
*"

abjure this
act

supremacy abandonment
man

of apostacy, and the

of

hate

of the
was

of rights

people. Toj
and all for

requireit
the laws
to

of any

to to

riokte

Magna

Charta

of the land ; and
the

put

men

to death

refusing!

comply with

request, was
such

to commit

mar* unqualified

der.

Yet, without

murder, without

shedding innocent!
must

blood, it was

to effectthe object Blood impossible

flow.

Amongst
were

the

victims

to

this act and High

of

outrageous
Fisher.

tyranny,^

Sir had The

Thomas been
the

More Lord

Bishop

TteJ
for many
*1

former
years.

Chancellor

character
one

given of him

\ by his contemporaries,
as

and

by

every

to

the present

day, is that of

great per* \
a

fection for human
age, his
men as
a a

and piety, learning, integrity, as
to possess.

it is possible for

being
"

He

was

the greatest
servant

lawyer of his

long;tried

and

most

faithful

of the

king and
.

father,and
in

was,

besides, so highly distinguished beyond
his

generalfor
as

gentlenessand

humility of

manners,

well shock

for his talents and
all

that his murder abilities,
was

gave in

to

Europe.

Fishea

equallyeminent
was

piety,and integrity. He point of learning,

the

viving only sur-

of the late king,whose privy-councillor

mother her
son

(the
and

grandmother
listen

of

Henry

VIII.) having outlived
her
v

daughter, besought, with
to

dying breath,
ad vice of this
until that

the

young

king

to the particularly

learned) pious
thwarted
that

and

venerable

prelate; and,
was

advice of
be

his
no

brutal other

passions, he prince
He and
could

in

the
a

habit

saying,

boast

of
the

subject to

compared

with

Fisher* the hand which
knew
no

used^ at
call him

council-board,to take
of favour and and devotion

him

by

his father ; marks zeal

tion affecwhich
to

the

Bishop repaid by
other than those

bounds

prescribedby his duty

God,
.

his

king and

his country. and

But, that sacred duty bade

him. object to the divorce
thea.lte tyrant

to the

king'ssupremacy

; and

jbrgett^

all"is

UJJ

Pbotbstaht

Reformation.
him the he

devotion, all bit unparalleledattachment,
after fifteen months block, of

sent

to

imprisonment, during which
in filth and been had his boast
the

lay,worse
whom
he

than

a

common

felon, buried him, who

almost
and
axe rable vene-

destitute of food had

;

sent

called his

father, to perishunder

;

dragged him
face

under forth,with limbs tottering and

him, bis

hoary locks begrimed, and
with
the rags

his nakedness

scarcely covered
lum
,

left on
even

bis

body

;

dragged
life was

thus forth to the left him
!
to

and, scaffold,

when

the

f

gone,
monster

to lieon
stems

that scaffold likeadead the
torrent

dog! Savage
us a

Rage

of
us

our

tears, hurries about
us

|

back

the

horrid

scene,

and heart

bids

look

for

daggerto plunge
96.
And

into the

of the tyrant.
and
a

yet; the
has
was

calculating, cold-blooded
say, that
"

brazen
man as

Burnet

the

audacity to
to

such

Henry VIII.
He i
were

necessary
that

bring about
measures

the reformation
as

l"

means,

of course,
;

such

those of what
? it
"

Henry
be

necessary and

and, if they

were
"

necessary,

must

the nature 97. with The

tendency of
of blood
All

that
now

Reformation

work

was

begun,
to

and

proceeded
oath

steady

pace.

who

refused

take

the

of

supremacy
were

; that

is

to

say,

all who

refused
as

to become

tates, aposto

considered

and

treated
with the every

and made traitors,

suffer death As

accompanied
a

possible crueltyand
of Burnet's

dignity. in-

specimen of
and
to spare

works

sary neces-

reformer,
let
us

the reader

the subrepetition ject, on

take theireatment
in

of John
was

Houghton,
then
a

priorof
convent to

the Charter-house Carthusian
the monks.

London, which
This

of take

prior,for having refused'
not

oath, which, observe, he could
was perjury,-

take

without He
was

ting commit-

dragged
the rope
were

to
was

Tyburn. cut,

scarcely
on

suspended, when ground.
His

and he fell alive
bowels

the
were

clothes heart
a

then

off;his stripped
were

ripped up
and
was fttdj

; his

and

entrails
was

torn

from

his

body
;

flung into

fire'J his head

cut

from

rnVbody

the

divided

into quart** and

the quarters par-boiled;

Protestaxt
then subdivided
one arm was

Reformatio*.

[Letti

were

and

hong

op

in

different parts of
over

city; and
into the 98.

nailed

to the

wall

the

en

monastery!
were

Such
to

the

means,

which

Burxet

says

wefir

necessary
!

introduce

the

protestant religion into
! from

land Engthi

How

different,alas
been

the

means

by

which

CatKolic
and Saint

religionhad
Austin
under !

introduced horrid

by Pope Gregory
were

These
the

butcheries

perpe-"*

trated, mind, Crakmer,
named

primacy

of

Fox's

great

Martyr,
raffia"jbsoon est

and

with 'the active

agency whom
we

of another
shall

Thomas
with

Cromwell,
Crasjmer
the

sharing
99. which

work

of

plunder, and

finally

sharing,too,
Before
was

in his
we

disgracefulend.
enter
on

the the

grand subject of plunder,
"

the

mainspring of
his
as

Reformation,"
their

we

most

follow .the king and

primate through
and

murders
must at

of
see

protestants
how
the

as

well

Catholics.

But, first,we
how

Protestant Whence

religionarose,
the 3.
term

it stood
came,
we

this bare

juncture.
seen

Protestant
a name

in

paragraph
or

It

was

given

to
or

those, who universal,

declared,
church.

protested,against
work of
a

the

Catholic,

This

protestingwas
friar, whose
to
a

begun
name

in
was

Germany,
Marti*

in

the

year

1517, by
and
who

Lutiieb,

belonged
of Saxony.

convent

of

Augnstin
the

in the friars,

electorate the

At

this time

Pope

had

authorized

preaching of certain indulgences, and
been order

this business cans,
to
one

having
to the

intrusted
to to

to

the

order

of Domini

and

not

which commit

Luther such

belonged, and
trust, here
to opposition
was

which
of

it had

been

usual

the

motives

from He

which
a

Luther's

the

Pope proceeded.
Elector relish and of

found

protector in his sovereign, the
to

Saxony, who
as

appears that

have
our

had

as

strong

a

for plunder

with

which

English tyrant
a

his courtiers

and

parliamentwere
agree that Luther

seized

few

years

afterwards. 100. All accounts
was a

most

pro*-

t

JIL]
$ate
man.

Protestant

Reformation.

To
called him stands shall

change
by
to

his

he might have religion,
;

thought
could
not

himself call upon which which be I

his conscience be

but,

conscience

guilty of
even

all the

abominable
own come

deeds, of

convicted

by

his I

confessions,of
to sects

speak

more

fullywhen
of the

the

proper

placefor giving an
the Protestants which
was,
were

account
soon

numerous

into which

divided;
in

and

of the fatal

change
even

by^his
the

innovation

religion,produced,
Protestant
the leaders of

to according

declaration of the
that the

of the

them-'

in selves,

the

morals

people and
Protestant

state

society.
at

But,just observing
time
we are

sects

had,
over
a some

the

speaking of, spread
and had

themselves

part of
other
more

Germany,
states of

got into
we

Switzerland
now,

and
we

the

Continent,

must

before
the dealt
sects

state

particulars relatingto Luther
rise to, see
who subjects how had

and

that those

he

gave of his

the

king of England
the

with

adopted

heresy. began
whrle
to

101. The amongst
o/owe^was

Protestants

immediately
all

disagree
that

themselves;
sufficient to

but, they
secure

maintained,
;

faith
The

salvation
were

the

lics Catho-

maintained, that good works
most

also necessary. and

of profligate
be
a

men,

the most
"

brutal

bloody of tyrants,
believe ;

may

staunch

believer

for the devils themselves

and,therefore,we

at firstthought, think naturally,

it strange,

!

that

Henry VIII.
did
not

did

not
one

become instantly of the
most

a

zealous

tant, Protes-

become

devoted Luther

disciples began
his

of Luther.
"

He
a

would,
few

certainly ;
too
soon

but

Reformation"

years his

for the

king. In 1517,
been
not

tfhen Luther
to his first

began

works,
years9,

the and

king

had

married
then
ceived con-

wife

only eight

he had had

\
any years

projectof

divorce. would

If Luther
been
new a

begun twelve
at

later,the king

have
this

Protestant

once,

after seeing,that especially, and
sev^n
to

religionallowed
leaders
a

ther Lumation" Refor-

other

of his brother
their

in the
to

"

grant, under
Hesse
to

hands,

license
at

the

Land-

grave,

of

have

TWO

WIVES

one

and

the

Protectant
time ! So doubtless

Reformation,

[Lett**
have

same

complaisant
was, ;
at

a

religion would
of the divorce,

beaa"

i

and the

the
as

time
I

to precisely
caat

|

king'staste
years this
too

but,
soon

have
;

just observed, it
for,
not

twelve

for him
had

only bad
a

be

itf

adopted
and,
as an

but religion,
was a

opposed it, as
serious had affair,

sovereign; opposed b,
a

which

still

more

AUTHOR! His

He vanity,
be
a

had, in 1521,
his

written

BOOK
cot-

against it.

pride,were
that

engaged

in the

test ; to which

may

added,
"

Luther, in answering h*
a

book,
"

had

called him
a

pig, an

ass,

dunghill, the spawn'
in
a

of

an

adder,
a

dressed basilisk, a lying buffoon fool with
a

a

kingls
lie, job

"

robes,
face
"

mad and

frothy mouth
said
to

and
"

whoritk

"

;

had

afterwards

him,

you

"

stupid and
102.

king.'' sacrilegious
bent
on new

Therefore, though the tyrant was

on

the Catholic

Church,

he

was

not

less bent

the

destroying extirpatitt
Alwafl j{ or other,
by X9rk
work
i

of the followers of Luther under he
was,

and

his tribe of

sects.

the influence of
with

some

selfish and

base

motive
to

regard
case

to

the

Protestants,set

work
$et to

venge,as,

in the
not

of the

he had been Catholics,

by lust, if
butcheries mind bals.
to
a

by

lust to be

gratified by
minute

incest.

To

followj

him, step by step, and
and
human

in

detail, through all hisJ
be to familiarize
a

all his

burnings, would

ones

j
!

slaughterhouse and

cookery'of canala

I shall, therefore, confine
in this way.

myself to
had

general view of
the
more

;

his works
103.

His

book

against Luther
the Faith" not,

acquired him
we

title
,

of

"Defender
He
;

of

of which

shall

see

by-

-

and-by.
a

could

without therefore,

recantation, be
,

Protestant

and, indeed, his pride would

not

suffer hi"
,

to

become

the

proselyteof
to

a

man,
ass,
a

who

had, in print
a

too,

proclaimed him
he could
not

be

a

pig, an
be
a

fool,and
He

liar.

Yet

pretend
make he
a

to

Catholic*
own.

was,

therefore,
was

compelled

to

of his religion
its

This

doing

nothing, unless
law,
Laws
were

enforced made

adoption by what
and

he callrf

by

him

by his servile and phut*

order them to to both to the stake. .back Catholic and and is a t"ack. tied he dragged ^fire on hurdle. sometimes. Burmake it I pray and you to mark it well. "er. became Before a proof to he reconcile a belief became priesthe taken the after ho and priest. and having the Protestant/ Being the another wife. to he faith and and worship. himself we z. and condemning acts to as as lames. therefore. nor Amongst his Protestants there were such neither Catholics with ild. in had oath become of celibacy. which. many others. Crantenting con- who the primate of was king'sreligion. needed a without age perish in The progress of this man in paths of infamy. that soaked the the earth with of their and air with fumes Throughout was the whole of this the bloody work. while. as all who did not expressly conform. such malignity of Protestant and that of many. say. for in the holding of regard had sex. by-and-by. Hume.III. human had mind married to : incontestible in it. that. and aiding well as and of abetting in. this execrable to the he very moment tfeey are compelled Protestant blood flesh. very shall. in He. confess filled the at absolutely that applaud. sanctioning.see the openly avowing he or tenets. flames. by the by declarations. called do not divines? they apologize for. Patrick Austin Saint the propagated Burnet.each Was this the pair containing a way their that Saint Protestant. while firstwas which stillalive. the murdering of Protestants and as Catholics though.consistently "tent their and the creeds. making pthe heresy in. been others the the instrumental to sending. still forbade . to. those indeed. of add tbo to Mental pangs the to those same body. sincere Protestant him which to in his heart And. leering parliament. primate of Henry's Church. and he was ket.be. Tillotson. roasting 104. all this \ [ matter of merit him. a ! religion Yet. together in pairs.if they tyrant. all his in long list of eulogists. of the Church. adopt.] Protestant it Reform a tion. -tenets invented as ordained. a being married the then Germany.

good the . witfci! ones. chest.PROTEST ANT REFORMATION. " against a Burnet. Milner. who at aimed the ths destruction Here is of. and in " Chapter who Winchester. conscience Dean " says did all with or. that spot. name observes. on one apprized end. rather. where the sailors. linger /row and litter. we swell with are not indignation. point of integrity. his while "primate. in all other similarity things. upon Dr. against Cranmer. the A contents. and his wife in which held to them their oath in a he celibacy. but. they resembled was as that the of both was can Thomas . inhabited. set and wrong downwards. not deeds yet to come. had bored brought give it England air! chei holes destined it to her was As the at for the Canterbury. to put him. from a Protestants the they dissented system that forbade clergy to have wives. not it up had a. litter of half German on half English kept. the engaged because assisting to send. and his blood where spot. had his roof. Cranmer Dr. "frow a and was nearly broken pretty scene of the ! Here ! German young been frow. the Church to the pillageof I people when we quite enough this her to same with disgust.''and against of Sturges.the disvivid great to as that which the most nation imagi- ascribe the between dissimilarity hell and heaven. [LeTTEI to c^eJ^y to with was have wives. but. exhausted against Hume.though there he has many store of his atrocious . all . which that had the -English Christianity . are for he professedno who are regard for " any religionat and who who but the that against those called vines" di- eulogists of Cranmer. at his opposition tyrant. where a St.ift" cradle of _ huggar-muggar. each other level with answer Thomas in his in to Sturges." who a talk of the respectable Cranmer/' More ! As and have audacity Sir. he in that reflect. so our for. landed of the the neck Grai end. was flames. " clubbed on their who the talents" gettingup in the Reflections Popery. Austin had hdL Thomas tp and fillus a Becket sealed with. .

of he xwas man who to could wear this while title. having. received day. by nothing but equalled as of the king. the causing and be acted were before him farce. H titleof Defender presents. his most dear Henry.who. a the title from of the on the Pope." to 106.then. beginning servants with words: u " Leo. council and we consent. to descend X. with See. still styled mind. grant unto their unanimous your Faith . The of given these to by Pope " Leo bull. of people.111. business and with mature " brethren. Holy the We. he he afterwards 'time that he himself can entertained the no- sending them. axe he he hoped and thought.] t r Protestant Reformation.. in which was Pope his Council exposed to derision. by " commanding the all the Faithful " give your What to a Majesty are we this title. bis He day. laying the himself in to the of He the* was as Catholic L faith. in defence written had a faith of the Catholic Church." with our bull. let it be borne others defender and in of his might. successors. that health the happiness. the these " your Majesty. King and of England. in his posterity. the as Christian Faith. depravity that be surpassed by and while root of which [ thing r human is capable . by scores. on the Popeand his successors says the ' his council the determined confer him " and title of Defender this considered of the Faith. son. or of the edict. having. against Martin to Luther. k 105. ^" sitting in deliberation. confirm to the you which do.every thing like . Defender The bull then of the of the goes on " Faith. because remained firm in that faith of which to he still the odious effrontery call himself the defender ? justice. only had All and rippingup they the bowels. this was reward for his written The defence Catholic 'him title faith againstLuther. do. all say.and burning. servant the" Lord. since its defender what he ! not. which was Pope to a conferred title. The to infamy flames confessed was so of Cranmer for that in in sending assisting which at I people t the entertaining opinions. it can be was.. of unto heirs ." book to king. continue think. called : have.

She bowels interest called wear to was abandon continued out this title while tearing the while she her was of her last subjects for hearing comforts of . in persecuting. 107. wholly shall in the next supremacy. the very though the the title of his time. no one could look upon his life safe for twenty- But. two u Edward each VI. seems Protectors. abolished faith in its the was. a man and bloodyenough her victim off by assaseina- .she rippingup which she busilyengaged bowels of those the she in who in ruining. though other in that " his who succeeded we and office.of herself and selfto styledherself born. down time. the entertained in which that faith. which. i or of Defender of one can Faith. established greedy ruffians pretext of called him out stead." whose on have been. as Witaker fullyproved. she in which Defender.till it. law. law. for to some o|her to " that our hardly discover. had and lived she had to been which for many years. Mary Queen a Scotland. Number." whole justly calls it. Elizabeth her continued " this title* as during Witaker long reign of mischief and of the misery.. though the help of Foreign troops. a singularly great favourite. enormity must have been been before exist) monstrous were could have the seat They all banished as we from see of An come iraai despotism had.though. refusingthe mockery of the Catholic she to religion cousin. eVery such moral thought.Protestant Reformation. continued this titlethrough* to wear his reign. Civil he as toj supply the place of gone : no man the papal had any libertywis call property. thing that could and four hours. whom put to death has by of law and justice. her adhered. during was of that reign. having her long endeavoured base in vain to find amongst to take subjects. each other guiltyheads the Protestant shall gladly see Catholic with and succeeding faith by the block. [Lettu-1 banished suffered to power. robbed very altars under which his extirpating that the faith to wear of Defender. there is the a little more to be said about reason this title.after. openly upon her she mass privately.

reign ono series of base plots and persecutions of aH not a professeddie matter Catholic faith. that unto re-instalment of the not to Pope. since and a the reign of Mary. London. and the 1780. that. hereafter. what people. set a special by his appointing try. amongst the sovereigns. title from the beyond and all king His this the Pope. Let . that Will. that. but . Jantbs sou mar- L" of took father of "abroken -%fc" as his who chief had councillor the the right worthy of the was been chief contriver and whose cruel his innocent -mother. and " who wished sack.^ this would think. for festering been than so two inflicted on c *" so large and loyal a part of say. But. is from nobody and of else. was worn by that mean creature. from the cry of NO POPERY Protestant a in their zeal for the in sending. his him defence of the faith is the real stop here the but is reserved of all his glory of being of Defender ever of the " Faith and subjects. 18 at : religion latter. and way our divines. he the the divine right claimed disit \ to crown daily disputed . the as body of English troops to assist. our present sovereign: a former. which. that of honour. mouths. when they reflect decency that dispute. guard hope.] PftOYftrFA** Thifttkle Re*0*MA*IOW. from divines" to of the voice the established Church. only real Defenders of been the late the Faith.[. by assenting to repeal of of the part of the commission penal to code. observe. 108.common It is would the their | . to more anticipate statable farther which find will.have his wounds. originof restrain holds title of their sovereign. by his a us 14. to be no man can onght expected even but. we love the toay observe. revilings. then. r one supposing dead the on of justice. and condemn. who with tended pre- and execute the leaders to " ferocious in and mob fireto. all our place. finds its not every treaty. which. healing for more those cen- deep and turies. Protestant wears entirelyto boldly Pope. a tell us. But the to Defender Faith. King his Son. as himself has he owes it. From the sectarian ! host the them " . their sovereign only into title.

had been been the It taught regard all as the basest (as they certainly had bloodiest) of be time the mankind. absoin Pope's supremacy . by " and which or very or proud. will they tell title from the Man of Sin.another of much That were The title. and that have 109. we title.Protestant Reformatio*. their foul of the Catholic all been detestably false. Yet call or us to honour obey their this they must they must confess. the would which now. won monasteries in the It was " existed dark ages England. a title ing longer stand- than of not that Defender one the Faith. New Gospellers/' or Presbyterians. defame on Antichrist* that sore* and scarlet whom ? Will the same they thus time. of those whom. revilings. P t with Saint with Noel the Saint Butterworth which their head. or covenant " . . confessions and priests. deed. too. . at Lights. plunder. every that the be municipal holds this whore"? at act. They . It was. the King was won long while wore. they. giving made a rapid sketch prostrating of to of the ' progress tyrant and scene in more liberties to enter of his on people. by valour and fear and to fear.were called Kings of of France of of . King's predecessors'had . followed * his wives.*9 by " surrendered Protestant and rendered sur- age enlightened a heaven-born" It was . do abuse . grand in despatching of. the be the and recount must miseries which the immediately next but these the subject of Letter. after had 110. | ' by our brave Catholic while ancestors. monkish in an Itj was ignofance by Catholics of and superstition. Church. into us. for years. masses. It to the lutions. while indulgences.won pledge-breaking by we Minister. reign. so along won Three Feathers. . a title la was m great woa glory.

His a new thus thousands persons ruined. which in this it and we specimens to by now. for were purpose. which which now fearful mark prevalence the ter charac- crimes sorts. February. i in their the act paragraph bloody 27th had sum 97.No IV. of Salisbury. 1537. Horrid Celibacy Hume's Tyranny. Of the Butchery Clergy. son^who . 111. an passed that exempt he a King rowed. in * Queen. of the Countess Winchester. it devastated shall Letter the the next. " 1825. was formerly the laud of virtue of plenty. Kensington. what how and it dered plun- country. year and year been the King's to reign. My FRIENDS. caused and blood see be shed. We then. brought have innocent had some hypocrisy of We the acts and perfidy. it laid the poverty foundation that so and misery for that produced. strongly of this and nation. of 1536. we we left had come the to King the In the have and year the Ceanmer work. 1528. Bishops " of Charges and Bishop Tanner's Answer.Jane Seymour. pauperism. bor- from paying another *-d any act of followed of money might similar this. LETTER IV. that the "Reformation forth in was engendered beastly lust. at to 112.tbth have in seen. brought d him. When. of and how sure that disgraceful of all immorality.

then. with security power art a like this had been hands under Magna moment act trampled was foe the that the Pope's supremacy the assailec securit treasos famous the of Edward Third. property in the or 1 14. jBtot. were never made hie at al treason. i . and heard in defence. they the were altogether. cases in the 28th except " of should mere private right.. whom of jus lif c libel. thought criminal a mere for a long while. for the of was people against set unfounded Numerous before charges of high things were wholly trials aside. he. and. that Pro- 1537. on that the man name law a mockery.in were many to laid asid" and out accused death. were that Mary Elizabeth. of a of lawful or issue. in case daughters. am last. The at which were. justice were and whom was no prostrate with tice whom was at the single man. It is easy imagine Ch man's could such from The a have man. last To such and the King should enabled. had her " according to " Richard the a Baker. [Letts VI. but. their only witl being arraigned cases. and compassion is a for the of suffering which human being characteristic Win gives to his daughter Elizabeth.Protestant Reformation. " body ripped up man preserve was child ! In was this great Reformation he seemed any taker all to of any this piece : all consistent : never have . a son for a successor. condemned mockery cases. died in " under the title of Edward bat Sii the child-birth. not . his ivant two Having enacted. of the same King's Acts clamations liame?if" ! be force of Parlaic a mai u Thus. and and be the with his Parlia- in 1537. and to to mercy that wholly unknown*. that. his bastards. by crown letters patent. he by will. 113.-it wif reign. to was afterwards mother King. to give cap as was to ever whomsoa pleased I of tyranny in in the whole. all feet of was a a law and. j " numerous without being apprized of the crimes. to complete his the as serief of acts enacted never before heard year of " of.

We hare never | wadof Deys of Algiersand of them. compared calls. son Burnett the firstborn of objects of the English Reformation. and of fttends. cruelty. however. fa The tip in her the a jails at and the purlieusof were court of this first-born of Reformation" great human natural his slaughter-house. knowing assize little -cferimeas in "erimraals present county shut to judges of now three scarcely sit ty same son in year. who had -deserted by . or the 'by* fed 'and hope of plunder. pursuedhis studies and travels on the Cbn^ tfoeffiat the'King'sexpense. saw upwards of one " 'thousand persons 'fos. A " detail of these butcheries reader. Craxmek.while in his he. and fae his suspicionwas happy. trembling flock. He or were spared neither disapproveof his if the parties sessed. the Acts that followed it '. down families age. in and point of injustice whom * with those of this man. the slaughtering the ucdarry and relations. of Cardinal very Pole. their leaders been | i -bribed plunder.I ffi] -PaOTESTAHT RfirORM ATM*. they naturallywould of to be. but. and tiatl. Of circles because from these his axe them hewed had whole sex nor dread. could slaughto ! his to High Priest.so to a free. the a so death. made them To look awry lassuspicion.chosen from amongst such a the man most virtuous the most his subjects. Suction palace issuingorders for stood his deeds. master-butcher. his deeds. fat the I *ftd jocose. lAohad/when vdfce young. One only disgustand must not "Weary the instance. The mother. so bloody reign. posexcited be- that integrity which suspectedof possessing.' as The his bloody cruelty generally were. and the diKing'sfirst had been had hceii agitated. the be par- of Otoktedrnamely. great favourite with the and 'King. for which they of were executed. hate heard deeds to in the most exaggerated accounts. disapproved of tbe divorce. even Beys of Tunis. sat while ter. n " he. though caHeoThome by d2 f .peop]e. all sanctify ready and 1 15. England.' j I "pretended-crimes. before a Cardinal. and. were the the" teYri-.

the he enough excite and were put in motion the the arts deadly mads vengeance use of the latter. togetherwith gentlemen. So Cardinal. he refused to obey. they that their par* courts. nt. dig- aceount a of his great learning and of the eminent mother his virtual. could judges attaint her a were then . the last that livingdescendant the of that had long race been of the English Kings. aud virtue. manner. of a very The not barefaced. and he great treasure of his peepfe person 1p that within wreak expended. as his of all of too. liament her is to say. remain was if tbf parliament answered would good enough. that without was a giving hearing? that The judges said. whether. was was. it being asked. to do But. [Letter man the King. thus. in it dangerous act matter. relations of . mother. and. the . liament in this and they thought the never were would. he he Cromwell used showed rebels a bannera which and had. however. these having failed. been said he by certain in the North. the opinions had xtess of great weight ih was England. the par. charged we by see Thomas with well Crom- (of whom her tenants shall not to soon enough) new having suaded per- read the translations bulls ofiht Rome* Hou SB. impossible whether think trial. That thus Exeter was Jjrpnght in. and the that relation she was. and Cardinal was opposed to to the King's proceedings. in amount Many was that of. to found that in her it was house. and the his Cou He was a of great lea/Ding.est relational But. and also accuser with said having were . received from which*. course. the her seat found atCouRDRAT also in Sussex. talent. could not. he on resolved his vengeance his the kindred base and aged mother. it. and was Plantagekets. his grasp his ruthless She was in order to bring the Cardinal's . descended His from Salisbury. All this was. which so said..Protestant Reformatio*. condemn her. and Marchioness of the and two Countess. in law% thej A bill wsj thi th" in the affirmative. was King. that asked. who on by Pope raised to that nity. Bible.

if you will have at it.] Protistaht Reformation. even Eastern acts slaves. worn She. and.which would be roused Turkish populace resistance. down last a upwards of seventy her age. Magxa could ecc!eman." as The nm executioner about the struck her her with locks axe. to death." : answered never she. ihat up in wo." the " He adds. she her scaffold with he hanging down sVmlders and breast. though to body by imprisonment.that "'subdued.IV. in truth. pretends. pardoned. where but where nothing all power. tyranny it committed trea- " and. of one contrary as taw aiasticaTas well butcheries bloody lay. been that "aspect. " the When "etoe of her and noble : bidden her kjr " head the bow block to No. CfcARTA have been had done been so br"t. pursued. hostage for an and the Countess prison few as a sort of of her ken broto 1 In oat on a months. even a lately to force. own which were exercised themselves. that the be so he seems even. every where their expense. in England. in .being placed like to in the hands have this. was The two latter the conduct were exe- ^ * the 'Marchioness rated. " people in some hated to King. M degree. both . at last. the instigatedby to Cardinal Pole. of people the have in this and reign.forth wis he dragged his mother years of the scaffold. could to perpetrated without Hume." gless over This lying hirtorian endeavours to the deeds of those who destroyed the Catholic Church. who in true to and. they and at were those over of violence and tyranny. " my bead shall ion. character upon never maintained descent. ""admire *" English. like that age. possessed that it may were to last. he brought 116. of hi* rebels had insurrection the having king chose account tyrannical acts. however. thoroughly irc'. Is it a scene ! in Turkey in Tripoli that where we are templating? con- No.you neck grey must get it his as you can. condemned Cardinal. giving her repeated chops. their said with love and affection. in his marks re- die smallest upon that the u danger the state never the the perpetrator. her down or till.ined to that.

any wholly sisting. Nothing be more false than this assertion. that the while English.} from for ages.oppressed and insulted. found him tell that Henry as En* glish as gallantand them out to just people his ancestors found . ascribe people'sadmirationafter of. not is occur to malign the Catholic to religion. the people became. are wafer conclude.PROTESTANT in REFOftJfATIQJU Too [LBTT** to . VIII. that this sanguinary tyrant and means not resisted. by handful of country And. men. " as to1 the remark. him. must people to without with leaders at become. would have in us believe. cunning.the writers aK" upper* tyrant. so to marks of popular affection. a. it is slander. of those of whom What they were we now.and that. . however. it* did therefore.* the want for the known repeated* lead"* struggles. re* 117. occur had this tyrant had bribing natural at of the to people to take part against them. It did the had not the to least. he ap~ plaud bloody Hemy was himself. but that. it seems in that age were thoroughly subdued" as to refute the a assertion which to their affection for. if with be taken peated insurrections most against and him. never first time. tyranny submission. which. having divided an them. the envious One Scotch delightto put forth and repeat. that such submits admiration. after all.as effectually been.there this belief he would been to tfa something ua amiable have found on the fact of iiis having fast.always with Hume. of several even of people.mere flock. of having by holding as the great the enormous mass plunder a reward for as or " abandoning every rights of the people." England the and Scotland. ? have millions *" mere a country. be dealt pleasure. most object. because leaders King John the other of bad Kings the or. accompanied not the at bitter complaints reproaches. con- deprived.they yielded merely from ers. of . seemingly beloved can by his people. a those leaders. herd. be And. was him. to neutralize us. The him to to malignity and of the envy of tills Scotchman and induced him that blinded to this view the matte*.

were. its at immediately if it had and amongst been an people heard the You large. that and was the Reformation" In fed by plunder said. the are speaking of. to the was English it from Cromwell that was from the French and. like to bed. except would the it occur.11 IY. and manner hideous have seen.under submit to which they groan? admiration submitted Cromwell to Did . and. comld. devastation. that. not a graph parabut m"- I have of and Reformation.. friends. him in you. inclusive. never object of plunder. from that Cromwell's aid the willing submission "I " admiration the means people? which .and whole of the were and Free-Chapels. and 120. Hospitals. rents friars. into the aided those who seized and first and N last. I have going " view.him granted abetted the work my of plunder. sees. m admiration Robespierre? was qj The latter | Heavy. never never greater the part. but in his not : he. for back. that of the most malignant and impunity of the arose perverse. we people. "p m the tyranny. sole the far benefit monks.died *| hi punished. are 118.. to I pray observe . . that. this devastation Devastation England I and that main to to poverished These 119. the paragraph 52. statements In paragraphs from arose. sensible that this was a men. just Englishof landed means here. but. besides Chanteries on. of these 2374 institutions . this great mass property that property of was not by any nuns used lor the. sort at have how monasteries There 645 what of institutions time we theywere* 110 The hands and in England. Of were people by from the natural kind leaders and to of the amount a * seduced them we of the now the take i of the prize of plunder. degraded am now the about 55 and body prove 60 to of be the true. that it .] P"otkstavt REFORMATIO*. taken to King. they were tithes arose and how disposedof. what mind. England have- would. 90 colleges. was I In paragraph 4 cherished and 37 a said. sound in of the words pauper in what poor-rath. by.and flowed .

of celibacy. and. ib. all from What the our You have. rejectssuch vow. double sin of breach this is a breach of oath. fresh and heard and much in your recollection. and. 121. this instantly give vows to these questions. very important we It is to great to moral question . indeed. of any hardly we per pro- Now. pleasure. vow. their propensitiesof appearance - this sort Have they and and odious amongst those been clergymen clergymen bishops? bishops The A"d. therefore. or have been Catholics. to no drones uselessly they puqxtse even lived . which hare. how very infancy. without sarcasms. to see how the of the teries monas- distributed. to one place. of the fore. of. question .to allude. and. we ought minds endeavour settle this to make up our completely upon state sarily neces- it. ridicule. or chastityand matter. (jf late made days.the necessary natural and speak of the quences conse- tendency.before was proceed any further. there- it these is. life of celibacy. thus. we censures. women how wicked. they consumed good and live to whatever and was particularly how to ridiculous.disposes of In the next objection to Church that nun. doubt. before give an in account putting down to of institutions England. men vows. the It Catholic compels nobody it will who admit no make to such a only says. how . Paul friar. .monk. by-and-by. in the first place. if they have. of those 123.Protestaxt Reformatio*. a Now. which every have one now they Protestants? in answer. Saint strongly . or be priest. to either deprive to them great natural of expose them the 122. life. and it is tending even produce propensities. with vows The monastic accompanied we of celibacy .have ? heard. [Letter rents and you were are. the monks against friars and the nuns monastic were. can living England and Ireland. and. lead of a it a compel men and to vnmarricdy. inevitable It has women been to as represented " unnatural" to compel as and to to live in the unmarried which state.

family illness to other be he as wholly devoted. from wife and a racking wife and not family. in the the cares. by all means. be suggested. account. They chieflyCatholics.who them than family. for was given . for ? in of order Will to he never tempted for ( to swerve his provide patronage ? or ! sons. let house During the was of a 1776. hundreds. a as do if he or to get wife benefice. . or. . calls. who our own over. namely. will the at mi^ht. care that of those. as married the priestbe ready the unmarried one to appear it is that bed-side on of sickness him are and contagion? Here here on the the be that calls most imperative. as body and alms. when or part of that cause. many instances war could c'te.and and Prom take with nature it is that his married deaf I to priest will. have commission. or f mind. amongst induce to his flock. and any never. and L as for the up husbands and daughters the he a Will the he always boldlystand for whom Will reprove Lord would 'Squire for had a no f their oppressions and "oq vices. of his sacred of reasons duty ? And. those side. to Will the poor. as have of souls. should few possible those parable insehas about is in a of other and should. will Will Ids flock? from distress. Church has founded the same this recommendation that the have tion recommendaflocks to watph that. sometimes. | who " language Protestant have as Church. that hundreds. any bickerings. broke amongst them. too. to all teachers rule reason on an unmarried life. as in addition. and. think any more What about priest. aid of his flock? sort. be he ready would be to give if he any to be had no family from provide duty.] recommends The and PftOTESTANT Christian a REFORMATIO*. cares. the King's at Winchester war." IV. him to act towards part of that flockcontrary to omit the strict dictates yes. be free from which are incessant. he. used as prison for French fever were prisoners of oat A dreadfully contagious Many of them died. her cure? sinetaton his never her partialities. me amongst one. her tlings.

to urges answer (page 56). after care of souls" called. St " Milker. conclusive.in their most me- sacred ments. flocks. if we were to stop here.in Chapter? and dilemma does place and Either they to neglected their flee. perfectly satisfactory.as something all. as to parochial clergy*do aye. regard higher onjejg. to " bosoms not to of call families. against which declaim. both that have cent they have still hold and up declaimed to all their. are. we But. moment came at. \ prisoners. lives. that clerical celibacy. in this his course. to Catholics." the a be 'sure! be* the But. of priests. Prebendaries.P*QTX$TA"X and attended Priests in their R"EfQaXAT*0*". if with families. there the and theses Thewj Then a requested were attendance of all the and to of Protestant the the them parsons Dean went parishes at Winchester. hind Dean then. . do and we tending in- to have to spare to the poor a of. to is. must our face death than (( priestsare into the but. not. mentions Letters and Doctor he says.or families. . that they. subject. necessary to contemptible " wicked. last moments that many [LsTT*9l by tm at were threfe the* Catholic sick residing were in city. not man. duty. for. aod/eeZ too. whjat the with the effect of clerical celibacy. But. the do any thing like we justiceto not see. were all the console several But. and which themselves they profess to been reward. we not carry poisonous contagion No. them died in come*. individuals. for which they receive such munifi* 1 24. into left Protestants arms last the of " popery ." or. quence of which of desired the assistanes Doctor of the and. find little In short.: . the this what cassock's taking this shelter petticoat. priesthood this country pauperism and the and same poor-rates. " the (ofthe : " Protestant " parsons) more I understand as have to been this We the are not afraid. amongst Protestants? Parsons. their flocks? not know that all marr"L upQfr waj . " matter.oqe ? to And.. and their still and us. of the dying Protestants. as these should our reasons .

men. of which from ex* know perience. bishop wife and family will. FftOTAftTAJt? A ReVOR-M AXIOM. if in Catholic could not the he . preferWe are meaty consider not to but expect that. case. in nothing of man more his distribution the than is interest of of church ? religion we. that. nature individuals. for instance. in which Mr. man. to had wife's sister. diocese. at would there a either College Eton. those Oxford. of Winchester had a times. or He in some expended other part of them sent Churchy people. to I do I am not that married with them bishops ever well because the not acquainted speak* I am. bishop. to that to man capable. would and had three livings of Alton. in is to days. those not tendency produce public good. the that his son-in-law have living of Bishop'sWaltham would not that his son-in-law Hayga"th have had the livingsof Upham . a expect nature. Meon-Stoke son he would Seberton Poulter and not have a livings of that two and Prebend not besides. Cambridge.to be not not marry Edmund it Poulter.that for the ter Pouland that and low quitted the bar had the two pulpit. that of the It is for the lawgiver suffer not and interpose. naturally expended his amongst on the bis people in Cathedral back a. in and with which the diocese. ifthe bishops. Westminster.IV. but. have had the that Charles Ogle . Mr. born. and private few. enough ascertain I was fact . of human had been married that a Be* with who sides. have have wife. ingof in which say. I may would allowed have think possible. do wrong. it is lived that he best acquainted. would and two Binstead not Kingsley. not virtues even have a in to some cases.] dtheckrgy? nor. way of his revenues to the If William parsons nor Wykham not now had have have or been a married the would had been College at WincJiester. take the care community whose a from the frailtyof may. say. had son his Brown would have his the livings of Buritou Poulter Petersfield. having neither wife his revenues a " child. I may late Bishop could not a that had and certain.

and could be not and a Chancellor that he have Mr. Preone if the too late Bishop to lived these times. or. him the that Bishop. he New have the four livings and St. Merton.Protestant Reformatio*. a Mary's Southampton. tiro livings not of Aldingbourn ter daughthe Bishop's Stoke to could de have to another have marry Mr. would may Archdeaconship. to Fawley. ancient and expended part of this roof money that has the magnificent Cathedral. Charles Acgustus and have the livingsof Alverstoke he could not Havant son. . and a Alresford. William and that could not have to daughter marry Garni well er. and might and then. have OF HIS an suffered EPISCOPAL excise BEER PALACE you ! TO AT SOLD OUT ? or FARNHAM not With licence. and to be he have tico sod. Thomas Grey. have two a livings of Droxford Prebend had for the a Brightsides be- Baldwin. insinuate. stead. would most friend protector of the poor. worth. perhaps. four and - livings of Calbouinc.more tliousand -sons a twenty ten year. it is much one believe. Chancellorship. than to and Mastership. have amount of had three had hundred no thousand nor would. Garxier had that he relation. in the of which have been recently been founder or danger of in. Cross.that five twenty -four livings. any rate. [Letter Catholic - and could to Durley. that to have had of another Old Francis Medto North. a Prebend. North. Prebend had the to of Saint Mr. ! In a be a Prebend and had Archdeacon in Catholic besides short. if he a children on grand-children. not If the had Bishop a had lived in times. have we fallen not the per- above the And. William Garnier's this latter brother Thomas not. would falling of something have and been would BE for the a public good and munificent at national and honour. little bends.mind I do say. instead of reasonably suppose. Alresford. have . be. SMALL never. that . us leaving behind (as the papers news- told he did) savings to nearly pounds in money. Master to and moreover. one pounds named. all together. also an and Rounton.

A man who to an largefajudge of of small to " My to provide for. however. groceries. and dowed en- hospital.nurses. at the Palace. be allowed to hare be the best means and. if he happen overstock ?r. out of his and endowed and Colleges at Oxford. either that William wholesale was sold small beer. besides other servants and.IV.must . once ended all that munificent 125. Succeeding a Bishops residence added and its endowments. These hall" met daily in had two a hall-.or by a place for founded hospitality. beer and the It is impossible to Cross. examples as in his predecessors. in the Bishops of this famous small city. it is natural ley to tt ykham enough for him to sell it. other he was [the College of Winchester. and I most distinctly assert. about to seven Bishop of Winchester. hundred years ago. and messes. of or re- I say that think. for a this. meadow about Cross. the talk of the of the choly melanin Master of Saint change which without " thinking of has or Reformation" Saint half a produced Holy this ancient in a establishment. attendants. that his done during of sur- late xrnham Bishop's life-time. ever bread. suitable with for forty-eight and made oost decayed and a gentlemen. nor as without Church imitators remained . mile Cross. was successors long the Catholic then when hit. a married clergy came. has a Nor do - I pretend to the act. by this .] Iter* was Protestant Reformatio*. but.. maintenance at last. of a it provision for indigent "the men dinner in the day hundred the city. without in his of which. or I do not necessaries. situated is an from Winchester. every priests. of ailed hundred men's Each " loaf read." for . in some did numerous most not [ttttnificent things. is. any smuggling carried on censure. from ! a Episcopal (who was Palace his William little so of Wykham took not from villagein Hampshire) long as Bishop of - Winchester half he built [ftrenues. three quarts of small beer. the late one Bishop of the .it provided till.in order other get buy meat.

Joshua and of spirit him merchant. good once . without coming William for relief of the poor-rate*! Bishop Henry Good God! Why. and not they were allowed upon the to carry bea* What TEN thafer kaesni ptqe. that he received I had now both. There exists. any asks hunch that who receives bread.his which at dinner. but. which. the allowed them! a few whatever the " they may ?* are. to in sickness age. or be. all 1 have he CHARITY is. founded. him his in colleges or hospitals. the the reader post will thing given of a the Bishop.* they did consume spot. in his first charge he Clergy (which their he published) the urged of a them to circulate in amongst at flocks of pamphlets is Society Watson. the round place of sum Master*' I do npt' I have heard. easily imagine. that last it is as not trifle. however. Wykham. Cardinal . called and. at " for here. EDUCATION way. "Hampshire raise Friendly Society. Milner of " observes. is probably. Winchester sends. ds Bishop Wyhejflebt. other body. as know to a aud attorney pence. that the is VICE-PATRON of a self-created the poor. worth what it annually. Dr. Alas! the hospital of creeping Holy Cross note. object of for " which mutual induce is. London.? creatures about to in this noble those an building. wine heard the head which of Mr. Bat.9 the or. way. But (and really nearly forgotten it) there ! Bishop not of Winchester that he has And. and and told a for of he relief. in the Mincing-lane. what or is he doing to ? I have any the heard. weekly. is a 1 26. to subscriptions amongst and maintenance to save " their to relief the poor . in words.that. went goes knocks the gate. 1 have of to is. carries. Beaufo"t. that is. the labourers out of their or earnings in old means of supporting themselves. Fox. and from THREIV out-pensioners. being a exactly son is. that here. All that is about heard found.- gratis The and late pint of Lord good beer Henry Stuart me. the old remaining veller tra- vestige English and a hospitality.

of of like thk the. to parson of our Churehh to Nowy to a he. it away. great extent. but tmral stftijtf" AneV celifatyMt resU"wtl So that*teat tftMba* jieop^^itingtfw C*Mi*Xi|rok"'" . poor relieving and Their way and colleges build and- promoting learning was." the poor were No wonder. they and see.head that of of any the its head. never they ! have thought.]~ Rums. from a marriage. having Never a aiu} brandy merchant into the. scheme Bishop* for of Winchester. their way to. found endow to re- schools endow poor of teaching religionwas. truth in order " to of interpretation of Evangelical to a for their a flocks. that men charity begins beerr and home .* way churches and and chapels. Scarlett one actually brought Bill into Parliament* in view. 127..thk ofthtpoor-ratm recerAmending whate j* Parson " MaxTiius moral re* dWno* celibacy. Saint a himself. subject without one " impossible to quit.the iMalthus. they in the no could world the fittest persons relieve the children J poor! No And. Wild If they had* conjugal true and paternal -feelings at not have taught them.the Swithin. but. besides. Society.IY.this object avow- the great' end" proposed by both* being to diminution call. all these Never " expense their obtain did of them. . their one own found . wants compel Urn. to their hearts. back to. having* in edly part of it. cause a. Parson Thk but a it'ia word to man is not only a Protestant.. would. eren ^ PftOTWXAVX Ite*OJUI4T*(Un *nd. that lived in the "dark rance ignonot to superstition. and that it teaches to sell small give. wine come as |dream i referringhia Clergy at one.labouring classes refrain. and out endow of hospitals : and own as revenues. they had to wives soften and sweet babes their smile on. and Mr. if you take in aU. did so there I of them to thought bright I causing alas! necessitous relieve ages themselves of monkish that Ah ! but.their to of Bering the theat ailing was. Enough now about the celibacy of the Clergy.

" the Catholic mode did. a posing pro- compel to run the labouring classes risk ! lire ia state of celibacy. bound exposes such not men.or all the poor.Protest avt Reformatio*. clerical is of celibacy to nugatory. mind. austerities. that grossest but of inconsistency. of their reason no- degradation The " of the main body of people of working this " Reformation" . the because is what constantly at work asserts. whom constant if: tiiis be their prayer. to grudging. if such breach be the of which case them and indelible it infamy with if be. instead of binding together.as charity. like to other trace wild it at and back to cruel the " projects * relative the that Refer* mation. and ' . it robbed was of that relief for the '" cessitous. impu- children) from or Is all this sheer or is it sheer was folly? One heard that the other it is greater mortal than ever before to from the nature the lips of vow man? They must overcome affect be believe.' schemes once that. therefore. which which the an theirs to by right imprescriptable. to compel tarily volunmen them. [Letter of those wl j for insistingon to to tows of celibacy on nuns. by the law of a Qod and ' law of the It of brought compulsory. to do women make such must vows. it tore despoiled the from them that them classes and J ' patrimony had which nature i j - assigned them . religionimposes abstinence. known . to if a thk most to with a regard such by SDlema vow. the part at choose be or priests. and.or answer exposal it is the' to starvation Why." great source of the the poverty and misery and kingdom. be the with men education. by the N"nds of christian " . of the is. what to it be a compel young be labourers absolute live in ? state of celibacy. make them the poor ' rich other. and them a had been confirmed land. men on This case Dr. or their the manifest starvation of perishing (they and dence. the to same time. fasting. permit them it. we premeditated wickedness. unnatural hate each mode calculated relief. it.almost and case an endless number to of men. contemptible to and but to wicked. Sturges of Now.

after all against that vow that during tole lives. thousand for the " within twenty fcfcen hundred ft of the. we have.or wisdom. So deeply deplored.] Protestast Reformation. as no no fruit of the excuse can of the rich and the be found. taxes. This de- absolutely created on order for the for the procreation of thousands own. upon some have or no fortunes of their |b must other. then. settled have. who how of procreation of and annually. the the pre " procreation of idlers annually being coin- ted. for Church. and its abolition is thingto 129." and. Protestant writers. it. be found rents lions .whether in a look in a at religious. no pretence . this our question . relief of at by poor time the parliament. we I think. ftM"uite tons the state.we moral. of the If . that eat was founded at in that a blessingto be the people large. it was int of view. pounds. maintained Places. friends. and. then. before mas we come ainst the account to of the deeds the work of the of niffian.what " is monstrous.of all its consequences that the most of introducing a married frgy has. chose the this imposed the a of celibacy on those srical or le in a monastic a life. then .THO Cromwell. or commissions. some the people. that political. Catholic topic of everlastingrailing must. seen it is that we have. in an- bo conducted er plunder.in it civil. "t Thus. the parliament was of is pestered with the projects for to lingthe working part ibacy : community that lead a life of has ! What out that evil. and . find. I been an in prolific mischief. this We much. ilic service must come corner of the pension upon last voted the very was list open a direct burden the the people years.. which say something to the general charge. be. must by burdens sinecures. . " grown of this Protestant my Reformation ! 123. heard rich rule of the Catholic who we Church. the clergy of that this birch of urn in on England . something other for tbem of living out of labour. perhaps. and.

credit very it existence tution naturally connected The the and " of monastic life. certain^' the there these un{ a tionable" of facts. that we ace there about much han will plunderings that general to witness. if think was they say we i true. [Let particularly the ferred malignant Scotch .to raise. which mentioned. for. can u " VERY CREDIBLE the and same among " being confined together within " walls. We who charge from the the pen of Hume. well " wight to be disposed to (as.P"OTESTAHT REFORMATION. of vices the says. (Vo Ca 160% speaking of and reports made " by Thomas it is safest with to his myrmidons." monk these ever 1 30. liberality may in The FOUND an regarded lies ite AS " order SUPINE founded on illusion. and with attendant. be No among m " elegant knowledge life. " t malignant should men factions " quarrels"about. have what against the we . historians. are. been the this p. ADMIT or NO could to a QUESTION. pious frauds. who. 'ten i " commonly more cursed hearts fall to and selfish " unrelenting.. cruel the invetc " factions and quarrels. and supersti " IDLENESS also. afforded the nothing.' these almost What . the or cultivate genius. " forget their from all the mutual most animosities. lies. upon face he of them. and i priyed ef " all emulation. the share of other " The practised to increase be the devotion CERTJ 44 of the people. " amongst How living much so idle the we' yf unambitious " a life ? harder are b of unmarried than thosor of married ecclesiastics . monasteries. as to theft " these credible. are commissi*) men. condemned expected i whose tedious uniformity. I questionwhether grammar very than wrotesentencescon : ing worse " contain " but. indeed. P convents " IGNORANCE. not so t taught think). being cul " endearing with than connexions more " of nature. OF which the " reproached. therefore.

fat fellow. bde part* out my . and sentence.deceived upon.but of justice. quite credible" en. Let every of " the . agrees i how this high authority of.in their .of toned- their ptointo the not . seeTthousand in world. false and that was Protestants. these way. with thousands others-. by the and itfe.. are about witness of law greater act of er. are in any to other-. natural Ok . one of the We- and interesting. then. slant what Bishop says the let us hear Bishop character and effect* o^the Aeries which 0 n \ see savages under Henry VIII" destroyed. -and all world to beg otstarve this.I shall. between the It contrast charities is of Catholic " of Protestant " bishop*. torn and dwellings. hole of than was. all this t. appeal tradiction to several to authorities. in: the lose REFORMATIO*. and of it has. that he one furnishing strong sentence* as presumptive. lost in supine idleness" their very state should practice/rawcfa them money. see what the sjsMt of the ^peowns. mind.PftOTBSTANT foive.case. more daring contempt ever and and justicewitnessed upon aH out nity.an- instant. country.proof Yet. persona from We going thou- stripped. to important points a history* a . which or prevented were from keeping f all i his a " bequeathing. base never assertions*just had a ting. fed. then*. -too. of another his history me and so is. money. thus treated. in violation* law of. History of England he . not less than ujuirsd "i"i^^. much many read. wa*v and uAw*Ktten" us. truth perceive. in the reign of George theTax of the neb. as it the en. oipublie without having merited real public services. he a himself family in eon- that he great. and what* woiev the . has.In his refers. . The made.ta"isixc"^jA*ifEfti^riB"was Bishop Let whatlhas us Asaph . and who totallydead* this liar ex- emulation*" malignity of him not canning. Second.' . Hums most with this.

the " upon every subject. "frauds" get money the from the people. [Lei And avi institutions in the the to which they belonged. and of all book written expressly to account the abbies. as you read Tanner's your description.132. missals.ftOTESTAHT effects of the us see REFORMATION. two a wo times. "c. an this. Histories abbat of St. to that Hume work has. before Bishop of the and 21 entering on his labo in ] account several monastic institutions. things remember to his selfishness. thus. priories. 133. and " effects of their establishments. however. in his'Histo England. 20 of his and preface. arid and frio bearu "formerly mind. **'. The B speaks. back charges ef want ttsptss ** ness. refer before relatingto . not not description given by but enemy. only of in that Catholic. and but the indeed. important question now Tanker." ^profound all ignorance*9 charge of of " all emul aba char ". taking the care. viz: the they generally works. business to writers whole transcribe books for wrote the c " library. dred it referred this very upwards not to of to us. " scription of Hume "zi " constantly in fit hh Reme look. but. above then no Fathers. 1 9. c (then " eighty be thus transcribed printing)daring by the care his abbacy. my friend keep. were the " house." along. of the has been Christian gion . now-and-then. one Fifty-eight at transcribed of Abbat Olastom . amstetj. and. was a "In great abbey there where several large room made it use " Scriptorium. Bishop beg you.the following general descri pursuitsof the I of the character monasteries.P.and manly and his elegant knowledge . " John Wheth books Alban's. and other booh upon "in " 'service.th" minds. as we existing in England go Wales. to Classics. Protest "an ant descriptionwhich in a given us Bishop. gives us. books of the divine They sometimes.

which (after sent me Conquest) the otion :. though igreeewere it it is to be up fiom were of those that in drawn accounts tradition only . treasures FIRST. such-like And of whan controversy relatingto Scotland. leads to and the advantage choicest of these and religious houses. to I. take and of the principal year parbe- trrences of the the end of every ligest them into In these of their records they and lady preserved actors. so were Monks in and general churches for this work. When he sent sovereignty was to acknowledged in the Scotland.Erohstayt zealous the lands it on. there the e In all to the greater notice at also appointed kingdom. so deaths. annals. in the gdom preservedin of liberties was An exemplificationof I. his the most records 1 for proof of right to that in Crown. Henry HI. King Edward for his till taken thence by og ues. the crown and he probably between other. charter granted by King Henry to some (Mag to x a. of the ten. sent the religious of Scotauthen- search title to the kingdom as tdr in their ledgersand chronicles. have it inserted and the chronicles Abbey decided Winchomb. Reformatio*. carta) served. provincial of Parliament. places. recourse br marriages. abbies the use to be recorded. children 1 successors sometimes had to them for proving persons feared that some ages and tealogies . . the years the memoirs and founders and that days and of their births . a Pripry of Abbey from to great many rolls were lodged of tter and Priory of Kenilworth. sent abbey in every county to be Charters were and Inquisitionsrelating deposited in the in the the BodLei- inty of Cornwall a. many " Priory of Norwich. of the I severe gy in upon their national even enemies. t tbey often got carrying of persons given appropriated abbies. were records them. and of their they favourable The to their friends. and Acts constitutions and were their synods.

SKLDEHhathhiiQrt^i^ f" decision. The learned '* evidences to for the dominion of the narrow teas " the King of Great and Britain. all otint year. and neighbours. tion . and lodged seldom religioushouse. great hospitals. in them* " the King's sometime schools lodged '' SECONDLY.not " things proportion^were the old generally spent gentry " FOURTHLY.. London.' nobilityand : provided by dirt " their servants in these houses oomfiel " for their younger them children* and and by making and fUst monks and impoverishedfriendi tntime and pridlf nnns^ " prioresses.the . from of to Monastic were " The times evidences sent to money houses prirate families be 44 these preserved. "aot So. that destreH and " might music have their children expense were taught grammar to '* without women any In the "Ni \i " also young taught toworkiwad Latin who to-read not " glish. And Momost " nasteries of them effect. requiring the -ttHnfo^ " chronicles exemplification therewith Mr. them. lower but were and ranh sometimes. be wiote '* Chapter into that their Paul's." THIRDLY. for every they convent were of learning and person or " had all the one more a\ " for this purpose . fvr but .M and every " wioh. were nobilityand at or one never gentry* whenthQ " upon at the road. ant went to " dined short another. John Baliol. their f The stab- '* Noblemen even were deposited there upon money was deaths.P"otevsaxlt HirdmvATtdir.abbats abbeaset^FIFTHLY.that pay only*! " of people of the could s for their 1 " most noblemen and gentlemen9* daugkteti all the " educated were. to were " obliged were relieve many poor people every den). also. [Li to-the Dfea*1 " Robert Bra of and St. ft " their one was hospitality suchf that in the Priory of No* of malt. in those in p/ace*. inns. " There likewise Even bouses the of -entertainment for almdti " all travellers. above thousand Jive*hundred quarters quarters " eight hundred in of tcAeaf.

school want for ful use- . they of them so ^irere great ornaments country. noble disinterested.gratis. every sciences of your profound ignorance" teaching. doctors to attend most them. fines many and rather confirmation confirmation of another.and " every part. of f3: By icrown. if not have Many to our of the abbey-churches Cathedrals to . superior. whose and work who your have you have quoted hundred to times. been as as present an and they and must t4i much "workmen " ornament the and country. instead we of your have manly and gant elethe of knowledge" transcribing. "UI1 they corrodies granted to to old clerks servants the pensions the Ring's and were chaplains. and gentlemen's do/' come Now. Instead industry " your and supine idleness" instead a the most patient we persevering . all of all " have. the the teaching.the of that " kind. instead slavery. the election. and admired are in their now. we and have " your ipiouBfrauds the get money and most from the wwes hospitalsfor and the most sick.'By or the fronts io of Abbat Prioi 2. likewise get preferment. and noblemen's 134. LASTLY. they F'tf considerable f their sites and % and advantage estates: to the places where causing great and the " they resort had to 1. employed them in many as in building keeping seats now repair. the your " the study. the hospitality . of " Classics " instead selfishness people.r." . of we description. malignant Hume. to preserving. Greenwich were Hospitals equal. perhaps. and as "* were really noble and as buildings. " " neat." SIXTHLY. By I them. up.] of Trotestattt Reformation. many not letting their rates. . then. here gives the lie direct of all. of their By great paid for the liberties. face more this protestant than two to bishop. getting By grants them at to of fairs from easy the markets for 3. the Crown one considerable received from or advantage the death to : 1. though much actually " grand times. Ytkem. pDy freeing lands forest laws. Cheisea yet. in convent.

the and bloody means by whid these institutions were devastated destroyed. than in one authority. lies Hume. base. who ( to demand it. answer we have thousand more ei to the malign life. Bishop 135. malignant Tanner and tell devil Protest^ sent thee ! Want of room compels ten me to stop times and .^ Back that the then . Lang Tanner the renewal was] roused fact.Protestant Reformations which. . wheal j English CJiarter liberty. he having. the Charter deposited liar. here. renewed of by King John. which ant liar. was and well as I. and the we freeing of as of people from preservation you know the Great Charter] that. Barons the work Archbishop ton. but. in an as observes. in fifty the parts of your have history. the the as next to cruel. has abbey the ! dcnj then. and 1 all it the revilers] the monastic revilings shall in was n" to silence describe before the proceeding. the you assert to have U taught forest hy laws monks.

DEVASTATION. Plunder. is the cited. Friends. observe. 'HORITIES RELATING TO THE EFFECTS OF THE MONASTIC STITUTIONS.No. and. tutborities will are I might refer and four take Foreign four English. PROCEEDINGS. the malignant authorities in lies of Hume. 1825.V. IN THE WORK t OF PLUNDER AND 'he first Act of Parliament authorising the Kensington. to. authority of the I appeared itant myself Tanner. of I should goes. f . great of quite every when point. they all Protestor authorities. AND THE POLITICAL WISDOM IN WHICH [uE IS APPOINTMENT OF THE RUFFIAN THOMAS CROMWELL. IN- tIR GREAT THEY WERE UTILITY. but. I will select oat fifty five. FOUNDED. My 3Ut March. if J had home to Bishop the to Tanner matter indeed. had room. 136. we are of such importance. the Pro- Bishop. LETTER V. some other then have abundance. these about of or fiew destruction that one institutions. to content at the close with as of the the a foregoing Letter. When. defender of Monastic itutions had rhich in against reserve attacks. that.

time was. the 322. was " account government of them Monks preferred It was: " theirs. " Mallet. 435. Their and learned Roman acquaintance " Classics. usual The people sought that it was for Judges. " Drake. English monasteries. were "" ^ dist but tb wi " Monks Cassias. an *' polite learning. was ever Vol. Rural Philosophy.. better be governed by Aj. treatises fraterti m " only composed and a leartoed Vitruvian of their Music. " crosier Bishop's* than the Monarch's sceptre" 138. opposed knew their no credit tl " tyranny than this war. that. II. "It InduSt fevj ia m be lamented.. of not Literary Hours." 140. the The manners by instructions " people. 13$. other occupatic " grievously oppressed the their neighbours. of and nobility. " Bjmtt. "No History of England. observes Vol. wftfle Papist* are ntft ^^phurthig 4i Ntmneriek some TrtiJ trthret ^Societies religtoite *re to Kingdom. This portion laudable in transcribing Tacitt in the 11th and u example with 12^ f " centuries. monks of History softened the the of the their and who Swiss. p. 361. Wharton. [Letti I. L " guished attention the only to for their knowledge and of sciences. best Abbot Desiderius The en collect * u the "not Greek authors.the ^encouragement of Monasteries-. "'longer "tt by popular support. Vol. p. II ferock to 137. the Architecture. and point eordiaffl - personal unite than public welfare ' iU in . and '"* more Turner. Tyranny the established of tfiat unequivocally maintained interest creature popular in more no will. II. many followed great spirit and emulation. to " saying.Protestant Reformation. " employed "c. good Prtftestants fer . but Id" likewi c u Astronomy. p. p.

Bede.* seems. were to ihe illustrious of Benedictine of which f -** c* but historians. Thus be might the promoted the ". called If ever wlio die was ' ^xoiild truly be -venerable. r*1 in those itars on 'a days. Dunstan. other "The "'-^'werld'has *u men as indebted order evil any body of Monks.J tt i Protestant itfcTORarATtdk. be in all such they in doto 41 enjoy at least a temporary instructed useful and *"'* and principles of religion.In' those " 2 . the frequently forget the good the commonest ' 4t Even readers are they proacquainted with the the most ** arch 'miracle-monger. or might the mestic otherwise unprovided. like moonless green Oasis the upon desert. 141. to whom ^'-appeHaiionis constantly fixed.in relating"the too they which the " occasion. and the " became5 Apostles of not more North. form young to imitate their example. Quarterly never Review. St. for common a who. as might qualifythem. been so December to 1811. own and interests of Popery. refuge. literature and community the of arts pious as menr as devoted1 to useful *a well amid to ''^religion. and days. usr Like a n'ght. "S4i arts. of our Lindisfarne A to arid Jarrow were the ages " heptarchy. scarcely remember who the went n-amej of and those admirable the are forth from England. of our "whilst "learned " countrymen men. duced. Tinian on Juan Ocean in " Fernandez heautfful 'spots !K.than " 'Malmesbury. world. ably on its be considerprinciples.'V. "c counteracted. as to establishments women lor *** the education and who protection of are of serious where *' disposition. the Chureh preparing offered records *fer -posterity. and welfare many individuals at the """great " benefit of society by improving ' large. were inclined -"return Jt'** into the the duties pious and laudable discharge comfort to of of of life.they -there was was a shine man. ^passed M to whose Kfe ^fastruotinghis own generation. ' :w with tranquil -ray. it he.

the were disgraced by artifices u signing and to follies of the better than fanatic. the of our without forefathers. amidst and storms. it was believed the same God. a Church joyed the and peace " regarded hated one as sacred realm and by f" who. though they " another.. is in more our I forgetting. Can we refer to these the authorities. the u weary " of it in their age. who Monastic have put forth their against 143. Catholic have beei to persuade labouring. with jievolence. greediness in ." 142. Dunstan. it afforded the world as shell u those who in their well which as youth. of the Saints here whole." and union of Protestantism " produced and upheld Iff talk tkt a cordial the personal interest public welfare* leads to so of the Reviewers them whom to " About evil more " occasioned by than to an Order. The wise and own gentlefled to this Goshen of God. a very elegant passage him to . the herd the of writers. manhood. Protestant say. any other the dare world and is it indebted leads them to body of hacknied men. [Lettu every the was only asylum exposed " from the evils to which the country tor amidst it was continual wars. that is one Church to serve as Calendar an answer ever. Abused and as by the worldly-uund of the a " ambitious.I Protestant Reformatio*. which . also repeat charge he ! against St. but. from infancy to us. who. Howto venom than enough Orders. connected essentially. our indignationagains feeling our those. that the Xhurch duced prothi hardness selfishness. term was as " Turner's Protestantism to impels honest apply him the say tyranny9 " that which feelingbids was the and creatttfl of the u popular will. can christian we see all be* gion reli- the indubitable proofsof were real and charity. of heart. darkness enjoyedi " lightand This is calm.

observe." when fatigable indecoul# have like been these of these ! deceivers. To proceed now with our inquiry may relative to the effects of the' Monastic in this case. and particularly a as want of the " feeling for Reformation we the " poor? robbed is the fact. teemed. this centuries with Of one cheap having sort a object principallyin refrain in in use a view. had how many millions the most people have. instance of this I cannot from making particular by one mention. of their of patrimony its power all clear as shall. and in tak- the proofs the in creating paupers. namely. half a has The as England " for more than and the century. by and wicked U falsehood minds! base upon their ^ 144. would not if it were but How singlefarthing must give it me. : The priest to a " (jester. Institutions. they of \ * resort to means What multitudes this book engraven children. alone. incessant make us been how efforts. A man. Undeniable fche poor tee Protestant Reformation. him.9' and for a and " fable went Romish asked charity of the sum He came began to a by asking farthing^ asked to guinea. still the but lowered till it Then priest refused. ! believe souls could preciselythe contrary had not If the had more salvation "rf their own been have the object they with their in view. been fable the Spelling Book. long-standing: hypocritical by every .we seemed necessary. the the beggar consented worth for a blessing. of hacked selfishness. by-and-by. that The lies were authorities.\] fergy."which " priest readily " give one km I : No. the and the Receivers laboured pains to Anxiety. is called says. that ." Priest." said the you beggar. They ef has have their bent particularly falsehoods for two attention implanting The press books in the minds and of children* more. Itagfrom how tk higher have compassion the for the lower classes. crafty the schemes. which Fable. in Fenning.

the church in and who poor. mass- people musty} of believe is out they Reason.'i/i print. We and as a the land" covered^ hear hear an at pauperism. of things. to reading them lectures in the the manufacturers and their artisans wives instruct science in ore of preventing instance. least. hi upon spoils of to the wished to enjoy the the fatness that that quiet. property. there though last. be silenced to is immortal. this has been pushed far as to de- scribe. to always. tyranny and had cruelty. people. naturally la who had persuade people. The find to be the poverty and . 145. comes a while. mechanical are now process arrived at a this for effecting* object! pels us In short. say. so and. of casej. ignorant.}] assailants what of she the may prevail. were. die^l persons^ count that ought press sustained the and worthy o" in a the whole for and pulpits leagued by the to such a purpose.-useless and base of .of for ages fattened who boured to violent delude the still e.. our There is now come that which is calculated see to giro- reasoning faculties last. when reduced the the supported that pur*| pose State. We we increase of to people the talked calamity.Protestant Reformation : [Lettei^ at w" species. must silence. much were wJ institutions. But. over creature^ spreading vouring When are darkness which the to country have all instead light. those the at despoiled were gave the them so unworth}7 people. with fair play. been' Those the people of England. and reviled to party is. the fanaticism of crime. the of of projects Scotch check breeding of about the we hear "feelosofer?" prowling to country. that possessors lazy. for in such truth state things^ and^iH question. at( ^ tmd to* something over cause her claim heiv due triumph falsehood. by in such the a a terw hardly the be desciibed. the we from being mothers. to point which monstrous conn inquire into the immediate cause cause we of this state.

" Monastic the p*o"". trace was igb lb many stages. historian. If the Monasteries cause of so woul"J" evil. and 'these. rities. and were they beloved by the destroyed by violence. but reason is to resist both ? Let the us ask. the judges ever o* ? Perhaps* What* Ajlfrjed writer not greatest whether the man that lived.* king.. years*. of what than such the a do..as patriot. had been the care * 147. the and it in ly naturally tending happy. titutions. people. by the plunderer'^ knife. make lives people easy r r * 146. back to to the " Reformation. "at The authorities in the that I have cited ought to to more our be be of: H0r weight on question . then. wisest. and because hear not to the Scotch like to see " feelosofers" them. as lawgiver* a$ by all. or so evil in its efiects.. held in veneration our people for long a time ? . ice s^all now retained distributed of the of labour in the proper to places. him as poet. legislators. lawyer. many they have and been protected with such by wise " virtuous was and kings. but. monas- " they do the property of those " teries transferred English Jews. in all his character*.Even/in defence own time^ monas-.* a of the? effects of which as we destroy those see. they grasp. is still better author . supposingthere unfettered of than ithorities sy stand eon the side of these institutions. Was there ever the murderer's any things by a * vicious in whole see itself. regarded having been J .: rear \ in need in exercise ? Reason.baa* selected object of his highest praises? 4Ai the greatest." Lation of the main we body of the. who tiot case. as he is. whetheU: that do on reject with monastic disdain slander has bee* in heaped the institutions.which. we* the people of Spain rising in we of their abuse teries . They were nourished England for nine hundred people. of eminence. soldier.

148. of the munificent been have founders in of Monasteries. have no demolish 'every vestige of her former of the of the that "we "and " concise sketch instance history of Monachism. and his they were anxiously cherished . and or evil ? these eyes. for was suppose. the Saint Switiiin and that the de-* and' fitroyedby the these merits not two bloody tyrant. Henry Eighth. that says Preface we his- History of ' " : When contem- plate the ef universality from the religious zeal and which of . that he happy \\ as would been. those tended institutions to had We vicious not our themselves. on Upon the " facts might pretty safely decide of these institutions. or 'supe- u in riority intellectual higher degrees of civiliza- . that he. world investigate these phenomena assumed " with pride arising from powers. Monasteries. that But most actuallj thing*. d" it were. whose soul wrapped virtuous have up and in the4 hope of making is it reasonable "was. and and "i delirium. Mervyn the Irish Archdall. honest. endeavouring. the we of namely. one his to most people free. And whole is it reasonable. suppose. partake we miser expending ascetics: ! " to in the the felicityof mortified tide of from her enthusiasm again. frenzy. know institutions We do them not two tbeb effects Bee immediately before Monasteries. less bloody ruffian. Thomas alone we Cromwell. j sober u when reason as find recovered te a subsided. by Alfred! they were tutor. And what answer do we ever obtain in the " to this ment? arguto Mr. [Letter us most virtuous of men.Protestant Reformation. then. drew to we" ' " thousands elegance and and even comforts maceration of mankind society when "sequestered " solitude austere behold " the greatest and wisest the the dupes of his store ' " fatal delusion. mental of common weakness and the the versatilitywhich human moral stamp We a character frailty on in gi species.

VJ " Protest akt Reformatio v. ports dying by hundreds starvation. look for this "in superiority like that to die . FROM ing an Irishman. they founded institutions which Look thought Opera-house relief impossible ? and your horrible state at the then a present.EXPIRING call you the " " HUNGER"? of mankind" delusion" And you do greatest " and wisest a dupes when of call them the dupe* -of dered ren- fatal a. of which these son so army to the starving people quiet : you amongst the facts in which found " your times " compart- .I have doubt. the with a DECORATED as transparency exhibit-. and (foryou church-parson. though was " have evidently come not e .of us an plunder Are to we demolition find them ment or of which in the total give account an ? absence any to of even attempt in otb*-" your in taste country ? Are with we thing to equal them " grandeur . the sober reason. modern noble times w this ? compaiisoa we decidedly in the in favour of of those you Are the to find an" to . business scat fed keep on in the country. as life.that . for BALL-room " relief starving people of Ireland. them ruins edifices. with the ball at House. their from nakedness." and thirst for 5 plunder.)you will. while their ships carrying provisions army was was from their the shores*. decidedly do you look the " favour "PRIDE" of the of modern to ? the Wliat^ Opera- then. superiority ". from. signs of this . say. large do . their hunger. am again at list of ruins . it ja". the former I see. wretched look of your then no country. or ao Arch all " ! And assumed to for the " proof ". ? " of Skib. tion: so our vanity and in pursuit are favour where kept modern we alive by a compariIndeed* *son decidedly d of are times" look Mr. Bumerous tithe-battles. *ereen Are to modern times times proved the to be (i decidedly Irishme* T superior up in former from by law that ? shuts Are the their houses sunset sunrise peopleV" their wene : living upon crowded and while with an pig -diet. th"V latter.pistolin hand.

the community in very be happy.dnced tfost Fums. caused the the revenues Monasteries. barracks arise. of luxury. to of state their of natural and which and and necessary sees effects was. order our must* view"of the subject. and on afford tenance good main- easy be to terms. that and of bread beer . 150. as the false selfish and has and described them. and That not.' in the ami that it and. Now. millions few to. body Somehave be the Those it must distribution distributed revenues chiefly they amongst in such a the way people. which " was /reaggj of and menial* that' the me^ weakness" "greatest of wisest those mankind" are I produced lancholy the foundations ruinsr memorials. one the that advantages attending ecemty. The hospitality as and other good by the but do things procecdinf1 Protestant we from the Monasteries. from body of acd the whose part of be community must intist miserable: poorof houses. well that as tlkf^ real' and? mere were*' founded great political wisdom. of a was. in to- full to as to justice' thesr calumniated were institutions. happiness that one content. in It is duty show. doomed the extreme of misery. closer not to forgotten. must From own the the of its land land. greatest: jails. revenues. all the good who If these things own come. as to from to whose them must a labour arise. if If be the revenues alienated a great and them part. theyv of tfafe land* large part of . no expended arise. they Hume meat were in piety and malignant dolers great and out charity. amongst the main those. " " 149. two a prevent that in the a things but classes very of joying en- people community. they carried away great labour distance. but they dtffusejs of general prosperity. extreme masters slaves. are mentioned be Bishop take at* Tanker.

The lage part of of the their of say. the state.-* typhus fevers. no periodicalfamines?* faux.-r and^a. he. Monastic If Ireland eight hundred would institutions. lad still her expend or them in other countries.oi and a " increasing schemes of surplus that it the ' \opulation". Monasteries then. it be mustown the buds. that the ef. would as she be no formerlywas.n " country to The had on the. tha". so less. Somebody. on expending constantly spot ? moment. be. .J oftke arose. Captain: Rockt. Ike the**-' in great Wo part.. non-residence Clergy and of the1 noblemen. spent ^WMA^oy. eatik' great and small. :be country. of when in a pariah become^ or im"tantlychanged for land-owner shut up. none hreaten neans that poverty of the degradation or to make a desert country.on revenues an than land. destroying \ \ 151 . fifty in diffused the county. country. no need of sun-se"ond for prey anting the people^ projects fyr getting rid. of the hospitals and the same all the other There average. kind tendency. P (i w^xa?t. selves. not of the whole. establishments were.in favour noblemen laws. tie at i"" nbsmtee"kip who draw V-that is away raW seuce of the land-owners. immediately know the amongst a a" people.. spot whencer those revenue*. sourer gentlemen to the is?universally complained of arguments.. $w~vi" There no. in have been twenty every county. as a. it. and that mansion a Every the one knows the effect which a such shutting' and" of treHi one up has the poor-rates of of the parish. large. all well haw worse.V. of One severe of the game and the a great game i"t r is. perous pros- preat and and tad io torn smalt. and seven the revenues of. incomes1 the this great cause miseries to Ireland. to be quatf Vw i% s whether be^t for them owned by those wh^Qan^ . is. rich a What. It is notorious. she happy. upon noble leaves other great- quits the mansion. to make of the greatness of England he*self. that to causes must and the gentlemen effect of reside.

so lands low even ieats. they they were easy on landlords". and " of long of years " that. do drones. as a Tanner it a shown true. leases that term let their . they not by slow degrees. are' meant those The revenues not work. by calledt ch a co s Bishop false. Jn share. than monastics possibly But. to a main body of the people had. land-owners usually more vfork? lay land-owner in a and his to family spend the of the* the their way could. the farmers regarded care themselves to renew species of proprietors. that a But. men thus cause a class of yeomen And exist. distance* to from away the revenues of them many. of this sort was there no good class of landlords ? Did not they of to naturally property ? and Did necessarily create. is rery as elsewhere. Protestant or malignant. directlyor indirectly.and the and constantly estates must live.Protestant Reformation. monastics has were are. or. besides the besides over. agree. us. [Letti* the who a ttantlylive. if drone who do in is not drone good hat and top-boots? By and.in country and hr'ii midst who their of their . always taking before ts their in a leases they expired. which made the farmers rack-renters absolute dependants. this in 1% l spent drones. the and besides. are to look at the monks and and nuns in the very All that at important capacity of landlords however " landladies.says as a Hume."And. independent of the " aristocracy? not this class destroyed by the and Reformation".the legal lien. as . not useful people this. by those live at always great mar^t r frequently will lands. which in many of cases. real was yeomen. and The draw and do. we the revenues the Monasteries. lien. more- and charity ef hospitality the monastics. historians.

its heir . received. lands liable were and to changed of never owners. they nothing. its' had not to dread change of lords up under its eye villagershad care all been born and bred and . more. and. their as character was of necessity a thing of great value. natur- . its The proprietor that deathless landlord died its tenantry houses' none to do with a . would was naturallybe the centre object of great attention.] ve see Protestaict Reformation. this them to to this day? was change favourable could possess no then. they could queath be- life interest in their estate.V. such the a it not happy ? now nation. its oaks had manors of the squandering . 152. if out class t(\ return to-morrow. and and us. and which so powerfully Monastery had never conduces was a prosperity. in so much friend to of rectitude morals. and get them and of the of the valuer! squandering * needy lord his grinding land- " . unless had a retrograde was expressly for the their accommodation. look at the monastics as causing. political liberty? could had a Monastics save no private property. . the is most Then. " Historians landlords. its tenants that the a axe were of many the to uncertainties tremble at other tenants . that fer there was And. And. They lived. a class ef landlords of What jump such hands a1 ' joy were would farmers England to give. an such." nature have told have they easy human for " They taken must been march such.private and never public. need not expended that in were common. in some of important the of human that fixedness whicfi" affairs. a A monastery of circle in the country. They do money.

it a wealth to relieve distressed. though it reallyhas repeat more question before we us. eagerly took nothing to 'it do back with again. devastate good thing. the of which too. inseparable " from Noble-poverty. no cares containing own. an their or clamorous cannot Aristocracy. of which " the that of the that preventing is. and body from must fallinginto always some be. of heard any thing of. body of of worn* having the was of their and and to having the and to wisdom to inexperienced. another why need there . the I must..' many we times that expressed. who squander not. be we WelL.advi" or it. . do of part or particleof these henevolei arose and acts. should lose than The any should and or gain by rupt cor- getting rid of government our Aristocracy.. any such it .. injurious effects of exist means." will say. of not. against There the of protecting government wTants. without government. body?" and have a That had is it quite for more question a for have than thousand end years our . that basest most I ever knew thing. contempt. younger the means let sons us look aud at the monasteries the as a resource for the and as daughters of the Aristocracy. and protection.which institutions ? naturally qu^h the monastic 153. public utility.PHQTESTA^X ally drawing and to BiEHO^MATIO^. then. and did upon lay any would coi not. Lastly. all that were of men. acts. is the republican government Pennsylvania. in need a [LETT?] relief.. : was plunder establishments thus it a reformation persons.. who est* employed. in the hands body of Nobility. except ancestors during very short at interval. my opinion.

for the the younger branches of it. public provision of pcevent poverty. 6pcakingj made number Monasteries. nuns a great of its monks those and odious from and families of the nobles*. to that it secured government. receivers this mode nothing. it created whom grudging the and amongst Another the from }"le.. the.*from truly tyrannical:. at and give offices lodge ins afc hands. into falling degradation inseparable fronv in the times which the provision by the was. most will. look have and commands.ce Le Europe.wkbttl* bottom. you who see fill oih"f* officesof emolument will. before fe. will tie extreme point of who has a every name? if. we must.: we aristocracy. great younger | advantage arising from bnaaehea of the the of providing for the to nobility was. pensions*} spared to sinecures. not. This rendered and burdensome things. there can be no limit a kingly govern** 154*. it from This some sort. therefore... of which received we are. then. sent However. Ltaa who I pu" challenge of all to me to prove them my words.hsfc of our pension and sinecure and at once* list .- maimer. unnecessary. a It. the greatf . power against temptation Look these who . base the root and corrupt* top to the topmost branch. the taxes. trunk to the t ob most . It was and provision no that was degrading discontent took the receivers the peo^ . by a. I am prove in the complete and govern-* . it follows. and. that for to an aristocracy without meat. of not course. for republican I am . and twig:. Pennsyxvantak. unfit. from* And. this have has the nothing at all to and do with the pre-t (question. h.

histo- by these a which. overlook the effects That of these soul all must institutions be low face of the country. provision' ance. all of country. otherwise. commanders. on by the mean any mere means. all ranks with and degrees were rians. power benefit which which must hare been left the government governors and free quite other to choose to ambassadors. and consist in part of ficent magni- admiration veneration of for. they tended nobles set make the people hare dependant The . ancient and proofs of built as well as skill and opulence. varietyof feelings stitute together. The monastics na- wrote for posterity. And These ra^L order to persons. They make the nobles made not so tended a also to dependant on the crown. Nor must we. compelled to follow. institutions. assist- being for their poor relations at the same without the crown's to and. anid indeed. an on the than the others they otherwise would monasteries example. malignant and the been subject of have endless abuse. and example that in a great degree. be multiplied. as masters. prevent the check the increase connected to which persons the extent with from being multipliedto rally they natu- would. of. exercise be intrusted in the carrying on to of the public affairs. benefitted have And thus. con- properly call patriotism. with so tion destruc- of which they recorded much " as delight. being one of the features brightest in the Reformation" ! 155. were. to tended. derived from [Lettei institutions. of tbethat institutions of nobles . landlords time. what the which. noble which is insensible to Love of pride in feeling that we the edifices of its country.\ Protestant Reformation. The never-dying . too. less been.

perhaps. called gentleman's bouse . . for seven with monk. : see the receptacle for dung. the hands and of a at cloister. this day. resounded have. twenty Abbeys we and Priories and. if thus a assailed by tempests in vain admonished of the your on necessity and look seeking food. in the their gardens. " yourself. the site of now " what some have once- in exchange for these Look ? Go the to opulent Convent. become. shelter. same issuing from hour. a fodder faggot-wood orphan. the the table a widow. for ages.in to the whole the the of their economy. to a part of the of the the and. Go make any nation and permanently great. where. the ruins ask its. then. magnificentChapel in the : barn. wealth greatness executed generations yet unborn. and the the white-washed " bed. you of at if. and to make the it an object of pride truly survey. upon the honour. very best manner : They thing farms in . which and of at hundred .V. and age. fish-ponds. Whether every calculation to time they built *or planted. in all their undertakings. vespers years. . and even people. bit of its walls helping away to make build shed.] ture Protestant Reformation. the which of been the voice once. rotten lift eyes the and dry" shell hill. the rest having been side hauled of a to a house: workonce- recognize. in rack-renter. they the set the generous the example and of providing for of generations every pleasure. tending make with country beautiful. of their institutions as set aside. found now spread . chained be admonished spot by your melancholy musings. at into of county. ready cattle- the the a aged stranger. approach of those the the the and storms screech-owl. they to set an ample ex- all. see the and hall. night by arches.

when were great of are noblemen ani men gentlethese thus a " reflect*we Reformation" them. whichy that by which. . " and spring scene guns. hospitalitybanished ever from the land* 156. ' they. with of there. devastation effected. them think must of the. bloody that for means. and. and chief " tyranny of the the barbarity tyrant. motives that work that the We and have acts already of seen something of these pretences. whenwe which. that. the tyrannical and under was which. in room half. which the situated. surprised. transfer the possessions to 157. when on consider beauty were of the spots fertility. When men have power te" commit.Prot"s.taht Reformation* [Letter the and. and to to inn. when we look the at the magnitude and possessions.warmed half-lighted. participation in we spoils of of the their monasteries and. in have proceeded . from. vastation. we his course without the tain ob- concurrence of the concurrence. parliament he the have to seen.. we have the w* seen beastly what could lust was groundr have seen of he is called not Reformation". sit down the presumed account length the and and base listen of hypocritical pretences. who to that it a held out those composed .that promised to eager envied for that. apprized*of turn the " board-wages . de- suddenly your u head old jog away from the " of with reach the nearest English Hospitality and: in your mind. envy have love borne of we a by many the people the not excited in the hearts .and the an reception precisely proportioned your purse. in general. aad are resolved . motives.

this character the brutal black** - / . All* and nature exceeded decidedly quality of ruffian. t"*" country. to rob the poor of and.n a requires To turn the possessors to of so* * large ^ part of the estates of those estates. presently see of neve* at were a. human. establishments to set venerated divine as by well the as people from at their childhood'. and having supremacy with exercise.. his sycophancy^ king now* to* him. butcher.. Cromwell. have Vicegerent of the afforded and fife to-be of the Royal head ViCAR-GENERAL. English Church. along with accursed ought Cromwell He " to stand was for aye son in the calendar. destroy. in the Surrey.: . tliey.low fojr pray* the tences* shall this what pretences* L|under to devastation England was begun." of This in 'the an- of a blacksmith some Putney. 158.^ H to commit. he (vovided himselfi in in with ness Cro-mavell. helpless of of the do the sustenance. to do ox. " had recommended * himself king by master." as. perhaps. violate: all law. the work.had mer. defiance. who was match him. C a rdin had al been^ underlingof and to sort familyof to the Wolse Y. We which acts of injustice are *. hut. another man so could the new " not. it to deface the beauty . eh.there tyrant found that required a in of C Thomas ran m suitable agent . and make a literally heap of ruins and these the things. thafr whosfri agent name. rather him surpassedhim in dastardliness. out slaughter * a. and equal ^o Cranmer impious*- baseness.to every on principle which means property rested. and. as a- judiciously provided himself to Crait-^ primate. and head his treacheryto his the old The the became of very church. with Accordingly. there a there required a workman..

to the in character. who had actually . They Some in the fact. errors. tbis this He. of toriously no- of England who had infamous of heinous crimes " characters some men been been convicted branded . whether in office was out of office. the in his hands created he sat peer. therefore. may easilyimagine what were. on the a of plunder. He was to exercise the all the spiritual authoritybelonging to of the king. for whom did a ruffian is Monasteries He the sat gentle a stand the chance.Protestant Reformation. for the due administration " justice in and the all cases touching ecclesiastical and redress We juristic-''-. the above bishops in assemblies of clergy. [Lettei " gmith " was invested. against the object was. of these deputies of such . purpose. so in place. himself. of j^ " heresies. the of the he was Vicegerent" blacksmith ! foot visitation active as Monasteries in Dreadful could not tation! visido He^ all the work wickedness." shall very soon proofsenough too baseness What ? He of this man.and see said church. that is set to say. and. men a were. whom sort nuns. fit to very worst be men the in . himself. all before primate in Parliament. " tion. In order work to begin the " godly " reformation " . appointed deputies to visitation. godly reformation abuses in the of the term. consider of the the to was the racter chawe the committed. he or took precedence as of all the nobles. subalterns all chief. The and The monks and work men assist in into making for kingdom two was divided were districts to deputies was apobtain When ppinted visit each district.he second only chief tyrant 4 % 159. object and what was to grounds of we accusation what man. was then.

imagine idea of the such this. money you have who menaced wrote and then came .fell before the kite. there even court to appear to in. who^ or ventured whisper The their from any dogma decree their was of the tyrant. but what their merciless employers them write. . peaceful. or if a they had means. who lips. The . their brethren the rippings to up. means of obtain-* . pro- jeetwasto j no despoilpeople of whom the to property to and yet the parties to from property be taken.not the halter. harmless all of on a pious family. 160. broken in upon. whose to recluse with and at once peaceful crafty chickens lives rendered and them wholly cope desperate villany. and these I some yisitations of on monsters.jewels. for they burnings. they dared offer a not. the idea be The monks and such Chart nuns. a had had land Magna in a and all the and unfit of the could set aside moment. probably. by a brace burglars with an murder their their manding scowling brows. wanted was. who had who laws never dreamed never of an of possibility that proceedings. who with the threat with not of the tyrant their the victims charges of high treason. these ruffians as fall before met reports. no were haw court. in which plead their cause.V. one man who had not repeatedlydeserved and of Think of a respectable. de- instant production of a scene as title-deeds. means - with no contradiction a partieshad for them had the had of making defence . and. written sudden. what to in their reports. seen defence make complaint. made the accused was no by these no villains. had the the of all horrible those dissent of consequences.] Protestant Reformatio*.

Hume that dares not.*4ng* bearing. 161. seen he does put He a glossj says. just religion. j cmild make even no eomptadnt who %tit at tfce of 'peril to their lives. of the will be that . but. by for men. that found pro- . 'However. the that. believe. make it or more appear disthe "(probable" 't^olute. any once.. record in the to face the of such a multitude of that :| ". he pretend to reports them. in order to effect by insinuation " does that not assert. there are are the same rules.1 0tU his thatis to acquittal of no the present day. stripped "of ground malignant of and than great of df property. when the " dissoluteness friars and we is become more world. the to the purpose finding for the pretence dissolution himself perty pro- ^ of the Monasteries that had never King's taking to belonged him or his predecessors. more guarded! Monasteries -4er. superstition) of the. that it is. the people. during unguarded Cdtholic ages. and. ture "ven- ^tipon we have in paragraph that which. nuns" have shoujd ihere and have become.contrary. small niat- It J -difficult. it would singular common inin " deed. probable. more rendered dissolute at *' " "they "Qh! are in any Roman And country blind than present" It is say the you same so? why more now? . made j " other the that reports. be if blind then. in the they were more unguarded.piety(jwhich. sent.peeple . we^ century . to %" true .Mvme . facts these '" are upon were . unless calls believe. those and the blind the than ' "submission "friars and of the nuns more people. indeed. his best 129. at They and these this depended mass on th"m '"were without be. express as Hume a himself fof confesses. blind now.

the and . coming amongst of his chamber. walking on turn two \and looking argrjly theiri. to without that sition. we must believe. three suppression. as the and full it was of Hume greedy plunderers. then on tLem. him King in' " commanded his Commons he let attend wait forenoon in the " gallery.and numerous belief who even those munities com- women. oppo- that " it does not appear He any opposi- "tion was made as an this important law. took act personal. 1536. of monstrous was. " then. devoted ! their whole lives to the nursing of the sick poor 162. were the persons " belonging the -religious believing we communities in must body of cunning they to creatures. not passed says. end AnneBoylen. to for and and base granting his heirs ornaments. the the same year the say. and the other. in thus obtained. of these to Before we can life insinuations that a in favour reports. gold and the King images He plate."in says. for hundred an Act of passed. no part extend of of that this religion which our professed. it suit him this quote Spelman's Historian "History of Sacrilege.get to passage. was upon reports. of March. where and or them out till late aftera " noon. Parliament that that six saw However.jewels.V. could that "the no which Protestant " bill stuck when in the long. was partaken of by listen to the inhabitants of convents. This Parliament tyranny as however.] not Protest ant Reformation. some silver was.of and seventyreal and Monasteries. the in the ' Lower House. at last. " first on one side. but. their ! estates. and is to confiscation." frequently quotes did not Spelman to historical authority . / hear .

I will have with- " I will of to your his all was heads. at only shall to and but to the in people very large of . availed were nothing not the . says. the Enough him as " was bill passed. credited halter which the every the axe artifice to resort " was had to the of and the accomplish that Reformation" has he called this Scotch historian. son monster first-born to ! Some " such man. Reformation. the yet. it was pure Algerine : proceeding reports of at last. of that when I shall have and given an whole as devastation seen a mere sacking. and. of I shall nuns. paupernow was. out or my bill have will some not. a Thus. only not beginning. this Act Parliament. countrybarefaced Hume. and to for that are misery. " other said rhetorick. render which posed pro- be by laws to the women barren. was necessary. which come have. chamber. buf. and show laid foundation ism. returned . the monks how a to consequences. and given he " desired. " (saith he) that it pass. ." so ever good yet produced by man wickedness and his cious? atro- Did any ever but this to Burnet that the man.Protestawt . it was an act of sheer The tyranny pretences myrmidons . Cromwell's had failed . pass . such injustice and tending to tyranny justifiedon ground of their good consequences? 164. then. to degradation checked crime. or to export the people foreign lands. What ! was bring about this great and glorious event. account In of we the the next Number. Burnet. affect were believe." 163.

himself. - 30th x April. of Means and doing of the this. Kensington. act for suppression robbing the the Monaa* ries. as it the first of series. and -"Miscreant Tyrant Cromwel. the reasons King's reign. th n The passed in the The year 1536. Act was ^o the committed 166. this illybegan ? the ruin degradation of Ireland . their for robbing it was the people the pretence on reforming 3 religion. by which in the this formerly well-fed reduced to 11 -clothed people have. VI. the divorced Alfred. and of as -in the an year the of. that estates. list in the reality. Friends. end. progress. as precedent they had which future plunderers proceeded. time for we shall its horrible that progress VIII. for and and preamble . before of it. legal form. 1823. Sacking up Defacing Tomb of Country. poor proprietors But. during We reign of seen remorse* is tyrant obtained Henry the is to and a more have the for in manner is first say. Confiscation Base The Breaking More Death Death Wives of of the the and cruel of the Monasteries. of the deeds give full and I particular proceed account of irliament consequence itself. as the was main the under body of people of England in it first step ten. of England. LETTER VI. the as we saw the pre* there ginning only of it is devastation see in far the what of the as Letter. and of rapine. Act Act tains its enactments and. killed. At the close the of the 165. Act I also and stranger. foregoing Letter.No. been . the until was completely that poverished deeds country .

by the and Space of abbminable hundred for an honest and charitable Reformation of such neverthebut *l carnal unthrifty. that. lesse little or vicious none Living. Slander of good ReKing's Highness and to' the great Infamy of the ligion.' " " pillage. yet is hitherto and " Amendment had. Churches. of full [Letter will insert its and to a worse -allowance jail food. Lands. such Nuns. synne. that if Redress many should nojt be had thereof. consume Convent. whereby Governors " Religious Houses. " They " ought.carnal committed and abominable liying is dayly little and small used and u monly in such Abbeys. Forasmuch as manifest vicious. dewell their " strove. the neither. years.principal Tenements their and Granges. " Farms.1 Protestant than Reformation. to " " high Displeasureof Almighty God. spoyle. for were under Catholic there religion. in hundred always poor-laws to paupers nine England. Let them porridge. Ornaments of the " Hereditaments. . and Chattels.to endeavour of of land it came to passt a roast-beef dry bread." no-pauperto certain. as- They ought. to the changed. and their Goods as the " Churches. attend. base and pretences hypocritical to this atrocious that act they will find of in the following and com- preamble 167. their " Living shamelesslyincreaseth a augmenteth. where is under the of " Congregation of ReligiousPersons the and their as " Persons. Priories. and utterlywaste. I lyingand in villanous preamble that there at were length. to answer they hear fat parson " cry no-popery by (he cry of that this land into a ism. " great Multitude Houses ReligiousPersons to rove in such small " do rather choose abroad in than Apostacy. Englishmen and generalsuppose. of oatmeal all of sudden. Monasteries. more. and the " Realm. been and " And albeit continual Visitations two hath years f "{ heretofore had. Priories Canons and other " Religious Houses the Number such of twelve of Monks. then. how was or above things. They ought the when him all remember. a " and' by cursed Custom of the so rooted and that infected.

" to do the and therewith accordingto wills.same. as " extirping and his late Destruction Premises yf be Sin. tha" as " destitute full Number of Religious Persons. as by sundry credible that divers wherein and " Informations. now Possessions of such and " email wasted used Religious Houses. his heirs their to assigns. and Vice and true. to spending the followed to ." 168. to well " and theJLords Spiritual Temporal. utterly to " and and where the Religious Persons Monasteries be therein committed great " honourable of Religion to in this Realm " they may compelled Behalf. 'Jive for Rereligiously no " formation Reformation the of their Lives. be made hath of thought good the as plain to " should Premises. and the . Sin.YL] " Protestant conform that Reform atio k. the total the only Glory that the of God. for Increase and committed so being spent. " God) Religion is right of such may kept and observed. " King's most tinder and Royal Majesty. be the much more " to be resolved. " reform This their Lives. of the the " "arth9 Church of England. sDoiled of and " and to Maintenance better uses. preamble was of the by enactments. by a " great Deliberation. bled : in this present and Parliament " Whereupon the Commons. as a " they ought and Declaration keep. dayly and said in the " studying Exaltation devysing true Increase. solemn be be to also considering- great " Monasteries of this Realm* well (Thanks. to pleasure of Almighty f2 God. and for the Pleasure that the " Honour of this his Realm. - to so themselves such to the observation Houses be of good Religion^ " without small suppressed. the in that same else be Redress nor. that it is and shall finally of Almighty God. " In Consideration supreme whereof* Head on. being God. giving and own the whole " property use the king.. Advancement and and " of to Doctrine Virtue Honour " Church. said Lords other his loving assem- " Subjects the Commons. as u having Knowledge the well " Accompts of Visitations. should be the to be " unthrifty compelled " Religious Persons.

he the act began in to grant Great them away his as assigns. This general. in the place. the wickedness at stopped ? It poipt was. sufficient will show.the widow.*as they intended from the first. a robbery of the indigent. that and was destined must keep make the a plunder sudden he to himself. not that.*9 calls them. of the no The parties robbed. peace.xand. were the in actual sors posses. and this realm*9 this the him and lands the every was a and tyrannical gave household other breach the goods. he all that who* so stop. be means before of the great monasteries were could but safely attempted. they taken enable have assigns.Protestawt Reformation. even orphan stranger. and instantly beset him had poured that he in upon had not for their share. found. that and is clear. [Letter Besides act " honour houses and and profitof stock. and sacking the moment remainder. the robbery of third and monks in the the place ." and they. when want taxes possessionof the estates. Magna and the to la gold.that the was for stopping to that there yet a something seizure be done with the nobles gentry. that never the more king. The the tyrant got possessionof this class to of the Church " estates. . promises had been these held would out. and did to against certain whose was revenues not exceed that the the sum. silver. and do it is with* to from he people . that did revenues charges false for. jewels. first Here a place . be able to not that possible. revenues alleged wickedness a extended sum. that he soon should he but. if divided him a actuallyundo spoilwith he had done. there was were charge against loose and any particular convent levelled a the all charges convents. all whose when iiot exceed got above reason certain and that. in short. to who believe. out taxes . were The weak first attacked. unless the others. those in the next thing belonging of Char nuns monasteries. very soon found for attacking 169. those that point. care they knew moment's had They to that he him to cood * things. property never heard their defence . he thought. were alone .

and under was parties.1 would Protestant Reformatio*. whose torre9 body limbs mangled by hung up what is called the overlooks the abbey. with unjust of the and met sturdy opposition." #saidthe king. execu- and ripped and quartered the whose head which and Abbot was were of the of Glastonbury. cormorants." of the " complaining when to Cromhe" claimed. But case. monasteries. in " great and solemn well work monas- teries {thanks be to God) religionis right therefore. parlianasteries. We when in paragraph 167.'* " assigns'* had Before as four years as passedover never head.that the . When the eager to please Almighty God.man. " they obtained from few they called these volun* guinary san- tary surrender. not soon " much whole yet Tut. discover reasons to be a to difficulty was (in so time after this declaration of these of no made) for the confiscation in need larger . So. the honour profit of his realm. short a kept and of some " observed. of the have attempted this. give him and them those no rest. him. the some most base what where that can be a conceived. ex- wel rapacity By our of applicantsfor grants." more Cromwel to come. .YI. he found a vent. their maws. singleconso himself so " poor if he had the confiscated and sharp-set were pious reformers. this alleged. they promised. will there " the they have minded re- got the garbage. the Lady. 171. they lied. tyranny no reasons stands were reasons and. It pretence of their having committed under this infamous up and high the treason. him the to " that the ment.and By means they . mo- they enabled confiscate the smaller declared. Cromwel of these ments great establish- myrmidons beset the heads they threatened.19 men However.bullied.'1 It seemed. that." my he realm would stanch However. seen. until to he. by a seizure larger monasteries. that devour was dish. and in his .. they procured the murder resorted to false accusations. and " to the pleasure the of Almighty God made 170. pretence that tyrant famous the on hanged Abbey tioner.very after.

who the side most themselves the mere of tyranny and plunder. his heirs and . happiest country. flew The it. people. was to too a pretence for Cromslow voluntary \vel and surrender his who a* work troublesome much too and ruffian visitors. to chap. there. of his blood-stained 172. tnd . Gross leases to pity the ignorance of their Spain) rance. the on rapacious vultures. deprived of part. uttering exclaof the bargain ! or It is useless in waste on time venting curses a the memory monsters. buying small horrid we beer shall at living on parish pay.and began in insurrection it in pieces. but. and who thus made general sacking of now. misery followed must trace tyrannical proceedings . devastating. prefer easy landlords. however. and assigns.I%OTEST surrender. s palaces. hospitalityand " plenty. greatest country too.who to tear had assisted in the work. therefore. beautiful country.) giving all the these surrendered" also monasteries ALL OTHER king. Without ceremony. here had. and VIII. when robber's at pistolis obtain their temple. igno- showing to attachment to be sure. " for life. how soon see. and Bishop9 shortly. for and . rillagingrand . this then rich fine. for nine hunthe years. all to MONASTERIES hospitalsand our colleges Into the in mations.ETTEII the it did take of place. even After all. to gross ignorance and superstition We these to preferthese grinding rack-rents. work Cromwel his ruffians in their of confiscating. Europe The carcass being thus laid prostrate. rose against their natural' on the tyrant'ssatellites the but. what affects to common people to do? the to Hume pity the now ignorance of the people (as our affect rn stock-jobbing writers country people in the monks. waited for the more cormorants for the act " plunder. 13. waft precisely which at men of those " voluntary surrenders" the make of Or their purses. an was passed (31 Hen. wherever nature A K T' Re* OHM A TTOW. and had ever seen. which. knife their throat. plundering. until the had dred been. [I. that 173. placed were leaders.

VI. The they ready seized. they tore ruffians Cromwel to entered away the and convents.] 174. had of their rich down to ornaments. on in the short of all the was goods. most the last was shilling. a taken. did the most parliament. and a poorest of the convents or images. there In this who always something there to was no legal process The base observed. them themselves moveable more had disposed. ages abroad covers togetherhad of money. and now which of the consequence. with . Protestant women as Reformation well as and who this. and houses . taken were and had cost immense scattered robbed the by these hellish when ruffians. in England least. plun- had or. was suffer all these their places. of gold in this silver. in which were is not be overlooked. money. was case in all this. Let reader judge place. towards men. so since probability. in the the were share. rather. had These were manuscript. and. stock. Many of possessed churches if not the great deal way. but. In short. . had observe. of the altars and there of plunder. tore off the of books ornamented all in with the precious Single books to metals. get the gold monks silver . but to der. in the convents. such who thing. took vases. them other things. harvest began. had same taken way. the town rapacious to and unfeelingsoldiery never. costly days. standing army in rich all a without policeofficers. and not largelyshare. in things to and honest enough without 175. given only lands to tyrant. half long life-time compose which sums and copy fairages Whole upon the getting of libraries. and. of farms. proceeded be at greediness. shamelessness to brutality all compared thosfe of these heroes of the persons. with in delivered up and be sacked. to with jewels . with The the altars of their were generally enriched those remain preciousmetals. Protxstant Reformation! often but of committed robberies at Tyrants have cases on their people . the world The down the covers Never. of the the ran- gold. crops. to a people. silver sackings that had sorne jewels. in to cases. ransacked nuns chests drawers that books many out wTere of the and .

within most year. He. the them to whole were possessions as were by the and as Great whose as much as the kings the ' crown was him. therefore. enjoyed for plundered benefit of the poor themselves." the same spoon ounces. Cuomwel ounces the great pocketter of or one species of plunder.finger-rings. golde. nificence mag- cruelty. "4* Delivered same king'sroyal Majesty. pixes. of course. Re- weighing all together an hundred and six "ceived: 177. diamonds. this The well for that of these sessors pos- tyrant was. . own in his palace. by useful to parliament. candlesticks. sockets. speaks of and and in generosity. his hands his the gold. in carried sent it to ium ounces. magnificent who sat generous to sure. goblets. king. parcels. the of unto words: same "Item. and had the pieces of robbed One of which sent runs jects unoffendingsubto been by ruffians the the items by himself in these commit " robbery.PROTESTANT REFORMATIO*. receive with money. then is to parcel of another.who whom hearing a *tntheir defence. who had had had no laid regularly a charge. 176. jewels. declared. sapphires. rather. twenty at of gold at time. were stock of this his "generous store-house prince's" of stolen or. to the [LeTTI**] had no committed crime no crime to known their laws. London. the chalices . of whose Charter estates to lead godly ranteed gua- lives. to It be was a high-spirited. fifty of one another a . object blacken the Catholic takes religion. silver. been and large part of this same had. or sion occapossible for fie saying something not. and a day. magnificence. now a parcel of preciousstones Hume. spoons. cruets. HENRY There are high-spirit. ear-rings. of gold*. rosity! gene- Amongst pawnbroker's shop goods. manity hu- could too cunning. whose every main sort. of foure stuffe. cups. very name ascribe justice or to a whose and signifies injustice his his high spirit. images of all sorts. basons. with of foure patens of *' golde to REX. pieces of mone}' of all values. pearls. and the . he monster was other in praise of to its destroyers.

where the cut and beaten either the altars. hundredth who is to to Then. and fore facts bewith thece facts. and out down to bits of gold shillings. Canterin the which. cradle of of j thi3 city. of was equal of the in value eight thousand parcel was. Therefore.must ransacked and their the been enormous. more were. in this received money a present day part of suppose what that perhaps. inlaid to pieciousmetal. was images. the metal.had dipped manifeste synne" silver and as possessingrich altars. of the present day of . convents whole of the have goods were plundered.that arose destruction shrines of 178. forefathers from of conscience in the last paragraph ? The but parcel about . not way. of plunder. famed was English Christianity. gold " and images. progress. well 'the Convents the Churches. very early stage been of their pious and honest their hasty steps towards bury. these expert than myrmidons us Cromwel And. Reforming gentry as Cathedral Churches. to brought and he the that royalPea pounds chum. tombs. if still affect to believe. mentioned into this one. or silver of torn from the In cr of books. I .] even covers PjROijtSTAi"T Reformation. that and the "Reformation" people hastened 5 to it with and that noise of anticipated enjoyment. undenied we saw undeniable most not facts before that ihe of to us.which alacrity.yj. " above all other of places. " cases wood with at not work. must ever not . a it is by means they directed. from of which The as this the specimen. together with other the manifestly synneful" The whole diamonds preciousstones. sur- keen that rapacity. a did plurlderers not keep large give share in themselves? accounts Did It is subaltern plunderers manifest ever just the ? amount that. quently fre- burnt the get are Even at the Jew-thieves their trade with these . prize. of altars. crosses. the wood was . " Whatever same pilecontained to greatest quantity of their most the stuffe" seemed at be the no object of prising. be the we profound hypocrites be the trary precisecon- world that we our must which Englishmen have always the motives been thought of the be.

rich Of who who as it to pieces. had. the but especially his him name as in to England.and had the torn rich. if they could have got at plunderers. were objectsby which of the " Reformation" the a birds of prey attracted. in the Cathedral Becket. and the thingsof The thk sort.when hag the its spot where death.f ffccmcsfx vr We He* oan a"ioy. would.the Hospital of St. a was in the monastery dedicated of great him . for and and hospitals of piety and charity were of St. dedicated in the him. the monastery of Sende. . there was a greater in the shrine Church. Apostle of England. in Surrey. . all over country offer. Archbishopof Canterbury.. as in all respects. held more the of Henry II. reign resisted that to the and the to latter was manifestly paring preand rob the been enslave pillage the all when over people. when Church. where liberties as people looked as upon martyr been their well their ligion.in king. Thomas to monastery of Saint Becket. it offered ous plente- booty the tomb who. bet with accidentally Bat there were. this d prizewas. instance. City of London. in the Borough of Southwark. for three the plunderers assailed venerated a tomb. 1 79.id great numbers. found it equally of Jesus Christ himself.hare But. The former whose Austik of these renowned men.a magnificence. at two Canterbury. [LittVb to flying dbserve a In the horse crows or and an ox magpies. Tkomat. and. beyond all question. for eight or nine centuries. re- he sent having the barbarously murdered for no by ruffians that from in king. an resisting attempt to violate the Great to were Pilgrimages made continually it . and other cause than he persevered Charter. offerings other to incessantly poured into establishments as. had Christendom Reformation was in than highestveneration hundred his years. Thomas was Becket. churches his tomb . particularly and the tomb namely. whose preaching and the the long life of incessant owed the and most disinterested labour in Christianity England establishment Of land. the church Thomas. to been regarded work to as His shrine it was.

veneration had course. of hated .too.that more people. and Was it or superstition. in the most that he sacrificed his life. Indeed some why. Just as if either name to^produce unbounded whom it was veneration for the had of man. then. even some must have old .] ! Peotestant made Reformation. a this speaking of. people living in England. his it rights and "folly and real liberties and religionof was country. beggarly. for the and that. poor. which the time I am history. by The the overt acts. block. signal manner. observe. magnisupposed losing religion of halfto king of France most had then given to in diamond.VI. scarcely inhabited not now country. He than a death hundred assembled there in thousand at one pittime been grims to Becket's shrine have ! been in Canterbury. the k of sight and the double objectof maligning craft of Catholic this sort I degrading the English nation. None a but persons substance a could have performed such make Scotch journey. tagsat his shrine had A to be it exceedinglyrich it a and ficent. which us is of itself much more to reflect and inquire before now we the philosophers are and presenting Hume on subjectsof national wealth to population. says were the concourse which craftand superstition produced necessary a this of pilgrims. the now accordingto Scotch call our the whole of the was. all counted twelve contain men. Hume. and those have tenor had wealth though. twenty than thousand could seven hundred souls ! Poor for a souls ! How they find lodging and grown persons ! entertainment hundred me corner thousand And this. women* The city of Canterbury does and children. Here is fact that than swallow to us just slipsout enough what the as side-ways. ascribes Beck et adoration of to the the the priestsand is vexed to the follyand to have to superstitionof relate. who. at of some of the Island. sent f to bloody tyrant. too. and who Moore the name and Fisher of Becket. never the valuable Europe. And.97 wisdom gratitude and for such a man piety to show. then. more and well and puffed out. at lying book. people must those too times. of undeniably true.

silver. thicklyset object for ! Were now. The in insolence. law. " with preciousstones " of all Here was Reformation a pietyto to fix its in out godly one eyes our upon such how shrine be found cry of churches the swaddlers would for another filled two f Reformation'! The chests. the inost sitely exqui- wrought.P"OTEBTAXT REFORMATIOK. sorts. gutted. Cromwel. a But. in wonder? he will had was and profligacy. jewels. is the tyrant's proclamations had the the force of to laws. whereby encourage in -us describe the deed. bow rapacity. endure we comfort. and it is : a most fact. Calendar curious almanack the Prayer but. magnificent. by-and- the ruffian. plundered. .this last is As some word. Reformation was robbers . but. after being the on chief the instrument plunder. required six used to have or men eighty of that to day move labourers the plenty of meat) ! door of the Cathedral How the eyes of Hume's must high-minded. account. inlaid abundantly with and an precious metals.each of which (when them the to " and gold. in spite of " ruthless spiteof has all the liars of the continued Reformation/' to English nation always be just and to grateful the memory to return of this celebrated to the man. to for. in the do not. in that for this very tyrant. with have the ever diamonds had an themselves. the and and thus. and will constantly sought plunder 181.find it in the Book . were now monasteries the proper and sacked.we by. The and blood. here was prize! This tomb of Becket of wood. 180. see here bear mind. his bribed natural people's that leaders his side. and in . laying his the estates miscreant to head block. we generous prince" ! have I dare the chests were opened They bers. that shall. rob- Tied. to seize and the pillage churches . it is find it in Moore's year in 1825 Almanack . and glistenedwhen say. No of which robbers where in equalled these But.paused his ashes to be dug up forbade Common we the We future insertion of his the Calendar. may base in the to to the horrid relation. therefore. and scattered name [LfiftEft in the air.

GUNPOWDER a resorted to. to In many cases. they continually of cruelty the their tyrant and the his " of people rapacityand is and partakersin fellow-plunderers property in the . a it thus. if I do if I do " prove. those who to estates or destroythe buildings. but. for. even then we must not approve of the horrible or means . under the hope of seeinga give them revival had they. it has to even this look well come to this day. 182. had most the appearance of land recentlyinvaded appearance. by the strengthened. wealth. which it had *| a* were made requiredages upon ages to bring to perfection. a To go without was to wor!i the usual in that. and into it.' f on plunder. to these ornaments a* suffered the reminded stand. happiness have been and national greatness. more the tion. abuse by words not that Reformation/9 what event outrageous name of is it to call the by that And. if they have " all been an weakened. This It is not a is the view matter to take but of a the matter mere religion .J VI. clear that this latter has as been the not prove. The whole country was. in few hours. greater. disfigured. before day-light. be deprivedof all and lost. the way must buildings down. the most magnificent structures. was i 1 and apartments of the monasteries in the view not all. of for countless lasting of the* country 1 I the beautiful not be gardens. rights. more moral. and would have been labour end . the was that. than she has erer been since . so ~4 most instances." Reforma- England and more wealthy. ever yet supply the place of for of us what destroyed. lessened. pretty much many even them remain got the unto were this bound so day. if I do ." "Reforma- * or augmented. in order to new encouragement to take leases owners. If all these tion. knock them partlydown. How we the a " estates was disposedof come shall see further in . ! case. of real liberties. at of what once. thus. that the people should. but. must raisedLi-f buildings. of such as heaps of ruins. if by we the brutal barbarians.] Protestant Reformatio*. was Nothing has then matter. The noble ages. not happy.

Still At at to the rxge West" there was ave a there was Abbey at Chertsey. and Abbey. fact [Letti* ever was this appear as as clearly any made to I will*be content to pass.in which I myself Surrey born. after to across were seized.of licence London. the Hospitalalso afterwards there was seised by the the building was Ne wing ton given to an City . but ruffians. Then. a Rejoematiojp. West. was an a Priory at at Shene. of the county.Protestant make appear. now. rain pretender. door the was hospitality always open and the to the the man aged. And. grew was Yet this county was. Its present comparative of opulence creature of the fictitious system from one funding. Can county. is now all is changed There no. the widow. for the rest of my for life. where to heathy the county. littleof natural mere. 'of at six place poor. within any any place himself. was of Surrey. Priory. was an W rle parish of Farnham. its At revenues Hospital. county behold the 183. stranger. y. Tand- Priory. lower end Sends. Thomas's This which exists in South wark. their near was Priory more Reigate* the Coming again there was a the Thames. ornamented out an benefitted Church. and Hospital was this founded St. in any that whole door? number of miles of All is such No. I am filledwith has very indignationagainstthe ruffian devastators. another and more going at to Sussex-side. Mary that by the establishments At Overy very which there of the Catholic Bermondsey there was a Abbey. and nor in any other county. A very considerable part of it is is a heath-land. the there was master a beg I to At the Merton Priory. and end of it to the other. Near the in the Guildford. and devastation of that county. obtained a and. there at Priory. from the work in a To these convents some belonged cells themselves : a so chapels at a distance been a that it would so have of this for difficulty man to place himself. orphan. wealth in it. fbrthewoive. convent now at St. even miles distance from poor. If I look at the. in England* hospitality . wholly changed.

spend. reverence. did themonka work much as they do ? Did . and. ? Let us a they see did nothing to increase store how this is. I may answer year of the money asking. impropriated Wey (about twenty feet or two on the a commons adjoining. could lovingdisposition all men when fashion. Halsiy. making about four thousand pounds a by of the present day. nigbe in with base. why theyshould not have had it? And. the wide) running close by the the Besides this they possessed wall of the convent. monks of Waverley. monas- exercised hospitality of their weight the a in the invariably example was great with . ought to raise besides this the a every Protestant But. shel- by river a semicircle their Abbey of sand-hills. outer and a pond tithes of the parishof Farnham. a the spot. I may go ask. a for instance. stood. meant plaee of free entertainment the place merely for blush lame. at to be generous a was character money- of the nation large: not gardly. on Old English Hospitality/' cheek. not without disparagement to as tlemen. if am asked why the have thirteen had 1967. and all the classes of opulent and kind a the community thus. any who lives at distance these the parish. Thompson. and the very sound of the words. entertain as give enter* We entertain tainment to those who in retnrn.I %] Voids h"T* PftOTfeBTAirr Reformation We now changed their meaning. And. They of the possessed very poor land of Waverley. An because they stand in tkose not a hospital. This who lives on estate in land be* longs estate to Mr. lid.and. very seldom. on one twenty of very indifferent meadow-land. because people we like them in need a personally . tered part of which. few hundred acres acres with'a mill. " the sick and the blind . dis- 184. and days. . Now. and a the from gen* in tithes to Mr. teries. of entertainment. set those institutions to which an looked such a example which I condemned position. about perhaps. why any body should have any property at on.should 13s. they the nation9 lands s never worked. and year to all? Aye. but.

who. look church. the tithes of Mr. of the then. can. you. by for so whose many hospitality your fathers ages.rates and you there were church-rates no Very well.took place in to a every to the other county. you shall be the are judge know no in this matter. they were all of the faith and worship of your the monks Waverley. having this monastery to applyto. and how and to be devastated .pronounced. that the monks my of Waverley. its property at people with the poor and own the stranger. fathers were. have why what times came wondered Abbey was. the heart to say. and lie out your parents and my hundred nine hundred for progenitors. having for their neighboura Bishopof Winchester. of you bear mind. well as -townsmen we were Farnham. for with that twelve. in i . place in Surrey. you. the . years buried.Protectant /not Reformatio*. extent and greater-wealth resources of the proportion spot. who Aye. taught an That religion. and . and left the as Jargeto jound where possess their earnings.stood heard of in no need of poor-rates -as the horrid word pauper . Thompson. 185. [LrEfxBfc stow "as their revenue go to augment the nation's or "much Hax.There need ef either. find.Mr. thoughtin and if mind. then. in where that.a England) . climbed I ivy- covered ruins of this venerable Abbey (the first of as its order :.- as-the rente of . You know are. which but not the out-lived the memory of those as tators of the devasthe sweets many this one who as still taste of the devastation. I have.the poor of paiish of Farnham. who. what poor. when at looking walls. when boys. which is of vast did not sell small and . name preserved from idolatrous took which bearing the hateful and damnable of pauper. This is The a fact wholly undeniable. Come. that. as poor-rates and and as church-rates as long as Waverley Abbey existed no long Bishopshad was no wives. immense heap of earth parents. Defacing . sey? the and importance. beer out had my never of hit palace. and. have malice as well have. what an well I. And. at to matters of +"aith and the our worship. Church shared . only greater . those who. twelve years. you.

:. en- other his being and record cleared harassed of cruel half-barbarized at one try coun- of horde had escape after horde subdued to invaders. closelyupon have the heels been of confiscation and plunder. his As it wag. palace for was tyrant at self. as possessingevery in without as no single fault. have cited him.] followed If Protestawt Reformation. moralists. philosophers. or-* hoped. were Abbeys even England.a patriotism . but. From habit and life of a herdsman. capable of thought of of this deed one destruction us. lawyers. during depression not and long life. wisdom. they could as they far knocked down.raised hiiriself peopleto the highest point . piety. who can not of for the cur fame of ? that book sound open. the in the order destruction. divines. indeed. but a of all Europe. on spite of ever culties difficountered. boyish days. not legislators. They church Abbey. human He. short work the tyrant and would plunderers did they up. Austin and the wild tomb Canterbury. and resort to compelled him. such valour. they they annihilated there they could. our own country. The chester. beasts. such one short of diabolical men r. him- Alfred that in an Abbey. only of and his praise? Poets. Winand its who founded estates was were by made king himself. monsters might have spared. to a wholly it. atd and with a. any Where at is there has we amongst read even who has read Alfred thing What does not all. expected frdm which would St. as model of virtue. tyrant to Abbey given by the Wriothesley. Abbey. historians.VI. who. . how they tore rifled down of St. and who after \Vards Earl of the Southampton. malice two was be in . all made : of it. of the materials the built " for The Y. excellence. still cite and him. time. this state of his he. blowed could buildings have murdered. to Nothing. in got One a a prettygood share almost sickens like the at of the confiscations a man Hampshire. which had which that these the have that contained been We at tomb of and Austin the the the nagerie me- and that founded have seen by contained remains tomb "tr: of Alfred.

was which founder of rights. was demolished fills one were very more of the coffins and. him the Trial by Jury'1 Law Blackstone of the Common the courts- . whether tp a Catholics be Protestants. of justice. Englishmen If there under reverence heaven. whom at Grimbald. what cared plunderers for remains was factors? public beneblowed The the tombs sold .PaOTESTANT REFORMATION* He [LETTER his armies of as of happinessand than of fame. would to is there a Englishman found. intended which as had founded by himself. tioned. he. to just. the were abbey knocked . J"yhis example to by the be sober. taught his people. the successors of the Great . " sciences not . the down. ! this day. lead up. into the Benedictine to Alfred brought But. fought. were tithing s. where at . more He battles against the fifty enemies as England* his precepts. those remains of Alfred this abbey contained monk. abbey before-menbeen called Hyde Abbey. off the tomb even of this maker to was of the found. unjust and ungratefulin this or respect. Eng? that liberties and land other has laws. Alfred the Barings. for. of that to give her possesses pre-eminence. it is the of Alfred. England the begin the teaching of or Oxford. which ought to bow name with approaching And any rate an we are towards not adoration. industrious. all the brave . England a be what been. and Scotch calls lawyer. which with so indignation than as all the rest. to him. the counties. He moted pro- learning in sity of Oxford belongs founder the jred.with well and and fleets. the hundreds. the English name? The barbarians Alas ! that not where It be in spared Alfred Besides of St that. all her which rich which great and still happy ever whatbe a beyond she name neighbours. the made her her and the all to work those of Al- in fact. and the the place of his burial. he a planted late Univer- L . which gave made character and above of nations. the estates disposed of at to make loan-makers. who not gladly make his hat at pilgrimage of tomb is no thousand miles take.

at not to no If it had not been.** sources.correctness we come " of which is beyond matter. from that the family. but. been fred. acknowledges I should law. also dispute. by marriage." was. could their hang being people bracelets up touched. over Alfred no of what or is more. JtjUXTWtAXT Wrx"thssjuet REFORMATIO** manor* got the of Mich came elders* aad Strattok. but. 1 have pledged myself to show. defaced the were. the country now devastated. about and thirty years are now they were bought by Barings. Reformation " It is curious has to observe this Protestant worked. there and would . must see But. asser- from acts can what called histories from other of. and the. into the hands of the family of Russell. without danger of of in the that Alas a the descendants ! . have then been no paupers would them too. as they could there have have sold Barings but then as to no would and been. before the end to this important of the ruffian and Vice-gerent. the Russells not have had the the estates. thousands upon thousands no hunger. from every all we one of and parliament. there would have the very been no precise spot lay . so It is related that he that he people honest. was . well paupers. paupers miserable to creatures compelled seeingby that and labour ho from month's end month's end made. during the events . by bare tion.of Alfred no. which refer to. Thus.VL} 186* .which the no*. the there have loan-makers buy estates of the bridewell Russells. place.perhaps. need tread-mill. the end of the who tyrant himself. of bridewell made his where the abbey-church stood. aye. sacked an and proceed to give poverty I shall "c account of commencement as of that and degradation. without thieves or meat. where there would the ashes have of A l tread-mill. and consequences of this devastation nor which are show. which. same tread-mill Aye. should need there to were by the way ! that side. and. Micheldever 1- Stratton but. and. no days. which 187. then. ago. erected no Besides upon the this. would national been no debt. human divine. .England . in of possession how Sir Thomas " Baring. and .

in the Sister of the he Duke of Cleves. plunder of the poor. and it was venient con- the tyrant to get rid of him. not 188. was six or months after the riage. he seven found prudent In 1540. the handsome wife in and his eye.. of her she arrived . or killing. Is J^ 1539 found. band huswas - There lawful pretence like his the him for the that was divorce. the fact is. bed.put had Thus former This of the corhe the had his irons into in a the fire again for neat a occasion work as . after her years very death. set his was myrmidons no work bring the The block. hands continually steeped in a blood. however. the to who was die c of Edward who VI. voluntarily. hated Cromwel on . but. When person about mate in Anne. on " his wives forcing. as He had from the. in 1537t None. it expressed to marry mar* his dislike her. man. * aW ' all. Duke. which took another place wife.he to divorced from to her. Cromwel with was the chief . had well - obtained as enormous wealth. whose was. going .Protestant thathave been Reformatio*. the After death of Jane was Seymour. a lady's name Duke old Catharine This Howard. from the church his several and offices. little time. well now as was most an of the nobility. and of inflicting vengeance opportunity had been him. all : did too alleged not as wife : and this ground from this of the divorce. mother very long. be unfeelingwoman thing to expected whose he to have. and who had the only one die a of all the and ti 3 wives tyrant's die in her he was good luck queen. could nearly two some hunting gross and up but certainly. wives Cranmer. not to daring f in this her to case. but England. got about thirtyof the estates belong- . as niece of:Norfolk. cause of the king'smarriage to Anne no of Cleves but.any were do with a. as piece of " from the shop queen young was of the famous were Reformation" king and another single people again . and ever produced. his plunderingtalent 189. but. Cromwel longer wanted. who had divorced two before. [Lirrnj marrying. and career we speakingof.

not robberies time murders His in seems.VI. or gallows. own was what about to was fall his head. and praying God but in for robberies spare his murders. fact. or rather he had palace. call for the the of the on convents seemed public vengeance of June. without giving them even a trial . under been his orders.when slavish crime who he and the no the insolent the and most of power. the He barbarous and towards description and nuns unfortunate an : unoffendingmonks ' . the ruffian had devastated his head. had. He . was gorged with fruits of he in had the sacking . ever of all was dastardly and tardly.represented the king defended been in the ment. he he was : in all-powerful as a evening of day a in prison before traitor. same On the morning of the He 10th the 1540. of to the charge of treason. invented the a had. to lay in prison only of few way days of last he had experience the benefit He his seen own administering justice. committed to barely to enumerate. treason. dascruel wretches died. that Perhaps. a ingly disgustno base. without been such instrument was the plunder never could have effected but. committed with against he was king more though charged heretic than was heresy and . not lived only eight days after his fortyenable and him * arrest half long enough the to enumerate. he too to no longer wanted very walls . as the king was a and. forgive him to have these to spent. house. his Reformation. and where precedence of and had every but the king .]. this had had been most He. was already lived long . been* made one of Essex. Number. of as we have in the the way bringing people to any form of block. there not shadow . and he. . without a them giving to hearing . about this This in the abominable of on wretch brought and He case Countess to Salisbury. ruffians. but was merely by passing what this of the now law put them had to death. to however. praying the the most was now mean the and mean tyrant life. ingto Earl the Protestant monasteries the . in fact. parlia- he introduced all his confiscating beyond all murdering laws.

was just as guilty of and of Reading. hanged. in the most to In these letters the tyrant. all him. of tfar ruffian* : for bringing to block. to dastard on himself. understand this Cromwel. the only been writing these Fox. had quartered. allof : the chief whom. Colchester. got a the king. and. suffer him to balmy make the fragrance base creature thereof might fit for heaven"! it had The for calls deserved letters. take away his He. was and. But. of the in had the to to This ashes very : superintended the digging Becket. not nient conve" j large share plunder. there have been few soldiers sacking . all burned. formation" it principles. motives had a property and. once besought more. I dare to get one to get the plunder him back the up from him. too. female male. the " his death. Glastonbury. thouplete com- was as seen one. more. creature no dirtybody. by hogs from but or upon to be licked to dogs. innocent not more Aye than were . repeatedly but. in his letters to the king. moment The cowardly He 1 seeing have any had. valiant Martyr ''-man.' he [LETtri treasons foundation the Abbots and for it. death in order say was get j fair J possession of property. : them scattering witnessed of his up air. of hand him if u compared him that to his smiles and " frowns kiss his those God. therefore. he fawned him disgustingmanner.P*otxstant Reformatio*. which it to -leave in his hands. amongst there a never those thousands or sands. of vehemently protested hi* : innocence. witness run the the lettifig pavej of the blood ment. and he was not . the of his arrest. in many he had been to instrument to at ": putting to death. upon time most to true Re-life. soldier to of the Reformation/' Yes. their He put them . wrote z thought about to no thing in he saving hope done of his life. who and had out of Thomas and now. more the butcheredAbbots than he any one Monks he was innocent whom out of those thousands upon or thousands. upon so plundered. : the gettingpardoned was ! to purpose had was what over. no doubt that but. the people that. wanted of the work of plunder of the nearly he was had.

" Fox meant field. been the very who first suggested the condemning of people to death trial. quote. not in the of your Highslave. Written hand at the Tower trembling " ness's "Cromwel. with very little ceremony. at the end of a few months.or the but scaffold. the block. when "yet the frail mercy with and the most " king. of and bloody deeds and other master. the Protestant that Cromwel more in the convent. Thomas for " mercy. and still was. am most ready to submit to and it shall please God Majesty . to make confess treasonable him in the when deatb most began-to cowardly to stare face. whole of her relations. vexations and torments with He disappointments. is a he caitiff that this man ever died. . I cry is the language of Fox's valiant. he was* this his cruel and dastardly Vicegerent. the zealous. of all his as new Anne to her discovered. but assuredly. a death." a Hume Never says. He had been the willthe officious. the tearing valour " pulling the rings from books : gold clasps from " women's that was of the Reformation. amongst things. these abject expressions woful prisoner. he to wag of valour frill and to nuns on foragingparties .VI. During the seven survived beset sorts. had. queen Boleyn.] better he had : Protest awt Reformation. sent He. together with a posse He like a raged and foamed lovers. on 190. was deserved better fate. mercy prisoner and poor gracious prince. letters to from the conclusion of of : Cromwel's " "I. compassion been murdered thousands that as by He. and cronies. that such another much had been.* valiant on soldier. wTord that great bestow or Hume. expiate their the crimes years that tyrant himself. It is hardly favourite of necessary say. and' your flesh incites mine and me the to call " to your grace for " " pardon of heavy heart miserable "Most !" That offences. die in the What same without should could be more just than that he death. just or more appropriate. one as well historians. thoughts . " mercy. sacrilegious." fate his man ing. which when produced ? Not shed at his tear^was a way the spectators an effect such as is on of murderers the foulest produced the gallows. though upon ruined all the him. was. be has who not a deeply of had other laments Cromwel's to fate. the eager tion agent in the execuof all the tyrannical. and monks to and : a when brave? rifle monks he had rob altars nuns or on I fellow "the when them stretch and words the rack. and fingers.

whether he Christian i England. That beheld. wild beast. to When on his death. took \ an unwieldy and mass disgusting of flesh. executions and confiscations. the sanguinaryor " of his age and in the thirty-eighth of his hardand most hearted. leaving want death-warrant unsigned for the year of time ! 191. of that system of which and the main effects in the impoverishment and people of England Number: and degradation of Ireland body of the in the next will shown. and got. to afflicted this country. none is of all the scourges that ever " Reformation. he left torn by her peoplewandering about in beggary and misery. and consequence his condition. the orderingof accubusiness of his life was principal sations. all these will be shown I trust. But. dishonestyand pauperism. man . years rowly escaped the fate of the rest. and we now and how behold the wealth sown' . j wife . in 1547. in a manner which - leave. abundant* the all which in ttifcrvest reignsof hi* produced an and miserable children. mischievous whom. of all pains.'' be put in comparison with the Protestant i . unity. would face his* laws. still he the The ferocityand bloody-mindedness of his former days. plenty and happiness. that. but a widotv . and she very narnone He. no doubt. this time.Protestant Reformatio*. became. before he died. with unhappy. from his gluttonyand debaucheries. but. lest ^ death died more the intimater he was should aware before than one well of he . of were nation pauperisn"Srst seeds point of character in England . passed and laws most bloody to againstlewdness for his in his future infidelity of the. factions and schisms. He laid the foundations of immorality. how of confiscation he had which carried sunk in arose completed on so long . in the fifty-sixth reign. the the ridicule Europe. for last time.nation another and protect himself wives. barren. meanest unjust. in the mind of every of sense. How he disposed of the plunder of that how how the his successors and the* poor . and his name his house years. ^ at the end of a few for extinguished the church work the ever. He. were which found in peace. bed every to one was afraid intimate his be the danger to him. year most Thus expired. had ever tyrant that the world Heathen. for some.moved about retained by all means of mechanical inventions.

in least. as 1 room for. and his Cranmer King. Church of the Law Established. Edward Per/ury New Robbery V. Friends. upon the reviewing whole ter." Churches. 188ft. or. I intended the main to" in present body and trace of the pie to were..and rivers w. that was thing. by these doings. at plan. ling Number. Henry it best But. Having. devastation. under when we locritical pretence of e seen religious zeal robberies shall and rather. in the preceding Numbers. endeavour of this to give. Associates. to end of the reigit my bloody tyrant. people barbarities persecutings $ and we murderings have seen Reformation" and and. 192. brought and fed hypocrisy and cherished innocent by plunder. of Insurrections Treasons of of the the People. I LI take present Protestant o labourer. of Crowned. the the conclude showing and. with his cold . Death Kensington 31* ( M*y. vir.No. it By pursuing give." forth in in beastlylust. impoverished is to say. the " * Executors By of Henry VIII. and and how of the English Number. how and how rmously nge made lost by the change that part of the people poor this wretched one con- degraded. Reformation. a . I intended to the to degraded the this time / that and iui- erishment tie degradation ddwn VIII. wjjen that robberies they committed . LETTER VII. and satisfactorybistory the impoverishment. impudently gendered fidy. Irish blood. I shall. or. I think 3unt " first go through of my of all the we caa of the plundering. such of those then nation main I barbarities with . eailed the " shown.

194. formation/' the thing. I shall the course the first three of these the . qualities make was plunderers and hypocrites by which of has that led finally mass produced an change. the daughter ters Elizabeth though. and and show him how Catholic water. X. the reign of Edwakd of Queen In Number VIII. namely. upon relishing reserve and degrading for the we effects of the change but. IX. Boliyn was though latter born mother wbih King's 195.both by of of Jet Anne da still stood the bastardized was of Parliament. hers. my I promise shall conclude in Ten distribute deeds my and in Number the present). first wife. to his remainder.and then. i if if those cold potatoes and not have pig-diet. observe. with a I burstingfrom One his infant case luxury. this will into execution and . am Number Number reign of Queen arguments to Elizabeth establish called the main facts that my the " n point . an having down the horrid means. will when. the To carry Mary. and little work thus of : conformity Numb. take undivided view consequences. quite taken I shall whom away him all the exec of English blood. touch. tracing paragraph those consequences present day. . fathers poorer tural the lived than .* Protistant Reformatio*.and of his mind a toe contending passions. Mary he died in without default issue. witne of to these last Number. alive. [Lbt his potatoes and water. of issue dau| tc first.impuden/ly and of impoverished In not degraded bod N in " people.which 193.. to his present misery. and nine-tenths and of corruption to crime. which he made in last acts was toil ' son his immediate 'Successor. pu private. j again. except incidentally. to gover. VII. now threatens of this my matter events uproot in society its i In pursuance to plan. those the those of the and the of the reign Mary. savage swelled In 190 at a we had the satisfaction old with to se tyrant expire and premature age.

an ostk to stand " and was maintain to break last will of their oath master. for. cream gone the the had been taken off. but. fourth. Harry 196.King had the The church-altars. Their second idrd.as yet. will gave was King's to Bother.** the seventh begin remained series of of the subversion of all that Catholic* Religion in England. amongst : Seymour. chantries. piety of ages some still there made were pickings left. have he plundered these do it without stated the had not could openly becoming Protestantr which. and for the effectingof all. eighteen years and the " of age. in. had Something power sacked some they longed rid The been of . but. equal to powers new executors. But Hertford way no audi fifteen brother as had had. in parish churches. These Earl of Birtioiiis honest hmer. the were " fifth lay or side. aad guilds.the valuable. had left." most sixteen ' .that Old. if he he had lived much done longer. Pope poor was chantries and' and guilds to be at contained it. generally. who then fat there was were Imlfl ihgnliiiiii jboeLd be BttWAagj was years sixteen of age. small* altar* ttfe contain The gold the and silver appertaining the altars. for in Us reasons paragrath the 101. ancient English to have at a a custom taking the people if they the willing to to and obey* high for- King. remained skimmed Old milk of church- altars. untouched . and Harry would. the country had despoiled. and.Wl] PJttnsrAjnr RiromvATiov. of . who that by making Hebtthe brother of Jan* the Seymovr. not doubt* j kas. The award was the peers at grants of the public money. he would worthies not do.worthies began by taking. it. had The left unaffected monasteries but there in the were way plunder. however to The had every church.in to act was a solemn manner.though . "protector" though illthe . whom Cra the the tors execu- appointed. the Coronation. some Their next step The give to peerto to ages Ofew to of themselves. their such otn atacle ruffian. in been Cathedrals. And total The the sixth was was attend solemnacts Mats. the the gotten been of.

as they. and amongst . by end of " Cranmer. it is-impossible for any to sense. whose to taken himself. in ilie been pretty nearly completed first to system homilies came a of Protestant and law a He prepared the a book of order pave way. and. at this open look at the his-' " tory of this transaction. 1549. valuables. . catechism. authors 198. had taken that Catholics they had to a sworn uphold his 5 religion. religion was false no and wicked. and. and creeds with maintained fire the and sacraments and faggot. to gold and silver with things appertaining Hertford at them I . . and other longing eyes 197. who were. and But."#- ought to be altars. after them coronation but.. to this change from without the religionof England being and convinced that that the of a part of . some hundred had not standing ought and of changed .Germany. tkolic he. itchingfingers* them. and Therefore he had church-altars ver. for not tied had many Protestants to the a being Catholics. had well to as had king crowned the oaths as "*. there there To seize required a pretext onee* what the pretext could Catholic that there be short of at declaring.PlOTKSTAVT the RirOftHATMV. he still professed mass be of the the CatkUk sni left thg v faith. they contained the' worthies saw gold. and that course. the old tyrant died 1547 so . and. or when all things Prayer had prepared. [LlTTtl' power hrf hsi! wife-killer to had abjured he the Pope. worship. unperverted mind.the There that to be religionmiut some be some wholly put down. them. came th^BooK Common and Administration of the Sacraments. of of couise. they had taken : hinv high mass.til* these with. Next to allow clergy to have wives and then. plunder man' plunder only common in view of but. nt avowal of Protestantism. mer their the head. doubtless. good things abput 10 there was plunder remaining Catholic and get at this remaining plunder. the altars bad . . unplundered. however. nine who fanatics years 3 imagined not the religionof . stake principal of it had The plunder who had plunder only in in view. The with as sixteen Cray~ a " worthies.

it will be unnecessary very particularlyon This was any real thing " but the altars and the churches. We of " have seen. wu Bishop the made the of Winchester. but. VOL] - P*OTMTA"t whowith he RsroRVATioir. however. arro- expressed in words so solemnly chief full of . These many propagate their doctrines . united no and man so happy. prince hypocrites. without in any the was a **f reign of robbery and tf hypocrisy any was any thing or to cora- j pared with them . condemned the not reign Henry. them ready that . Luther was was the soon beginner followed made had work reformation" on but. So that he Cranmer. andertaken no cunning easy he " was. to and. reproached him of the under or Ceafmer with kte which his had duplicity " reminded upheld have had zeal the cat Catholic him worship king. thing country in any age. coming. believing of the in it. say to $ knowing heresy and of lawful common for him for it soon became was impossible what for the was people during know 200. Cranmer. king only pompous was ten years and so of age. plunder. as ^| upon this occasion. as did not. and would had hang himself. j way or another. However. [iter. 199. robbery. conscience. no one knowing hardly what it was believe. who. he by further reformers attempts to the Continent. go far enough that had for the fanatics it whole tribes \ instantlyappeared arrayed against on ligltis of the soon Continent. for had people was now to the flames~for to demn con- believing in transubstantiation. found matter. and gance. one "j Religion. slightestremains ' of shame in This new system and there n"w. of a they did. in end. indeed. for. were The proclamations put forth. it be was the reformation reign ". his throat. ' always pretext $ but. There things dwell to the grasp . in the name disgustingly ridiculous. if he him. became what divided to innumerable sects. once so always the The into people. what That of not heresy. get at this nothing attract the was object the were plunder other to and to spared.I.

the greatest and audacious has the save plunderers that and this famous reformation The to produced^ of except Old Harry was himself necessary total abolition the Catholic j worship his of plunprojects der of and. in England and by so these foreign traders neck. to jealous of its foreigninfluence. that continued of the to multiplicity of hosfle present day. Beza. which her the employed fatten those who their a part resources "and of these sided with religious. not compelled to bend haughty only to but foreigners. Soak . rather. of the country -Cravto feed opinions. call Somerset (the childwas ' * ikinghaving of all as we " him Duke had of Somerset).Every scandalous own notorious the the most vices. as villanous age. "id{^ began that has division. or. and necessary when. and who was tfl- venturers. became one these sectarians scene Enghmtl^ alter* ^ great of religiousdisputation. They agreed nothing but doctrine. mained when churches were be robbed of what them. it was form which were make complete change ail flocked to in Hi of worship. according to in full confession in the of his followers. base could . seen foreigners. religion5 was now this nation. old Henry had the kept to a them tfofc^ jibrob* that however. character and foreigners of the most Cranmib to be his tools and not infamous find E description. supple nglishmen sufficiently work we in executing the whom made that must he now had The Protector ( iHertford. [Lfcrifii] down. Zuinglius. for the Common in it . Calvin. of the one even reformers distinguished of them was of the Catholic for religion. him. impious. shall see. the greatest -of all reformers*9 that soon yet appeared most in the world. England in * bat.that good works . Perhaps a world nest of such atrocious and miscreants the rest Luther. for chose over-run the best ket mar- doctrines. to to have a pretext for bery. others now Prayer Book were others it proposed tions there for abolishing altogether .PttcrwrrAKT in Reformation. and. in hand. therefore. and in any he was a great encourager the these has greedy never.

fra- all and purposes) .also 5 private property the as almshouses of which hospitals. It men. so The Protector took lead. or was as property funds much now privateproperty are. bishoprics grand sweep his example from one. merit The were halter. what a was yet there ore pretend. of fanaticism. Tbey took some much much that another.teachers extolled this so themselves and yet the Protestants and a reign as the that reign of the conscience was religion! one. never that vice so of all sorts so numerous of every This kind was were great and confessed by have the . now. the them.in which 5 present fabric Church was founded for. that is of so is now possessed by the Established as Church sacred ! This nature not to be touched this our by Act "ofParliament 'Established the reign. This was its : great animating principle this it began. but. and to in this it proceeded tillthere on. chiefs Its mis- all manifest afforded 5 an of the old tyrant into and j that death opportunity was returning the right path but. and and they wholly their suppressed. guilds. to There intents 5 many chantries (privateproperty ternities. enabled there the was minions . was the plunderers went of on. there The plunder remaining. a Of virtue. was manifest not' change the bad that could were have proceeded before in it from death for error. for id not SOI. j sincerityof thci them whose acts and their lives was proved a man the of teaching. and so by others. the of any Friendly Society And All men.\ \ IbOTEITAWT REFORMATION. 3 historians agree. were took estates^ themselves. n there a not. "reformation". not 5 the of work. free chapels. was nothing his a left for it ' work old rob at was SO" The to tyrant had. to as Westminster. error. to the consequences morals of the All people were mch as naturallyto be expected. of of ambition but love in plunder. and crimes before. these "who became lawful plunder. followed from of in certain cases. though the .

one truth. 5 leave to the Established no to which do the people all -pay tithes ? the Church true ! says he I cannot that. but. was worship along with seems it. nominally. it for. disunion.that he is what use usefullyemployed teaching is. all the at the teachers were of every 5 declared. raised It . no loudly woe proclaimed that were. Oh. or why he more work the in me./ PftOTESTANT REFORMATION. not to teaching. the least. It had birth in cord division. in reality. ihat " others very false and. to passions or sort of conceited persons? are that his insist. Here to if it serve false. from but. [LeTTJ -was overset it was by Mart. that his teaching th. of his tell me. The cause an pretext for making it that it would that *nkn -. and. is an compelled easy life confess. to of belief : and teaching not abio-' the lutely necessary salvation as he will confess . disof its birth. the it would compose all dissensions. He to lead but. that it was it was again by Eusasmk made. because say I * not teach the true religion. it was not to denied. acknowledged be of which course. obvious truth. the indigent and was. the widow. from Church the Catholic also from Uhurch the . why Church. orphan. the and The perty pro- and worthy that it possesses taken. of they . anditnoir be to be high time. fashionable I ask he the to disclaim the doctrine of exclusive or salvation. that instance. that there one . .. that to fellow wanting whims bypandering or. no better than religionat alL though it prater. this is the language of is now so common sense.Well. that there and " was religion.he tell* is necessary. he must If I ask. could be but . by its very been its life has was similar Acts.by Acts of Parliament.alreadytwenty. fields ? His answer is. salvation9what signifies up in a I I have him penned he is the a corner. . and tbei Now made. Unitarian him parson. it should unmade.9 that "salvation business of souls. for Indeed. stranger. say I. does or Well. why not takes upon some office j does why not he does in go and follow trade. ef sentiment amongst The true the people . that.

in of and public . will believe course.VIIJ Jorpcr. and of the here. each differingfrom or all the rest wicked case deism. whether r false religionis the bad the gion religions. us other. he maintains 203. professany opinion contrary to that were the true religion or not. to think of ? twenty If or forty creeds. to obliged insist on the latter. contradicting each then. and which inflict that a cruel punishment. of natural. same profession of it. lics. differing. atheist it but if it acknowledge or tolerate one than acknowledges a tolerates one false not as i and as let divines deism or or say. too.that on many side men .for imprisonment this be the case. it should nothing at all about It as mat" The was Catholic but one consistent. laws. each of exclusive true salvation. atheism . so be something not as only to in but itself. them is their the thing false who and altogether. that there those true and religion . The or acknowledge tolerate but the one* religion.when all but one tolerate many of which men must false 1 What their is the natural a effect or of of seeing constantly before sects. he after all his if P**tmtawt Reformatio*. The and openly of claring de- that all the rest effect have truth false ? and. is it just to punish deist the for not he sees believing in the laws be Christian so at all. q 5 . all the eyes score two different calling themselves each Christians. to it punished offenders who dared openly that Whether religion. teach invented for solely about benefit of those it. and 204.and law who should dispute know code was it. said. the mischievous in its effects' call. present we with an impossibility: what. Two true from creeds. tolerating all but one encouraging must of creeds. multiplicity A code of laws of and the which be false ? one acknowledging in toleratingbut deist and more religion is . all tolerated are by law. the that that the none sary neces- is. Catho- railingagainst the intolerance the doctrine two religions. are other. reli- atheism atheist Besides. ter. for years years the if what are we to think of laws. consistent punishing or the one.

even of that here have thirty- hine persons breakingoff from faith which the against thousand. or. in wholly the testimony rejecting 20. anl former occasion. of its truth. in a to the trial. relating dimensions have acres. so certain of these belief. there acres. be Is. [LsnSt we now so but. were one without mind. we'may think and that possible. still believe them joint be in protest "tror . at last. the disagreement and amongst the Protestants was. each one belief. testing prothe wfcole. and in many too.a tive presumpaal observed If. old belief musthate these the true shall hear thirty-nine their now againstthe protestors all the other was ancient faith each protesting against that must and thirty-eight. ? What .come aye. to tfefa day. while inquire j nations its long eoatfiM^ ance. two parts out fortyof all Christendom are we but. too.that this belief is erroneous. long hidden. piece of land. who. of just? Thirty-eight must this be : and are we still to believe in the correctness of their former identical of a decision. and So fifty. ligfet instantlybegin. there fortypersons.to beliefs. not upon whose a less strong. there protested. to swear for twenty it contained -to one surveyor of twenty swear and each other thirty-nine surveyors between a to each of the other number of acres and in forty. up fathers. there not. which time had been taken that proved always been. what him crediting judge who and jury would to hesitate and moment swore the twenty. new thirty-nine other that the we from differing common one all the mnstwe thirty-eight. proof. if' begin. relating to to the same matter If. and. this not. truth. and ? that. two about . in been decide justice. not. entertained enough the suppose. instead entertain. is. at may it naturally to least. was a proof of its good moral effects upon strong preguniptfve the people.have. and their fathers. for countless a generations. of all the would of rest ? Thus the argument out were stand.though late. on the supposition had unto that thirty-nine parts day. of the old the thirty-nine But. if thirty-nine we say.I PftOTESTAHT have not to REFORM ATfrOlf.

for our far could to Can . sack country.them in necessary do it ) our abolish it be England. under ? Can it be it law was constitution it Catholic ancestors be. cases. when be even kings of the him the him we compelled the "against him. to keep our eyes . i have held . then. stillrigidlyexsome from all honour power. that two joint are protest against the faith of the thousand. for have hundred see. faith comes decide so thus before? if the to Catholic false as. But. wrought it is a common. in -discussions of this sort. the Protestant sects work years the end to -destroythe those three faith ? years. some motive. is false ? Can it be as Can that a" our that this wdfahip b to Idolatrous . $ we we Pope without a foreignland and raiment have we seen seen food flcarcely more and at have press of and not than as half the to world treat at libertyto But three we treat his seen faith it pleased Catholic hundred them. moment. have thirty-eight we fake ground* tacked way and yet are to believe. to deluge the country ? jrith falood9in order to change. how When.that it to waa good. . a this very in this kingdom Protestant and where hierarchy receives Catholics and are eight in a millions sterling eluded from founded that this all a year. that. it not to have been very bend no extirpatedbefore great to one ? indeed. we have each of these thirty-nine instantly pro* protested upon their who that ji testing all the other .was we wise and just ! } Is this the honest base men.our religion violate all the - 2Q". in which men decide in other casea Did end ever -were not blinded by passion. in returning. that gaining ground where itself. a but very grtttermr. and. rights of property. to to the works of the piui*" so derara. were tbe Pope had to power it . Do not at of that ? that faith do we even is still the not see ing reignit is faith of Christendom at Nay. Bat.\ VIL] PmoTEflTAKT Reformatio*. by all antiquity. honour. now. or by Besides. politicaland by ? their faith civil rights. remark. it is by some pretended now be. and pretty reason fairly. dared might said. that prisoner in to use the weapons have seen Catholic a faith. said.

This1 in persons. [Lette* lic Cathothan exclusivelyfixed Church business of on mere matters of religion.become been ing wholly extinct. amongst the people to at large. what and of prietors. and and the j)lyprovided.and proprietors some the tenant will. both It was great powerful estate. to be directly the face of the Gospel.The deal more included in it a great of the teaching religionand of the wants worship and practising a Administering sacraments. of formed. miser to back. and held by benevolence dependants.their place hav. of without the of proprietorship on yet. whose had all the in poor distressed. It was the great cause of tenants . for It received extortioner beneficence. of the aristocracy the naturally siding with it was a people.Paotestaxt Reformation. of the provided. of course. The . J* lending of money or gain. has" by degrees.was easily amassed. Usury amongst until the wife-killing If hollyunknown. important link in jjot race in the chain before society. It considered allsuchgain as usurious^ and. society that a and mitigatedthe rigour of proprietorship. supplied by and comparatively few rack-renters. pro- taken unfairly.. in various ways. and it prevented the greedy-minded amassing wealth in that way in which wealth' is most Christian* .. and degree. the It had great It deal to do with am- temporal concerns people. so numerous England. by the sjvajpns of miserable The Catholic Church held for interest. and its it above a all things. thus It taught the making of loan* without from interest . rather than by together by the ties of religion and terrors the trammel* of scription demost of the law. criminal.coming at after the in fee. many instances. upon the terms always a singularly advantageous and and the and latter.participating. paupers. poor ^ .and a were applied it works land It contained revenues great body of distributed. of towards provider for its and the keeper hospitality. wholly of dependence formerly almost a the proprietor. tyrant had laid his tacds on the property of the Church and the poor. called who life-holders. independent crown. " But. the estate. By its tenants charity.

the 5208. that of Cranmer Calvin 3 so had that got an was influence almost opposedto open have war there amongst these protectants. In it we reign to ace the true character of the poor heroes and of the " Protestant Reformation ". The inthose churches. thoughtabout the value of the images. candlesticks. To reconcile the people to these innovations had plunderers Bible found was a a Bible contrived for the purpose. Of all the acts of this hyocritical and plundering this was. precededby all sorts of antics played remain. abolished. of that Church ristic which was established in its stead. censers. to gleaningsof these were the harvest not fered suf- well as as plunder of the churches. gold and silof the was A part consisted and The mass images.] v Protestant Reformatio*. the the table the head or quarrelling to stand. amused themselves where there The longerto part of be an table in its stead. which it was text. very of the old tyranny. parochial was collegiate. was to be . though about other things: they plunderers. feel the times of which of the deeds of the infamous / . perhaps. After teaching the party should in preparation the due this way. after the seizure of the . all of the Catholic Church iciples "ras of generosity partook j their as selfishness is the characgreat characteristic. as I before observed. fanatical the reformers with about the part of the church about -the and shape of it. more of ver. to and the people were stand.The lonasteries plunderwhich was remained comparativelysmall and the but. or Every church less of had. were something.wherever qftlie original perversion be necessary. altar robbery was have set about in due form. the West. and now the miserable labourers of Xagfaad* who consequences live upon potatoes and water. 207.the basest. and the like. a part of censers. no other was. thingsused a in the celebration and therefore.which of thejpeople. the East. kneel. or sit at it! The however. but altar. the mere eavings of plunder. mass.. still. whether of it was the South placed to whether North.

thieves. great multiand ran "t tudes. that England wu reallybecome lowest 209. ordered parish church Dr. Paul. John. too. E wen's church. workmen the had no sooner advanced their In when parishioners gathered together Vows and arrows. Westminster "the u these. with which so and that could arose staves clubs away j M terrified the and workmen never they be in " great* amazement. Martin-le-Grand the Tower.. materials of these demolished he to near buildingsbeing a insufficient for his purpose. of the pulling df Saint Margaret. was For which was erected in the Strand. did not Protector. den of thieves. four or forget himself. the college church of . Such for never rapacity never of human of of before and. The in order get a suitable spot for the erection. church of St. will the honour nature. Nicholas. Every preparation being made. says Hetltw. from our It it with literally its old to us of churches." seat Thus power the Somebset-Hqvsb. St. building this and Having plundered a five of the the purpose bishoprics. pa- palace in London. and a mlibeij place by took began. and under name.Protestant Reformatio*. scaffolds. St. of the of fiscal ruins grasping. but. this day. " [Limi the I am speaking. be* Newgate aides $ and the parish the church of down j St. It and seems let us hope that be heard a again. general plunder of churches ! took royal and away parliamentary authority even The to was robbers every thing valuable. He. as the place which issue the mandates to give up the fruit of earning* . pulled down part of the buildings appertaining the near the then cathedral . he needed of lace. of St. the was now present grand first erected serves. together parish church. Smithfield Barking Chapel. of the and The most despicable character. as which to called "Somerset-House/* he the place is called 1 . Somerset. took from three bishops with their town-houses a he pulled these to down. mean down the vestments heard of of it the priests. upon that brought agara " -employment. London.

of risings Yet the he could pass as these must discontents been a people is under . He. benefits nastic institutions their says that the monks a always residing on avarice with caused " di"usion of good constantly around motives most to them Other that.goes hrs in very elaborate were to as readers believe. Debt have an 210. of the never which " is one evident tad great Protestant could to Reformation. and the or there have for these. It is curious an enough account to observe the Hints. M they the the best and lords indulgent land- 5 that. and exposed the 1 rapacityof that the te" were stewards) that whole nantawiere estates laid waste expelled j and that even the cottagers da* .VII*}1 " " Pftorserairr "he Interest of consequences that 1Upo*mati"ht* of the w pay a Debt. in " error the tendency can change. account toithont " which I am. that tyrants and some people large) people heartily detested acts." it was less favourable. followed by many of the which good effects.-when rents were church lands money became private pro* at a petty.0 existed. ceased with was the very to suppression much monasteries. give these the of the testant Pro- Impoverishment tat I must here degradationthat the and former at proceedings produced amongst notice. the interests than the Catholic. in broke in-. to work some other manner cause. make to 'therefore.9' of the mo* proceeds estates . not having equal were men. make in giving aim of these their the and " times. in the last and Number. the the tenants were spent to distance. describe' the . that of in the main. He that scarce any tution instito be of "as imagined mankind. these Protestant their cases." was his constant blacken Catholic conduct over institutions. he "badness necessityof ascribing them to find out a to the ofthechange. that says had he. the front' the raised. yet. estates. of the that the people says.and this. General out discontent into open excuses prevailed. the suppression then regretted by many He people. attempts It J i '" r for the plunderers and to reformation. and of the the particularly character not Catholic and cause clergy. that to ^} a surrection.

What does of effect " to society. Scotch and indeed. is. not. Call " working public. though reformation" and way had and it. though producing teem individual as so misery. what niator "their are or exported that the common people " thai of part of their wages . which the [LjlTTtB pnved cattle nution j of the that a commons on thej formerly fed their great decay of the coin people. like the Adam to happiness of Smith. of alone he %says. off. thai . was at remarked had .for whose -.or lose. have a people. . like almost that there may be every writer. is the riches**7.or wretched but. notion. but. mean it was do But what does by "public against the riches*' ? The pressure the Catholic want institutions the " "provided of amongst increase of of "public riches words end of all people99. n the time not when then wrote. the "public" gain. as well as a dimi* of former plenty. produced pauperism and to sery the Debt to taxes equal the he present. and What meaning ought ? to the the "public the is. si that. or be. and. that." indescribable something that they the the The question with them. complaints wm then ? And in every part of tfie kingdom. as by to people were able live. whether.well instituted.PiOTESTAKT RlFORlUTIOY. great public good. in the kingdom^ by Henry." beneficial he the mean by the * present situation'1! at The situation he country. government of every But tion instituman Why. coin were wv that. was. and ** prevented it was increase addition public wealth. hospitalityand and " charity the an gave encouragement t0 idleness.the very effect of the PRESENT SITUATION. not is whether people. again I ask.9 that the of toil. excuses which offered ? for it by this calnm* of the Catholic institutions Why. good all government be. prevented / What. many They always for an to regard the people cattle. further been debased that was now debased : the good hoarded robbed heard 211.this increase of industry an " last. this change are a bad one. and the same time. this i"ems." was Well the . I the mU on suppose.

priest part " "i " " people of Devonshire religion.\ 1 VJL] inoney or Pbotestant Reform I a am atios* monfiy's worth. and that holy rites. able to show. corrupt. one far. and new form of religion and they demanded. like pack-horses. who "monalty was oppressed by a small number while the poor com* with pleasures. GERMAN at last. executed law. common thj* since to $ relatively . arose Church. and tyrannicalreign. by them. produced general misery amongst the and that. Similar where " were the plaints com- and jceb'b demands and by law established.established by their a fathers.^ backed triumphed. which. in Deto the great honour particularly. and. executions. at least for byforeign bayonets. complained should not be allowed the to marry. kingdom to the other. In the former county the insurgents were superiorin force to the hired troops. " extreme slavery. and had besieged Exeter. what we present? the reformation had end people . but. at any rate. that at its real regreater country bcrore the and that it was greater positively wealth was greater. were abolished. But. and most gallantly by martial many ! This. of gentry. Mr. But. accordingly. vonshire and Norfolk. The whole kingdom was in commotion . :: that Iji^Land was *} formation" A r have. a* mass and of the monasteries that be should s restored. Thus we see Prayer Book every the Church else. Thus the Protestant 813. its promulgation and the consequent followed robbery of the churches were by open insurrection. its origin. Brougham those services reckons amongst of the family of Russell. and during the remainder base. also followed by the most The Heylyn vf the alterations in (a that the free-borncompiptestant divine)expresses it. end to put an Prayer was to all dissensions \ but. the top of the tower of his church on hanged a priest I ^ r f I suppose. and by The* Book of Common martial law. live in mons. LORD Russell sent was against them. he tells us. in many of the executions counties. and that the "obtruded". FOREIGN barbarous but finally suppressed by and was aid of TROOPS. is. 3 V of those counties. by battles. glutted themselves wasted by daily labour. as Dr. that. that thus heard from 219. England can never repay ! In Norfolk was the insurrection was still more the formidable. the present. as by law e"* that it Here it was tablished.reinforced he defeated TROOPS. and I shall " show.finally of this hypocritical. complaints were of the observe. Cran- .

this wholly it is uninteresting. but. profligate. for." and king. that The is to say. those it was rather ungrateful in the pious reformers . in- Warwick. and. if each a palace. be sura. of England. amongst the crimes worthy his having brought against this great culprit. superior his had own of all other nations who had Somerset. of that crown. death-warrant even Saint*' himself being. greatest and for nine hundred their country in ease the in the and selves lived tp those 314. who wa6 his rival baseness superior and. if necessary. for having caused their pro* It was. he On was which is he so well merited. plenty ! world. which was. and had them* real freedom. actually cutting off his head. in plainwords. a dispute about jectsto succeed. fallen more of the possible. How {Lbttu \ commenced mencement its career.a 5 zealous still more Protestant than the last Protector cruel. Duke of estates now of years become and agei Protector.was. the of beNrfchcriahed the carefullyby Alfred which the people seen Great. the his brotherhad Somerset than plunder. "f that at Church the alasl from different.Paotestabt Reformatio*. that. as as this could the be. made the into now. destined of that block himself. the commission to come opposed himself . only fifteen who was Warwick. the uncle the called traitor. w"fr arose which had onto 0 Bt. It of set of most wicked each circumventing. the death-warrant of the of instigation of that another the uncle. and his . plunderers). But. got granted had if him immense the hands ancient This house. he " signed 215. destroying other . their new for them religion. Austin Canterbury. in brought he were brother h the block to his chieflybecause usurpations (though both 1549. and church went work of the plundering on. He plunderers deemed was building a palace for had himself $ and. at in talent. to was Northumberland. rapacious. brought him what ground* a that was end done men. to foreign troops into the kingdom ! This was. troops that established it was good to see them putting their leader to death. had out-intriguedhim to in the Council last. at had signed other. in Dudley* and justice. under wings -of yeaift. but. Edward. above cruelties on qet the long Earl after of the to people. plunderer could have it would not have been rest peace amongst him a " them . got more his share. England had. now the Protestant one 75t. leged alremark. was. until there remained scarcely . and.

The to have a poor king. not in gentlemen 'shouses. distinctive and had characteristic their except that of hatred Cbanwas was to Abe -Catholics 3ub [ aad others religion. sbeErivy Council. who. of Elizabeth the throne. . there of the either out name i hardly any persons -the good and all the learned to left. in which His brought him up. and Northumberland. make the " will. what they say is kwho. Dudley. heiress to Having "lone this.flwnBrar of the Reformatio*. conceived the project of getting the crown into his own family. to refer Harry's judges used. to exclusion of The advocates of the Reformation/* reign the praise this boy-king. Many united in one. in all probability. indeed.3FH"3 . next to of a hero of the '"Reformation/' lie married JLoj"t 'and Jans carry this projectinto effect. . one a project quite worthy In order sons. so pared down. course.he got Edward the crown this Lady Jane. and to of his Lord after was Guilford Mart to Grit. seems -had no duringthis reign of mean plunder. came the Protestant -to Northumberland's The to be settlement laid before to him to consent religion induced proposition.*!! were afraid coput . them. Ji word However. how the lawyers. in "fl parts of the kingdom. in whose church new invented. All . starved country and death. masons. when for the Lord the Parliament committing the of violations Secretaries their names of of to The Judges. smiths. but of all the nations of Europe. State. of any tiringworthy but one name clergy. Queen who. banished. that the and anxiety for security of 217. priest amongst But. tell us long stories about the way was which in Northumberland Saint Edward persuaded do -do this act of injustice but. his keeper. to contrived of the halter* out .keep their heads hard pressed. when It with met great difficulty. there is not j of truth in the story. their incomes. some other. "as by law (and German the scorn.worthy had gone or of clergy. hatred life not now who iikdy to be long. ..settling -his two sisters. of M * -this: 'the was Lady Jane this. been of the killed. on . young' king knew that a sincere that his Protestant. the Chancellor. 5216. a Mart Scotland. remained had thosewho so 1 1 J 1 j f r stripped of and as clergy worked carpenters. established/' became feoops) notonly of the people of England. parishe* and ing hewwere 'Went. or -always -EvenOid 4dm Jaw. that the parochial were. were unfrequently menial servants 80 that this Church of England.who was sickly lad.

He had divorced her mother most was .in spite of all his craft. Europe to the other. this that. says. and.on the excellences of thisyoung k " whom the flattering promises of hope.had sworn his will. The next was princess Mary notorious of Comi He nov halter. king having in the hands made of kept wholly placed at settlement. his church. in the sixteenth year of his reign. v jeering and scoffingat this formerly great and 1 nation. the base . who finds goodness in^every one was tile tothe Catholic institutions. 1553. signature of Chanm king's executors. them. and that. too. and by from Catholic sheer co Engl ware men. his own last. he tholic. in addition his of the Book perjury. besides. beyond all donbt. last accomplished. accession be the commi d" Therefore to 'the he and now greatest basest 218. """4// English histor dwell with pleasure. for the purpose his bishopric. though he. he had "principal agent in that unjust and that Mary her wicked transact: a and. Thus. according to no solemn will to to the two ters. Abroad years that the LOONE nation in sunk in the eyes of the world. which had been won The town or* I France. The the late [L" howeve " this transfer of the crown. of the 4he his office and knew immovably must of course. then.divided the country bet v roguery. succeed fourth the throne. joined to many : heard " surrendered of . had woven of that. ehort he died on b" his creatures about him. the most which were and man first upon maintain case on in list. as one of the that to thing war.Protestant RsromifATioir. The wretched people were beyond all descripti from the plenty of Catholic times they had been reduce general beggary . in order to repress this begg laws the most ferocious st were passed to prevent even from well as at hi ing creatures as asking alms. Northumberland. not live long In the 6t July. would ! natnrallyras the time. and with it. who 1 Hume.expiring on the same Javage These tius father were had seven brought of the the sevi of his age and day of the year that bl More SirTfiOMAS to the miserable and most most ing known. The crime known laws. and who was f of motives. too. Fanaticism England had ever hypocrisy and plunder. this maker Prayer became clearlyguilty of high treason. presen heir to been throne. in brother of of issue by the brother. Protestant from one rulers end now.

thinks justice. is. eckoh for an infelicity the Church of England $ for. disinherit cousin. He . n The had been kept a secret the *le ng people. and . in the 4th paragraph of his preface. can mildness. of Hume's of " description. besides and which religion. and " have on racter not mure of tyrant in the have on said. ace. it is not to but of the bishoprics (before that the s thought rest have followed that of ifficiently impoverished) would 'arham. md justice. and so In the days. and attachment to equity capacity .Dr.~] Peotestakt Reformatio*^ tender irtneM. and learn to to judge. . to in himstlf. to him.Edward. evinced. and easily inclined to eing ill-principled counsels nbrace such as were offered him. the his menaces doing for his to deterred So doubt [y by iCh for of As the Emperor.' this aid his said great so in the should to rest have then. in ith." and less than too. does not iwell with of this young pleasure on the excellences he. of several I suppose. at in all the refers historians." of the was 19. English crown historians dwelt his excellences. that settlement egg all his good opinion . the young with Saint" approaching.warrants t of his two trial and the . with. " t A the people for him affection" doubtless. ordinances from one end of the " kingdom toration the by their demanding tended of that all his acts internal wholly of the extirpate. English to no Heylyn." did not Of his mildness to we hqve. " Northumberland. death of the the death of the king for three meanwhile." of whom death whose I cannot ^ks thus: "King.1' of Hume. he these proofs who one. observe. and in his wish to bring not sister Mart for from conforming which he her to was what she smed blasphemy. by their tender . sisters. left his fium Aye. whom times himself of his twenty.und the'poor church be left as destitute as when " part " " le came was into the world in her merit natural eyes nakedness. in his signing of way uncles . a K"f in his 10 assenting protest to the his burning Protestants.h*d made an object of the most affecions of the public.who his declared " that. had. The ng in insurrection to against his other. Cranmer the rest of his .four history relatingto this very reign.He possessed mildness of disposition. onjunction.who m of hia will had to two after it was the judges contrary had unanimously law? was. lehood one st. But.

foul this in common. she was surrounded sand by twenty or thirtythouall volunteers in her cause. are conspirators. accomonly by a few servants.treasure. Ridley. ordered the two tocotAtnetvtol+mJm. their treasonable designs. from the who were most infected miscreants them with the ous pestiferhad been principles of the foreign that the new brought had continent to teach honesty enough left to make them this last and testant most daring of robberies. he . bottom as a dutifulsubject. and proceeded to Framlingham.villains that of all hare descriptions. They. Edmunds. which. on But. Northumberland himself marched London from the 13th of July. had. issued thence her commands council to the to proclaim her their sovereign. proclaimed Lady Jane to be queen ! They had taken all sorts of precautions to ensure their success : army. who was one the council. disapprove o" Bury St. to kneel night of the sixth. They had. seized this head of almost unparalleled villains. she set off ou horseback. happened tenth the who for the who Earl of Arundel. preached at StPaul's. when necessary Thn ready to betray each. on the day before. returned her at all the were in their swer. tc+KinninghallIn Norfolk. part against $ that he preached in vain. the ProBishop of London. | fleet. hands. Thus warned. first. princesses leader pretence that they might be at hand to oomfmi their safe real design of putting tkem the brother.' [LEfflE* covndl. always here . and lawful name of government powers her a most therefore. in secret ' messenger the to* Mair* her of farther her off than Hoddbsdbn. ink of Traitors. The nobilityand gentry had of Mary . to the Lord Mayor^and a numerous assemblage.hinting at. was no before sent a Dudley and others. and to the standard the people. which to the the of command Caakmbr's "2(X . an- insolent commanded queen. was Mary seen. and of informing whole of the the death of brother. Before Northumberland reached native religion. but with the prifoji moment the breath should be out of his body. she whence in Suffolk. to their own they. exult to contemplate thenSisHonesty and sincerity givings. to attack the Queen. and refusing pay* men. instantlynocked even in London. but not ae positively accusing them with. in a few hours afterwards. other. for the purpose of persuading them to take it but. stood to submit. in a few days. and of went with July. terest.' PmftTZSTA XT RjEFOBM ATId*. on the Lady Jane as queen. plot panied against her.

he was joy and satisfaction." Fox. *of blinded rack of his a by ambition. ever in those. Northumberland disband they themselves. meni reinforcements. the before age of the " order or. all rejecting that the later date. " affectedto their country. they should expel the preachers the reformed religion. proclaimed Queen Mary. to which is exhorted Heylyn to nation return it. and wrote to brother conspirators and first. the Earl of Arundel. if they desired to prethirty years and were truly sent their souls. master-plotter had disbanded rather. by temporizing. uphold order cause Queen Jane. to Marketplace of Cambridge. he marched for to Cambridge. first to kneel the very before Lady Jane / No reign.began been the to so to appear. For himself. *n" proclaimed her Queen. and the founders Who were " of the years. and. adhered Protestant. who had bad. of the council reformation" and of Seeing the himself abandoned. no witnessed ness. who. to Dr. of i)r." In a few hours afterwards arrested by the Queen's order.says Stqwe. while amidst the unbounded his deserted This was him. He. according them " (a Protestant. began Us despair. those who a fathers as who had caused because. confessed more. baseness.VIL] JPftOTXSTAST ta III FORM A TWIT. army. of and solemnly. he made "being conscience." he said. exhorted To of stand the religion of had " their ancestors. went paly four days before. hypocrisy. would when his endanger he came Protestant very receive religion. thia justice on the block. his army. the to he alleged. who. by the advice of the University. too. rapacity. perfidysuch as England witnessed the destroyers of the Catholic. awora these who to an bad audacious. preached against Maty. Booh lies of Martyrs. " "f belief in the the Catholic to faith . meanage. it had reached bareness. unspotted. the Vice Chancellor had he. dismay few had sent then perfidy. of This the Dudley. no country. and so acknowledged the cf u "' justice of his sentence. been a Church. before God. by his brother of had been who one conspirator. days. his cap into the air in token of his tossing. mind). Church . and that.the accession of Mary man. The 221. him." of whose author we of see the more shall lying by- . which occasioned misery of the ? foregoing " and that. Amongst In who a these. for been a plunderer promoter transfer " ruffian-like of every to the religion of his of the crown measure against . Sands. applause of the people.

generosity* ease. recant. and-by. and more ejrery day more 'Thus ended more j distracted law and miserable arose at home. The before charity vanished church now. persons all the ! As remains whom under this very Church of christian the her law established. plunder and tyranny and justicea mockery. so long famed hunger $ land pf hospitality. and and more despised abroad. and security wings. both Its and of whom deservedly was a man fered sufwho traitors. o" a that Dudley made this confession when be the he in came con* on promise of pardon.and receiving ". gathered Catholic had so tenderly. were indigent. Three adhered to new worship was changed. man. who not burnt people now adhering others for a the Pope. became. was this." advanced. for not believing and belief " in which after that many fellow-creatures. had declared that not we he had been any see moved by of mer any make life. though from made them to no provision was perishing prevent and the cold and from as England. i " reformation/' plunder. under a Protestant Church. of repulsive selfishness. execution j one himself told the expressly people.' toil. under " as by established. for sins their of heresy offences this ! Pope's legate. that his own who. was The enforced Church. for merely branded with red-hot irons and made to a person scene and of property." or as and two protectors.consacrilege. were with The the became nation utmost punished severity. for others for believing and in transubstantiation. by it. sequence the asserts. Protestants for principal author Catholics to to both the stake . openly professed he had burnt lemnly so- disbelieve of his in that. death had had sent chief ministers.Protest ant Reformatio*-. who disbelievingin who now reasons different to from . reign of times the form' of the and wretchedness disgrace. that made the very names of law . most of these declared. and However. and to done have whole the it from hope Cxix- saving his yet to himself see the before and band tant of Protes- plunderers their knees jessing their absolution 822. plenty. knew that he was But. not scaffold. and yet those who the old worship. on it. burnt his own others believing it for in it. asking alms. or who went beyond the new worship. slaves. of pack-horse and of rapacity and pinching want. he and to to pardoned contrary not j at and his he besidejs.

thirdly. all while. entering have Catholic those to upon that reign. . account. We ted are new Kensington. VIII. and Queen's Marriage " Generosity Philip. wheat is they whole the in single grain of the "as mass bushel. to Nation reconciled great with the Church. Fox's Martyrs. 1 on. Laws. all and be cruelties disapprove. in I lorn. the punishments such who in to a during of which the furnished handle left first to the art nniators Church. this that more of punishment then inflicted. 30/* June. score. the itrously exaggerated r second. of the Catholic keeping mass sight. 3. Protestbe "ared with of law punishments established". have the no ed to exaggerate second out punishments ascribe the them place. disapprove on corporal Far pecuniary it punishments. Piety. Re- in the ". LETTER VHL Mary's Her The The Her mild Accession and to benevolent the Throne.on . circumstances which they the were were inflicted found under apology for the the "ity than ihment" int as a circumstances which that to a Protestant were inflicted .*' 'RIENDS. but. therefore. that. 1835. H under Churchy by lastly. the thousand times this also of the of Of cruelty occasioned I by Protestants. it will this my in to the 'reign of Queen first. that has the been . be duty show.No. to the score from on me. defend all ihments Y inflicted. .er place.

tW is It openly lived in have u of her " coronation. that former deeds the gave of every fragment of this plunder of which irom her predecessorshad and put in her possession. and participator our sacrilege. took that the latter resumed every plunder again. shed the for a drop of Wood the the Mary up shed.Protestant they what ascribe them to Reformation. and her the rendered but miserable. -which which again Protestant . too. so so injuriousto to tholic Ca- and fellow-subjects debasing to oufsefves. hope. that the she latter nished pu- peoplefor not their and "we departing at from of her awl religion herself and fathers. her and religion. at any . do make but. and in. or. too much it cease. have being an cncourager of. had no plunged choice kingdom confusion. been taught How to call the we former been bloody" and latter not good1'! have this deceived! And our time. by poor pittance which former never been oversight. and to she had always adhered and. Her the have reign deceivers taught us to call reign of taught Or? care " BJ. the time professed Yet. heresy. that deception." They have every good that tell us.then to lic Cathothe former again. then. the by and misdeeds. and had. which even religion. the of principles ^Catholic religion . that punished people she and for departing from that been the religionhi born they and their fathers had . plunder. Elizabeth pint. was was most not of human her own beings. " while they us call of her GOLDEN taken DAYS GOOD never QUEEN to BESS. who ho had uprooted the institutions of the country. as the Queen she herself. to it is a base the perversionof of the reason to . that. left them. and severe who had of left but that of ' making a examples. towards accomplishing this great desirable object. one and tuous vir- that. or disposition on by misfortune misery entailed it by into her two immediate predecessors. perhaps. that to that the latter changed Catholic back to the changed and from then Protestant.I *hall something. ' [Lettir " they might. the sister. sMtM that I shall \m cease? able and to most It is.OODY to QUEEN that MARY".

after we the hare she ritual. which her father introduced and made she stillhater . she abolished had debased brother crown currency. years the be it not had natural that die people.her the her and splendour. 1553. . who. As approached had went the throngs thickened. who. while the' issue two Elizabeth. people reason was did like Queen's well as principles. as opposed a Cranmer's in the church. who was kept out silent cautiously toeet uncertain/ on to tered en- her.riding horseback. for the was Framlingham. only in all its a before. dressed the streets strewed with flowers. and German who had quelled them by the aid of t"5. Queen. having strongest demonstrations on the road of her accession. have fact that gives the the Hume. he but laving been whom we are deprived of to see Bishopric the of Winchester in was one of great the actors restoringthe boundless. had .Queen. she she arrhred London die 31st of July. have seen in paragraph set 219. in been Suffolk. . by Gardixeb* new who had. she paid the debts " due o by the and . her means Generously disregarding herself. and accession that authors. actuallyrisen the at new in insurrection parts of should kingdom half were against with would charch. for. universal is Catholic k was a religion. the houses city.rate. most She crowned and soon' afterwards. put mad sure joy the of who down they those ? put down church. more joy than all had And us This lie to agreed on hands. splendid manner. and was people in their in the gayest clothes. This historical three fact has its side authority. Catholic seen.immediately greeted joy at on off with London. as we 224. by of % plana and troe recount of the tions principaltransac- the The at reign of Mary. and whom found his prisoner Tower. not on who the as would believe. and the the sisters. the being decorated. where. The coronation ever joy of people and of greater before this been splendour witnessed. Troops her Mary of began reign by acts the most just and ease beneficent.

w. to be had declared who that Cranmer's had same divorce that to of Catherine was a lawful. for who the were its existence romance. too. L | k bayonets. at nume* in last. was respecting which The late next what surprising dis- L patch before made. and. completely overset. that.having. mu6t That pass wildest of Parliament. there are were plunderers a Aid. from " though few singular opinions. and enacted Mary bastard. Do -abolish these former any not What . only confined mass his palatf most Lambeth." name! as j^ blame the Cranmer The law second Act " called ^ "new Protestant Church. a by established. exactly so were for it had people the to fear. by who The had had Acts " of the very Parliament the and other. and hearing church of that had been celebrated i* a his Cathedral Canterbury. a great inventor. and that. so attested. who of his of his was. Henry it laid all the Catherine upon lawfullymarried.ork* si for. he put forth . been.a as majority related te of whom these with cordially Queen it is died far matters." it. C er. the [Lbttii to deal with! 226. J. : ] things? And out that. and by ." it now said of it enough man but might The have added. though clearly as Dudley at as guilty of high to treason yet.asserted was the when it established What been it to have was come true the : Holy Ghost. as all the as \. not about well What? to witness scene. tous fair way of receivingthe just reward overthrow misdeeds. now. too. we Bat. the agree* the the ! God. end as King only in July. established r a n m by Ger* y. which. was divorce well to the worship. a j. could only hear of the himself. acknowledged to Mary be the lawful had heir the throne ! That Par* and the liament created which the was abolished the on Catholic the and latter worship that latter restore ] i Protestant idolatrous will of worship. confirmed the acts one and established" L first of these been declared.Proiistant Reformatio*. j^ jg thing imagined by Parliament. withdo them vast as force without Wing compelled to the ? No J . work rf the of to the the November. ground the and former able to and damnable. ^ Cranmer.

The Queen. Church required no by the in the next 'to abolish in fact. Abolished abolished ! " of Latin. take the plunder perty power was was stake for. it. and the tjtey could to between faith and the sacraments. if Church sacrilege. common en people.* and Charles Nor to by wait the for bayonet. . did the bringersan over "deliverer/' William. therefore. " before the mass Houses.VIIL} PjUMNNttAVT Refohmatio*. where he lay new time Acts lam passed. had. it.9* and his Why. declaration which inflammatory afterwards his treason. . the It was. at the and abusive (which. whether the liament Parthe pro^ restore at Papal to Supremacy. with the Parliament^ a ceremonies. to wait for the Act " pf Parliament authorize " them to " introduce said It had verer. in reduced any to way the whatever. forced upon 227. But. it required rivers of blood Hume ing follow" re-establish it in the " reign of Elizabeth. and. they could proprietors easily trace as the connexion between their their faith and that mass supremacy. But. Fox. her plunder. besides. . complains bitterly " the court " for two its contempt at of the opening ancient laws. mind. the people and they hated came. the the Pope insist on regained his in kingdom. Number.for he when was declaration to were as well as committed these the Tower.* yet this did not^nduce repealbefore of the himself king. u the of Martyr "-man. of the in celebrating. new become not dependent so the : and. all the rites and " though so abolished had by Act of Parliament." delibeen The new thing the fell of itself. should when. .was of risking a civil necessity . tfce Cromwell canting crew kingly government and he called by Act of Parliament..though she most anxiously sanction wished Id the avoid giving. the originalgrantees in many cases.too. In many he might restitution* on TTie greater pait of this property had been years seized eighteen and before. question the . life for recanted). dead. cases it had been divided were divided subThe in many. as irm abolished shall to see of the general feeling nation and.

great as her difficulty would have done better to follow the dictates of her doing as mind'insisting upon to what the consequences Cranmer and commanded her God. Gardiner. in the of the Pope. Bishop Pope'slegate. Son and Holy of the two words the members Ghost. and Pole. but. and that any person who attempt to molest had been u or disturb and them be therein should be deemed of guilty of the prcemuto nire." " " t Protestant the fold of Christ. on her right. she had the rest of the base to leaving when done. but country. who Was a full of justice. and the plundered of its hospitality before they pronounced the amen. and.and. desist from hearing from her. the virtue of which and that of defection. at which Houses. took par- she certainly plunder .and as Gardiner.. doubtless. name in the name absolution of the Father. to It. which worst deed of her the monstrouslyex aggerated^res of Smitkfleld reign. absolution for that sin . The Reformatio*. She was their knees. next being on 232. that there was scarcely a of the was. the Qaeen being seated her left. The Pope care. who had not. indeed. the read Gardiner. We her to councillors. all her council. [Letta day. alone. had hesitated still longer . had hesitated to consent to this . that the plunder should rnot be restored. the restored the . first or last. gave. to the two Houses and to the whole nation. she was not have seen how situated as to excepted. went this the the heart very Queen act.while compromise. made Thus was the hall resound once " with " AMEN ! England to more a Catholic . own of any note. and he. man -We have seen. nobly so council of Edward VI. assent punished accordingly! to was 233. while they rose from their knees to in thanksgivingfor join the Queen in singingTe Deum that absolution they doing these tilings. while enacted. as we man have who the Queen's seen before. were these "amen" people.was a man of the whole greatest talents. was and right. particularly besides being a most zealous and active minister. Cardinal Pole. in they confessed that they had sinned by that defection. that all the holders of Church property should should keep it. took her chaplains cruelly mass and most . the King and Queen then spoke to Pole. therefore. who. the the throne. they got while the Church of and the they prayed for property poor . they were ." had taken plunderers. at the close of a long speech. but still. petition . now was for the prime minister. fold of Christ fold and charity. having the King on on the Lord High Chancellor.

where 4i " not merely in to name. Then These there had. firmly resolved whatever not Abbey lands. resolved as" to However.and course. but proceededto were being." Taxes were never. that is to of each church worth say. the tithes. in of her tax people a singlefarthing any shape what* upon of surrendering the tenths and first this act that ! So ever fruits was and piety .which on kept. and other really national purposes.and her two 1555. that. of the a of the Church these and hospitals. sftind. the plunder Herself. called Crown-landa. amounting crown to large sum of which that altogether. she before -imposed Mary was Queen two years and a half. The all the call "the did and Bloody Queen not Mary which ! store re- Queen Church stop here. been kept by King estates. though we the Church. a year a in money year of our equal we about million of any " of present money !. the other of things. and for. pensioners.were itself the sapported out of the landed estate of the Crown in the pitiful of which remains estate rest of see we now u in those days. were that day. and in reality. she together. and of hert the effect of her generosity of her alone done against the remonstrances too . "" patting she *"*$ adopt her intention ia . an prepare might know resolution lands them. and Queen was. by it. "he would be Defender of the Faith passed parliament. possession. she gave up to firstfruits.000/. which.saying. the tenths. employed judges. the Church In possessor. her. and were the like ? " and worth about to ever 63. whom " we hard fceen taught "35. might be the be a in her to Having declared Htcosvt called her some members to of her possessor council bade t" consequence of the plunder. This was the woman. for the and them of those measure*** and that possessions. still belonged to the the . had taken to was keep of none Harry. the Crown am* all and faassadors.but for wars. Have heard Bess other shall doing them Good \ I . But the Queen persevered. Old 234. the tenth part of the annual fice and the firstwhole year's income of each. shall find Queen again to Aw kb in to bear we are giving them and its officers.and. togetherwith immediate had seized predecessors a November. some Edward. in Mary's days. to up find sovereign taking council. and hill it in was not without great it was oppositionthat the feared that naturally hatred awaken the people's this just act of the Queen would 'that of the plunderers. were* of some course. tenths Head the of the* Church? bene-* himself the and first fruits.VIIL] / PftOTBSTAXT R"TOSMATIOM. for it was back Queen we herself.

in money that day. generosityand charity. for which face. as with are we naturally great zeal for the Catholic religion. noble convent of Benedictine the monks within its walls. she gave up. the estates remained. and. coming they do. restored endowed liberally re-established Hospital of St. and* Westminster more saw Abbey once a 1049. that.and great effect. purposes. after the tion introducof church the site been a immediately which church had been St. SmitkfiekL Savoy. in company us. and She Brentford. Abbey. in 958. a " Hospitalin the great enemy far the the of her memory. as her example would have it is. of her injured mother. to which belonged and have seen. [Lbi^E* the revenues. Heylyn (a Protestant. as execution. for clearlythe effect of 236. Because she held it unjustly .977/. eighty thousand equal to about of this day! Little of this.however. She She re-established the Black. in the year 610. we graphs 81 and before the tyrant's 82. in this.if *' Queen These lived were longer. Dunstan. her Of and malignant free-will.in the before Queen.PmOTESTANT REFORMATION. whatever there remained to her she restored. 430 justice. which with Westminster had. so nobly pleading. therefore. who Benedictine placed twelve Edgar and nearly as monks in it : and in which a became." unequivocallygood. observes.Friars near in London. and allotted to it a suitable yearly revenue out of her own naturally purse . But. in all probability. of Christianity Austin. own evea against the wish of very powerful men. At the spot where the Sion-House She SJtecn she the restored the Priory.as Dr. by destroyed by the Danes. for the benefit of the poor. on restored Nunnery now at JSion stands. John. a year of good old rent. the cause they had restored Friary at felt the the fury of that ferocious tyrant. and. of probably not less than a milium a yearly revenue way. and And a half of pounds of our present money. in great part. curious what remarks the from to hear they bring unfeeling and Hume. which. Her intention was to apply their ancient She to began possible. and. pounds a year of money to the Queen. when to plundered and suppressed by Henry. because it was phu"" . in parawhom friars Peyto Elstow. restored by King St. few years so " hard done to say how and nobility had acts gentry might have some so the like. having. been parcelledout amongst the plunderers of the two last reigns. what9. bad revenues of the amount of 3. Con- richlyendowed abbey. She next had Greenwich. laudable.. and under Edward the fessor.

of Paradise the to Pope.VIII. English them. that have to greatlyrejoiced their was sovereignmake his business they must a beginning lessen. her doors ambassadors. of the a has obliged confess. instigated Re- . therefore. and because her her science. parts is it not see reign. he says. on the to contrary. in restoration of a part of the clear. demanded and. that* Edward's monasteries . i tells us. taken laws to the it had der . of this basely calumniated Queen. restoringof had as to make a hoped beginning in the that hospitality and which her cessors charity prede- able banished she herself from the land . This. and not to the Pope. because contrast exposed more them so odium. had not She been many months the throne before " rebellion was raised by the against her. Events soon proved to this just and and pious acta but good. gave the namely. example generous . presentinga to conduct. country. that the Pope's remonstrances on in this score. which her short 238. tation. Queen. had " little influence means.valuing. better to the to that she would have risk a civil war Act of Parliament their them it own quiet possessionof had no againstthe plunderersthan assent secured to them the by which was Her plunder. as she did (she told her than ten more kingdoms. with he the nation" been With to the plunderers. in he all for. on. were " motives more excellent? the Yet Hume. than any other. it to the merit of these generous possible. new solely to told the of the that who.] Protestant been Reformation. as in that much as restoration ? But. the people. disad- From this cause. ac who to secure " exults their in the act in which plunderersinsisted act der. because Charta and Magna because she Crown usages in violation of of the all the to be and realm . gularly sindone unfortunate. in this undeniable and First spite of Hume's fact to . made much from their them dislike her. forbade to retain these ill-gotten possessions. 237. plun- calls this and ascribes he noble it of the the Queen influence impudent1* one. a during on the remainder reign. harassed her vantage." Was council). How from and would never have^ opened was unless the whole of the Church property that and she restored. Then again. is authorities. Tenths Fruits the Bishops Priests of the Church England. con- declared. to whom they were for* is a malignant misrepresenmerly paid. arose of those troubles. her conscience there ever there ever a more praise-worthyact ? And. then. effect upon with their but. clear falsethis is.

and the Netherlands the marriage took place it F ana* on the 25th of that month of Winchester.PftomtSTAirT formation" Jane who preachers. but sorts. contrary word be disaffected. year age. son a and heir to the and by his firstwife. the ceremony Che^Cathedral |* being performs! who the bishop of the see.. but was Reformatio*. acces*- The Parliament. and to this adds many aeceuat marriagetook facts His of the whole of this transaction romance! made even up from Protectant-writers. were I will here notice. after \ t How marry changed! The not to a foreigner. it who discovered. if that of Government the not France. . escorted by 3 the combined fleets of England. and disaffected of all . place at false.which marriage with Philip.if it had not evidently the t ended alive to keep hopes of the traitors aid manifestly that things. pare love of the Protestant religion.who wii marry Charles i V. 1554. marriage became of inveetive and false accusation with a great subject towards had been herself the proclaiming actually the Protestants 239. was was quelled in like and was followed by the execution of the principal manner. the Lady Jaat of high treason. by country. however. had now [Lictii in fa row bawled God's of Lady other Grey. that he says the Westminster. t Emperor having children Philip.) younger in the. Spain. ? Then extent sovereign which another rebellion afterwards. and who. of one felt the sweets who began the work of funding. by a woman. at same time. was attended of nobles from all parts ot by great numbers 1 widower.almost immediately after her her to advised marry is taste English had strangely our for till.. who had been convicted had who feerself. one. determined great deliberation. who was now (inJuly. which hostile towards the Queen of her account on was bitterly the Prince of Spain. but whose been kept in prison. and still have been would spared.and tbt fighting the leaders executed. And. to amongst to governed rebels were The defeated. Philip arrived at Southampton! in July.39th of her while Philip was only 27. who had faction ii been abetted by a Protestant traitors. Christendom* on To show how little reliance is to be placed equally k t Hume. and. as this Queen to has been called so " the bloidy" shown of is another instance who be found of much lenity of treason to the guilty. and they looked out for. coon and of making national debts ! The Queen. lifebad hitherto been spared. etoa. was soil the Queen. and beingj" t"y Gardiner. thongi to " '' much than . always a deep-rooted prejudiceagainstforeigners. who* I .1554.

not injurious she to her would the she not assent to that. or it . to she told the citizens. that . 242. Nothing ever nothing could be. of Scots." Thus she left them. "When the rebels even had. ftr the interest and security and the grmidevrof . had declared Leaving out Mary Queen was Dauphin of France . leavingthe Hall resounding with their acclamations. who1. fear them not for for religiously: " even as Hume favourable even is contest.even supposingher to survive the Queen. obvious in the last paragraph. they only they the example of the times that were are referring to.VHL} accounts Peomstant Reformatio*. she if she to previous to went to the Mary's marriage. sound and England the she next was dictated this match.made her mother (what indeed Cranmer feet. in to the worst disgustingof followed we motives which. Guildhall. malignant being only to be lamented in their fate.if France and Scotland evidentlylikely the patrimony 'of one and the same to become prince. calumniators low have and was the policy most the historical and of Mary have attributed . nothing at all. as on all others.. Such that dictated which this celebrated match. When shown the marriage articles appeared. she now stood bastardized by two Acts of Parliament . as to good to Elizabeth. that.your I assure ye.declaring Catharine to be the lawful wife of her father.it was take steps for strengthening necessary that England should herself also in" the way of preparation. and as of Cranmer and his constantlyurged on by the disciples cre'w of German at one and Dutch teachers. to thought the the people. on I fear them far word most these rebels.it was had kept this occasion. to time.where advanced London. the of prejudice evident he has and shamefalry distorted of the Queen. " it should appear Parliament would fast never he for the at benefit of the whole kingdom. that these articles'were m obligedto us possible . more to the honour of England than did it form for the were . " marry 4" 44 Wherefore. heir to the throne betrothed to the might fall to the Elizabeth. as she was in were Besides. enemies and mine stand against . of the traitors not alive to share 241. to the views 240. character As things then stood. and honour marriage were of the state. and her) an adultress in law. however." said she. the Queen that. if all. it then was. for the Act which had just been passed. mentioned reasons constantlyencouraged and abetted by France. yet every part of this transaction the pretences of the traitors of that day. so that England lot of the French king: and.

administration him. Philip's marriage.as the case. they care then foreigners vested in should offices in had over England ? Oh. that king. ascribes to to here Hume great falsehood ." Hume What more " was wanted. if Don son by his former .HuME himself. a Protestant. andall the other dominionsof Philip. though Philip should his title of . should inherit Spain. should die leaving no issue.were. the Queen's issue. if. Dutch and he husband. whether male or febiale. I this in the nation am large. Sicily. what have confined he whole nation. put into the brought' highest . for. the Emperor thinking it beneath of England to marry the Queen that was not a king. that tries together with England.as those I who this not one of can foreign disposed to conscience connexion censure lousy. the administration no should any in be wholly Queen should foreigner hold office in the the English kingdom . my cheeks with and shame even at what own was has time taken ! When to in my place in Protestant another Mary. that the very unreasonable and was a ungrateful.delivered to the English Chancellor.Protestant Reformation. Just before the marriage the from was Emperor. Milan. did title of the Parliain | administration mere and take give her husband that no wholly king? Did hold her. nation what What than transaction this transaction took to more was was ever more honourable ? What a to a to care ever sovereign. an ceremony envoy father. jeaor. whom. that be settled on of our present money) should a year (a million if she outlived the Queen her jointureto be paid by Spain as him inherit the male issue of this marriage should . ment take to care to brought keep the the no throne. that no change should be made pounds sixty thousand laws. to are that there jealousy and.this jealousy in as feeling Catholic burn without forefathers. a testant Pro- Mary. the ! That that foreign. ought to the the plunderers and Rymer have in the the reign. even have the to commend. that. Is. by. a deed Philip's resigningto his son the kingdom of Naples and the Duchy the dignityof of Milan. This is. however. our to abstain from censuring. both Burgundy and the Low Counthat. and Carlqs. and privileges . But. these articles gave no satisfaction says was nation all that we to the nation" can say. customs.he the of this fanatics. them whole crowds of foreigners. England of the glory of was some queen. one 243. Yet the fact appears at be. people? . the times. romance throughout The articles quoted from always calls the nation. performed. then? [I^etter And "England.

? 244. do we find the Prince of Did he mighty dominions? Saxe Cobur"' into the bring horses states a country. I chronological order. 'which property. in full tale. one.thougha mere by the lying Fox Catholics afterwards by on compared with those inflicted in when set called be and cruel. from is called this transaction descendestate. but. those of the Church and the punishments she inflicted upon heretics. Catho- deplored by whose than by nobody more though these punishments religion. our thus compare conduct of Catholic fathers ! have would not relation. which was she held. were by no . And himself! in part at least. ? Do and loading the tling set- 22 his carts and pack great we find him. was heaped upon them large parcels of that what left of the Crown Crown. every were. if we come down to our own dear Protestant the heir to as days.you of this Catholic queen ON parliament settling to come sum find our Protestant !)we thousand fifty pounds a year. on of the a marriage. gave to PmOTBSTAKT them the REFORMATION. such and as' to be the deeply* lics. then. ? wife's issue kingdoms the eve Do find his father making him king. on we nine 99 chests of bullion. "glorious". nevertheless.and shall should to come ! How* our we shrink. as of half a million of the money a ? Do we a find him on settling a sterling Princess if she lotte Char- jointureof t No million outlive him revilers . and also previous to the Queen's generous restorainto the was detached I should here observe. person a Queen of England ? Do a bridal present. which 245.VIIL] offices. to Philipdid. but (and HIM come and year. my matter adhered too to the broken exact have much my that the parcels . who talk of to and truth never What. ing of the days Alfred that. twentyTower. us. of the poor. and the "inglorious" And. jewels to our because of lower we title would be beneath find him amount the giving his bride. though monstrouslyexaggerated am now nothing and others. and which. out of taxes we now raised on if be which duly and possiblyhave feel ourselves with that In to pay it for when truly pay fortyyears yet we outlive her . Elizabeth. are sense reign of Mary! all generato he duped unto reign in England ! Are we tions too. of which punishments I about to speak. hy the very meri. though hardly to blood that have comparison with the rivers of Catholic It also previous to dreadful flowed in Ireland. boast of should less shame- it. and highest titles. previous to the reconciliation with marriage tion Pope.

of the new sects. means . on But.of erroa to That destructive of their souls. and. and she to which her her many she deemed of the the sion permisof of l: propagation of And. that the the enmity strife ioces- Besides so this. without " regard 247. in that of Edward. the state. saw all other to means ineffectual for the purpose.Protestant caused and Reform atloh. ing bunkhare taken place. sects they might be divided. all these down should desire to Queen put should be so ] sects. according to those statu**** that he . the sole cause. cerity. Not out of mercy \ howbut. all agreed in teaching th" doctrine " * abominable of salvation by faith alone. by sant inces- trouble Queen founded all herself. in heretics. I am all apologies for rejecting provocations given to her . Though by efforts to small in number. that burning would. rebels of her reign were all. and also for rejecting the disposition and apologiesfounded influence of on councillors her for. if she had been opposed to the of heretics. was an to works. a Babel Crakmer of opinions and and of had religions and we been introduced by inn " his crew. have also seen. certainly. [Lbttib flit means has been by its principles. the malignant Hume even gives her credit for sinto put is it not just to conclude. reigns Thess of that Richard IV.that sant. to These in the 16- ancient statutes. natural bad been that vice of all sorts. that her motive was the propagation. there which deemed be said destructive in defence own ? is this much into however motive. should in the statutes altered reign of Henry VIII. As Act a a preliminary to of the Parliament punishment of heretics there 1554 (a passed in December.. as but. for the severity ing The traitors and the leadaccomplishment of that purpose. it was consequence. what that cause. an end burning is fairlyto be ascribed to her. not surprisedthat. indeed. came year atore and the were half after the Queen to to the throne). of the whole of them. to destroy the for hen. order might get the property of heretics. 246. .or affected to be. and we are that at she all anxious if she on the that subject. they made up for that their advantage dis- their indefatigablemalignity. relative heresy. and were against Henry the Lollards. and. because heresy was. at any rate.never . reproached at 201. utmost she should resort of the that the laws of the land allowed of. have and We in paragraphs 200 seen. amongst her people. they were ever. and morality. that these new lights. And be tutes sta- firstpassed II. they burnt. repealed. provided.who were obstinate.

that Kbich had been the law for so long a period was the now few again : so that here was rate. accordingly. which. too. They were a dead sequence chiefly put in execution Boxof condemnations. of 1*18 disapprobation Queen was as Now. by of London. self Church. were in conletter. is also that a undeniable. it church. It the confessor of Philip9 preaching before the Queen. one the Kings having won the title of King of France and another of them Paris at having actuallybeen crowned . the sufferer being tied to a stake. to more all. Protestants dissentingfrom them to Cranmer's the names. . I that can find no ground was now for this charge. that heresy was punishable by common law. though statutes were again repealed. in the spiritual court. heretics and. Arch* all agree. the were accordingly. when set on fire. though they had. many were burnt. consumed been j law. and these were. Catholic was religion being again thought necessary to return re-enacted. dragging to the place of execution. and the was this new not suit the of things under Therefore. as by law established. observe. who become proved disapCanterbury. the fair preespecially sumption her own that it was measure. the usual manner . in case might be burnt. iff. as we shall see.during the Chancellor. And. that. and then burning to death. has Bishop Gardiner. inflicted in The Bishop punishment was ner. as to bishop of of .charged with being the adviser him. by likely by Philip. and some of which reigns had been amongst the most rious gloof and most happy that England had ever known. by Protestant writers. in the place of Cranmeb. " the Catholic state Faith . the the country. Pole." then held. being passed. in the midst of a pileof faggots. seven the to religionof ancient which it statutes which.Vin..] to 'Protestakt REFORMATION. Spanish friarf if. be if much and at influenced. when Elizabeth's induced her to be a Protestant. to the religion 248. Pole. expressed the it. and. in punished and some that reign. than by Gabj"i'Ker. to promulgate opinions contrary did. a much more expeditious and less noisy way qf putting out of the world those who stillhad the constancy to adhere of their fathers. who himNow. That had been reigns. policy she enacted others to supply their place. by condemned process at common law . at any nothing new. of obstinacy. of this while measure. burnt heretics. these And. The not likelyto remain laws. James I. and that both she and her successor. comprising nearly two centuries. of course. however.

out of two. but " this number of 277.take book. These i i i and be as taken were from the number Fox to alive when may. it is manifest. that.that nothing else persons was is. enemy reign. none of the grounds of the rebels ever were. Bishops (and slow in the performance of this he never to times havel made fact famous whole to believe." Do and less. been bowels " as " Fox sai great of the had Gospellers. some may nions. in Queen and vile 'calumniators say. firstpublished his the As a and. were convicted Cranmer. we felons. and have been sincere and virtuous persons . that a Cat in the of Grimwood had been. on authorityof Fox. but. the church to and happened he brought / defamation against Fox's Fox and on preacher death other Another falseness relates and actors to the of Bishop Gardi: of the that Burnet.PftOTXSTAiTT Reformatio*. and solelyto the connexion flames of Smithfield" though we of latter " than more. the put many to death them character. that. hear the it ." Grimwood body" when in the sermon was that his not punished fell out oj at to an only but alive the be pn actio instanc preached. in deri London the by the people at large*. [Lbt been Boxneh.hundred seventy -seven persons number who of stated by Hume were Fox) on authority their real martyrs have been to punished. but. were chieflyof verj foreigners. he had. and called. many Ridle* . proofof Fox's next total d truth. the to " him. surely. and expressly begged amongst jgard of parson. .9' was. Gospellers. on whom so much blame has thrown the Con this account. and that the Duke with the Latimer of their Rid si suffering who was of Norfolk. Anthony Wood (a Protestant) related. hatch rebellions the French ceased to not though agj the Queen. almost residing in London. Mary's reign. complaints related all with Spain. there C ranker and cruelly used was continually accusing of the of their all the of being too rest) duty. a Prote* who tells us. Their she punished heretics. Indeed. indeed. the name. there as of sermon. and was judgment of God. as clearlytraitors. expressedgreat chagrinat delay . in this resj the Council spoke the almost then universal sentiment . a decline honour of being enr" his " Martyrs. of them of thought of. been most his Protestants . of news Gardi: and day of the execution kept dinner waiting till the arrive.

whose lenity they had requited by every her authority and ifbrt within their power the to overset mention all make of the To ruffians particular government. transported with joy. who sought rere. but by religious who had been aided immediate and predecessors. but. that they wicked wretches. and that. by the arts of the plunderers and their been circulated iescendants. year. the Parliament on Gardiner opened in of the 21st of October. and ifterwards. that not attended the 12th Parliament twice afterwards he November. apostates. Stephen. the be not torn factions. death oa horrible fortnight put his in Latimer of October.felons. rf Cbanmer's it Bishops this most go to and himself I For. stake justice. there were this be a task as irksome amongst them. jisury. this J"an be. " by her. and who deaths each. perjurers.overtook mischievous same of all villains.] he news Protestant " Reformatio*. as when a of Norfolk. who have been taught to look upon all this event took Duke had he thieves. p. states."they was sat' to able. also been had Lnd. without a ingle exception./III. that that died he on clesiastical Ec- History. down with came.created.a set of most and her the Queen " destroy the government. Peter. or plunderers. the greater part of them guilty of flawho had 'Spared against Mary herself. three now. and s whom traitors. but to few other was. hat is suffer her continue . Fox calls " Martyrs" resembling St. St. but. where Gardiner in suddenly torments. under and of obtain conscience the retence superior piety. to the of the gout. Latimer. and and Ridley seized in a the to died. inferior in villanyto Cranmer. generally. were the 16th Collier. must pretends to believe in this Fox ! Yet. the three others sauted so many each of whom and Hooper. jrant high treason heir lives . . who that he had bad justly to the unjustly were others to be tied to . perishedupon be it would occasion. last. and he of been disury dead . Ridley. would useless." is. if ten thousand worthy of ten thousand rere could endured. and. who Infamous book has. y her two of those who betted by many were now punished. people or. been have leaths They were. " sufferers sclaim them: those means had to been tried : the Queen to had to mploy vigorous means. Now. What that ! a place hypocrite. and St.then. The real truth about these Martyrs. "deed. to the No of mild could means leans again preying upon people. extent to a boundless amongst lie people of England.* men hat have ever . 386. Paul ! 249.

sending of the of chief tool in the hands in that black and tyrannicalPn act SaxaaaxT had been when he unnatural to bring.he waa a co-open ail the monstrous cruelties German inflicted was on the people. in bishop the Catholics the block. bishopric testantism . he was guiltyof high in treason in paragraph Qaeen. Laid a Thomas Catholic to SoxansET. fram Henry VIII. " the reign of Edward. got two Bishoprics.fr atmost ot his power. Catholic priest. Lafcv and Jaw. enabled to keen that in older tl Inwove*. who aa. transfer the to the possessions rapaciousministens oHat "day. whom of the churches. Latimer aa beg most j a only as a this he By *MSmtlm*tofthe Reformatio* religion. from the creed and of Cmu Be* meat in Edward* get the aa bishopric of London greater jh and oonrti a roguish agreement. re in the reignsof Henry and Efiwaxd he sent Chweh. all riiaiM. . reign of Heniy who denied the aaat the stake aapromacy. tons endeavouring to p wmpor One and d"D wtfr and the deadi be Janata. Ri brother. in openly (as we haveoeea from the pulpit^ exhorting the people to stand '. the Bishopric of Worcester. that it hy the auja"intn of tins .Haoua and married a waa a Rtf OBVAXttMt* be brokohis *ow [Li of ee Mokk. works. la Edward" Protestants*who denied trsnanhstant a n^ga he was a Protestant bishop.but ob H" ckmnged hu opinions . hk own SatKv*XA"mir waa Ltrraca. not the wee of troops to bend the English to the Protectant yoke.PAOTJ^Ut? i"D. and active particulazly in ne i mending the career. Lastly. stake Catholics ho himself the and had time Protestants beam of his so which held holding opi openly. and then he sent to the Pr+tesUmts who difered anga.and " tmnanbstaatiation biamelf. he and bishopric Simony* lacmding perjury* 351. give up his Cc made abjurationof he thus kept his bishopric ix twenty mot while he and which la the Inwardly reprobatedthe he held bishopric of the principles an C innrtaeof oath too from the C. Ajftea"trioof Vrommtt 4rSa*nlt*. though he I had written against pluralities." quite m obtained by of ^ of has sooanqgu.hg anason. or that h Lam for aaersdy at waa a them. bvtt h* did he ! Being auepeoted. being the ready tool ha greatly aided in his pi Bntfector Somerset. Flandiican he.

had the an he. very in Edward's the his those openly professing burnt for principles. us But. which.] he . but. years that years were tongue. would he sent Catholics the stake. while. are series innals thing approaching to a parallelin infamy. he lived. and because and not acknowledge they themselves he as thereby perjure King's had so Become openly a Protestant. he burnt their grounds for protesting . an having. PROTESTANT REFORMATION. having. w. As ty of treason lry (which his e oath on sate her husband. never as ecclesiastical the re. black appears or followers contending moment sects: ranker as C in rue ve colours. law of Archbishop.while he German from in the palace at Canterbury. remacy. not to marry while be was a and he married still his secretly. to turn he induced Protestant slept with him) three worthy fairs of that n. of course. the daughter of a Protestant saint . sn pn.her wife. he married \ of celibacy . imported her in a chest. he voted adultress. upon and and Archbishop a under office he he lips) not entered sent men with women premeditated to the stake to they were Catholics. for wickedness for mischief in their consequences. divorced Henry VIII.Protestants. is. thereby. as a as been of king's . done. l. they bleach " of this great founder into the altogether which Protestantism.. though his oath lutely without of any human *' id him ed the to have no wife at all. " who man. as have seen in paragraph 104. member house her death. made engagement he fellows do to this day). e pronounced. drank. going to Germany. more Lutiier. and : says. He. Being a fellow of a college and ambridge. of the 35 commission leir nature years of and his manhood. and. celibacy. from in two the grounds of his decision of the cases le wives.by yoid his called a a brutal a of Melancdisciple piety and humanity. colours of a alas ? where ! is the 65 29 those Of the pen. enjoyed fellowship. spent in of acts. Jew than Christian :" three of that by splitthe world are. he himself had g directlythe contrary of those which down he declared the marriages to be valid. and.enhimself secretly kept as the case of Anne that Anne of Boletn.* so he had wives at two now one time. because others. having to been Peers. ecclesiastical as judge. he became de a married took the and man a priest. now he had of which fessing low. was frequentlyate. when in .

time. in requital of the plotted with traitors in the pay of France government. with conspired with rob those two daughters of their right. whether horrid be pardoned. surely. protestingagainst that called very religionin which. because It is.and to giro to Lady Jane. he had robberies. juries. and without hope of favour. and for the discharge of his conscience.treasons public reading of his recantation. that he now believed had been in all the a doctrines of the Catholic Church . to trial and to condemnation He was heretic. Mary and Elizabeth. that Queen of nine days. the only true one that the Catholic religion was . palace at Lambeth. He declared religionwas false . thrust into recanted the fire the hand that had signed it. that he blasphemer against the sacrament . and to pray for his soul . he his recantation.per* Brought. Number in giving the remainder . notothers. that he was unworthy of forgiveness . now finding that he must die. I raust. he signed sis respited for six weeks. to the wretch Catholic covered Church with honour reconciled it a and bloodshed. and carrying in his breast all his malignity undiminished. and as a warning to others.the the Pope. - to do not to of this calumniated justiceto the memory queen. re- that have it would been no- be unjust that see let him it could escape have done to . only nine hours before. ordered his many monstrous crimes.and thus expired. and that he had and claration wretched made signed this dewithout fear. on his way to the stake.-contrary to intention. my next employ part of the of her history. to crown will of Ml (afterEdward) he others the he. Confined. each more different that the Protestant former. of the " " were old to differentfrom his. gave his daughters. during which ample than the forms of recantation. And to Mary Bloody this ! she put time and death monsters like iniquity ". at last.' he. as that his to other crimes recanters were so had enormous been . do it by halves. he should It was a questionin the Queen's council. her Brought. to which might added.to the God to witness that he is to firmlybelieved be of called " ! the 252. seeing the pile ready . to have Queen and pity on.he professedhimself ready to recant. whom withstanding to be proclaimed. as a merely Queen's to overset to the lenity. that he prayed the People. but it was solved.P"OTKSTAVT ReFOEMATIOK. As execiitor the crown Henry. which master. therefore.

before of 1 proceed to the " Reformation" the the works in the reign " Elizabeth. Mary The The at War with France. and and of health. was pretty sure . had unprincipled Catholics. 253. her partly so to the life.Ni. Government Disgrace Country she brought upon her and the by this Perfidy. and full of must conclude reign of of her Mary. a She innumerable difficulties to with. 1 now. Friends. Accession Her Her The of Queen and bloody Elizabeth. to who. Her base and perpetual Surrender of Calais. Calais Capture Death op 'of by the French. anxieties that the partly whole her frame. Laws relative to cruel Religion. Remington) My 31rt Julys 163d. most inveterate and the wicked state faction her continually owing of her plotting to * against weak her. become though Pro- now a Catholic. pluntinually con- though casting "he was they an again towards become her eye successor. rendered life uncertain. Perfidy with regard to France. were derers. Queen Mar v. i" LETTER IX. Few had sorrow" were days struggle power.

victory of to over gained But a important under the the Freneb. took naked state of Calais been in possess itself of that the important town. of the endeavours in of that Her Court rebellion against her whose England. had now husband. Pope should acknowledge her timacy. Haylin Monsieur Louis Cordis. " he lie seven in hell upon condition tha't^this town were regained from '^ " the 255. North all his was also at with and the of which An was the Netherlands of France. a III. to a Philip. supply war retired and the possess scene vent. including Guisnesse.Protestant Reformation." [Litter because it was testant whenever the she came to the ever throne. Ardres. years say. was at war with to excite France. legi- 254 In on the account year 1557. who great and penetratedinto France. tage advan- French of the army. Duke Guise. can father. his son the to Emperpr. to nobleman thai who would lived in the be content reign of to XL. It hastened . English and army had a joined Philip. regarded deemed thorn very a for the of in purposes great glory Xhe de used " . impossible that " . the whole not Calais England helci but country round and for many miles. Fanim. . with the had whole territory ^called the county Calais after as a Oye. that aide France. of and it was a continually rankling tells us. other placesof together Edward year. jhe Queen . a Dr." The Queen felt this blow most severely. It had of taken been it was siege of nearly valuable monument always trade . France. nions. English. to England. for that more which had possession of It was English alone than two hundred 3 years. domiwar leaving his place.

] and. and to hastened her death. they all this great honour tier me- nay. irretrievably Elizabeth.. and /reefy yfthe "fered his assistance (" for the defence of it. " successor. that EnglishCouncil. foth his advice over -wiselyjealous of Philip. that we. the of The war yet over. would In 1558 . little was longer. joined the dread Philip to Calais and its dependenciesin the Haylin hands df Mary's aat. adrised Qne"n of it. even day. see councillors. was the most powerful. then. if of of perfidy.'' which and plundering to this bad cow- loss of Boulogne. Mary it is to died Thus. her if they opened body. in / " " negotiations. the the " Reformation.and should be the was. loss of While all historians agree! Calais preyedmost while severelyupon do the Queen.1^. which lost last. ifthe Queen had lived but a Still. hut.selfishness and that perfidy of the. she told her attendants." not great misfortune her owing to neglect. the loss o| Calais. " Protectant her* end Reformatio*. " by the. when that. that Calais restored England and to this condition would the unquestionably have boon adhered midst of these 256. left the place with this *"- to^l five hundred and that they did Untionally it is hardly possibleto doubt." seeing that danger might the arise to Calais. mind) teHs us.however. Calais not We been restored. w*V owe/ at have lament. and Philip and one King of France conditions had Jo beaten for peace began negotiations of the who Philip (who French) . Doctor (a*Protest* that Philfy. Edward to in the ardly reign of that we VI. caused by Philip ? but. they would This find Calais was at the bottom to the of her heart.neglected " and men proffer*' They in it. approached. mm if that attempt to-"yr i *at-tb"ta" tffidv2 .

and sovereign.' seas. As ground for what those punishments. While himself " pulling down the altars. [LETfEfc the in- looks " even the brother smallest I He was effect too on of spirits her Refcttmation* in to busy pullingdown and altera and confiscatingthe property of Guilds much he about was ternities Fra- think national honour.in With a reign loss took bottom her place. the crown we hare half seen of a off from formidable it of on England. that whose preyed the upon the ' spirits of the 257.still called might think. abuse served of the all the were heaped than the this. which.gratitude. is while pleasant to have bowels ripped ouV tta.and sincerity. however.. year fortyreign. would with as well-grounded fear.resignation.won territory by Catholics. or. and one's James I. that we have seen loss to seen much than cut of Calais.all on successor undo. it become never most rival much the and have heard.. an example. successor that particular. on they other punishments inflicted the sound offenders against the religion of a country . aUw (** wt" Elizabeth's fevqmits .PROTESTAKT had RfiFOtilf " AflOK. rityin thought. to that she had done. Queen. the unfortunate in the Mary expired second year to the 17 th of November and in the T558. not to Defender of Faith/' he that and glory. Elizabeth. ? say The thing no- " have fretiof Smithfield'1 about horrid but. sixth . o" her the loss of Calais at the heart. of her her age. that religion. to [the burnings of Edward it more VI. generosity. perhaps/ though he.the of her of leaving sister and successor example fidelity. to sister and took which on specialcare have memory to follow. word in every not as and deed .body M. pu- patience. England the and we Be -this greater continent a it may. ought as be retained a by Protestants.

of felons offenders 277 to score religion .in at this way. suppose the have suffered for offences the mass against religion.instead traitors let and us having as been. they The have punished. when we loathsome gaol ! of the think of are talking bloody Queen the Mary. to suffered strfment and punishments this. and openlyto deny preachin at all.supposing the the whole to of persons. a very time.] way). A man sees never Christ the laws tolerate twenty sorts tians of Chrisall the be (as they rest to all call themselves). Reformation"? seem.." maxim The " punishments Christianity When did it now-a-days is proceed from parcel of the law -that part and of the the land. or since. each some whenever rest uppermost. and led to express the thing they belief. recently laid before 'persons. amongst tolerates are all these sects. when permitted openly any to divinity of Christ. condemning eternal flames his are and if. time. well whole as like Cranmer the Ridley. offenders. hare one less Catholics aud faith sect. tell itwould us. yet.as offenders against men are religion . other. the there of according no to return. them learn. each . too. in who^suffered for thesake and on reign of Mary. House Commons. punishes. of have suffered solely of religion. than Catholics in Protest a kt JReformation. . the 277 As to the mass of suffering. he wrong. or the Protestants it gets as Jifty Even" faiths. this law who. what Chris- tianityis? 258. that they about with all that disputing punished in a is six altogether something years unreal. within few years. which.he may be (or Let " his us whole of imprisonment life) these things. Protestants bare to be burnt work ? of even exceeded this sort. that there and others was their synagogues.in consequence are of this.did of on suffering. a less than fifty-seven imprison- who other have.IX. the are. offenders reason of on And. their side. And. the at a added it. too. have the punishing with . we which to off them is to from which of .'9 w begin ? Before. the mass of sufferingsurpass this .

" all whose exalted virtues. nothing. the blood still have the shed in the rags of her. all her 1 gratitude.bank intended not ten times ten we Perhaps that to keep out 'Popery.all her adherence to whose cred sapiety. account of offences notes testant againstthat purely Prothis invention. mass to impart. [LETiER ? account.in consequence which ever. excellent all qualities. that acts was passed in only act the 43d of this there reign.charity. did Smithfield ness eVer wit- great on suffering aa ? Old Bailey bai * witnessed. To the pauper and ripping-up reign we Bess." because it suits the views never of those who suffered fatten tire "" to Of that Church spoils bear the odious and Englishmen debasing name of pauper. in how good she Act of Parliament. 259. and is still in force. but.expressly cost ten invention.I Paptbstaxt fame Reformatio*. flow* contaia it is the last Number the rise and " which the history of progress English pauperism. ELIZAPETH. or to call injustice. of people." The now come. in which that sat whose are on equalledby Al feed sovereign excepted.generosity. to from the beginningof the Reformation!1 down the pre* .and which alone for ever she sought to religion re-establish we are all the** to pass for to call her the bloody on Mary. during the reignof the late King any And. were not the of the 'kind: eleven passed into before that. of the " poverty and the misery. : " the English throne. if times. the " bloody Queen Many. is to the " Reformation had of my plunged work. which was reign of see " good Queen was. whom the folly. a This is the short time. which feelings was never her to the grave: airy all these. We shall. her faith and her word. relative year to the poor poor-rates. the any thing worse 60 than a death. un- ]cssSmithfield and burning have of peculiar agony. and even those feelingsof anxiety for she the greatness and honour of hastened England. has was times.

be- Roman a Catholics. was. during the Elizabeth. the Spanish he make In up wrote no envoy. by law. to resolve even testant.IX. She had to were bowels unhappy The cause subjects. declaration she the so the Feria. and however. a pretty strong inducement a lady of be a so flexible conscience as had. went to the sister's death. of a the not of the nation. Dauphin nearest ran Queen of Scotland. the of crown who had the the of France. prayed were earth swallow made her. have to At present I relate what took place with regard 260. her On her These had deceived sister. mo- But. to the REFORMATION. that the usual way. Protive. honest avowal Macy as of her God opinions that the true to to religion. her confessor. At mass reign of the her brother. required from death frank bed. of course. foreign by Pope is.Catholic chapel in appearances to her not. marriage of her mother declared been. house. Her to cession ac- from beginning.it of her not began ripping they 261. which be null and void in " yet remained the unrepealed. acknowledge she hereditary right. that would in to that Philip.who. whom completely of Elizabeth deceived. claimed of VII. she had a not only publicly . was bastard by law. accession alteration all in matters was of religion. been a affairs of religion. spite of the this. if she the same not a Roman Duke of Catholic. long before she England. her he. Elizabeth." the the that not he did understand hereditary right So that person could born not in lawful wedlock. that and she had consent succeeded the throne hereditary right answered. her a the very and last. but. there was another and stronger married as Mary. notified to having been. This for to a a of itself. So that legitimate descendant a Henry beth Elizashe be- manifest risk of losing the unless . crown. England. Protestant.] sent PftOTESTANT time. and time during of her she reign of Catholic. cere sin- doubted sincerity. might open and She in answer. also a . had her a sister. powers.

to Mary. Queen Mary. marry case Philip. as and most unfortunate had now for the for English and who never to prepare The sufferings3uch ofthings the as was they had known to before. but it was impolitic) Irish people. was. of the being put Scots. Queen to a secure an of of the to Dauphin. have the In made very it a duty people to abandon rassed greatly embar- least. issue seen. ruin " resolring to or crown. compel her people she that were to abandon a that months very religion. must if she an without Mary. France. resolved. declared. by praying " "God the earth a might Roman open " and swallow her alive. remained She the think Church short. w. for what no England transferred of with France. How dependence much pressing . to If she remained the Catholic.her belief in which to had. people It was that came she besequences con- strong from of her dread that the down. loss England of Calais . set married the Dauphin died of If Elizabeth before The aside. And. The Pope's answer it was was honest . and of her C"AXMfen's the must throats people. few before. of Scotland more thereby becoming was ally for England in of France. if she not true Catholic. or. he she saw could have' her. if her people clertrly. she to a ascribed her birth over adultery. have were favourable the rsal Protestants. K1 never reign in perfectsafety. she that she could no that. at decrees with her from Pope her. the situation extremely of Scots. the nation to and of Boulogne herself could mortified be enough was but. people the her sho She head never cooM of whose reigning quietly refused wear to acknowledge that to rightto the crown. So bad Englishman think the patience. Queen we lawful to heir the throne.PnOT"STAKT cane RErORMATIOSI* crammed [LlTTU creed down a a Protestant. law of had hereditaryright.hich and England. become appendage had to of France. knew that knew. to the betrothing of induced Mary. cost what blood it might.ibe Rome: the yield submission could or. Catholics.1' 262.

preference to Protestthe gentle means if than filled i totally changing of us. very nate unfortuof them- for the - Catholics. they the Englishmen. the new selves cool in showed opposition to change to which Queen ful faith- -soon her determination were effect . at barbaxjty . had all her right to give for we ants.] the Protista* t Refohh atiok. crown and when. con- becoming attempt if any a Protestant for exactly similar them . at for which.doubt. of things therefore. the Dauphin (theheir apparent if she were to the throne).it would could foresight go. the upholding Those a of Elizabeth seemed IV. for. thing have was an induced uphold human preserve Elizabeth. But her many eminent powerful of that 264. apostacy that and They but might Queen not state for her desire and to tyranny. England. fess. she was in thus justified and the sulting con- preservationas at Queen.admit that and to she use. she. of the the and outset least. of absolutelynecessary. as far instrument France . the of the religionof a people . It made the many. the who became of -who gize eulo- Henry and Catholic expressly the avowedly for for purpose cannot possessingand keeping throne of that country. to when the Queen of Scots was actuallymarried French the son. clanger now.however as to their religion. a in of her ! was. pendence.IX. very blame consistently an beth Elizareason. been. if we admit that a. and that is admitting great deal justice demands with 5 who can . more admit this. refiaia from being honor.most many. England her remain independent keep such. France. and abhorred - the thought of being hate the underlings of Frenchmen. men was upheld by day. should still they could an but . inde- the expense a of considerations religious a if we . necessary to England this she was from the subjectionto main reason and. permitted case to possess of come be- England. nation's . hairing a must province of France This state 263. I do not to either of justify would have that but me I must to as that. beyond at all.

conformity to the were Catholic ritual* Very hewers. supremacy. . in other words. the and amended which ascribed Ghost" by the. a Pope an and the Catholic Thus to was or. condemned very large part of the people death for adhering to of religion their fathers .found do the one to 4a it . the last hid reign. been " book Common to Prayer. if she best answered could. the end. bat her a he would consent to thing without soon. were statutes the to most bloody the oath were passed. which. and. which her 267. that all the Bishop She.and plunderers to the Protestant of sway. to crown manifest. put dowi re-introduced and possessore she Catholic aha found to to worship. might. to was acknowledge to renounce the Queen's supremacy the in spiritualmatters. that is say. at refused even her. the REFORMATIO*. . not last. compelled To take take the oath of pain of death. they 1 But This blood. the being. Catholic it gion reli- enemy and. mortal to She . and series of acta passed. to of supremacy . Parliament suggestions of the even Holy had been was altered now was in and Edward's amended reign. her. With All on this persons view.by resolved those destroy it. It and revived. If these Parliament bad had stopped here. for the ' [LEI7BR to exercised unsparingly ? accomplishment the coaaUj purpose The intention a to change so the of religion became.PjtOTUSTAHT which of her 266. religion . her to become at once apostate. but one in ehort time. again. and ascribed to altered the " still it dictates of the v Holy Ghost"! Acts of been not to to 266.. by degrees. her she would such a certainlyhave change was was and disgraceful enough. looked upon cost pled sam- make her it flow.1 without of and tbe what means to* be effected the Queen deemed to as was resolved reign : own blood people she never necessary her safety. the plunder justp as ready been conform receive Cravmer's her ecclesiastical they hid in y absolution from of Cardinal Pole.

most freds upon nanner. be the only one/ than Mary put o death in her whole from. then of like nature. moreover. Cranmer's prayer-bookamended under enormous case a their hands having done this.she compelled her Catholic tubjectsto attend which rose. was to :ompelled flee from country. were and others butchered up. a t was high treason to harbour to a relieve priest hun- Ind. inflicted by Catholic ray ot worn or more princes? Elizabeth to Catholics to death. in one his. only and the unfortunate oo virtuous sincere from apostatize her that faith which in her ihis Queen herself had. by fines. all baor he conscientious ruined people enormous kingdom to incessantly the assed. )ath. act of monstrous barbarity.it mass . . in one year.to were in itself. to coronation. in refusal! Thus all the in the good. penalof perseverance last.IX. these grounds. hundreds first in the cut inhuman being then hung down alive. at firm in belief she had this a her coronation 268. and their bodies sensible chopped and and to this.solemnly 269. just Englishpersons were observe. to adhere down and defend! up the and the Having pulled the set the altars. the tears Thus and the this 'rotestant he religionwatered blood of and people of England.Jpriest the kingdom or abroad. she for had becoming to apostates and to the religion which true be hers. at in the churches death ties.brought their native with gallows.I again beg you. for adhering. beggarly creatures. and to which her I was she lad openly lived which Besides in became sworn Queen. sworn coronation. are Talk to of Catholic persecution ruelty! Where another.l Protestant Reformation. put in very stead a hungry. their into quar- "owels ers: ripped up. laving ousted heir icum Catholic of priestsand worship. made \igh treason reason to priest come say into it was made from high in made on to a. with of the earth. you find persecution and crueltylike put. the reign for having apostatized . to till she that very in religion.set tables . because to at men. all the sincere.

had or Lutjiek way said he was taught by early as there were found into France " so in were the year called 1530." was Even the horrid when St. wanted the the have governing who cams of to France the during in the of and minority of year Charles. and his gave the The preference for be* Duke party. the the chiefs. [Lettei] which her and their fathers. and. and to that occasion. even that civil took this that day. in it was. at ten throno 1561. as it bas been great handle to of in the work calumniating the Catholics. along while the ment they of little consequence but they. years of age. The to of which faction. massacre This took placeat Paris. His to mother. thereabouts. good Queen Bess/9 and the latter massacre or bloody tholomew Bar- Queen Mary. of and. committed. lost Calais finally which ks and to England. at last. nothing. and which " in wnich so large a part. and at hypocrisy to affect vad horror the cruelties that the King of |:!e 1572. produced incessant a and mischievous intrigues. the Queen Guise Dowager. by being taken hold of by those ambitious and lious leaders Cond" theso two were Coligni.and to religioatie is called. the former called. it is I go back necessary to I give a true account of it. fairlycompared reign of . became formidable the govern-* and rebel-. a mere this PiotesUmt Queen of England upon nothing had and yet she put oa the consummate mourning France 270. . with the butcheries and other cruelties of the . Condc Coligni. yes. rebellion on Catholic Hence a*o*e an open i . and those she its wars in France which and The the she occasioned. territory Reformation/' Devil.in to reign of Charles IX. in part. For The reformers" Huguenots. most the year as in the the 14th year that of Elizabeth's reign. needed better coming in the most zealous cause Protestants. in it belongs historyof by her own day. no disappointed motive nobles. the Guises ! being zealous. made as fact.. or " had always adhered " Yet.Peotsstaxt of religion hereelf has been Reformatio*.

for the any treaty further act or that if France committed the of aggression if against England. on ciowns baser was than the part of pulated. without if she had and Calais back. by "he made upon 271. priest. taken almost have seen paragraph 254. people at upon if the face of were the and to who never stuck /they an but calculated . bind She and offered six unless Calais not to were restored. remember. England mitted com- of aggression against France. therefore. and afraid of she.t)00 this treaty. England should he even be to regard for Calais years. for was into latter negotiations should and was agreed or that the keep ! Calais Never eight there But years. on being France. the that throne. to which had apostatized. rip up it her declined this generous was the had and with begun subjects. safe left means . ple.IX. a provided Elizabeth peace would herself make separate offer j war. coming to to every pore. in found country fortress France. immediately getting not made with as France. in the and been She territoryhaving.]' Protestant Reformation. fomented think. to as long as there Catholic earth . the part of the who seemed were former. a pay act to England 500. this not all . effect her to end. terest in- too. at war her effect her and made purpose. Spain. to with regard Spain and faithful France. France in negotiationsfor parties)were All but was soon peace (England. done. no her any At with her people bleed occasion. sti- England. with satisfied continue the war until the to new Queen . that. carried settled at Cateau Cambresis. to Philip.) his engagements. scru- sacrifice the the national she honour. (Mary's refused to husband. that she never by the Queen could be of England. during that .' Duke of and by a French army under peace Guise. and as Calais we its hands. clandestinelyentered France. She was herself she apostate she wanted annihilate endeavours at from that. during any act eight years. of sign the treaty. during that to period. and. or prince. own she might have preferredher of and private interest The the to the honour England.

to pledge. secretly. The of Calais consequences infamous served richly de- that. This not town territory. be void. last. Vidamx.foe. They succeeded with treaties " pecuniary gobd which Bess/' who. and that [LETT** the former time.went to Cecil. as- agent of to Conde and Cologni. Jbad . had " stirred up Bess's the an " formidable at utmost in France. a treaty was concluded but out in treaty only of friendship. by a breach " " I* . to sistance. came. Evangelists ! ships. 1559. rebels of an send war them army for the purpose whom she was a carrying on of against their sovereign. perhaps. civil war with their Huguenots. of this valuable 272. Good and Queen assisted ambassador to that Court stimulated At rebels the of his power. three of alliance of the between u)e r parties. when the restoration the 274. her money and de i traitors. compact it. the treaty should lose the should to the and right of retaining.and claim to rip up unfortunate the more restoration of Calais. and more that. too.naval. of treaty ever flagrant and witnessed base world. before 273. good Queen . than. been in the . and it was.over and England negotiate for military. attended ambassador French in London. on he found and -that the an intercourse of the was going between Queen agents rebels. from the sole desire of her being still able to. before " years out eight had passed and away. the latter the and claim restoration. not but only for for the repayment money This be advanced.. to entered into an formal and treaty money. bound in herself. that cha- ally. King French of France.and to a By . by solemn the men. the secretary of . wholly she a was disregarding the solemn Charles with the by bound to IX. Cond" a and Cologni.on at once their into of the ! engaged as put Havre Grace the hands. this treaty she the engaged furnish part. having oath to on j " racter. Bess/' a of pure to hatred her fea/irf the Catholics sway secure from pure desire make tyrannical . But. all subjects. forfeited imprison.PaOTESTAKT REFORMATION.

suffered to sect. that of the the skilful. by up. and. that her . part of considerable and Dieppe Normandy. over a Havre Grace. popua became a which inactivity. only five last hold before. that its claim years. up as demanded the to agreeably to the of that stipulations should he be delivered the agtenfc of the* rebels their sovereign . had lation. declaring.and put two sea-ports into . Catholics and treacherous *ho now proceeding ashamed than a roused of that of France. gallant. and that traitors ' PROTESTANT REFORMATION. ejected the English from . and Good Bess/' her usual mixture hypocrisy effrontery." those they had audacity to themselves. Norniandy. All France recollect. the patriotic Duke years Guise. would at the " recovery Calais had the of eight But she good Bess her and caused and other that own the civil in France means. she underthe cess suc- hand stirred them rebels believed to her as of on the French throne in this necessary security to her of doubtful right .] state. in and nothing gain in perfidy. Gambresis in his hand. bring French same English back again. were bribes. hands of They the the onceqput So Havre infamous into the a English. treaty. less hundredth the part of the sell their country " under blasphemous plea of with her no love of of the Gospel. carrying the treaty of Cateau . Calais. had extended their power at Rouen. annihilate the wars any to act of aggression of " its part. had. 275. who had. " good brother " the King of France the but merely to protect his House Protestant Guise .sent she meant proclamations into hostility against . . and warned on English end government. subjectsagainst that her " tyranny " of the to of and good she added brother was ought ! be grateful cool to her for the assistance lending to This and hypocritical insolence could but fury it was the flame. she saw she hoped but get Calais the perfidious way. The de rebels were possessionof Dieppe.IX. their " in France as and the they now saw these call sons of the Gospel.

to while ordered " good Bess. Charles of years at age). but the the The mortally in attack Catholics whole finallytook the the to by assault. the who besieging had Rouen. to thrown " assist the the faithful French. siege. was. country 276.from to ner cor- of army the the was France. wounded town present the the . by a money good Bess. put of garrison sent the $wordt Queen includiug Bess. of whom will of good Bess's ramour. the the latter 6ons of Gospel." 277.! against this traitorous ! the a to 8" they who felt desire to extirpate their the whole to of the infamous utmost race. English the inforcement re- preceded Warwick." therine (Ca(now were In order to encourage the Queen-Mother de twelve Medici). perfidyand of treason. Montmorency. Heylin and by. and then in the main to leans. [Lettbi at their hands able sect at once ! Are we to wonder hatred ? Are of the we people of France wonder. and having Cologni having been of partner concern. audacity. into which had Sir Edward an PoiniDgs." order part public prayers. faithfully." together got of her whole and the the them body of to German mercenary which was Gospellers. and. joined by nephew the us more the " English troops " under the Earl of Warwick. that a inextingmsh. of her son young King. the In the English re-iuforcement meanwhile " by "good the of the brother collected had hold act of Cologni had. and King was Navarre. pa- Dudley. had ? every already sold province and sovereign.Protestant Reformatio*. the the aid of their whose with commanded by under Constable. cause plore imthe blessi/tg " of Gospel" Thus reinforced by another body of foreigners . Conde as a Duke rebel of Guise him. Protestant than clergymen. of their power The French flew nobility. The mass Wliitaker. first movement of tell enough by-andthis bined comwas of the French against hypocrisy. God's during upon her three cause days. sort at the head in of tile army. Or- Huguenots.

Conde* and of Paris. now Orleans. and urged calls on the famous most preacher. too. things go they might. perhaps.Jews) . This atrocious deed met. the of Guise took the and drove the rebel Coligni and " his army him . and. distinguished patriot. instigated. far they the could The Catholics. the Huguenot. ruffians and the Normans find defeated mercenary as end. sho: t found the to assassinate that gallant and. but. took over- Dreux. and Good Bess" be bound to for more. one laid siege to a siege was going Poltkot. Coligni and their his German as Gospellerscruelly plundered extend of arms.] "" Protestant RBFOBMATioy. let we keptsafe which sound in the strong fortress of Havre and " place honest which way ffood Bess" in the intended honest keep. observe.and sent pillaged him could she some Normandy money. of Guise. afterwards. . this.and. on. the Catholics. rebel under guise of entered In a deserter chief. but express purpoteeby Coligni. and them at But. in the hope of there having the aid of still under the the English forces.with retaliation i . Hie " employed ibr by Beza.however.they took Normandy. him no troops and those. get sent any merchants (that is. in beinga the pay from of Coligni. themselves towards their country. de to being Grace. in spite of whole days of prcyers." infamous to as Hume " him. ing but. that inveterate under means went. Coligni kept pretty severely.IX. offered to " the field. compelled Duke them to took Conde fight. good Bess's" three Nevertheless. under the of Warwick. indeed. brought into first Coligni.and t intothe service of the army time this miscreant nobleman and the Duke of Guise. com- by rebels. though Montmorency the taken chief before primand. the made too a base traitors. lend Earl it him if he . followed morency Mont- the Duke traitors. and. While under this Duke Guise. 278. second but Luther "elf. was himself : soner prisoner. reallyone of the of all the none reforming" him* preachers. findtheir way feint on on the side weak that side. which intention shall.

had she a right to complain broken her of good faith with ? who had treaty and her oath Charles IX*.with the Protestait a cries of horror at the death of this Coligni and small part of his followers 280. condition tendering his act submission te his sovereign on in the of an of oblivion. in February 1563. hired paid for have purpose. of honour the Ambition mads rebel .Pkotestant Reformation* [Lettjsi when on in the massacre of St. and pacification. Duke to could of think J: without had Guise. sincere find " and had whom from we good Queen Bess/' Whitaker shall hereafter the her Church own plainly accused of ty' plofjr . ashamed had :- in ber 279. to The King granted worship matters Huguenots permission in every the bailiwick and . Conde now ! sought to get rid of his miscreant a ciates asso- by proposing. (a clergyman of assassination England) the of ting the man of base cousin. Jf of Guise he would could have destroyed Coligai j so his whole been in justified doing. conclude without want her consent but. any in his treaty with peace of a her. She. to Coligni was the town included amnesty. * 3 yet. kingdom enough to perform made This foul deed seems have Conde of his infamous him him and a associate he the had and sense followers.." who. practice their thus were in one and all settled between " King his rebellious as subject well and Sad tidingsfor good Queen Bess. Bartholomew. money body might have been placarded the of the This come wretch had honest been and paid by Coligni. to Conde. but at one enough left to mate leader shudder thought of being of true a man of assassins: not he. who rendered such existence inestimable services a France. lated stipu. there Coligni'i name mangled Pqltrot. . being as swept from by so base and miscreant that that whom his late the .and And son colleague had of the Duke crew. continually sought safety in the misery of not others. with horror drop of such blood as in the him. her Whitaker divisions had observes. the world has been stunned same . and to finding nt deed.

in the camp. with iers and hundred as soon pioneers. 281.] PROTESTANT REFORMATION. sol" kept his seven had. "Was matter two as how. and." snapping the common time. to aeir utter Jonde ras. its way regain Havre the King of France being well convinced. in the was said. that partiesin France uniled way. .it of the upon to not a trifling thing A of English. the time.*a bird at ingers in hand the same worth bush. short his spiteof this. Bess's thousand allies.IX. lad instead army of at sending troops Havre . becoming all in a " Virgin Queen. things perfectly Havre had out Still. Jueen-Mother and the King present . t an he heard that the rebellion end. to take "'Good Betsy" was were vain. Earl order ensure possession of place. wishing to The French de a get her she troops now quietty "mt of Havre to hold Grape. end of a But. offered Calais treaty of to Cambresis. open arms of both. he hands army. by in 1567. Jbe had which she was to be restored reasonable and she England proposal. Montmorency enter time. for the She authorized reaty ency. a new project of Montmo- but. But. ready breaches were the place by The where Bsault. at the end the pi the eight years. got rejected this fair no and Havre. had catered ? into a treaty with against their king King. by Conde. expulsion of her this " the English. iefl with 382. %id finding that surrender to renew pretended Cateau it as pledge for the of Calais. at direct breach in Bess's treaty with and the Coligni. confirming her resolution so ^thundering oath. the great deal of taxes been mposed a this nation (to say nothing of this to the "prayers'). practice with Kith her upon such occasions. having made in preparation.she reluctantlygave to ambassadors present army. and who." had. that her . rendered as the place imwas regnable. The assist six of Warwick. the French " under and Good was Bess's on late friend to ally being by force that trea- Brving in f arms. expelled all ruin." were now Finding. in defiance in vobels. and in the French people from of all to Havre. however.

the stamped the but cause swallowed them to affront. and on no mention of Calais but that whatever. and who to ambassador1 Pari*.PaOTESTAKT REFORMATIO!!. a 01 their part. her has been called. to that " ratification of d the greater than it had support the from day w! gloriousAlfred woman finally expelled or Danes. and due passports. subjectsshe going She operated. the full of neither other. return England miserable treasure and to England.* caM and perfidious and butchering reign of " glorious! 233. and at had been her agent in The Saint stirring up former was Conde Coligni Melun. was and been the her that at samr Throckmorton. Great and upon as the as mortifications were Good of Bess'* the not1 great it the her misfortunes country. For. "glorious andwilk Und that good Bess" with whose now to for peace. were. -and swore. and. released their and the her rebellion. use but tained. with' the permitted to of his army. the sue hitherto as hypocrisy and measure of faith. had with so King. and at took regular steps to court. Smith before was one they of would her listen envoys. unhearl seen brought of by these breach proceedings of have. recently co- Her were ambassadors. we tbe Jiad rebel one nor yet. be received her the French who. Good has Be*. " And. imputations of perfidy that that had it. who had any terms peace. de- and was made of for the curious. the after all the " and b! expended gratify malignity of Good she Bess/'o had bt after all the just upon grace. treated sneer. Throckmorton was upon application . [LbtTI* " they had Bess's" the indescribable pleasure to to see Good the Queea general humbly propose any condition to surrender placetoi and of renin rightful sovereign. pressing applications with suffered to temptuous con- and many months of other to pass away.without territory. latter at imprisoned Smith was Germain's. to receive remnant. Queen been yet. arrested she imprisoned. t is called.following . .

de unprincipled treaty The and trigues inhad the plague. with " perfect truth. llave ius " undone things which kept to ought do . during very which Throckmorton not to end on significant signs of prison without employer. " and so." after all. which or The treaty of of (Jtteau Cambresis. * good Bess. ^Julais forfeiture of 500. stipulated fpr the a the restoration crowns in eight years. to . exchange a noblemen than no for him and.000 in for ! relinquishment of 284. we those ought we do. have.] """ pBOTfesTAHT RgFOIitfATlOfr. Good this havo by her aiding of just . and whjch thousand was had his left with men. had broken to ity. though the fulfilment she had that her for of which bey had bad been put a " into hands. however. day of mischievous part have left life. and then. after long discussions. had lost all Calais. repeated amended. " Now. this glorious the Protestant crown Bess.000 four as P the French-. to ftierciless four was good" woman agreed . had large quantity up in his good Bess's" horrible secrets locked breast! $" (ave that. should contained he held that stipulation." French fcfeblemen by on good Bess. perpetuity Thus. French better the his determination his his lays the in taking revenge. got Throckof their * old enemy. that . They got a morton." hostages for " fulfilment " of the treaty the part of France. the had French got bird in hand and he too. only about two out of seven thousand this dreadful disease by brought." we that " of done the Prayer-Book things which those had claim which not to to says. it good Queen that this the Bess. good" woman Wfeited all just the hostages." most humiliating purpose. the claim French to rebels. Nor was plucked jewel from English of with ! only signal conse- tjuience her unhallowed French and rebels. as as good Bess" almost seldom she she might. as a quarter of crowns loaf the bread* Calais was " to to take France 125.tit. and " ought very every fcteased Hid what "er the hostages ought but. which got into the Warwick of Havre garrison- Grace. " of some sort.

especially sons where one twenty Thus thousai was " died of it in year war. nobleman patriotic . of Calais. broken most they would woul thought yielding to . afflicted with thus were afflicted with of pest peo to t thousands or upon thousands English stroyed.000. It is which had the the bare heart of the Mar a of 1 and patriotic calumniated Hume series surprising what whole of this baseness disco \ treating of tions . Calais Thus. / the heavily taxed. the won proudest to po* N" of England . Calais. . faithful. had one of two keys our the Seas two more Calais. nothing good Bess. and even how rare insinuates apologies for his engages he . that been by Catholic fore I hundred years before. ofi great mult in London. skips by he the of Philip to fidelity how censures praisesthe Conde* for black-hearted Coligni. passes over fourth part Calais made 500. without rebels he on the censure good . how the he important breaches Bess " of tr . which France. the 284." though every thing in temporary loss of he it Mary malign above all the rest. himself allows. swept above " England. lei " flagrantand he malignant treason .000 as how in for the ever. merely ever for this the surrendered . Calais.Protestant Reformatio*. than they idea thought of yieldingDover biTLty of losing the virtuous. Calais. glosses over part of the the " all the of how faith he oath. how constantly aims his that and skilful. this could rendered miserable. while after the i seeking he peace assassinat the dee the Duke of Guise of . merely who proud never and be malignant woman.or ruined. brave. thought in her reasoi safe until all the world and for joined same f apostacy. how wholly case suppresses and miliatiohs how he England the in the of Smith sale he " Throckm instead the 1 h makes of last bill . of 200. [L to miserable Hume " remnant of infected that it " beings.

confirm been this out the and with quent subse- i"egcurd the. she the than therefore. wisely a jotadejd. and to iwhe .Is of see an 185. Queen. ? rather what than is the the terest inthe not obvious.Consideron of money had had been been laid the . engaged the sellinghis treacherous country.PC. to con* . she to pressed to Calais at take an equivalent for that at such have moment anticipated restoration. was place of the Seine. Guise. who does not see the any have the vast man im* who now Calais how its ? territory it would does sun " Is there to us not "re desirable who the he not to it I Englishman clear " lament loss it was of it? lost of is it not *ver as at noonday. and of much bgoeatex importance r Calais. tee there any and man.restitution tended had to incidents TMims able suspicion.by assurances that The would be very restored jthe English. consented. extols in and Conde as long as he was a traitor. could cwkich commanded get mouth possession of Havre. that. the Duke opposing Guise " iTapi4 -progress he ifcp her enemy enemy. fortifications $ and many habitants in- [long leases granted of encouraged Calais the to lands build never and settle there. other (how her ?) had mptives she engaged the Lito accept Gateau jttift this proposal. a while he. that by ? good Bess's those perfidyin joining rebels him were the rebels to If when had formidable restore their once. he would a hear % displeasure that " such makes And. would to never good to foresee. lauds inveterate Cologni the Juror of that traitor's life. in Hume for the her conduct and and of which joining jbels? Elizabeth. besides general essential of supporting of her " the Protestants. she should the easilyconstrain should have the the French to execute treaty and . she When had concluded reason peace Cambresis. (reign.] of and Paotestant Reformation.that article many kf ranee voluntarily fulfil of Calais.

cause once. that surrender pay gained The the of and the perpetual of the 500. money! had.000 money French meant. doubtless." her possession "( much the favourite at 286. after she had that " rejected the every had Philip. though -she concluded and/ to wisely. . " thought. to why in to did conclude it. this day.wi to re Philip Calais which was ready once? aid her as compelling France the " at And.faOTESTANT " ItE-FORMATIOlfj the that of the all glory of restoring which was so to crown ancient nation. I now that my it will be im sible for to thing like justiceto subject stretching my little work further than I intended. 287. she held hostages h a money she the those as after for the birds received Havre from She rebels she securii payment in of hand that .why the should . defend most then. v theboth but." seeing. her I should now proceed down to follow to " good Bess of the m n worthy friend Cologhi Bartholomew. subsequent incident not had confirmed her suspicions. that " the a date of Saint same which " was sort on of wholesale in of : work good Bess . desire crite to Away. if she French voluntarily fulfil she treaty of Cateau Cambresis. years.1* reached birds and escaped the : she outwitted to o herself: nation has. detail but. French should never government they he not repair " fortifications that the and give to assurances territory she had c: restored for the the English . professions is a of. the " goes. the at once : Gospel :"\he she breaks too. to at the end eight They to never. have filled my me paper do any and. and atroci perfidy. hy t the profound and the with faith with re: King of France foresaid that the would rebels not But. faith. lame tlie consequences of her bad selfishness. carried see. intended nobody payment she had better of give u up Calais Bess: and : body kov than the good .

We have seen. the source alumny i against with religionof fathers. of punishing Catholics for me pretence avenging it. paland a s many atrocities of the part of their divers and and her then Ministers in had sects.LETTER X. in of the paragraphs in from 273 to 281. OF i HlSTOHV MART. patriotic iu the Duke Guise. Coligni had along discovered his treache- . . assassinating of his the yet this nobleman.. QlibKN OF 88. that that this pretended caused el)to gallant . Hand Cut of* for thwarting B Love-sice Her Fit. French all that peace en between tho king and his rebellious that ". and Coligni place had vengeance We of have this seen. There wretch son not to take :he whole t family. Though in the Massacre yet. it has to served or pretence so Protestant on historians justify. and MlJEllER Favourites AND Ministeri. Bartholomew. Man's . but. . it has of Saist formed our so Bartholomew fertile a place France. wa treacherous e seen works Coligni. so Queen d er England great in first producing it. just to avenge father. the was a he assassinated. Saint of has paragraph 278. that it is necessary to 89. nobleman. and. MaksacRe Tail-piece A of to Saint IT. the treacbehad sub- i feel. did left son .

by say their not frequently. followed coi by another mitted real nary pacification. ftb young of dead. the dee 290. and unknown perfidy.). . anticipate it Sunday. in prevailing great difficulty upon ihe young iHnfc ail "to grte Ills consent . too. [Lettu making a rous designs only slept. and goon got safe Paris. by During this pacification. and that.that there could Protestants t find. those of the D\ike of Guise. the August. tie escaped. m forgiveness. Court 44th Taking of this for to ground of that the Justification. without without of getting his horse. Coligni who. to worm dissimulation. to plot was . been there a a at """tion. at last. thofte of the Duke of Anjon. the young blunderbuss. i* very natural. on had the barbarities both sides. to their enemies. a become the chief Protestant his sect. tra resolved the blow. and to drink. not wounded His In three this to been dangerously. by Corjgnitpd food or associates killor seize him but. he was prevail "" .places. and upon the occasion marriage King's sister and famous was the the '^afterwards now *bfeing Henry of his King of Na^tne IV*. some and shol hitt him. 1572. came fans. with take cpmpany adherents.Protestant Reformatio*. but.by the representations entreaties of his mother. which be. to the in the celebration. was their conduct historians. King'sinvitaOne After he had tit day or tfro.n% and Ifrd"fer.got about "was leader. however. Goligni had. and been thqre full as was. though of the assertion. with but . in Ba*- fttoxtmEw's "Tnete was day. characterised by plundering and by hy uniformly. their being 8*. they put design exectr"Jfltf. two in the or street. atif. The as had has sangmeves the own Catholics been remarked . endeavoured Die t#een himself of into favour a wii ww young the King. and revenge. Another civil wa/ such broke been out. by riding fourteen hours. but. threatened the proflf produced in Support their They. of partkaii no ascribed "has ever Duke Guise. the The king was jprogreu through a kingdom foimed about four years his after the pacification.

he into enemy was "been assassinated to drive very when endeavouring this the this old ener% his sect not firom Havre. that. they things. moment PltOTESTAKT The the RtiFOUttAtlOri. moment driven from English at the thek and Calais. indescribone Besides mors of them some or of way whose or had the not perished.who who could not mortajly hated the and Protestants. into the body The of the window street. tham name *he wasp *as.- \ X. day. whose works were good or and unavailing. could but Coligni and this. signalwas rushed made. and foreign war. English in possession of Dieppe not who could was have forgetten. cry of " treason" on all side*. that traitor anl had of basely assassinated Guise. remembering them. with banditti . murdering Calvinists.from and that or plunderings.] upon. butcheries. tfeat the Considering these things and.a . there relations in detestation few able.member Hot people of.or suffered ia other. itftBght however '4eeds.ot creed that to n* marauding them. and and resemblance them that is. k2 . were v dreadful orders given. the at the appointed With $.9 their way satno "ration. bar were base " could bloody. while the "lc[ enemy of France thus again brought iato same try coun- by Coligni and hm sect his this Protestants. nbber murderer the to and the persons bearingit Jiadbeen. these hold which : Coligni and hall re* broughtthat . ambitious by becoming greater scourge fcroine united. lubte These Protestants/as they to called. always ready to suspect even heard the limits of reason. synonymous . taking into vietrt beyond the people. to was Duke broke thrown of Guise open out hand of followers dead and sodn the house of whose Coligni. justly. the have forgotten the XJoligni's having put *nnd Havre . Paris his sect were could but and. pestilence 291. willing tool of every Francethan x rebel. the' l"te Duke last hold. who who had had brave the nobleman. people of Paris.bore present That resemblance bears it was a Protestants to of the the bee.

Protestant then writers began to 100. far from (Note double The . made. then 70. this Vol.i" able * they spared none When see we sect they destroy ? when the we things. then. and made accounts." fell to . is this it not massacre most to ascribe the principles of we Catholic the act ligion ? Bellingham moment With equal justice might (who sent ascribe for his Church to the ever Prayer Book he was lodged in Newgate) one principles of base men Church of England. and Duke violation the espeeiiBj leal of truth t| i the son of the a assassinated monstrous of Guise way. at tp 30. then. published the in 1582. number by Protestant' has been made writers.000. Li-ngard " for all France. . or caused be till the be or dispatched. great scenes in the provinces to prevent similar iu several the whole to a j3n* took some place.000. to as No has been are and i sobM Cat pudent enough and do to this . not " truly horrible as " of but number whom half great Bess that of those even English Catholics this time racked to good Queen had. places .).000 of to 10. to at (the 14th jear bond of her came reign). with we usual not if we number. however. this French there impudent ascribe massacre to lie principlest 292. V.Q00 and. collected the Dr. why.Protestant is it any and that Reformatio* the follower* that [Letts* of were wonder that they fell upon of the consider these CoHgtt. A number so the persons think whole a 293. returns out selves them! and. only his 786 persons! fairness. though.000 last. from ministers in the amount different towns. says. in hour of came of names great from 786 to indiscretion. massacre at Paris were very far exceeded the wi to tbt of the and. obtaining . The court towns . ! then All 20. to of peno* killed.ventured the ministers in the . 15. sockets. T. orders instantly dispatched scenes. shall be at the then to real amount.caused out of their ripped up.000. to number. but. an amount hundred up from thou sandy account. an in round numben! 1 ' One upon them.

she her and fathers. or churches . would dulgent W a his Protestant far . leath to daily racking people nearly to them. elucidates " there is a which tail-piece. that. she and ambassador the cause innocent her came profligate court-women." observed. of assassinations. and . the hypocrisy in her carried to son little too for. that. and in exile . not this " matter. to added her hope. he was like her. of which was the Eng~ erected own she daily mutilating and conscientious racking. observe. when' she and all the with marks her disapprobation. 294. and robberies his this. of for the been celebration . when butchering her yet. received of " deep npurning. to answer "good could Bess. simply and like hose br Coligni to followers their solely adhering the of religion- and years. be in- remonstrated good brother. but himself practised* of The French " Mother she own. too. as men get of secrets women from as she was daily ripping saying. subjects. her take a safer guide than his good sister of no land". and from motives riously noto- selfish. too. most admirably. But. or treasons. with the the the Preach of King of France's him tion explanain of with massacre. though that. Ifwelsout ifaat mass. in prison." the King that her he of Trance and. die. punished people she for not practising her notorious religion. Engscience con- and . he resolved that which was forced man's like her to suffer he no man to practise any religion Queen . good Betsy's" sincerity upon this memorable . not br rebellions. the Bartholomew. land and and had well for hearing. But.L] b PlLOTESTAXT ReFOBMATIOH. but. herself as was a apostate. subjects. not still short the "good Betsy's all mark for her only punished moreover. which ^to which" reli! " eligion she jionshe had had most for openly practised' solemnly sworn her that belonged sincerely impudence occasion Fhe annals of hypocrisy conjoined behaviour She was with the afford lathing to equal upon of the /St. practice of religionbut she. while. Queen as Mother.

urged her. This !" ever Act. in the year reign. at play. savage out father. such have by any same body. the She 39th the time . prefer that of intercourse to. of of whom . 2. Her " virgin. to and. several their sort times* marry* always rejected her sot to more advice. and her The to also that tame- quality:i* her wi"ck to induce!) she profess. of the St. by and by. such should this a of been apparent suffered at national to abjectness andin black " remain -nine zb and day. which S.' that tbolomew. she became of bent age. quit" govt being no wedlock. with I nttft particularlyallude of whom Her amours Leic were 3SR. with which. was is still in Statutemost Book. to However. leading years Leicester. whom she much resembled. was. Act. that infamy white1* solved re- witnessed mark have in woman. she aave in year of with her age and long had alluded age been. Act that had. from a some tb*. to now years there be time fo lost in providing 1 3th hereditary of her the that successor her throne."propensity men. chap. lead so a forty life . advanced of Leicester. is a proof. Jbrty-nine be She was propensity seemed. B she was. aeign of Charles II. and "f the anxious keep out Scotch to royal family. a well acted that these the was subject of now.Jhat and wished live and die a virgin Qaeejbfe an Parliament her Ministers. always looked for vyouag . to Became nzade throne and by the issue was high treason deny the that heir it. an all of on sudden. "virgin" Betsy". which which any heir to secured crown her "natural issue" 1 by bastard the to she .occasion. wetfhall have some see enough most.. 13Eliz. 4*. assented to to an passed. the whether other to Hie t Ten afterward*. might it was. good her Betsy" married and. of the hardened and it is profligacy that surprising. moreover. to. sure. anxious also to for the undnpulii \" -bmaca^ Sfc "accession. or from cams*. and been amply have detailed by been Protestant historians. clergy know% in ibfr *f the Church amours England became it is. and notorious.

gone had The xnoirrnittgl the Dhie "tfak not WflSo"e^ Wi""* Mt^he fce rwtf* What Ft tench call fe fedtt^ Ati tjotmtf ."* Keibftri*-. Who cbitfs tbotfiV" "* Ifr Mifiidtei^arid tf"t A thatch tb1"" the dahgertfof ' independence of tteft cotkritry. to" tttfatffiy"f ftefon#y of vlfoft dtlrf totetfiy unlsapj^ h^wiorf^lteilj Wbr^wec"mie ' ' V . r tfta* i**. "tf "a 0/ into perpetrators afed oftAdfe btodtfy of Iter1 ac**"tift* of which she aH cdn?t-ladies.something aji' pHwihln^ "Usrihe# to t^ the same degree of wickedness acted a T"e jusliy mig^rt almost every one. *#"* to the three other trairsa^tions gre^it "#l^i^e%* of M^WI^^aHto' this wicKedf #onif".** "he spared 110 ttan in Bi" anger.might ber said * of this his monster of a daughf^. We come 1W"^|b^e W"#SWAftt. "f df Aefr nOrror1 ^tt the Afc nr mttif" Motteff -odt: ffe'u ""*^ : W(^vln^the^orl^dfthe^n^ of M i"tsSaef'e Sfc BartltolotoetfV tftfa life. . of *!?*$ gfchtierifcn nHSRrfietf a ttf. nasty B^oTfaet of a father5. in /yfy / "ill a siitrall Betsy. MMMt fcnt f* oh a**xton^lrfbft arms. monster/ wntf began the. ari" e"fe. WhttshtttiTd" sk hro"iit jrbtr. only 28 wa3 how t"f age1. piiBftc-s^lrited ribmflf ifrbe ifcfgtft tfpan* " 1 for the mere of the grfctificattorf* ctf appetite* * ' ft wlak" shanjetesa dtd wbtoaeU ^Ws^... ' ' Lincoln^ Ttfa. fcfefc" th"very teitte. England*. woMh* cfctfd'io ' *" ii"ffi wrtlr in eKAstaiice. protested fcerfroih written1 d"terrddr "hd finally gifa"lt ffioSfr vefceiherifcly. Hatf nation*. 4S"id$m)Ws. had st'anrp-. and'he* bM yeiiifc "tthfe^ ^stykften LE^festiR. fhotigh* * yeto the herself. mMker heir/fetfl WW 6f Qaeen of Scotland ier with* 8p(rtrk . impoverishing and* - %"*kg efreat.ktt?:'W?"*g"A' V"piH to 6*lfef teb*ftf*afcp. ' that *lfr""""S|fltfie"l Ref"fttatii(teKr ittd. who to conspicuous part?' about i#*!*"*gii"g that. who htfd dtttt wa" j"mj"let gainst the toatrfogte. "to* '" feAPftf' he* ha* fAe tUfe Btifce of Att * frCfcartes IX. L*"l"d 'MSr *##* M*tf akopped ofidr tHi* Jfatftt ad"teting to gave England from ffieTuln pfoeechtetf. " ffittle cAati^b * dMe tfettna.

him men Knight manor Garter gan " the fair Denbeigh. Den* him '" " made. " cloaks them seeming of the -zeal for true " made no himself head Puritan faction. Lord made beigh and her Earl Leicester. at. Edward VI. Chancellor of of and the having before of the . proving so in fine unappeasable in k " insatiable in in his lusts. o" and religion. two last Kings. so false promises. them was he most to7 caress after such manner as he found other 4 able to these using no holy hypocrites. which our ought. on finger lay loins " the than English subjects. ! that vices he might either be connived with the a not' complained. Henry " VIII. University of she more now " Oxford. (Historyof him son Reform** " tion. language . England this the to the subject. and L Leicester field. " 168) in these words: Sir r. it will -with the advisers shall names Reformatio*. along clearlyin minds. rains. and all offices in court state. of of principal do this we we and be co-operators able to because. to 296.Protestant these. adding manor goodly this of Kenil untq worth." ^ And. so so sacrilegious * " rapines. those Kings'9 were and the plundering "And. and so j u prefermentsin the in his in his church. unless hardly comprehend carry many things. u of particular properties persons. and treacherous :i " point of trust. both Haylin describes the in council the in the Doctor p. engrossed and himself L of aJT : disposing of malice. Robert umberland she Dudley. and " Master and of a Horse. or and confiscating his monstrous . and far heavier the " so finally destructive that his of the little the lives and . the two of all - " of favourites. make [Lbttbb acquainted her we be -necessary and to ourselves some characters . to a with it than genuW any " owing suit in service hands castle of and he other. " second of the Duke in the of North* last " (the odious traitor executed came reign). who nor spared wanting agree* i" [ "i pains in settingforth his praises . * " Advanced the height.Elizabeth. nevertheless. eves " in to. was her favourite. soon after she of to the throne.

from of what marrying was him by reports from odious ceeding pro- ambassadors in said also about foreign courts. Cranmer. or. beyond had. death-bed. Leicester Republic. Burleigh. secretly. 'good Queen 297. publiYet. talent and Higgons. He him Lord of her Secretary of State. so forth cation.which ended years of age plunderwas a oppressing the people of England. Thomas Cromwell. under the title of had when she afterwards also made in made him Mord. and by an the remonstrances of guished distin- ' ler other. truly worthy VII being enrolled and with I. called poisoned her. Charles II. of hat this character is drawn Doctor in a of Church England (Betsey's own Permission neaned to to Church). of This reformer" Henry of religion. who his own all the world the iered. Edward the He been he Protestant the reign Sixth. Secretary.* Was Bess. She ler was murdered . and . when she. a was and Treasurer. disinherited his k5 . "is who. but.K. dedicated all by King She. in 1568. Ministers. as doubt. historian of that distinctly.. first under the Protector Somerset. refused said a be divorced. when who Dudley overpowered him. work. after 30 the last day life.] * pROTESTAHf REFORMAT the id*. took to abandoned man by Cecil. to possess all his power " and emoluments-. wife. by sisters l#rifeJSdward. tfter all these continued illhis "f his and * things. this his monster. upon he his wanting to at marry a third. purpose of Leicester the nurdered his He first wife afterwards for the marrying second iueen. states veracity.pre vented wife to make way for the this match. this with rather. to favour the in virgin Queen. which his he speech and letters than was Scripture phrase. s least.in received We must ' as as dexterous the sacred as if he had the same inspiin * rations penmen. put man. Hid o a married. be- marry Leicester. that on the and latter." by a bear the mind. was tb" very drew his up the treasonable instrument." 1588." William Cecil was Sir her next man.

Paulet a became instantly Protestant most cruel persecutor for of the with Catholics. that this Winchester. and being resolved a extirpate ag Catholics. how French been but et having mads changes in his out to correspond with the religion by four A historian says. but but he Addrngton. again with at of Portland he stuck Perceval. and. age in the is 13th of her the reign. not an pas Our were un by being willow. He died husband. " En a etant saule. and of the five. Pitt he under in with with Pitt the"tt) * out. ascribed starving Irish. un risingall non answered. out. to now. u he not very any old man as he was. " storm^ ttf** % shoujd willows up by What . the a 1822. as but.^ year in her at dominions. '* :" [Letts* ' joinin eomaraniononly a aboattwo yteMbMbiral bkaiy Marquis and hate heard great deal about the cruelties of thea Bishop of Boxner". in rery severe terms. for want in sending Protestants to the stake diligence that. the most activeHn these was Marquis of Elizabeth Winchester" But. that able to Paulet so beingasked. he He he stuck in was been place ever time. council. the of 97. afid be ' in such high favour So to good Bess/' she that she said. witt1 for his tear eten natural " unless life. in and oak*9 collections distresses present prime* to' Minister who. remain last. . he came stuck out again the " he pushed quite the Duke by Whigs9'. while the making for country kind has . seems ^ of the surplus of food the also to be about a man.* Pitt second' butiftv in with1 he Addington time.repeatedly manded repriof zeal / Bonner. he got to the the the top* where paper-money roots. would preferhim. nobody ever of president the tellsus. Mi being dead. having kept chan place during four made reignsof Jive sovereigns. storms " he had get through the whihf chine many not only unhurt. presidentoa them to several was were a commissions condemning " death. tions " Fox 09% of the the Council.Peotestawt it hk We boast to KatroKH atiok. of this willow fov id with exception since went went was of was fifteen months.

It is impossible that being able mur- n England after Mary in Stuart. indelible us the see It is unless impossible for we to these their causes. as thousands as and she reduced one absolute beggary made to the say population of of the smaller counties gland. .' in all ranks Betsy u" ible Protestant religionin England of the people of England. and d with were we the tools with have now which in " good manner Bess had to see what the they all and regard queen to Mart Stuart.that they came they. able to to is impossible for she came to how to she get be this . killed. without to any force.. she and of them rack.indeed. (nine years V. in spite and the whole of the people of is to degrees* the Mr many ctuallybutchered. history at were and thereby show English transac- nfluenced tf which *n this most so period. I shall not )" Such rk . of It do do that us great slaughsee Ireland. for tost /act. "use. of infamy. of eds some that say. of the them. make it Without going into her how y9 it is to impossible to establish the clearly appear it was. to nothing. as should provide the bastard to that it have *n inherit that such throne.was tad of daughter of James king oi Scot- sister of that brave and patriotic Mary of Lorraine. how the many to be able irliament low monstrous things. at present. make ourselves how acquainted the be of Mary. celebrated unate of the -Scotch..in various to ways. was make high the to to deny bastard to act account heir rightful for her to '. if of there had been a change pretend " igion at change ministry. Stuart.PfcOTESTANT -Saint would every have RlFORMATIO*^ - done. born in 1542 Mary . that any and to do such she . after the of Elizabeth). she rippedup put many hundreds to .ced things. the interesting as decisive to the fate of the Catholic " in England.

tile. and and indeed. married him." in The fcuaala Gense* were deep for die "Id settled her her Maty was (arRegency France. who Tery year two-year* Efiambetfe 302. constant Scotland- to' themsehresy to ally Efaglandy get Mary France. a had died at time. so died the when she was only eight days old of thalraW reigning queen was Scotland. as where ha remain Thea French.sos be betrothed of to Francis* Dauphin* and age successor Henry was. become r*pubh*"1 or Therefore testaats. o* it was.. had' been younger mounted very much herself. This fttnen the " (jams V. IV. as the ot 17 than* the years. and ia and. heiress fact. aa wa hagisy" ""**" sex baeely mauidftntd by the viia taraitor Caligni father beowoe Maay"ia*ito . have new had died Mary. in 1558. Elizabeth Stuart *^ tfcw bastard. all men. throne now the thafel of England.i.. thorifh^ . king of to FranoavJ waf4 She. . Queen both t" Mary ia law was dead. seamed secure- having she been had all Scotland) and taken hat o where to education. and He# o**f.: If her become great this toast a province of ox Premise. created dynasty. II. as Edward was was- dead. soa whtfe in.AfaercGSA.dread of his councillors people.) the el James aid ravo^ Xsjh "J"fe*f "?s"* of the sow a/ Faitk" fA" Jfcuty FZflU Statu* n^an* Defender to a* wished and Mary by that to-lei to Doarothcd Seetlaad Aif the too Edward. of " dominions England. place which* his which old had bees That so thing afraid took of. and choice a one to take' her uphold her.. heir to she was tout tktfii wife4 of Nothing had no immediatf be but so Kwg of Fmn"L* The natioaj'' orr tsM' could fortunate : far Elizabeth. Defender. life. were that whether Catholic* Pra- for the and* placing aw* supporting of Elizabeth^ tiedtoa*? lev aasd* setting Mary Ste*^ . Mary and the the the throne of England. it meal ' England nave become degraded or thus. th"Buka ef Gukey who. before Elizabeth* sister or.

of the Pope was^ perfectlyhonest fts obvious decision in w and inevfta- tMDjMquence*. Elizabeth she the la an decision usurper. rendered. by Scotchmen was became toe "e province. r This was the real cause of Elizabeth's success work of extirpatingthe of the head if she were Catholic religion. am* be their Queen. nought the decision of the Pope. ought and the . 304.though ttholicg * a* did. all her preserve her her an object dear in a one or to people. as body they even loyal to her her Protestant subjects. so tight months aart was Elisabeth's . Henry a"er II. men. by combination "f/eircwn- . Queen consort of France. two were instances.3$ PRrraiTAirr Reformation* questionably she England. and. to be t aside ' if she became set aside.. to they. accession . and supported in ikabeth . idea and to Frenchmen. . the Pope to refused knowledge N". toagktbe decision *Hfe that itself. without lawful was single exceptor Therefore. r and called J)ore the herself (Jween arms of England. According church. were Protestants life became cruelties her Catholics. for Elizabeth. along had the he with husband and of England and the of 6" ttnce Scotland. put every of the of which quite sufficient All or drop of all ranks *glish blood whether life. of the Catholic were an usurper. 'when a knife t* approaching declared her their bowels. arm ti. " in motion. 1559. King of France. 30" way the lawful heiress to the crown As if purposely to add to the weight of this motive* died itself weighty enough. therefore. branch when his ttingaside Scotch to of his family.that Mary of and now. Queen she those "tland. as right of Elizabeth had English made throne* will old Harry the foreseen. Mary and Stuart King they a Fiance "ame Queen King of England England if Queen and ruled King of England. as against life. was of England unless the tually transferred (don set at the dominion France.

Effects treatment do mi from ordinary Her of great of her people. besides. it was* the Parliament. indeed. the savage entirely old of Reformation. people saw for any thing her which might rid them. or."" * naturally her make her that detested. whc in all human legitimacycould bability." Thomas no Harry there son listened would with Sir been More to and the Bishop Fisher. most interest every this her affecting' come life or her causes. and. and diced the so hostile to greatness. [LxttiI* laws. great women tyrant lived amours she were cruel of was . throne Here of of we England.^ They Mary. he the 305. in the Ct onr cause. he have children. of had his no Stuart and. her people were" had shown ninety-nine this was hundredths the a of thett. the liberties : that stances.several to been to disputed. Elizabeth the most . were haughtiness. the laudable the of pride of Englishmen. when they to could any not prevail upon marry. of passed hers an Act make to bastardthrone. ("naturd Witaks* issue") lawful heir the . her her almost unparalleled cruelties. and 11 this dilemma arose and all the out sufferingsthat it Had produced. Her Catholics. held in the thing they had always Hence laudably that to greatest abhorrence. ai vereign that we reigned of since days have thousands felt a proofs. surrendering very Bat/ observe. of in like rantoj tl no and degrees. people. and. and make her. i But.her flagrante insolence and her lewd falsehoods. be. have the success great. was clearly at as accession as ei sister .Protista* the t Reformatio*. . she the the her popular so-] of Alfred all . Elizabeth's rooting out the religion. necessity their of they were to absolute setting his decision /name as a nought. by-the-bye. that anxious health. her calculated pray to Ufc' . marrying would have feai Ms obstacle . they to nothing a but between them and sib* mart jection foreigners. her most dis\ notorious had ever yet. in children lawful succession.

sa was. that . dike per s people Witaker the had what he the calls Romish tit ion" ascribes extirpation of the not to ttholic le religionto writers . the Catholic Stuart. j j Scotch French. PHOTKSTAKT of the Church in RlFORM of " ATION. "ry. then not more succeeded by Her Charles IX. hich til plunged deeply in all the horrors reformation19 Her nore than England had long mi- . that to Catherine be any ds adici. pass. Queen. choice of it to her and people.. I have and they to un- e right so far show but. but. ust return convinced her. months nd. Consort in one the highest pinnacle of earthly Queen regnant and of was. To thing. years okL soon liusband's mother. s They and Stuart for the former. we in paragraph 303. came endeavoured and howjt to came .died after his accession. deemed (es. Scotland she returned a "*y heart. t* me. lawful right. her Elizabeth's to to the . " To the be preserved from and the Mary Stuart. the that the great object of anxiety with head English nation. Krld. on 1559. an act. Francis d ree was II. and Mary religion. first sight.Elizabeth.appears well what I consider hare the ted above. and subjection hence all " foreigners. which when denote. Protestant religion. than . ce. of of the most England. Queen of France. Catholic ascribe her as cruelties. to that be those numerous rralleled cruelties her and perpetrated with the impunity nation was. Scotbe- id. disappears. England) infamous at calk this a moid " It was. " country . women beautiful in the Her whole hus- Never was fall like that seventeen of this Queen. have 306. jectness in the nation. decided independ- or. we it now. at istership of le. itself. they do not.. the The question with short. her Ministers. and the calamities.J clergyman famous act. anticipating very was little*quiet in of the been. Mart the' final end of tragical in the year latter as lady. from was. her. she with a to Scotland. whose always runs upon something hostile popularity the " Catholic that ascribes religion.

ifr by itny meansshe could short of eV tectaWe 368 * murder. which accompanied there or deed* ' o" perfidy and of ferocity. and been a Scs*^ fail. ancient the much an new modern. from or Her power. to stir up factions her and rebellionsthe in sn^i indeed'. to great and at ungenerous end There was. in is scarcely any p"* Adde"# carried Ar Dr had in "j ndlettobe thk work famous son found the work " history. HeyKn calb thero) land. Mary. Mary been here The man. object to keep Mary possessing and1 to destroy her. kept the country with hr ft . Ruffian *' apostate monk. arternatriv- ' trhwophed state over each other. EnglishQueen~soon against her cousin.the of her (a drug of infallible effect with than the Scotch 1*' more formers)) the real ruier of Scotland the poor Mary her any wsi Shehead had. from of who : [Letti* her her absence factions and dotnwrfons.PRO"STA*r with together aftrity RefomaYioit. Mary might her again* There the was powerful family of Guise. and to she If formidable a was person. Join? " Knox. effect that yeanr purpose* after the return- about three ofMsf/ . us Elizabeth and her Mifi2stt" and with (for hare no disguise) the English people. almost deified in the life amongst court of France. had who* rise'to contending giretf nobles. Dr. 307. the fat unio* present Scotland least. who had been bred a Catholic. Ftt V565. still had a relations . who w*s of Saint*.by the intrigueswith factions and wtt religious a aspiring nobles.danger from Stuart France. money short time. were But. court i faction was the other at.: of almost incessant civil war." "leader in who tbt holy hypocrites (as Dr. especially' would cat* Elizabeth. an with the. became. a Betsy tatnly have even- married her . however. was1 net tr likely load happy All let people like these. but too difficulty for Cecil to overcome. about. further of reformation" than England.iwf] satisfaction. with. this. for a" one greater part of her whole or always t"j reign-. the whom was Joh*^ *r calls the " of Reformation.

Bt. for the sake of better from. the cause. was. But. in the mean murder James I. o* this very -. This black and bloody transaction.} . where fcfcre. ton endeavoured The by entreaties ruffians stabbed him and at screams. though young and handproved to be a very foolish and disagreeablehusband. ran the to pQueen's 6f (keen for protection in the sixth month was . treated himin with feat kindness. The Queen went to visit him. who Catholic of " " pregnancy.and. she Seotlaffld. her of throne wa" to Henry she a Stuart. she. as good to as banished him from her and his disowned him. (as it fearing that heir to her actually happened) might from ttyfc ' to prevent it . though ability. under the advice id control advice to. took desperate measures late.-and dragged. and. fc having notified it to hhn. who. " PaOTESTAlTT married REFOmKATftM*. Mary having. knght him back to Edinburgh hut. She treated a Protestant soon suffered real him have to with'great contempt. at some she visited him dail" and taro. Parnley sought Mary's being favourites. of half Pope* a son (afterwards our j brought half ill a" taken Puritanical memory). to* her feet. hkn out and covered his body with wounds.her private secretary. king a bond from him to protect them against evtf conseladies of Mary was races. a foreigner. wt in fact. those irriage.which England. being in waiting. Barl over-reached visible come of the aunxeYj mn ". id he was into the bargain. to Darnley went chair . she sleptevery H*. Rizzio. sittingat supper with some Rizzio and other servants to court. seeing their object.other distance |V lodged him in a house. nwfr . ^809. "^^ x. was marriage took pfatee. when he " became better health. year after of Rizzio" 1567. cousin.when itconspirators rushed of the back in. The next killing of Darnley himself. and " pttbed ihVtreattfent of her He revenge. sleptat her pafeee. the chief cause.taut the k"ngV Ibdgifig nightf. o* the night of the 19th of February (J567). inr. particularly Rizzio. having pre** of the attendants Mdr to be present at tile marriage of two btr wort. too came moires Darnley. which and at which she. but. to anno nityr.in a room immediately under his. fee his life. Darnley was "w. out of the town. fcv ever of the just. B fireral mal-content nobles Darnreformed joined wkh pin agreeing to assist him in the assassinating of Rizzio. for which not of the assistants of Darnley was punkhed.

some in sap* s that Mary was der consentingto the murport of the assertion. that the in a el. in the presence the on judges. and carried to his castle she left the him . on he had a the 3d of M wife then one agreed a that alilt corf $ divorce. the and on him the for the 15th of violence committed May. on was she was. associates. she openly to married him that French that Ambassador refused Mary refused. in the wife. 24th of April (53 days after the murder) return of it bjf acquitted prevented. family of Guise* been Scores of volumes written. have appear at the ceremony? to listen to the entret*! ties of the 311. both Bothwel the 12th and Protestant his and Catholic. on from head . wkk.bound Kit bond" murderel admitted on all hands . bloody Darnley. in placardsabout the streets.it was in the plot. Her enemies brought forward have been letters *d e sonnets. that. been in great favour with had. imprisonedby the different factions. enti possessed power nixi to .took plaot .in this case. his dead [LeTTU blown up body cast into an adjota* ing piece powder had given this baai ground ! hm and bloody man time for thought. namely.000 horsemen.A$ \ personr . and by powder. alternately "fr hid both and her she to her was now pressed people. subsequentconduct of I shall simply state nature such facts very suspicious. which they allegedto written by M*7 . where. that Bothwel the fore the murder. was openly alleged. and others in support of the negative ^ that proposition. but. that. Sessions House.before to marry castle. of six dajijfe to that. in space led the of for adulteryand between in the other for consanguinity. on of May. to Queen. perhaps. after that his talents and character the did not murder. he which she might have mock-trial. ft pardoned that. calamitisf 310.1 I PROTESTANT ReFOAMATIOY. Earl'of Both It hasbsa w proved beyond This doubt. Now it was that the great and life-long of this unfortunate Queen began.and. he would. of If the " the life and other die the all death of " a malefactor. aided and abetted by the English Queen. a the she that of visit to her infant son. Bothwel Queen her d". seized by Bothwel 3. " of her husband . She had been repeatedly insulted and even win. N" averred that Mary was been good ti~ positive proof has ever produced to make the the Queen was of chargej-but. reflected on the stabs he had given Rizzio in spiteof tie of screams a swooning and pregnant wife. Dunbar that.

had imprisoned and deposed the months at thirteen crowned "uecn. previous of these . whom of a with the docility id always theretofore listened to ttiful daughter. headed rebels were by the Earl of Murray. nobody can e above-stated deny. being at perfectliberty. Wita"ER. however. died in prisonin Denmark. to her husband's Bothwel. andWiTAKER the most strous mon- he was guiltyof a denominated to extirdays. But. He was prior of St. equal. who as compelled to flee the country. threatened affected first. to tiQiduct.I FftOTZSTAHT "EPOftlf ATIOV. no bloody deed. ting This gross conduct. a her a most unnatural atural son of Mary's father. a man. that bold liar" and a man and. nobody can deny tendon. himself elected pd had had Regent of the Kingdom. in case She. thai anhe turered his after man was a good Queen purpose. lurray had begun his life of manhood. who defends religion. of course. in the hands of her own subjects. not only as a Cabut as an ecclesiastic. and to nd cruel He brother. almost 312. a Rector in die an birch of uch England. Mary against against the Catholic of the consented. Englishman. that she. having her husband. to the murder a A part as speedily followed by tremendous punishment [ her subjects armed against her. parfor that . jfeolic.*' His fcftte the Catholic of retaining religion. and that she immediately Mied him married him. in a few years She herself became forwards. and. defeated Bothwel. reformers of those good man great object was by the " " Bess's" own 314. Her' friends murder.and she escaped prisoner and end her life within torn their prisonwalls only to come lose of Elizabeth. like Knox. to murder facts . I think they make their die authenticity m aial good. being also a Itoek at no forgery. and. lys of him. \i.as the best means sk power. finding that he could gain by apostacy. odium. The 313. she ongh it excited horror in the family of Guise. Andrew's . yet he was broke " his oath . heart. that she was catid off by Bothwel . in power of eaof such wretch as Darnley. to . at disapprove of his march to reto compel him an army of her ttorejhe Queen. has written jtatized. her wily and deadly enemy. no perjury. mind. shelter 3 KoppoTt. or having known " charge of. and who. that though crimes. he. had had her son old. and invited her to take. N too. gave the Queen positive assurances of need.

and 1 half" of the acts of hypocrisy. she the end of three found mained did that had escaped two or prison. these in confiding to. Scotland while she was inviolability for to try Mary vowing vengea a the against the Scotch traitors for their rebellious acts her. every the that while it but. was killed . she received. as presents from them. and pay. 315. or" enumerate. her who' jaws of Her a long thirsted for her blood. but indeed. an and was. while sovereigns. on of her the prayers fatal resolution to throw so faithful friends. at last. give her her liberty. because her to seem was own necessary a produces to crowd of authorities son to endeavoured get Mary's infant into prove. rigorous and painfulthan ever. with During these nineteen years. herself into the At to a their knees. _ 316. every speciesof evil that a nation can post means endure. to practisedagainst this unfortm than Queen. associate in he had perfidy. and inflicting en a people. Mary had received from part of the jewels. Elizabeth was Mary's rebellious subjects.570 by a man wl tra estate succeeded unjustly confiscated traitor in him. changed for three times days prison q prisoner she at nineteen long' years. in 1. but refused alst made her impii and. Mum ment close. and when.which husband.cousin. could commit. her traitor after bleeding all taught her "WitaKer she Scotl. meanness. she was within the reach of her harpy cla when inveigled these would barely to enumerate require a space excee* good that barjty that " Bess" of this whole of Number. her cruel po at every pore. more ner the murder. / While she affected his to dii prove Murray.i she nel savagelymurdered nor for imputed crime. promises and invitations. barely to enumerate/all. the to aga h her king of declare she not France . perfidy. . she consen compelled to Mary innocent of having only refused to restore her agree! to her solemn promise repeatedly made.PaoxK"TANT mnd receive REroRHA^waO lit "ril [Let honr/M "contB protection*in England. she conduct in pretended to assert appointed a commission .tearing Scotland of her intrigi to ni hy the dine corruption spread amongst had n bands of traitors. moreover. she she him instigated to accuse Queen sister. who offended her. 1 her* ka* . who was little more twenty-five years oi. took. which last.

mt. in the those Catholics against natural desire i (and and her a very desire and it rid way world for ber (if her hoi rid barbarities.it right. made and "he ce . commission tried and a accordingly . d. supplied shame by forgery. and." any as But. made was. was others for rptisc zth of invading tke was it. A for the seizure of procuring of of What Queen. of her. where invite then destiny.:. to crime. that authorised one Queen aaothtr :r dominions. her arose. realm to making for any within the conspire.in constant danger. . been it ie deed that had resolved (loath with on.hh. a Marys be. the ap- proceeding of the being A was the only would silence world. her rid and bring her I for When . having done not to a prisoner short in . were at least. the of Protestants. of io parliament was passed. entrapped against clear h. which. the the tarel'aced lIs of uoue papers. Mary. to and attempted be produced ! . lit". and l Mary evidence condemned and that. her to her spilling she and and . :e Catholic. be having taken failed in that. to the usaga. rightly. ! she endeavoured to note off by poison in tlie she At . against herself. her /jowoh. it Mttt be confessed. intention on right had part held war iplain as a hostile the was of in Mary? pritaa Queen not well been as herself. how long. iriy with to us. her hardening Walsixgiiah iropi-iMinment. iudispi. saw began her that ihe employed hi nation. block the ! all to tygress Those herliie be brought moans bet long-Mifand victim of dividing ring. mai' "s. to atrial. what belanged BesH .5sor. or.r forcibly of detained. purpose. alleged the offences mode ''" of was Mary for was debated other* in thai a od or Bess's "council. She been employing others. thought. lu 1-587. forgeries. wanting in reality " as Witakbr says oved. which t ie had. by within r her And. last. all of of which were of part. of the lawful succe.. In order 10 iiw. a nothing for short death for her of own this Queen Peanied to competent way guarantee the foul was life. but having Every blood. imprison against getting Leicester. power? then remorseless as enemy. make all the was leiGdiously ladbeert lid "n. of which copies. was and killing means but I s for death one by that was of trial.'' sh..

and to thus teach to have our we (A been to taught* know them the It is surely they duty answers" this childrei truth." efforts she the men end. talked and complained that she daintiness niceness consciences. Sir for to Pa he " u was let.*' thus honour of her sex. . '* "who. Fed ex* assas* the four months savage ployed in devising plans Bess/9 victim to was for causing the odium be Mtnated. Drury. one of at keepers. of the 1597. broke " same. done blush. if Talk can. of but. wished assassin. Davison.1 their of unavai the which swore would " have without months ance. however. was cold blood. an Englishman. that offered his life and . base last and of four find to on resorted her bloody enough to do shift. the legal murder. returned u answer. of sensibilities who and derness. peraev" to though refused. entrusted of the the keepi Mary to two Catholics. Queen. to repeatedly applied for the purpose. murderer. Sir Drue this answer. i Tbe sentence of death was pronounced "good Queen her in October. his 44 perty fused the be disposal of concerned Majesty did but absolutely of " in the assassination the Mary.PftOTESTAHT REFORMATIO*. that he her grieved motion made to to him. victim to on d committed a her hapless the 8th memory no of February. one as to. isle. awful that name. glory 319. forward dered sentiments generosity. Having on ordered her A Secretary. think by the English taught and to " lisp in of Ah our my infancy." When other read keeper. this that a she " Head and of tjt$ to Church/' be an maker in of it. mi as them the subject. of " " me. mrderer in order ! to avoid of being beyond herself all tf This is proved mortal by Witaker she had enemies to bility of doubt. shud* 1 " the infinitelymore and whose the doom this I of was was God. of looked who not " the at an awful verdict history." and to not as Witaker. though men.' scornfullyof At to the of it done precise fellows. she of the " out into reproaches of their such them. indeed! Let deny. of day of everlasting infamy says no the "had English ten- Queen. ! and was I then taught our .

Witaker not fullyproved. reviled xecution. means after had. less " Detestably base in the act as was the conduct of " good Queen cousin. she Davison for having dispatched it. brought her country in the to lapless victim he had nd the to very she which. She her of murdering was her unfortunate detestable. employed.No. sad invited her safety. nd though as she. had last awful moments that victim. ibsequent hypocrisy le still more the act affected deepest sorrow for it had that had been her committed* and had retended le that been done against to wish. used all the in the her power She a to induce imploy assassins to do deed. for having dispatched had for the warranty. Torturrs Death. has signed that had she though. and superlative injustice baseness imprison the warrant her Sec**- sury. Persecution Racks and of the she Catholics. observe. XI. Inquisition. -the barbarity to" . hr 30th Sept. as to the Death of Mary Stuart* Poor-Laws. 820. Kensington. Barbarous Bess's Horrid The Her Treatment of Ireland. Bess's Spanish Hypocrisy Armada. him in? "" "in. Davison. had. LETTER XI. IS35~ Friends. by a series of "erfidies and cruelties to wholly without block. seek of in that parallel. had.

of their her. her which deed. foul throughout long reign. that more to her end ten thousand times . .. King of tbe Low a of Spain. to Satan-like end hypocrisy " affect . only sent. she had with She Spain with army had given him quite provocation enough} as fomented rebellions against him. . she.more solicitude. indeed. this they unanimously on lied round On occasion. her she the consolations had of her when a divine of comma*" malice that pursued even with she hatred saw remained the from common unglutted her saw prostrate under blood hangman. fleet from an invasion an tf fttw England. immediately event. a* people round object . and. to faith. but. Yet. this wicked her escaped. after this perversely happened. to untimely more of her to dear use cousin" of her pretence All and. place made an rallied than all befi ever. but her Bay. though solely by was dangers bad been and brought her malignity. still to diabolical. Flanders. resolved and who on was also reign sove- Countries.. own only is. Philip II. and perfidy.Protestant Reformatio*. England ral*" aft still England her. to be dreaded than were that the woman of her victim. there took and that. such that peculiar of the for the pre-' times. circumstances not 321. he Philip was fleets and was powerful monarch to Europe the had to armies vastly superior hers these danger bad England really upon it great . her unsated the destruction body. that general character and deeds so hatred from subjects. country. severed neck . of that she long fad the in France most against the king in . sad under beear catastrophe! of see our expressions of our detasta lation conso- tion and fall short are and* feelings. Satan-like. her people. had of more sought deed everlastingdestruction she weep which had for the the her soul than : and yet. was. and when she with the the gushing of her.*22. the being done. humane of the horror we make despoticpower that he had crush the her cause secretary. life. [Lettee her and own refuse nion .which it her \?ellmerited.

though and Some bsr laws ^entered M excluded as- them from all trust army. the the time. which No such they re- . : id " But. where the l2 of tlie convents. "u* The intended which the invasion and was prevented by destroyed human even a tremen"-: storm. itthdica where PaOTESTAKT REFORMATION. . mented laThe and want of : similar the to loyalty in his throne a rst lost his head second the third loss . however. and . ery OK..Even from extorted.* td hitherto under took iron. rer place r they were than on still treated an with species of barbarous severe cruelty j subjected to that bare of {n"fuisihad or infinitely more has been .or the as hem EtaM" forgettheir duty it is as subjects. proved. and when resist invaders. wrth ke were exposed lost great danger of . tenants and : vassals every neighbours. "to Protestants: " ware active in animating the defence their .tfL] Ibera. 323. . As to and unfrequently. succeeded. that Catholic gentlemen.'* . rank burying. in all probability. Ided to the some danger and* therefore. racked. put estates 324. all party distinctions. Spain ever and. there . was ftonnr. pre- "country and. III. imprisoned. fifth America and all by the doings of Pro- stants. be to great danger could certain their . of the result tbe Catholics. and they might have Protestants... to I.') if no invaders arisen. might gre"tfy conduct. even the not of suspicion disaflec* to death.their of the her cruel generous exited relaxation endured treatment.seemed ' prepare these themselves with order aa well as vigour. to of* men. George saw George II. even . scattered half the Spanish-. set. one would have any .resentment. of their. " xatioa. sceptre. others and and the command of them . the make . love of country that no was brought to the test. not at and. rate. rharlesl.! "n. to for the (sent. volunteers own in her fleet or gave ihipaat their charge. ha^ have ley listened just . teorge James all II.. authority f} equipped . Ireland. degree of oppression could citizens. similar an^ . called te Armada.

robberies after of her reigi batch were almost One to and another greedy goad merciless minion acts that devoted peopleinto desperation.afco of produced England by misery the the Reformation. she them with Rations.finally prove $"5. in as she did England find and . she could there executing her dreadful them sors police . had at difficult effect their the to point this unbroken and of the bayonet. [Le in the c where way at the church in property had and where been confiscated England. though fcie-distilled time by the unsparing obtain she watered Protestant. not lynx-like she-tyrant could Catholics jarass watch in each movement there. and that However. 4C only for the obvious of purpose. sent over therefore parsons she mux in are masses. unless than appear prevented by to just measures I have been yei gesfed. aln to the overthrow of on. not purpose. at one portion of her series of dominions. England of " herself. the The the ever blood-st -lands and and co sword "even secured that them tithes and sword wielded church not blood-stained at one could then.Protestant Ritormatiow. and but too. the hour more unfortunate ta this and . and will. speak. her planted. anc the poverty have and to that it produced t. blood. as Ireland. further in and the monstrou moralities ." ye |"verty misery up Reformation . saw riv long reign fruit of which which take the fast root in the Irish mon tree. die rendered the and greater distance apostacy to or people turn" rack from focus of power it more and " ft co c -citm. had was plunder plunder This ho o tea its front but. confiscations. Reformation" on its very to outset. she could no mea i them detail . Cromwell. "d$d. it all die crown of its head to the sole of its foot. new for the av obtaining a pretence for had. from . . by the halter . She to those whose si there the present day.shall trace (through Acts to " of Parliament .

For ill-treated a peoplehave. cruel same we shall to we by attending the different dealt out the are people. so an affair of abstract as faith scorn that cares very spirituala of the concern to one all relative a the bodies people . been dinned 3*27. hypocrisy. oncer to that " Reformation/* the and blessingsof which have. The answer unfavourable to to Ireland. was ragraphs 50.XI. in the share labours the that themselves. and not to and 52. We have seen. so it. a as good as England. in Letter III. the by and as people of those former are as willing have to labour of the latter . that part. which . Franklin. in point of clothing and food.. the in this itis necessary of degradation of greater poverty ages. pa* Catholic Church . " Dr.] therein oat of we Protestant shall Reformation. and and potatoes to state Ireland cause but. not to packs to to fools of their money" but to carry the and lash make to others work. that mere the not.formed with contrast the English.the of the we see the and even rivulet water bubbling of the bed the of the bread . cheat to which out they migrated. see. it was- is not. so contrast.then. cast-off clothes sent over nays. and the trace all the miseries back. land Engplace. at at reign of time. 51. think that in the were speaking of Ireland. and that capi- . have Whence to hardest amongst they sought shelter comes from of unrelenting oppression*.has long existed find two now this inter* esting question measures. of rod this ? those cheerfully whom share. that u one would c" the working-people of England the to be worn u by working people here. witt* in our such ears persevering falsehood for ages. and they have given proof in not to all parts of the carry world. that the Irish people. surrounded able of this The few The as miles asunder. isted ? those Both of are it that the this contrast has are so long ex* soil and climate islands the same are of Ireland but sea. of this little work. clearlyas spring.." Whence The comes 326. during speaking of Ireland the long and we.

they this Church were important part Thus. to cause of so ehnHty the the to be ' performed nature as . Sacrilege. sins.the dered plunfor of their and birth-right. that. and aliftost . there horrid of. long was national Church.9' other. Bible and the necessary. want person. and followers sary neces- wholly rejected the to was doctrine. however whom could forfeit and their * right heaven by any numerous enormous. perjury. as word pauper 328. * feed hungry.polygamy. from most an Reformers of the in differed each other were widely as colours rainbow. of its business " was. that it showed that itself in the works and suffering . By those. of the no business however" or Church to care. the of the to Catholic clothe the went. good works tend salvation They held. thrown Luther that that prowl his were about what they could beg or steal. " faith ahrie. and call that "Saints" not as they had modesty themselves. part. that to this at charitywas all not of very to to 'spiritual vulgar needy income In great and and a not be tangible. that. to part. fait h. from it . with it had been the much thought classes to But. amongst plunder. and were were as of their as forbidden the in so marry. the sustain widow orphan. in the chief that either short.Protestant Reformation [Letts* works tal part. but. and the hospitalityand " " charity never the land. to naked. They James. real to tithes offerings Church.or good and obvious done sense . incest. good Epistle of straw. murder were adultery. Sa'ixt expunged because works The the all their j Epistleof on recommends. should in life. gotd the works ' salvation. they unnecessary the to to to agreed this. a when Protestant religioncame. as Epistle Luther " called. great of low care. " suffer from of priests this of sustenance and cares that the as Church them should from to have this as few selfish possibleto withdraw duty. the and from ' property. poorer out along married priesthood. parts. and this indeed was. which sists in- the " necessityof. In things . a ito heal wounded one and of take the sick . and the lodge feed the stranger.

it tells " what drink charity is to namely. which been taken qf right belonged from them . to to to give ransom the thirsty. 329. now. and they that acted this it was that produced in God. to paragraphs 50. by a charity. that the Catholic and 52. 330. Bought. could by those. charity is retained no by of these The and the the establishments Catholic substantial . besides would so well-known set Catholic commodity. hahitual the way as sleeping and to nor waking." what them not believed. everlastingbliss fay all of that as be obstructed such of these. mentioned all Returning . but. to feed the hungry. when when the Church been plundered " and had destroyed % sacked the greedy leading the Reformers those convents and churches to . Church unnecessary municipal that laws about had " the poor wholly .to harbour clothe the you so naked." parsons " Can rail ? " friends. when great estates. reality . wholly at Accordingly very in nature we see tuat it is necessarilyexcluded . says. had had been when the parsonages first well pU- . 51. but. not who taught by per* that any sons. the substance interweaves the Douat much is where . just dered ren- it is there seen. extirpated from the thank breasts has their yet been wholly descendants. ft is in the our of to all this. is what is what and gates of hell will fathers never prevailagainst. constant establishment deeds of It charity with The so faith itself. for. to to harbourless. this man why " Protestant loudly against the nature wicked love Douay Catechism This This upon . fat bury the dead. them it a was put-together. parsons Protestant that the first fruit of the us Holy . .exists. my visit " sick.XL] *3 FjUXfiBSTAirT RETOKMATIOfr. Ghost charity'* " And. the poorer classes. visit " and the captives. abuse. guess. of benevolent dispositionwhich. be. makes which " two inseparable. Catechise.bythe to some of all Protestant the name establishments of that ia say. the then. matter of course.

many the most thieves For most *' commonly ing no simple countrymen to women. hand to good Queen of "had Church ing put 'the finishand became a a plundering and whom us poor. if greatest *' seeking they enemy now. and the remnant revenues married he in then the poor were (for poor there will and means every community) other than when the left destitute of the of existence. The wicked same they rest *' trussed.' - -ft appears after this a did not " iii. able. Protestant. it be with neither but. to they are strength the enemy. ** whether to are great gain . Besides. and own : In " default justice." the the " good Bess " of ^complained bitterly same *l non-execution tells us. were spoiland reduced to confusion of the land. man's of " "** cpinifththat they all the would death. in that that a " of her. saying: that are I justly the say. is nor the Ml generation most daily springeth from These spare or them. and small. and Bess the robbery.1 for' sdon complaint* was *4 Parliament. to be ** wicked. and." Justice escape. that men abroad. men. are 4" to give good subjection. of their [Letti* given to mutt Jaged. lookare *' farther than the not loss of their procure And any while goods. theft. half allpaen of . famishing an robbers Strypb. was * that the stipendiarymagistrate rf tha" day whe "" a kind* of living creature. rich likely poor that and says .Paotestavt Retoematiow. den once-happy of and and free and hospitableEngland slaves. a the as ** her are so Majesty much that hath strong battle. Accordingly. for Ai goods in the world. refers many authority to of Hume of the the a appeals letter and a hundreds times. tells from Chief Justice of the Peace *' in Somersetshire may to Lord able Justice.laws. all both is fish cometh the " "** net them yet I say. for. see she' threatened executed she ' to *' private persons and her penal laws that for profit threaten made in *' gain9 9 sak?. and little send " satisfied with number. the she executed was so Protestant than historian more Jive hundred that to criminals year.vain. the " fruits of begging. up of a-pace.

givesthe to words head were derer mur- of good much the the glorious Bess's" this occasion. that she resorted. of the are men glories to of whose of baselearning enough 331. of such by martial " offenders.martial Granting neigh- " him and commanding authority. This fact is " so completea proofof upon the the horrible effects of the Reformation" state of the people. " revived ineffectual.beggary. fully people bo r"'! of come England had. this is she. so as in as consequence to of that Reformation. and gave mean " by revived?] Wilford a martial as Sir Thomas* : * commission. debased it stands and submit to. with the a of penal statutes. and lodgingall racks nor in and civil. and which the it is so characteristic of the Government. of same of the Catholic which Church. however. upon signification or " given by executed to of justices the peace in London the " bouring counties. " [revived 1 law. Provost. execute them " gallows or gibbet. particularly its neighbourhood. of the destruction of the poor. that who I must take the statevery ment " in Hume. and according. these finding docs he What " punishment remedies these rioters.thoughshe was she-tyrant continually spared neither A . worthy to take to to be speedily the have " law.XI. moral to martial law. liberal use of the gallows. this is she. though this terrible halters. However. ecclesiastical hands. that of the plundering ticularly parthe accompanied power.1 " t *r- She did not. the him.* taught to " yet.] " PftOTESTANT would REFORMATIO*. Such and was of Vagabondage degree of.and inflicted the Queen. talk. dozen this " chickens dispensewith stop. whom been " good Queen reign there to Bess ". idle " commission streets her upon " The of London and riotous very : t infested with Lord vagabonds its But " persons " Mayor had had endeavoured exerted to repress this disorder " Star-chamber on authority. them. destruction. of thievishness and in London and robbery. even such were this the day ! natural consequences and But. upon we " the justiceof martial And call " law.

assessed collected the the most by overseers. was necessary. consequence of Reformation". was The : choice that the derers plunor. which day. provides maintenance come for the indigentpersons.the prominent. which ". termination ex- England and not this legal pauperism. to who rake to exhort others could charity. in the is in of 'her this reign. epistleof straw/* it Every attempt when having failed.'Protestant "" " .to fliis Bess n "glorious and her "Reformation" Parliament at . . Reformatio*. poor : therefore legal provision tried in vain the cause not. they all other methods obtaining something supply first. which and torments to breaks at defiance. upon Liither the great teacher. not this last have they could and effect. having failed. and passed that a Act. to place the of Catholic to . of a Act (and there many passed) goods " and compulsory (ax. to the parsons. and which maintenance is to and most from land. as were necessarily must. the " horrible ever-durable to . by Yet had this in . did state not if they could. perism pau- established 332. enforced by distraint of imprisonment of person. law. the the staring. . by object effected voluntary who now collections those at the churcfies looked but.set found even do . be They attempted. all would through stone-walls. They live in made had to at a a possess three- sufficient to make people they till a of fourths for the . power it would suited the them. alas ! those as entered churches. of however.it was some to he absolutely and solid necessary make the general . that her tenon hunger. and an " he considered Saint James's of this Epistleas sort. charity. great. at last.bad for their were own ^ enough wives ^ do to together all they every and short children. starvation. that say. [Letter for their remissness with reprovingthe r executors were of her bloody laws while they or strewing the country the not carcasses of malefactors alleged malefactors. the payment enforced And here by we process have and is effectual and summary. and permanent 43d force year to provision for was poor and.

same had plunged into . that of be might 'working by the naturally suppose. filling country with endless quarrels and against master.misery hy precisely the the same used were under not precisely they to hypocritical pretences that law why be . . " taking the land had in giving robbed and most a. oppression. part. and been a an act to of the justice. man against poor. of what It was they of by Reformation/' a doing. too gaod do to Bess for the in plundering treated of . of indeed.one " Franklin suppose. we come of which to have spoken made Dr. to say. the " dogs. have of seen. It poor. and why was the poor be extended to Ireland !. from far as it went. minions thought and much we to come the savagely cause Irish people . same preciselythe been former had. of and was.relieved from nat misery to in the manner ." seen 334.such " except before in the deeds of the origi-% - nal Reformers. and. idleness. out and producing. . the way. classes in the old sent clothes over the England been to worn " same class have " in Ireland. this. how- "ever. of they ? do had the been same regard in the people same 4reiand manner These that the plundered they means. been hard in the our odious tle genIt like part of that amiable which had the poor done. was. . . we this the day. instead Even but it feeding and her them.from a mass a desire of the of as rich shuffle of its provisions. principlewas to it. and cruelty. that had " or. " We Bess how absolute necessity compelled make a good the it had and her plunderers to indigent in legalprovision we for relief of the was England a.that only restoringto been did them upon with part of that what which they that plundered not . litigation. feeding children. hare it to ." never witnessed as in the world.JLLJ last name PfcOXESTAtfT and here REFORMATION. setting parish rich to against parish. ones way by the was " Church like fathers. here I real that here contrast. at least. fraud. was it was. hypocrisy. 333L Nevertheless. paragraph 325 that any twhich .

they had purpose were England in to raise cially espe- effectthis Ireland. George's channel. one Adolphus" day. *ray occasion. to mentioned the Irish. the other gentleman. they found Co impossible to in a Englishmen compel starvation. Mr. thus. except Mr. this side of St. they had and one be obtained make of England. the consequences ? Mr. pleading to of the are in police-offices London (a sphere took which his talents exceedingly well went out on adapted). but. hardly help knowing. to " of his to find occasion. restoration down the *"ur English day. Now. profound. of thus that even the Iots plunder itself. cruel ! plunderers no They grudged compulsory it live means England out but.or nearly it was. send to another state of ihrce-fourths armies in when to But. or.they ascribed be a the of answer ages. all the worldly goods having received of " God them. which. r" the can poor-laivswere have been abolished to-nwrrow Adolphits and his . in Base and . the smallest obtained a Ireland the was pillaged which unto without chance . We at and talk not the smallest pittance we the outrages in Ireland . of was such abolition may remember. sought occasion. thank knew God" that of we. and being nature stripped jallotted in return. [Lette* the to lief re- 335. that seem shocked the candid violences and in committed modest at there and sapient. .stimulated of and they did of so. on those were English armies (consistingas as urged by promised Protestants) as plunder. what would here. Mn Scarlett had the inconsequence of his haviug folly to mould this proposition of Malthus . sort it might a little too so much to 24 expect this of any from me lawyer any dignified police-pleader . own this sort of outcasts in their that country. any Englishman he thinks of any be rank. wl"en they misrule an were nothing to those outrages. by motives Thus powerful. preaching too " that up the Parson wisdom Malthus tribe he. .Protxstaxt Reformation. ". been of and have they. let ask English gentleAdol- man. was (for the twisted example down " that terrific).

old age. a provision for out use the indigent. and need civil will other This causes. or " ages the of misrule of n land.coming possess. man of the civil society. sickness. The The States never of America seen a is " "ery better happy country. end that. the far greater part of them. for their persons could bread will . insolence. performed see. adding blasphancy. though they abolished the monarchical . or. will lot of and it relief from society. which cement Scarlett. is necessary enable them must to supply their that there of immediate and. that were petitions preparing against of the Bill. be no Bill were or passed. not as the wolf. stating. off. at been too . but. have us little justice. however is the wherever head to and it may. therefore. to in ' liable. Mr. of settled. any rate to " . things. that labours. syco- ignorance. Why. for the absence " amongst he Waft us. there their lives. they that a are sensible.] iato the Protestant Reformationw form of a Bill. least. too. lie see. by persons who work these he no that a very large part of to do work than wants. is necessary United has ingredient the of civil society. insane. fable. from being orphans. our though Americans off their king." Every the be must more of reflection must know. to world the yet cast people giance alle- But. AboLPirtfs that may not know. from a great number persons who. there many those hare ages ages. during been most unjustly assessed. legal a provision. all then. from in every community. in Ire- landholders England But. 336. all are show. always must be. let and phemy not. and. land. widows. very nature to of the the is right which the " gent indiin the words Blackstone. is on require a solider than that which that this the shoulders of Mr. which never affairs of society absolutely but demand. certain. thank low. hare.XI. above would safety for their a property at Let us. mob-courting of outrages God" that God" in the. thanked ferocious. not a need of relief. if poor-rates. from such the payers that. exist some source or other. many.

and same poor the the be Why not not em- * say the thing to give to to landholders? that which Why is - pel them to people their upon due? the "Why 'is Ireland the only civilized country . grant in of the to relieve and starving manufacturers " Scotland. possible. been a " misrule- of ages times who " 'infa Ireland ? Hare that people been has most a barbarously treated thousand been has j. the make injustice the laws own : cruelty. there. as country. assessments poor the and the in England of the and. not then. the 1819. to crying injustice here sur- this still to if be allowed exist? and we folly - passes. army keep that starving people when for a from obtaining relief Lords by fercet others * Loud Liverpool. for the paying aid taxes. he where overseer poor.. is. though cast 'tiaoughrthcy they "sst off the Church of aristocracyof England. from as of Bess. from end the it is in Old . 337. extorted at htr by their English foreforce in New Lornia that fathers. Yerk as ibis moment.England herself. who starvation sea .PftOTMTAKT REFORMATIO*.and -dan. a - they " estates landholders themselves purpose of from like assessment. and feels hunger in that an without having of -relieving it. expire from to in his native to save land. *. [LEftft* England did aet met . of the such The the finds. be may.ry CMt'Off tebo"nt the English poor-Jaws. foreign land. whole in New Hampshire one in Old to Hampshire. as in London as in Old . Tbe - English landholders all know to They for * subject. signer. of relief* mrs. as is such monstrous. from the he driven to steal weed himself . means . such very as '%risely ' justly said. then your No: will Irish be have sure poor-laws. death. ready to .givahim relief! And. Irish to tax while they do I this. be. that. tax an us choose Irish rather and to and to tax besides. - Has it not. . at onea. in the Scotch out applied to him. their tbe relief of the exonerate estates . other.justly subject. Old completely in New it is in York. and this off the they ve. by England ? An ready been to Irishman. goes Amepca.

established heard changed articles. and powered em- others.as long have " this state not of to things shall he exist. for thfe any man.to him. . torture of any sort.his brother. they might administer . if reveal his "thoughts. the decency the cry out qnite so loudly againstthe 338.- " .legal provisionis the Pastors m of the for earth. the fheir if in obtaining of were they chose. and in his made change in Crammer's to prayer-book the the articles to of faith. an any hearsay. ex-officio. because had an even she the most herself had Protestant horrible what she and religion. dis- pf all men. and powers. nor no suspicions alighted upon and matter even ing.6he that called power and have and to ever was the -inquisition the world. oath. proceed was with a my of her " reforming She but projects. the where no sort indigent.and accuse himtelf. XL] face made ' Protestant Reformation. at the same ' time. over They the to were absolute all control men opinions their cretion. turning Protestant. the They proceed legally. punish according might evidence *to short of death. i"y which he to was bound. called called upon. to at least. over whose extended the all ranks to degrees of an the people. they or employ imprisonment. in headship her of Uhurch. Betsy great Doctor her of Divinity. She she would had make subjects he of at though religion. they had no evidence. respect- what. If rack. a though. In order bend was consciences people's more her tyrannical will. that she she had was a solemnly and her coronation. the outrage* of from this Irish:99 I must now return digression(intowhich treatment mention has led of "good in " Bess's" order to barbarous land of Ireaccount me). purpose. the was extremely jealous of what prerogatives her in particularly regarded all her sworn. of settled. to against him. and to where the are. which changed her unjust. hut. - of to m -She gave a Commission over certain whole Bishopsand kingdom. . hiB friend. if against parties. they chose. except as the -season of shearing? Let suffered us. Catholic. total strangers flocks.

belonged! 340. reduced the looks at the sees what abject slaveryshe had one nation to. to which. they were barbarous she had manner.whom to "reformers" pretended plundering of that " from a slavish any to subjection the Pope. And. sworn religion. that 1 which she. and for the pur* control over poses good Queen and Bess. It is hardly necessary the Catholics to to attempt endure to describe the that sufferings had no reign. pen derous duringthis muris adequate to the task* ) . in the adhering to many that which and she to for openlyprofessed very years of her life.and of her reign. and that. that which the because observe three fortynever forget. for they had fessed proi of this case particular which i i hypocrite. even at her had coronation.too." absolute the and have but bodies the minds and hypocritical delivered whom the base people. upon pain of death. in short. charity one livered depretending. ground. and it is have when especially us views this Commission. Protestant punishments have been to inflicted on men they refused been depart from the faith in which they had bred. and. where on they inflicted punishments. they imprisonedmen lengthof new a they pleased.They put forth whatthey pleased . punished. These [Lmi* subaltern monsters for his father. and in the all their lives. No tongue.this the an name articles of faith Commission of " in exercising. brutal most And. when one and freedom. When without from 339. from its firstestablishment not the present hour/ ha* committed so much crueltyas one this ferocious Protestant the apostate committed years that them in any single year of again.Protestant or Reformation. inflicted the the offenders had been departed from which the faith in they had bred and they had whereas professed. on for impossible so not to reflect with shame what we long been saying against the Spanish Inquisition." they had.actually hospitality. deeds of this foul tyrant. time that inflicted -wh"t Jines any erer was they pleased. Catholics.

terminated ex- they by as the it of her for death a rei^n. the cruel of her acts. on for the law* forbade deed. men was was there be tyranny not this ? Not the to new only were to punished for one confessing that religion the had the true . and. deny this horrid virago's spiritual supremacy. cruel than her butcheries. to to harbour a priest. hear mass.which him honourable to most Catholic could to scarcelyavoid. inno making none of any new ones pain of death.XI. in priests such the were. not only for continuing and but their practice children not religionin been born to which and they bred . the sums were so for the that offence the whole utter of recusancy of the ruin. if they and sincere. of before were tyranny so equal and this. woman. who scientious con- enormous. such alone unrelenting rigour. death him to perform there peared ap- his functions to England. and. an many other things. of the 20th year old way. fathers and also punished there for actually going the new assemblages. the it clerical authority ordain to surviving Catholic Then a bishops being she harassed that forbidden remainder do on pain of death. is to penal laws not for inflictingyfoes to say. to was death priestto for to from abroad j death in an harbour him. The-fines heavy. And. by the of her number. more 1 the scaffold and the even But.l To Peotestaxt Reformatio*. them. her be of preventing impossibility from extir- . consigned bowel-rippingknife. and were performingwhat an they open was must. exacted with 341. where there was could be made to in England. and the far in productive of suffering recusancy. to admit the supremacy of the and Pope. were Catholics who priests had the never menaced out with The were been of England. and before priests 20th the year reign of reignfew this horrible in were. to confess him. for going ever her new-fangled Protestant equal to church. in the to were whole world. more because of far more exten- she were effect. nearly come and. necessarilydeem ! act of apostacy there heard blasphemy Never. the that end. .

priests of sea -into England. . tins religionwhich had and of pauper and unknown which ^religion had had " churches cathedrals. last. .PaorasTAK-r Reformatio*. with never pronounced to but " feelings . she resorted all sorts of her schemes and. From seal 'man.by the ra talents a of William who to- Allen. from this JHe joined by at other manifest and ~dep6t. was religion. wall did not defy his. the the executed tormenting kept in and bloody * of was English priests existence. had been great happy for that made built religionof charity and the the name hospitality1." her * myrmidons hests. and.tfcat religion. though came of their the There lives. of the Universchema " * and priest. this object prevented. had English gentle-o. and to " "f religion the their fathers along who can with was it. whose wkfca planted made reared Charta the and Universities. and into her as could * round come island. English priests. before been the sity of Oxford. could the while he safelydefied for it she deathnot dealing erect come a povrer. the her Allen. apostate and was thereby malignity was thfe be- inexorable "'tweenher '" defeated.by perfidiously excluding from . the profe and Magna Common-Law. of " spiteof hundreds were spies the be- * and thousands who race pursuivants. for many the of . and so jinder ages that so which numerous England . and. she but. admiration. to prevent accomplishing and now her from effectingthis she was an total ^ extirpation. In order break a ' ap " seminary of Allen. [LetJt** justing totally extirpating from r the so land. performed which all those made and be an gloriousdeeds England and in legislation the the envy of rounding sur- had really of nations "now the admiration world/": there magant terr : appeared to and impossibility. tyrant should **he (which did). for at In order the Catholic defeat she-tyrant* 8 a rooting out Douay.he formed the education learned hazard men Seminary L in Flanders. in " "-had "arms. lire for another especiallyif the twenty years. and whose of at name afterwards be made Cardinal. in priests would of called 3 * and her .

whoih the pledged give protection. to go to was thousands sacked their her thousands in money upon of of a estates.to be confession. or more See see gentleman of.250/. that In the enforcingof could these horrible was edicts. u in to spite of the from at good Bess" King of France. and he if bred a Catholic. " barbarity of Protestant Reformation.unless it. every to insult con- base minds devise. . act beggars.stood the Dutch to a Flemish to insurgents. of were and so all that punished the and the with a 'greater "and and less degree racks severity.and firmly believed had. Thousands mad thus of money upon she of present refused day. this day."E. and -fleet of ftftrtbfe "*e. but. fine look a "f at - 3. and or commit. openly professed her religion. compelled actual make to himself what bis beggars. and we this -is not in its most light. you seen of apbstacy to blasphemy. Catholic she into view. for. of protectionin France. Thus projectsfor destroying the more missionary trunk. can. " sensible and just reader. than ever on the to and on the fruit hear say to hear the mass. deemed.to : taught it.to keep from all church these or were great crimes. yet take many even Imagine. 343. branches to fury mass. r%- :"*t"Wished *- Rheims. him. And this now. choking from with her the The 20 L a punishment lunar about church thousands 'tat keeping away month. here a was. perhaps. to teach her lic Cathovice ser- Teligion. rnake confession. by bitter re- college were. was use. defeated she in all her fell with To 342. 25(W.observe. the year. gallowses gaols gibbets and dungeons in constant the church victims. in coronation. from he -and his House rao3t Guise. resorted and in . barbarity equal horrible committed the this . that years of her at the tyrant who for life. she obtained dissolution of Allen's the from Spanish Governor. and 'which. sworn that that Teligion. Wfotind t#fcom "KMWtranoes college. had.] ' Protestant Retohmation. sixty years born and children an of age to .

" Bess. feet The a hands together to the " allotted this time from kind the the of torture blood .spoliation shame us. who valour it an preserved from and 'these by the " of was " good the glorious. to fastened on by the a hinge. sometimes. justice demands.was ". first that " tell that the shipsaP tfeefft^mttV' to were loaded with RACKS. was a give' ' description. Queen and sot . caa" ""Da? lyisf* with so." Lr" place. " having ed the introduced victim and time dose legs^compresaable small to " together. .to one or be her . of seeing she to gentle Betsy had plenty almost them. till he over fasten of the an " the bach. to taHctham Protestant hist oriana Armada bodies wisdom the. two hoop iron. One of was called. the kneeling hoop under his his was shoulders." ane\: hr the neit prevented invasion the5 ceaotrr saved that the Spaniards might plftoey of hare themselves thW^roafsV alwrfri importing RACKS. haadsr and feet" . Lingard enabled which. to U of History. daily It is sure painful feelingsoat that because means Protestants.vasybread bartend comes1 from tittle of the. use. I thank of kind his Dr. as die fiartmBcij. in. and " Then the executioner. prito " made himself kneel as pavement as and he " contract into small a compass on could. -of1 The The Scavenger's Daughter. torture. "torm9 of glorious Beo. but. which kept in excellent inflict most order. I describe in two- of instrnments most thettr we see some of the powerful of those HER which gfaf! *ade CHURCH in note this " use of for ESTABLISHING . broad having.** were be wed upon tfter of the amd English. and. of torture .and. PROTESTANT for me and volume here V. " ho\tr and half during which gushed from the nostrils. " consisting of soner was parts.

of oak.m*testa-kt several other Reform A^iBif. to eradicate danwtohte trors ' of popery was a . but. her glories consisted compacts to in .. in their having had a of freebooters having had . the to !"elong my subject . means revilers which " of the " Catholic: there sligion. kind* use of argument* of eawmsiom the " tat gentle. her great argmmentwas. his. that and. before that I take " leave " creature. Betsy made M of. sense ever sickly stuff of his. the to prisoner was wristsat under were it*on 'on ( floor.I. two His rollers in a"d: ancle* ends of the attached : bj^ were* cords the frame till the these 1 moved si level by levers the directions opposite. observe. sove- broken been innumerable solemn treaties and rebel navy continually bribing in subjects annoy . have particle. 5iou8 ! " deeds now and events: of the reign of tins ferodo not woman of little interest. ! compare. three This the large open The frame feet frta*. seeing in that can pensioned poet. no J am man my Thompson. oh . it may has not to told be us about the gloriesof my maiden of this " reign" good99 amiss. *wa* if the the satisfactory.. more and bmes started jrom* sockets" There. till the sufferer stretched their 347. but. backjr ' ground. indeed. Protestants: are there. body put rose to1 1 with answers frame. in having having reigns. of to Church. " Catholic 348. lee* "made aw use some of the make her good Queenr 6^. and*.' the means- f justice left in you sade use compare who with of by those Church The other are introduced and established * the. if these you means established one J' Compare. did not Questions prove more wese then . which after he of endure " gets the to the age of twenty. raised laid the RAGKL.] tare wire P.

or in the whole world. all that must that this the existed not in England.and a " she had queen gallants while " she called herself was a maiden says. mind) " her life many stained . as been seated the brows England and her maiden says. virtues.Protestant of Reformatio*.Witaker that " (a Protestaat was clergyman. life of took mischiefund the year all the death (which place in of her power thus age and the 45th reign)she did to mischief that name it remained her successor. for that. with gross licentiousness. been in her to refusing do. and laurel to on littlemoney the even important town one in never having added which : singleleaf of ages.whom a she had and scourgingfor forty-five pillaging years. worst woman but. Jezabel herself excepted. by sulkily a and to tearing people. in haying bartered of Calais . to that ample branch of had. her father. agree. her Historians have worst man been to which the that England mankind ever produced. for a an army plunderers . . a legctcy of mischiefafter divided in ever as opinion. or was Cranmer. as " probable death." fJ was civil war.

and Irish call fed by are of " English and what There to me. ab"w that Protestant at Religion. each open . without attempting has about show. xir. * * % \ No. " the Reformation. In all was the* foregoing Numbers. Godly Re' second. LETTER XII." " J * t. of the Hpjuud Gunpowder persecution Catholics. " (which the main * I notice . again before " " I have their . QUALIFIED the FOR RANK "fURLE4 "Reformation" " THE OF MaRTV*." II. who publish they shall : but. Plot. as beyond called. His ""ka*lbs James Dawn The plots and ingratitude of his reign. " contradiction. I. these all answers.which forty ^Ufweot ftects.. Mr 3Ul October 10"" Friends. persons.1' answer? and forth rivers hypocrisy innocent and perfidy. endeavours to introduce general toleration. or "thorough^ FORMATION. Accession of James I. 349. done) " blink " subject errors they 'dwell " upon what authors assert to be in the Catholic to Religion this they do. II. i. indeed. of "GIaDRIOUS" Revolution. that in it " has Jeen proved.*' it Is in engendered beastly lust. brought cherished blood. Kensington.

that the use practiceof plunder. trouble even torment the' pfeopte ato4 "Vfnat to the the present day. nave which do with never meddled. and and to ikese maining endanger these force. means people. by gib- by they face with a direct : negative are of these ? important propositions .gibbets and sigos of no" goe"fe things. faith and against of and matters discipline. that * by plunder Aete either and by rae"s tyranny." body shown people of England 4 " I have change of religion not ' was brought about by ever some of the worst. do ' answerers do. . are of axes. if the very worst. new can be free from in but. war with all the this rest. a No there the ^ facts before cannot them there is the history. which the ' very HttTe work subject. and a*e (which they of of Parlia* re* face with written in in negative)-there letters the Acts soma \ menty of blood. that were breathed nature not . being - show.my to " object. Hypo* it was established perfidy .as that the the main title of my ' expresses.to State.Do they boldly assert. I have shown so that the " such answer as human men revolts.and grace? hot rail No outward : inward evangelicalpurity and' all upon of andthese matters* i they give the answer " against and of personal and rules and character lites priestsand ceremonies with to car- dinals articles I have my popes. do they 1 deny.Protestant "' Reformation. by ajjes. ) [Letter ' " error . theydeny. that the that beastly lust. ? Do J by gallowses. galiows"a. Reformation of that the this has impoverished' *' and and degraded Ireland. perfidy. the j.hypocrisy. at: far I the to can -receive no from prepared remains to deny rne thenticity au- of the statute-book from the same : it now for shewt sources. and inipoverishing degrading . erisy that and religionbegan and do beastly lust.. then? . racks.

English Reformation is not less -people much themselves and.and Ace that French. will ilution. namely. The (or Number lirteenth) Bn.crimes. see in the branches the tree back or to And. we 350. as shall m"v back trace to the first Reformation of a clearlyas any its root. a the nation the whole/ as well as with regardto the torn body of people. e"n established us their The present Number and will show the Reforma- producing a second. which see curious. though hare now seen the Protestant the reli- established. and of which I shall produce stible proofs. It will be curious behold the merican and French Reformations. that too. But. tepoverishing of which the most I have incon- spoken.HIJ msequenoe* to fcgard Protestastt of this as Reformation'.in the remaining Number.and we tcv intere3tingy cease them force the -Reformation* the whom Catholics. oplebegin to to torment they m2 / . poverty body of the and degradation to of ain people. Numbers. before I to the and degrading consequences. with and change of religion. too (as every generation improvements the . I must give an account of the proceedingsof " be Reformation-people after they had rsteni. fruit the i imdaoTahty. the then e shall. a " vast the being only find to godly Reformation. of the the American Reformation. come I ripping-knives. completelyestablished by jjkm and the the gibbets." while a second next shall be thorough godly" introduce " one. wiser "st e with preceding). rents Number give us an account of still greater. or AIL these we evolution. must. playing the ick on the of principles . than the " that. or revolutions. will the to " us a third Reformaor re- commonly The called 14th glorious Reformation.

the measures would useless to in the detail on .hut |L the been. as world knew. successor.was bis mother to generally Bess's a pensioner ofL and.however. however. except and | prodigaland weak .- had was."oj"rfOTg no deeds.tyrannical y character was acd but It the staring feature be of his dwell insincerity.! and aoo-j^ have ciates. did. as we pregnast. and ripping-up BeUy. thus probable civil as alegacgL J am of mischief. which a to. granted her minions. murdered 4o presence. Cecil. of this contemptible reign. whom loop! - church-plunder sariea about give. of 2d. for instance.. which . Presbyterian.. inherit had also new great talents the father. who who enemy the son of the of bis Old 1 Cecil. took who the all by the hand. as Whitaker and soys. of life. abandoned in that wrath. maiden or " about pounds ' our present money the in **lLj. The (i good and glorious and maiden who. the silliness of which that prodigalities 'and pare debaucheries and for that did. was raised . seeal L paragraph 308.352. amongst to " twohmJj jL andracUuL . for [Lehw " had been tormenting without mercy mora than dred years.hsi. bushel. expired left a sulky silence war to heijt.so that salt. deadlyL of this king's unfortunate like all the mean. peaceably succeeded poor by Eli ~ I. to to her there other was . when he came to man's estate. indeed. the L last. pre* the way rebellion and relation. James. amongst L in and Bess. mother. Rizzio and in her which Darnley. wsl^ as had. once Stuarts. 351. was at . his first acts England. Betsy. that very { child of whom Mary Earl 'Stuart of was when his father Henry Stuart.* Protestant Reformation. monopolies of almost all the used neceJ? .. to " 15*. conceited foolish. confided was L promoted. was a child.

Catholics. .. and no the conspirators all avowed ready ) to the they ever the last. .cut intention i heads of Sid mouth avowed took Castlereagh.Protestant " Reformation. alone were for that buart to gunpowder remembered. any to irtjes than has attempted deny that the Cato-street and plot did reallyintend ia. these to parties from judge their who last. last. which first to penly s by them. their o people who saw heads [. are more facts which any man has attempted to y. as the Parliamentary basely accused Reformers of in general the the less most falselyand the to instigating ission of jlics in f and ' last. - face " in the at next. "e and general other- I shall take to. Indeed. as to 1605. thisYeign a far my efttend. of great than seeing and en.to the who the the condemned severed from them.be complete blank. as of instigatingto intended . yet. provide Protestant purposes martyr for the hitherto pages as . to the are themselves conspirators we stent of their crime. and none st day of session. that that man but lies. more notice it would entitled :. this so were general. both that object of blow up the the king and Houses of Parliament. dd. That there was a plot in the the year the 1605 (the second which on fter James " came to throne). they to day the not 9S less basely accused But.mentioned and so are intended act. of the as " Calendar. when a the " double-distilled " " Re " "s did. wholly to leave out of our .were partiesto execute this deed plot . But. made much plot/9 which and a source has caused that it be is of which.

. we promised seen. a: have h i the second.PaOTESTAKT ReFOKMATJOIC* had received? . which. [Lb To are consideration a . to man is an assault kill a man is murder ? or hot. a nor were of Cato-street not Catholics Catholics and who qualifiedCharles 1 post in the Calendar. rate. observe. greedy ever rapacious and to infest and ii s that We the God had permitted in have seen. too. plot'. . the provocation they . that. after and had made acknowledged the utmostr-of 355. first or general instigatedto. now compensat his power. second. no. us see conspiratorshad provocation had was. their this is proof of tb of guinary principles trary to was religion. that approved a " gunpowder . his errors. 341 gen 343.may always killing assault -and murder and have Ok. were to mitigate lives more laws. supposing those those conspiratorsto were provocation. fullyand judiciallyproved the be the fact. provocation The let came what king. As te to the tb" first.* how houses of conscientious Catholic . these that However. ing and . and. Instead than insult of have laws in the made their even b this. those been as rendered theyjhad as former the reign. assault justifiably kill a robber two a house-br The the Protestant Catholics writers in asserted tilings . which had then of England Nhad poured forth the most upon and counto less hordes wretches the earth. Every had spe 1 well injury which persecutions of that leaven Catholics established endure now under the the chur" heightened by of now Presbyterian maligna imported from this devoted the which ferocity. paragraphs 340. the a he to the as throne.

m whose and ies fannhad! had. what was consequence of i to extortions had in mercy him been order the their lot been now fines. insulted last. made persons lookery. Robert on Catesby. h"w thessestates rummaged.fell. things "m sailed crimes. "een for inhabited nsrons venerated beioved all thede for their were and hrcp'tality charity. nature 356. the kite falls upon dove. ute absolr re have seen how gradually sinking into these The exorbitant beggary/ in Hit. delivered over minions )f his English Catholic thus clad lentry to these rapacious minions. and. :reselved yer makiag attempt *o himself and his brethrea suffering was from this almost ernal scourge. in what constant bead heir unhappy as a lured. an iprthamptonshire. all their well-known as with of the with oyal authority. hardness teart. drawers and instances with all drove their and beds. how be to obtain the means?- From .'' rifled. hese accounts. seized their wives native "in rent-rolls.. we that. They entered their mansions.and. as in arrear. hove ttiey were and robt"ed other of punishment for recusancy haw seen. upstart the insolence. one of these oppressed of dein- ud English gentlemen. neans suffered more fall to the fined party and completely the of the not James. But. by thejines. and children from the"r~ a oors. "nger gave the at lie to all preachings of passive obedience.ill.imposed the ages.had nake irown. upon efenceless beir umerous the devoted victims. they**-***men. and ancient -gentry of the same England.] me V "*4H%6V"KT AKWHUf"TIO*. who.of the ruin rhom misery of unoffending they had Human despoiled. t^elr ransacked closets. at Practice. whose prodigality left his Scotch the the out of own gratifying the greediness of exchequer.

he" of the who. Flemish .so was. seized a in the lantern .equallyhopeless. but. . who officer in the to set He it was. who. the resolved blow aelf * along with \"n persecutors of his brethren 1605. all except in rfour. replied to* it was. immediate in answer. be answer. crafty knaves induce boys still . such was the state InternaT things. in common justice. in the whoky ***rf""*. matcher to in ljjs pocket and dark purpose by his side.Yorkshireman wars. to be had accomplished. insurrection of the 'tang the and executors barbarous to laws remained. and of them afforded de- fivemnce way on to effect this there. was a it was. amongst had sirred who' under* was Fawkes.. blow* you Scotch this cause beggars native mountains the an /'and. when effect his tremendous the he it was.: B*ot*stsht Rei#bm of amok. he it wis. consisting hogsheads who. proclaimed the world true of this memorable conspiracy . which. collected many gunpowder. brought before questions with a King and Council. had "to when by Scotch barrels' Lord of back Council. before -roth the Parliament two to meet. [Lsf*fc4 aid could as SLbrnad. Hence Jo he came the the conclusion. ready who. be the first He day of soon session. possibly a* be\hoped junkers far. Gut rather obscure a situations in life. way he jail their asked no defiance. they three whom as an amounted or only about and. to- obtained to associates. all should assembled gether. the 5th of November. appeared to other than that of blowing up the the parliament-house when. if bim. ought tq which 0 put into the mouth foolish of those "ttgte"of him. two took and not fire to the of magasine. was few hours only vault. to your to answered. that only hope of him no -destroythe whole . he thirty-two barrels otherwise up to of gunpowder .

He that unrelenting fanaticism. was died in their against fighting Threskam. otherwise of the two Houses. blown of Parliament. encouraged by similar successes. and the whole this led to give warning timely detection. they had shut up. Catesby three and the other conspiratorswere with The arms pursued hands . Garnet. James (whose sHlycon* one eeit made rate. English Scevola".] . if the" House Catholics.thrust burn. ing come knowledge of it. The would have shared not the fate of the to Protestants. in respect. not yet. to Irani or the 5th him his an of November. htU posed imnot The King and in Parliament escaped feelingsof disabilities were inanity on ihe the conspirators. and the King along u5 . who offending hand defiance at into the hot fire.XII.and the channel who. author) he was just. connected with wholly innocent the conspiracy.. to to the contrary. done every thing was in his power sacrificed this see.Roman"hav* to his mark his country endeavouring slavery. havof confession. and let it he looked tyrant. 357. Peers Members. Protestant Reformation. famous crime to a Jesuit. while kill his a tyrant.as successor we are soon to off the head of the son and of this very from the King. prevent the perpetratingof its object. "the at arty In works. and So that.- he and of his associates their pursuers.which. calls Fa wkes. also the of any who Test of them (except arid poisoned in prison)were who was executed. Amongst Catholics. the such could 'conspirators give warning did' the Cathofcs without where excitingsuspicions. and out until the reign of Charles were II. at and cut other last. They they could'.through on had. ing had missed doomed a and tells us history in to that thatfamous.

it by with appedssf with thdt the ginated plot ori- him. 663 GqJULksaris Histpry.of applet all Mow tp thePriace Farma. the to Protestants their and governor. was This King James. id this tyowing-iip.' . sSade. tb" the See i Then furious' Protestant Church - burghers of p. since pilot. and municated com- being anonymously by him to Catholic nobleman. 'cruel JPre- blood-thirsty have enemies" little what testants . and.": ':* "" non-resistance. though author' to a in all probability.way. let us see a "our.. whefc But the Fwt estate 4it asseq^hUd'jsi:0ie *ot " oily of. Scotch Protestant after* .in we are COMMON-PR God. ascribed Catholic bloody -mtadednesevis ear natural fruit of Jhe religion. the it h"been.?"". assassinated Go wry his. and . Earl ihtt. Vol.". would ha* beet* blewi* to Aftmtf : iar. men indeed. hex! y hot C atxssy. to of the whose conduct in judge about diiBeferitJy -according difference their notions . countries.associates. and as done. 664 attendants. attempted. with "e nobility magistrates ef: those. and to AYER call BOOK. thoufb 0"4utia*f it till the he was.the sent of a warning letter. them. or. m ing address- all Catholics indiscriminately. averred. which. will any. passiani'wbedieneeaid "?. though he te nurse advantageous (Escovefcyanrivefl.' formed . lh in the and again. with . 358. up. This would be '* enough of the to famous gunpowder but. notwithstanding no means well- attested facts. the GQvernment. Cecil evidently knew execution. of of the pbt ioag befm took /owe intended moment .with . Antweip- tattya/atf .becametfce"ltenttWe these c"use of the timely discovery. by his he himself Jiearty heiffg subjects. taught. natmvdy escaped being blown all his Perth. Netherlands.

. men jre~ ceived noblemen cation more provocation enough and at to make mad . wero as win seen engaged in in them bbscnre this in individuals. except such escaped witk by mere remorselesslymurdered was along " their master. reader WiTAK^n. Queea Sootd. the King and 1567. fu 235. by of ? By the " blood-tbirstsr Catholics"? the to by Avangel" Knox.XII. attendant* and of religionand accident. was a and' tenets man. was a words Witakee who and. these let die bookia of conspirators in that recollect. on and this who occasion. In- " 4""i as fat can judge of matter. King father." upon as we face . of the clearest evidence. but body of gentlemen* from MaHy it who reallyhad to received provo*^ wa* all Stuart. too. who but this done the lovers . Recto* 1790. was destroy her whom the take object than toMestroy husband. parson in was of the "f that he yvv . the Let of us the . of Scotland.the whole. las "-. subject of which Gun*Pewder"Plot. Church published his England. very For. he truly honest of upon of truth and hater injustice. "e .:iii.] in - Paqtsotaot those wo Rrfoehatiok. and too i'^he " thaa : that wretched -wretched the woman. nor their. was.* man. 'the fullest then. had a no not thirteen obscure men. Jan"a/s up* have paragraph 309.the vitts ceremonies. the whole . Hear the this this stanndh Protestant Church-Parson.given to whatever body . and most ously strenu- opposed' the most to. And No: were of both sexes. vol. of He (Vindication says.guilt of at appear '" evident.) guilt of speaking Plot. The conspirators. those. blown was by gunpowder and all the thereby was killed* no Thi* doing the thing effectually. or novf erecting were at Glasgow. Here any warning servants. account of. is a* wretches whom a called themselves monument the followers of that has just been erected.ampTigtf RulmanLahyhorne "thosjevcie*gyrnea who "and Cornwall.plots. 6f ft Catholic zealous Church: lover but. concerning collected of h* the ' J^tfLmade inquiry and in together Mary. as . Ceci of the l. Elizabeth.

while more his parliaments and more day becoming and puritanical. ** to this Protestant Let hear more. committed we Murray. it had already - given 359. Eli- may certain. Xuther himself long 4( the companion ever often -die bed-feHow of this first Reformer. about and. Mur- charging Did their upon the who and innocent was. as last. let u if we 5th the of November. too." plot? devise us ness wickedno equal thea. (for their the son Protestants the i the the deed) 30tk of this January m anniversaryof Nobody and killingof better than of tine Jong Janes. betwixt the *' originally planned and devised and *' betk. and began blase. so as ** Mary" hell says. execution . have their 10 th that of Modern Athens/* it was of February. quite unequalled atrocity and the not on annals of human infamy therefore he himself in genein hro with for vigorous measures of the 'againstthe Catholics plot . murdered murdered son successor. 1625. but sal. was the own to defend original and and more inquitoiis part of in Morton conspirators. - himself He knew and the lustory of his father's they had with his mother's fkat both been murdered by Protestants. did itself. rites and every were ceremonies. in sras circumstances of . the must blood-thirstiness still have our of the Catholic Teligion . a father and came mother. them. murder the ray.Bothwell. spirit. that Protestant him him a reformation and which. and be Balfour the zabeth. with no and stronger aeemed Catholic were tincture of to haughtiness and go tyranny than his lather. inhabitants Let have the moral" disciplesof Knox. in church matters. Cecily Morton. too.. so devil. knew James end.ftb* Divers the grounds of quarrel between . at fury. and "* to Lethington. bat.Protestant Rotokm atioiK drama " [Lester The Eliza- " of disposition whole was the murderous and was this. that. towards the ple peo- wish to baek. did them. who in the more throne sense on the dee" with a of his father. to Charles I. account love now of plunder to sniaions iVesn "ave prevailed over him .

There to longer the policeof Old Bess. fceir himself 361.the purer and what Protestants called Reformation" Reformation. as before.} p*at Protectant Reform at ion. a Primate Established that church rarcb.which were real and numerous. ? If it were why wafc Charles's bead very sacred right to eeafiscate the adrift. finally brought. says not" were If he some stick man Henry VIII. seeing as ivbat badtrere. to unfortunate long trial and to the to block sure " ! All very gone bad be . to estates of the monasteries. Fisher.they ' became. more under Jfccially ever Wentworth. The by who been whole Catholics in were fering suf- the while. and and murdered those especially Ireland. having to main these people with of to the former. ground all was that of religion. " 1649.** begin a " Burnet were. sole under of the of of he of " The Parliament. of to auoidthousands' of others. Now. during the progress the reformation. the monks. the grandmother forgetting Cfcarfes -on be so a charge of treason. to watch connected puritansartfully crush all gainsayers. feme consequence as the endless change of creeds. and to turn death. friars. this Protestant . who eepe- iere plundered than "y and districts. them as and. with the re- feious principlesand pody of the ceremonies. having done great many thingsto exalt point of another power and dignity. Laud. accessary man" as to Re* to Ibrmarion." they called " a Mo- fmtgh godly I 360.9' thorough godly. rJriors. while in fcfere.Elf. and. to then. but all very natural.99 the in the rulers the Xmatry. wife. church and Protestant have Bug had tad learn was no that " Reformations/'like iron The comets. abbots." why complete it ? some such Cromwell If it right to put not to death More. they abolished Church and House Lords. had committed even injusun- before But committed was in that to country. or put nuns. and all this' the not enough of the the satisfy ins.and after baring phm* . besoon indifferent name the latter. Political grievances.

possessedthe plundered property ?* And. . common justice forbids :us to dismi Cromwellian paw to reign in . who had. a of* Bess'*" parson*. parson reasonably complaii may consider i C"qxwell. jnwhat whom .gallowses by German so bayonets.thissummary the caked way. in certaiuly. many and against them in during the .though mere. " real as " tyrant. pusted had one of Queen priest to Jhad betqalive.of. except as in the selling20." lie was put the. to and to whose descendan tl th loyalfrom firstto last?' And. Church. But. but. if it Church.. and.though.Reformation" Ahef first jasjatinj. iron. I 1 jtha . from 1649 (whose reign we to a ing made lasted 1659) therefore. though h" was a . of tfae cruel towards body"""f the Re "tion." " v have called. soldiers. fox..could that 362. Irish .^th a rod :of. which but and executors thorough* godly was Reform. though he the. at 'the 4une we speaking. a that ^. his ho . * 363. not with on of Bess's bayonets the aasy. him. b( wrong to ts n racks. V a seepnd. were is right to establish it: jpuins of the aucient and . and been made flyout at of hi* | hie bac bible-r age-house.'.i its s behold ?'information".f. toe' of one* of Cromwell's have godly. treat thaftCharles. he killed tfoeo act of mercy.three last ftro hatyefulnesB. reigns.000 did he. point of pdiousness far short of the 'ingratitudeof the Established-Churci coign "*fCharles JI. Indies slwves. $ maiden " ihing -would moseihan wtfuralissue. oould it be one on very a tapother newer its ruin* are now by means* great deal cm Jf. [tyrannicaland bloody." - Jered the latter xrf wen bo 4* *ax-xil^ sad +fo*f 4bii /Ctwld it be those who JProtestant very wrosg to take away merely the ti . e -to the -worse were W/est. eyeu of 4^d jaqt equal TOiiunitted point of atroqiousness.Parliament waa instrument in.

and expressly by Magna by prescription. been tifying jus- ousting of the Catholic bishops and who priests. . Lod particularlygood hear when Church-bishops out parsons and crying "jpacrilege" parsonage-houses turned of their whose talaoes . these and in " Christ. would eaumed lave former plunder (as they did part of it)and ! shared it out again It was reallygood abbey-lands " to see those 'godly "persons ousting from Lnts the in to the descend- of those it was who had got them Reformation" the the first . its the " Dihectoj^y. : aye. the the abbots ind vere Catholic bishops had ransacked were now been cathedrals. tpmt?s in churches.t% of nine hundred J*ars/ bo"k}.the destroyed in called a Reformation^ $a second. there was gene- against portraitsof windows.364. why this f4^ WX"*"iV"? - if . As n if to " make " Reformation" the second was much now a possible like ' Reformation" the first.s"Paa^"r Book. the raJ knocked crosses." BJnrer erty : This Reformation" proceeded just The as like the its main Church object was was now. As the be mass-books had been destroyed were Reformation" " church-book^ Gucsi^.. step which m. Church of of liished afiair.and tables phurcfoes in again altars) crusade .aii to and be used a new hook.JUL] PftOTESTAtfT that RSFOfcMATIOK. ind.there sbafige of dergy jeenr were religion made calumniated l"y laymen j as t as only.paintings on images the the rides out- of cathedrals. plunder. Chart as a. adored ^aA.and 34abltebed" was the a -" England Old -a* by law of only '' daughter the" Whore l"bylon. religious on* pictures. laid them . as remaining proand out of the far time shared other cir. they. if and had amoxjgvt have Reformers/' all the they had time." u"s no in place. the bishppe were shuf out of -Parliament . Cranmer's (put fdace qf a. cixucch to pieces ." mass* And. who lives and Protestant predecessorstoad. Catholic the CJiu/ch- the clergy h#d as . ^instances be " would allow/ confiscated who. . the all their long..Qre imitation of Henry VI Ilths V Christian : 3^Un" not u*4 1Craniner.

. surely. 365. which the just 'distinction.Protestakt Reformation. unless.'9 as ' alifc ha mother and daughter ever were. the and. of only hundred of standing. any It was in the cut a steel. that with the bei tm to put the latter down aid of the were. be by Oerman it could might naturallyenough wrong wielded we thought. much pair of Reformations. and no the' former. and - never approved of by one half the peo the for might also down. way. top! aid of the hare wielded in paragraph 2 troopi not the sword. died heroes of " scaffold. longer. " The Reformation every were a the second were g BiMe-readers.pillagedand did the latter sacked just the Cromwell. and approved of by all the be ye stroyed. not there wl have been told. rob seems a poor. and difference other an daughter had being. indeed. as a one of the chief ag" the " in her work. something peculiarly agreeabt of German " Englishmen. the except as latter did had died done not. at the same time. could one standing. was commissio and to to make a godly reformation the latter heresies afr so in the " church. way : "i all the interpreted in his or they were the Bible without his comment. The mother Cromwell (see paragraph 157) the two . that the one Cromwell. [Lett people." the chtu that for. " Roger account Norte of all 8 in Protestant) of Ex of amen gives an committed blasphemies and horrors by these pec . and almost man' became. at time in " preacher. If itwere as we quite rightto put seen that. and The soldiers claimed uncommonly as gifted one they right to preach arms own of the ditions upon "he which they Bible note " bore against the king. was in the a was Thomas and Oliver " former Cromwell of errors. when on a tyrant wanted services 366. the in his bed." and commissioned in the a thoroughly godly Cromwell same reformation church. with and be destroyed. la former and confiscated.the Prayer-Book. by English troops.

declaring that pretty pianks to play . and he had. particularcommand God. mark then of .the abolition the 11.into Ian thorn message to "f Walton-upon-Thames. enefit were inspiration of the Holy and his soldiers " Ghost" be Cromwell to " deprived of of this be the allegation? Poor only people in godly fettow. alleging that. and third. ministers magistrates.} bo fead Protestant Reformatio*. then ? " Cranmer Bess ail " differingfrom an these.as their What. are at time. a new why ? Vbat ?arvin oth sent right had another and Luther new make and religion. twwr a woman monstrous her cutoff she had head a of child. poisoned Hence the minds all the had at sorts of of nearly the * whole crimes* of the At immunity. that tiling md iim. " the enlightened soldiers right ? The former of CromwelKs all be deprived of the " this alleged. say aH new that contrary and new ? Why interpretation ? If there not a ot ne these monstrous sects could thousand v be one religion.they . but. the calf that And " cock. the would out one if they did mark of the a listen as light. creed to made. only of specimen. and to were a fifth light he that also pulsed to setting "re abolishedL These pa* Bible. from not God. as a of the abolition of the of all tithes of second. woman .s.II. the people. afebath that He he be with had damned a a and them five candles. why not were bey to the world qualifiedfor whom for themselves feiiaoskig a religion ad c and ? for those One of they church -at the : point of their as bayonets North a Cromwell's the godly" soldiers went. was executed the same York. the read his own killings in Bible and. for crucifying sacrificed horrors a a mother. upon good Were to make to improvenew Cranmer's were these make reHarmy and 4ofts. if who is retry man " he to he he acts new interpreter of to his own that book. hen. from her Ike Abraham. the mark as abolition *" church dues. not ddly teae Reformation horrors ? We . fcese only amongst " of thorough why . and one then one. to they put . the athority. relates.

consequence ation.i standing that Catholics. and after cruel of " that the to again. nor part of the . of it regaimdb it be* been c its power. a persecuted. it was ther civil war. pounds for the for the third as and not with yean' imprisonment rip had out and did hang their bowels. as had in the to possession. foo.and ments - respect.. if we This. attempted to. fanatics were. drals Cathe- Churches r Colleges. never and outrageous were deeds.'Catholic ^consider who ' belong and the to the Catholics. from . were all the work when of we piety learning this. those wicked who the said Church or of England Bad their done by heard as mass. these new be surprisedthat such possessors. this Church once England felt conscious. [LEtTE* of UrE^fw"- were the natural. hearing. persecute. in churches in private families a but.seems of of nature. when do we consider every this. that first sight. ten . the " inevitable.that they should thing in their con- power prevent the people irom seeing. indeed* follow it . are be to surprised. and .had way i* signalized themselves.Church of England hid the moment aye. these ones. Id one '367. that. hut. when it had too. we hare seen we course work. that its that the possessions did and .. and notwith. by " viewed and her by Chi side of those forbade and inflicted the also with use good Bess They tke of the Common-Prayer-Book . those with punishments when " of down compared oak-planks. came more restoration the Charles even II." P"OTJESTAXT RBFO"ttAJW*. consider.can got we and disinterestedness. j. and make njew command on people to they inflicted were the refractory. however. to in every possiblefor*them at aid out the royal cause. Of all ranks degrees. offence. during which 368. new reformers a the old They did. the first. but. Catholics Bess than and iaju the reign good the Queen ". they for the three them aov as disobedient penalty oijive pounds second! . by of this -means. with the hasrht t dredth done cruelty that it did .

a their side. which may the be added notorious fact. of the true Winchester Bishop North's was religion.and ThVChuith t"f all William paisons of Wickhams are false one3? the who sects tolerant enough the towards de- ficriptiojK: quite 4ove Quaker. any thing like approaching that of the There side is.their functions pains to funerals ? Why this keep what the Catholic religionout -of but these en sight? argue any Men may but pretend they wilj. now. during get a the. to clerical at habiliments.between one married have clergy. when anxious perform . that. we men. the and Church absolutely implacable to hostility of not as the are Catholics. Church Bill to brought prevent up the ment Parlia-from (as the clergy did) taking a Protestant that a scholars. Why. the well-known of the Catholic superiorityof learning on to clergy . have day. would hostility on to-morrow though there is. when the part of nuns came those take to pains. too. forbidden in their appear streets. English over England. in fair controversy.XII. . and. and all -even in private houses. and an not married. have the always triumphed. to Catholis forbidden whose else to steeplesor us our bells their chapels? our They. to To what are else to ascribe. To what religion gave are we steeples and their bells ! even to to ascribe. that in the priests or are. the this but this as the deep-rooted. French Revolution. .besides that.a very disadvantageous difference.1 PaOTESTAKT REFORMATION. The former will never influence latter. the the with the people. into them and settled at Winchester. toaptis""and rejects . persevering Established Catholics. cease and possessions. inflexible. whom true tracting a respect for those ousted the away these cause new possessors had X Here we hare the of all the the of hostility Take . Church the of England Clergy towards the Catholics. that. and they would in the was give take Bill only upon scholars ? Did ados. of pains' the thing who consciousness those being right. Hence Catholics. Parthat promise argue that not such ikm conviction minds the the. a wide.

x

Protestant
hands

Reformation.

[Letter
Unitarian, and
tell
not
us

the him

sacrament

;

shake

with

the

allotf

openly to impugn
a man

that, which
be saved

they

in the

Praj"fJ
,

Book,

cannot

if he do

firmly believe in; /
present
to

suffer these, aye,

and

even

JEWS,
to

to

churchligion re-

livings,and
all the

refuse that

right

Catholics, from
!

whose

church-livings came
then,
can

ISC

369.

Who,

doubt

of the

motive

of

this

cable implabeing

this hostility,

watchfulness, this everlasting

rancorous

jealousy that
put down
the
came

never

sleeps?

The

common

enemy

by

the

restoration
more

of Charles, the Church
ever.

felljipon

Catholics
out

with

fury than
mount,
either the his than

This
in
or

king, who
with

of exile

to

throne father
both

1660,

still

more a

prodigalitythan
great
deal
more

had grandfather,

sense

put

together, and,
was,
on

in

spite of
his

all his well-known manners,
a

he profligacy, favourite
be
a

account

of
was

popular

with

his

people; but, lie
his

strongly suspected to
more

Catholic
his

in

heart, and

his
an was

honest

brother, James,
Catholic.
series
acts

presumptive heir, was
reign of Charjes II.
or

openly declared
dne

Hence of

the

continued
scene

plots,sham

real; and

one

unbroken

of
were

of

fraud, injustice,
to

and

ing. false-swearbut

These

plots ascribed
Even
this this the

the

Catholics,
in
to

really
which
there
"

plots against
took is
*

them.

great fire
ascribed

London, them, and
base
to a,

place during charge,
to

reign, was

the

day, going round

the

of

the

Monument," bully.
"

which

Pope

justly compares

big, lying

Where Like
a

London's
tall

column,
its

pointing head,
and

to

the

skies,

"

bully, lifts
"

lfcs."

The
"

words

are

these

:

This

monument

is erected

in memory the

of the

burning
in

of A.

this

Protestant

city, by

Popish
of the far

"

faction,

Sept.

D.

1666,
of old

for the

destruction

"

Protestant

religion and
of

English liberty,and
slavery.
But

"(

the introduction

Popery

and

the

fury of

XII.]
"the

Protestant

Reformation.
It

Papists

is not

yet satisfied.''
made

is curious

enough,

that this

was inscription

by

order
was

of Sir afterwards

Patience
convicted in

Ward,

who,

as

Pchard

shows,

of perjury.

Burnet
that he

(whom
"

we

shall
a

find

full tide

by-and-bye)says,
"

one

Hubert,
the

French Higgons
a

Papist,
testant, (a Pro-

confessed

that

began
that

fire";

but

mind,)
Ra the
was
pin

proves

Hubert

was

Protestant, and
better
than

agrees
the

with

Higgons!

Nobody

knew
; but
men

King
a

monstrousness

of this lie
Such
;

Charles
have

II.

lazy, luxurious unfeeling
owed his and

debauchee.

always
who

been
twice

ungrateful
to

and

this

King,
who

had
in

life

Catholic
his

priests,and
at

had,

fifty-two
(some
of

instances, held
them very immense

life

the he

mercy
was
a

of Cathplics

poor)
for

while held

wandering
taking him,
this Irish
black fligate projects sub-

fugitive,with
and

rewards

out

for

dreadful

punishments
whose
a

concealing him;
his annals

king,

ingratitude to

faithful of
that this

is without 4ad the
meanness

parallelin
and It the
was

the

sin,

injustice to
effaced

suffer
his the it

scription lying inand
cessor suc-

to ;

stand.
when it
was

by
and

brother
"

but,
came,

NDutchman
;

glorious

lution" revo-

restored the
mere

and

there

now

stands,
contain

all
a

the
most

world, except

mob,

knowing

it to

malignant

lie. like

370.

By conduct

this, by

thus

tical encouraging the fana-

part of his subjectsin their wicked

designs, Charles
which
set

II.
were

prepared
excluded who
was,
was

the way

for those
throne

events
ever.

by
To

his aside

family

from
an

the

for

his brother
7

avowed
a

Catholic,

was

their great
;

object.

This

indeed,
was

monstrous

attempt
to

but; legally considered,
to

what the

it

more

than

the illegitimate Elizabeth prefer ? issue

legitimateMary
that
to
"

Stuart

What
"

was

it more,

than should

to

enact,
heir

any

natural ?

of

the former
could

be

the

throne

And,
,

how

the

Protestant

Church

when complain of it,

its great

makeft Cranmer, had

Protkstawt

Reformation.

[Letter

doote and
was

his*best
to
no

to

set

aside

both
on

the
the

daughters of Henry VIII.,
throne ?

put

Lady

Jane
for

Grey

In short, there

precedent

of inheritance, for annulling the rights

setting aside
property and
of the
not

for disregarding the prescription,
of person,
that
:

safety of
laws
"

for

violating the
of the
"

fundamental Reformation
to set

kingdom,

the

records
this

did

amply furnish
on

and of his

daring attempt
be

aside
as

James
was

account to

religion,might

trulysaid,
it was,

it
a

said,

be

a

Protestant
acted

principle ; Nand
upon in
a

too,

principle most
wards*

decidedly

few

years

after.

37L

James
as

I!,

was

sober,frugal in sparing of
and

his expenses, the

mical econo-

to

public matters,
;

people's purses,
he
a

pcsus,

and

sincere and

but

weak

obstinate,and
him
not

was

a

Catholic,

his

piety and

made sincerity

match

\
If
i

for lis* artful,
the existence hidden

numerous
a

arid

deeply
had
to

interested the

foes.

of

few

missionary priests in
wainscots,
in order
mass

country,
sands thou-

though

behind

called

forth the

of

pursuivants,
;
as

protect
a

testant Prohad that if easy all the sides bea

Church been Church Catholic
to
see

if

to

hear

in with

private house
the

regarded
;

incompatible
to

safety

of

what

was

be
to

the sit
on

fate
the

of

that

Church,
? It and
was

king
that

continued

throne

the the

ministry, the
government,
it
was

army, would

the navy,
soon

offices under
Catholics Catholics

contain

few

; and

also

easy

to

see

that, by degrees,
in the
as

would

be

in the the

parsonages
was as

and zealous

episcopal
was

as palaces,especially

king

he

cere. sinbe

The
so

"

Reformation"
men

had had

made

consciences under

to

of

pliant a nature,
forward
with the
so

changed,
that

it, backward
the

and

many

times,

this last

of (the filling

Church

Catholic

priestsand general, and
but

bishops,)wTould, perhaps, particularly amongst
little alarm.
soon saw

amongst

people

in

the
not
so

higher classes, have
with

produced

But,

ikf clergy themselves, who

their

danger, and

PsmzsTji^rr

REFaaMATios.

.':

"

passive"

as

they

wece,

lost

no

time,

in

te": preparing-

it. ". Janes'
r as

acted,

as

far

a*

the

law

would,
to

let

him, and
ttar

prerogative would

exable

hirn

go

beyond;

"n

of general toleration. principles sectaries. Butt the

By

thai he had

obAaineaV.' got the*
tbem"" of
a

tipporfc of the

Chinch

things,
es

and

it re"olredy if possible, to
the
"

keep
rest
oee"\

this, though

abbey lawis
and
the

and poor, the
so

the
had

the?; long.,"
and bat*.

Tpperty of the
'"

Church

hfUhe

peaceable possessionof
the time
was

theniowners very distant

predecessors;
xble ized of

net

lawyers, having their opinions backed
army,

by
and

a

well-*,
a
v

might still find
Edward

a

flaw

in* here
and it

there,

Henry VIII.,
what

VI.,

Old

Betsy.
the

Be
-

thoughts
ib
re

they mighty conspicuous

certain and
most

id,that

most

'and of 'the

most
"

efficient of
took the

the
.

Glorious which and been

Revolution" drove his James
were

which from

place

seen

"

vards,
pith his
tors

and

throne, togethose time whose

*

heirs
not

house,
of took

amongst
at

had

out

the Way

the

w"ea

ig of the
3.
to

abbey
motives been

lands
so

place.

x

.

With have the

powerful against him,
prudent and
severe

the

king
He

"

uncommonly
He
was

wary:

-

just
ed
3S

contrary.
however

towards be.

all^ho
Souse

his who
sent

views,

powerful they might

presented a
to the

very

insolent, but artful,petitionto
them them

le

Tower,

had
to
see

prosecuted acquitted.
moderation

for As

a

libel,
to

ad lour

the

mortification

the
not

of the Catholics,
from the them.

prudence and
Look and
at

was

expected
the

the

fines,

the

burning
the

racks,

gibbets,
if it
were

the both
novv

of ripping-knives natural be
a

eigns, and joy
j

say

not

and

just, that
bounds,
must not

and

exultation

should

without

were,
a

alas ! of short been

duration,
formed

for

plan (we

t

plot) having

for

compelling

the

king

Protestayt

Reformatio*.

to

give

up
as

his it

tolerating
was

projects,
the

and

"

to

settle

the

ktsg
act
s

dom,"

called,
without

planners,
the Prince
to

without

any

parliament,
whatever,
was

and

consulting
the

people
of

in

any

vt]

invited Stallholder
to

William^
of assist
been

Orange,
ovtr

wh with

the

the
them

Dutch,
in
"

cone

\

Dutch AH

army

settling."
the

Ahe Dutch
to

Jangdosi

things
had
in

having.
been

duly
to

prepared,
get
from

guard
London the the the
sj

(who

suffered

Torbay
came

perfidy palace
having
his

the

English
thmsted
"

army)
out

having English
of
a

to

km$ kiaj

and

the
"

guardst
in for and
to

seen

one

settling

sovereign,
no

reign*
as!

father,
of took
the

and,
same

apparently,
sort,
in

having
from instead
his

relish

another his

tling
and

fled

his

palace
of

kingdws,
distuj

shelter

France,

fleeing
round

some

English
if of
he the

city
had

and

there the

rallying
event

people
as

him,

whi4|
condsf

done,

would,
been

the

subsequent
from

people

proved,

have

very

different

whatl

was.

374. Reformation
its

Now

came,

then,
third
;

the when

"

glorious
we

Revolution,"
taken
a

the and

and,
we

haye
how

view

progress

.completion,
extorted,

shall
the the

see

it, in

its

nal

consequences, that their hundred

fpr

long-oppressed
justice
in vain and for

Cat)

relief,

which,

by they

appeals
had

to

humanity
than

persecutors,
years.

sought

more

No.

Xllf.

LETTER

XIII.

lt

GLmuous"
Dutch

Revolution,
Kino
of

or

Reformation Army.

the

Third.

TheThe

and

his

delivering

"Crimes"

James

II.,

with

Elucidations.

Parliamentary The
Protestant
and

Puiuty. Bish"p
others
of

Jocelyn.
the

sydney,
Habeas
Settlement

protectant

patriots.

Corpus'

Act. American

of

Colonies.

Kensington, My

31*/

October,

1835.

Friends,
375. At the
over

close with

of
an

the

last Number,
to
"

we

saw

a

man Dutch;

invited
we

army
come

settle"

the and

kingdom
thrust
out

saw

the

Dutch

guards
; we
saw

London to,4

the

English guards
take*

the

King

of

England
his
own

flee for his
army
now

and life,

refuge
to

in

France,
him.
we

after

had clear

Wn

seduced
actors

abandon this
manner

The
have
we

stage
now

being
to
see

for the
*ent
to

in

affair,

how

they

work, the
unceremonious

of which
as

shall find

as

summary could

tad
l*?e

as

heart, however

Protestant,

possiblywished.

Protestant The

Reformatio*. the Lord
Common

[Let
Mayor
and Al

376.
men

King being
with members
to
a

gone,

of London, lords and
as

parcel of
of
the

Councilmen,
Pa
t

such
merits
out

late

King Charles's

chose

join them, went,

in

February 1688,
or

any

authorityfrom
into
to
was

King,
"

Parliament

people,
Westmir

forming themselves
gave the Crown

a

Convention/9
(who
was
a

at

William
a

Dutchman)
but
;

his

wife

(who

daughter of James,
EVER take
;

who

I

brother
oaths

and their posterity FOR alive),

made th"

of
to

allegiance for imprison,
to ten at

the

people

to

enabled

King

pleasure, all
from
them the

whom all the

he

might sus}

banished,

miles

London,
all
over

Papists, pr rej. kingdom
;

Papists,and
advowsons
new

disarmed

; ga"
to

of

Papiststo

Universities
land-taxes

granted

Majesties excise duties,
ct

and

poll-tax*
themi

the
to

necessary be the
"

defence of
Houses

the realm

;" declared
as

Two

of Parliament

legally as
usual
as we
"

ij
:'

had this

been

summoned called
a
"

according

to

the

form
Prote
the

they

glorious Revolution/'
day. After
of
"

call it to this present

Reformation
the
was
"

sc

and

upon and

the

restoration

Charles, plunder,

palace
restoi

livings
those

other whom
to

indestructible
the the
"

from

thorough godly
Irish,
most to

had had

tak

except, however,
this

Catholic
had

who

foug
thi t

King's father, who
and who
were

suffered left still
is
an

cruellyfor
be

himself,
"

plundered
of

thorough godly," which
no

instance

ingratitud
world.
1

as, in ever,

other

case,

has

been

witnessed

in the
men

there

were,

after the

restoration,

enough

.

tend, that the episcopalpalaces and

other property,

. vast he." why set at should hundred sake did of unquiet possession be "a nought for the How of the making Church thorough godly this Reformation"? Clergy answer question? Why. Abbey-Land ! If nine at years of of it. in the Address. were " Magna at Charta the sake one rightto set these nought for the not of making only years a godly Reformation. granted touched resume away by the " thorough godly/' ought grants VIII? to were not to be . a or. and authorityfrom King. actually setting upon the King any and putting another throne." though meets nat much enemy the question in this way. V 2 . in was Dr. not why not of Henry Aye. persons a parcel of Common chose to Councilmen. a afterwards of the of the at " Dean of great enemy less an thorough Catholics. Parliament. if those those resumed. but Lord and Mayor each aside without of London.or people. there such needs were between disproportion acts * contracts. if it and Xfuiet possession. for that. Would a king. the " godly. not This have Doctor two died a little too soon. the consent "c legallypassed by and have both the the king's authority. why Church hundred back indeed ! Here and to the was a question to put owners the Clergy . as founded upon of parliament. he Houses of Parliament. and those which "c other ground but the bare votes. of be tended." Churchseen. and orders. By the two the same logic alone it might "" Houses have authority to depose 377. Hampshire. con- Cc Houses that only. and who was Rector of Alresford who Westminster. other one as join them. Heylin.-XIIL] cated and Protestant Reformatio*.says. with three u approbation of no estates. [head that of bis " History of Reformation must certainly the be a where first.

shall. did not succeed d Protestants. grow he would other it . did in common ustice. the charges which Ai people preferredagainst James knew II. He . We 378. equally glorious things directly had a of and. that and heen As in what and William degree they have his see things had that and us been done under Protestant been after sovereigns. well with but above preface. How- people from to and. that. that have the they the List ever. [Lfctrfil ft lie would if he " bare lived " heard to our this called " a wd. " Reformation" James his II.though thej. let delivered Statute-book the reallywas. perfectly well. before we drawn against these this Catholic King. in which up of Charges. and did. first. in due time.. but. we there still stands refer to. have out seen had day. all. we ought. England (being Doctor's a Protestan written Orleans the could " do the no tvrong "/ book. to revolution glorious** was thing them be repeaki. army have de* liverers.as applied if' George III. ttat notwithstanding Blackstone a " told the never thrift AinericaDS.Protestant Reformatio*. glorious" thing. the and Catholic religion was let us see incompatible with things public freedom King than had justify what this Catholic were worse reallydone.! called our Dutch what it . of The th " a King "glorious" affair. examine charges. to see something of the COST of this that lowed "glorious" this were revolution and upon the ing seepeople.. lvappily. justify tells us. quoted. almost glorious ** for word. here. after ' naughty Yankees. r" Doctor to " Heylin would have word heard repeating.to notice certain things that James not do. as Pierre to convert his first wife Cathie religion. revolution the the exclusion acts which fol- it founded that principle.

"that"there These were of bread. of Protestant done. the charges year. he charged with having done. gibbets. Wiq. but. Protestant eourt done. in Act. had He'd id not. nor did the he impose even any far fines for as purpose end am but.12 in number. on to contrary.as a punishment for f.racks. and they stand. Edward VI. PftOTSSTAUT . convert and boring irons. burn his starving or on with fiubjects them the breast as the forehead and en* slaves. / .JUIIJ did not. the next the at had been matter Dutchman his wife. do. . Sess.James. to was which things. being purely of Protestant from come " birth. I Catholic " : for forgetting : we shall find amongst crimes and yes. an all 'persecution this account of religion: his deas oh ! but. when and there the againstJames crown postponed until actually given to . reallydid. would be they did monopoly in the time even good Bess. had m Pbotestant done. chap. in a -minions. as a fourpence bushel. or. Indictments do not some come generally 379. give monopolies to his salt.which. like hot iron chains that on young Saint. doubt let us Catholic the bigotry" did he not And.2. to ripping-knives people to this [.deavouring to as relieve their Betsey hunger by begging. at now. was and bushel. fourteen pounds a go on. No they came 2 out last .for instance. RftFO"HATIOY. till. put. and M.*wrman troopsinto the country to enforce a changeof |'%ion.so about thus to make ki" day. Hake nor did a wear he. of " feared. on as he wad "able. amongst the of hisbeiuga proofs ! termined intolerant Betsey as Popish tyrant had He did not. for were cause or other.i his faith . make use whips. and after judgment execution. which least. the Parliament at last. amongst the things* no which. bring re- f.

" That and he assumed and exercised and the a power execn- of dispensing with suspending laws. be said they contained could even against this Popish King. when the Bank stopped give its it ever payment assent to in the And. dispense not Betsey and when we James a suspend. ? of ? or they took composition from seen recusants Again. did with. Did did his any suspend of State that Ah the Habeas ever Corpus whom let the and was Act? Secretaries imprison they pleased. in was in in employing foreign officers the the crown granting pensions from there no to foreigners? And the of suspension 1797 ? law. without he did hot consent of Parliament.Protestant Reformatio*. CHARGE " I.laws. law." and so destitute of discrimination between a not perceivethe consent ing astonishof Parliament ! difference and a dungeon consent with dungeon II. * [Lxttei that We will take all them that one by one. and is laws without consent liament of Parthe and 3 Was 'there. i putting of foreigners military. " without of Parliament CHARGE That he committed and prosecuted . But. "i tion of laws. enforce which those had laws tious against conscienin Catholics. or been her enacted successor former I." cruel " That is to say. causing of to that stoppage? And. did Parliament . has |* given civil to or its assent the in offices of trust. bearing in mind. no the dispensing with English army. reigoa. or to the granting of pensionsfrom James ever the crown ? foreigners But. ! but captives out Ministers " when did in what he his this way of as (ifthey Parliament to did any thing) who is all done without consent . hare ourselres never any pension sus- dispensing with there.in gaol or dungeon they pleased ? they pleased.

been imprisoned. to be from ex- u concurring to the as said assumed were powers. heavens for How similar of persons want refusal. sentenced costs must . called Ecclesiastical than name " the Court Bless " Commissioners What! was for this the sort u Causes.X are passed by so parliament. the on a day only. 5d. which to SIX ACTS." He prosecutedthem he committed because that it ! a and libellers. if humane . do not Protestant of professor a nity huma- And.not uttering any a only for libelling king his throne. tended con- why ? they refused was give bail. Os. But conviction. good God not court of this months now ? And (no longer than wife about nine ago) Sarah Wallis (a labourer's " of Hargrave folk). and and was she not goal for non-payment a she not have rotted per- in jfaol. is that all? Oh." worse i good Betsey's real ! have under inquisition. we no same ! was And. from tyrannical Catholics us excluded. libel on a if he had refused his give bail.XIII*] * PftftTZSTAVT REFORMATIO*. For may on be banished for for life. effectually declare law free land! that Protestants. this has always been no! the we of the now And. having not in shilling the world.but to thing that has a DENCY TENI bring either House III. . direr* cused for humbly petitioning worthy prelates. or for of to give ability bailon not a charge of libel. during the Clement have to last eight years other ! Would Mr. And them before trial to and and. by this Court sent to to 24Z. to they such been tyranny many in him scores demand have bail ! prisoned im- Oh. in Nor- for having brawled" pay in the church-yard. " of Parliament he issued of us! a into contempt CHARGE u That commission for erecting a Court. not but on a charge of kingupon ? throne. they acquitted.

"That for and to the use of by pretence manner. the the Parliament sale of grant Betsey the right raise money by monopolies. in this respect. in time ! without - of peace" consent without Parliament.who this law charges against James. of prerogative. by other compositions with ? But did we offenders. in full force benefit ? he levied money CHARGE " IV. ia virtusof any ear sentence passed.Paotxitakt sons R"FOftMATiojr* to [Limt by the had not forward itepptd ? enable her to jet out this Court now. and to then burnt with iron in the check. were indeed qv That very to wicked. the crown. meat/' and in other than that exact granted by Parliamore " It is not . be sure. and. good year'shop duty. cannot te agreeably of young the above to Protestant * Saint was EdwarcTs Acts. for other was " time. " That consent he kept a standing of army. There only 6even eight thousand men. of James's to a being shifted from wisdom and another much 1 with ever mercy . the did the revolution leave Protestants." ! Ah was of Parliament. but pretended he was he levied as money than man' was granted Did not to the time and to ner.condemn to one who attempts in fight a church-yard. V. if the offender ' " ears" under (which speaks volume! Protestant as to to the be state of the a people hot Edward). from strict law did not greater amount. Insolvent thoee which Act And. but I very deviated whole value doubt having. not be excommunicated besides? drew up for our And. . have no haw one cut off. seeing that difference sixteen his ] revenue exceed (taking the in the of money a into account) much above times the ajnpunt of CHARGE. and lately hear year to by the various of her means not one of hop duty payment Doubtless.

the memorable nor are we lent. But. ones but. these were good . August. whether nor of James's joyed priestsen- militaryhalf-pay. there not see law'* for this. had never thingas consent a barrack been Think heard of. mind that. a SIX ACTS enough not " king's subjects . This coming with dethroned up with such his king's father cut had army been and head had been off by an kept consent were. militia all. for do not account having brought reign fo- any into England. contrary of the " Jaw. districts " of he England. And. affairs that at Manchester. if is And besides. without of Parliament the ! of the vast difference between consent consent prick of and that a bayonet coming without of one of ! Parliament. in whole VI. to were Papists disarmed. however. they wanted was reform of " the House of Commdns. and of especially even having caused generalsto command and the English troops.] and such a Protestant Reformation. and the time to that " both disarmed armed employed. foreign of James's his in we the situation find any to armies . That v violated the freedom of 5 . then. caused several at CHARGE " That be good subjects. are have same no of with making regard whatever a comparison. of in Parliament . as these We matters. gare any we " informed. there people will between what a prising sur- difference and disarmed being disarmed useless* to by Into by proclamation. it really is breath " spend raluable Protestant upon them. historyis quite siany are we told. he CHARGE VII. ": at his pleasure. same being Protestants. whether he half-pay." aye. 1819.XIII. any 16th such of Whether as there the time oh of James.or consent took it away.and to without of Parliament means so that.

and Castlereagh. was a violation of the freedom the wicked bad thing. strous! mon- to serve Parliament/' the sun Aye.or of the crown Britain. Protestant the " reader. the hands. of or crime all King James things with He is own not having done but these tongue. condemn king for having we " violated the freedom matter to of elections"! pass But.the the Parliament the year had with exclusively Protestants 1809: shut That. and briefly as possibly can. wicked my ministers and councillors!1 think that this a Well . in a proofof the principlesof Popery which and I ? a If you take following facts. living wicked dead. : filled in Parliament since throne year George were That. Catholics a Know. been That be it for ever remembered. do of a you think. voters shades Perceval .. Come come "notorious of sainted and at noonday"! up. but do Protestant of elections readers.PaOTESTANT election of Members and REFORMATION. must not suffer this off in the that this to of joke. throne for more That than have years: excluded from have the the hundred they ever been excluded Charles 2 2d from the English from Parliament Irish since ever reign of the and in II. truth which and ought honour state as to have place worfc to be like this. with having done with aid of " divers you. ye sons of Sarum Gatton and assemble. for violating of freedom was elections in Members ? his them serve in Parliament accused pen. which and justice demand I recorded. and do. ' then. in as [LlTTBl Oh. "That Minister in Great or it is HIGHLY any CRIMINAL other servant Mi- " nisters. and of this purity of election. and of the III. out 1779. . long and long after Catholics been of the English Parliament. therefore. " the House of Commons for any resolved. way " come.

" acted for.then. the to " Lord. for Dick the in the : I affirm. (only sixteen last resolution for Boston. following a That this on of May. " the House " the 25th of April of that year. House think it then necessary " ceed to any the criminatingresolutions 11th respectingthe same. words. resolved. resigninghis seat in that Htuse. upon Mr. an honour. Castle- " the attempt. purchased Borough of seat in the House the of Commons. and that Mr. basis of our free constitution. and behalf of. and ence attempt exercise the 'u is an attack the dignity. present instance not (that of Lord been "i reagh and Mr. passed) William a Member to wit " " made that charge Mr. agency Cashel. " through who a of the on Honourable Henry Wellesley."" and a 1809. That while all it was the a boundenduty of jealous guard upon its that House its to maintain ujit " times upon purity. " recent questionof to importance.. to REFORMATION. . a Privy ing hav- Councillor. of directly or make use the power of his * in order office. that. influence the that upon an election to of Members that of influthe " Parliament. the the last Treasury . pass and not to suffer any attempt in the to privileges unnoticed."" days after Madocks.] H PROTESTANT to indirectly. and happy attempt "sap That. having had charged before about the House with something on do bartering a seat in the House. Reding). was 1809. when to Dick " had noble man determined vote according did his conscience. Castlereagh. did not having carried to into pro- " that effect. Lord been to Minister Castlereagft. independence infringement an of the to 11 rightsand the in the liberties of the and people. the or intimate that the gentleGovern- " necessity of either his voting with " ment.1tlII. and " of Parliament.

the though the leader 6tfr of August. I charge the right " gentleman.. into was TENDENCY !" bring THAT this HOUSE |i CONTEMPT THAT for Lord Castlereagh Secretary to of State foreign affairs." made made his into charge. vacate seat ac- " of the and alternative. he cut THAT. having for INQUIRY the give me leave " call them. matter:" vote:" Madocks a motion the to That. if the House That. did. honourable and that to this transaction. three all question was and mind put the were hundred ninety -five Members : " House. coroner's the himself him that been in Kent .and it!" in THREE tbis the same HUNDRED PROTESTANT OF pass FOR to TEN against THAT. 1819. and that evidence showed. This I engage will as being prirj. prove bf " witnesses to your " bar. in the of the close THAT of he continued Commons be the leading Minister Protestant) until House of the clusively (ex- session of 1822. at Perceval. that a jury declared to have had insane. on Parliament.and " cordingly. That in and the after there a debate. you were Protestants. it. choice sooner than latter vote did make against his principle*. which on took 12th and place on the 6th August of North of that year. to " having connived at it. THAT a K MOTION VERY SAME any of LORD us CASnow TLEllEAGII. of Th the an at (come up hear accusers James FIVE and Catholic gion!) reliki it "' "i there EIGHTYAND for inquiry. he had he been insane of the at for several House the up to weeks. his own the of that 'same killed month at August. Cray.PioTKSTAXT " Reformatio** [LsttiiJi his Dick. been throat. BANISHED a law by wliich for may be LIFE publishing any VERY thing having . and though ho was. Mr. Mr. moment .

corrupt. the naughty deeds arbitrary the divers king! instead other cannot - have jury-trial for try of ! parliament-men. they what being specified. to however. he for and promoted matters prosecutions in the zable Court of King's and he That did things cognidivers is to say. ALL? more Aye. too.when even she rioters pleased. That and bad" is he caused juriesto be who composed W/ere " partial." and at no which. great assemblage people gave loud and long-continued cheers of exultation. in free many men and enlightened liberal years. which there are " attempted no be given. Very unqualifiedpersons.] when he Protestant killed Reformation. CHARGE " VIII. himself. than law that." a he jury matters which the and Parliament wished keep to itself! Oh. as by his a and colleagues.XIII. Betsey dispensed tried and we juriesaltogether. minutes their at only for beim* time out of their houses and (which Ah the castles) consent an between sunset sunrise? Oh! I had ! but this is with of Parliament! iuiswer. That's . and 15 calls Protestant OUT WITHin a days. " That Bench . appointed9* by Master of Crownnot to Office. that. other that " only in Parliament and before that " arbitrary brought to to unlawful things.we they " were. of the it was taken of the hearse.and by martial and seven punished not vagabonds our own and law. Secretary of foreign and affairs. days. rate. As to of such say letting them themselves not arbitrary things. State for. and also temporary Secretary for the Home colonies! " ment Departbody over that of the THAT mourned out his was buried in Westminster Abbey-church. forgotten that. do now. see transported for AT ANY numerous JURY cases. CHARGE of IX. of not no " freeholders. with But. if true. came mention that after Catholic Protestant kings were abolished. One any were specialjuries the in those They. proof. thing. the instance.

But. at expiration of pounds. of seven Protestant accused of Bishop stood. for having expressed militia German men. a troops. late and of the present on Earl of Rodek. I take these at three Charges together. with a seven twcfsureties hundred pounds each. the amiable Protestant bail-works appeared most conspicuously. fines hath been imposed cruel XII. Convention. and pay fine of YEARS." That excessive CHARGE and and illegal CHARGE " XI. from the oaths TESTANT PROnesses. while our qannot allow. [Lftteb hath" That been excessive bail persons (by de k Judges. As Protestant . appeared bail of so Protestant and bail.works gentle and so amiable here." not Protestant we Deliverer" but does that cite any instances. Percy Jocelyn. fled from trial though Bishop finally . "oldier of the foot Guards and our which Protestant London) q/i unnatural offence. " Reformation. a for many years. look Protestant to Betsey'sand our James reigns. coming my own times I. indignation at in the was the floggingof English localEngland. wit- BISHOP witii such an (charged. punishments inflicted. in the 500/. the years the to imprisoned time. Bishop uncle Clogber. thousand give bail for SEVEN pounds The " myself thousand the " in three thousand with two sureties who in two gave us pounds each. been about fifteen thousand . to elude the benefit of the made fir " libertyof the " subject. under in a a heart two of guard of gaol. twelve or income had. to fines and I/s bail. of lenity but." 380. exacted in two only a five hundred pounds. on enormous of whose offence).PrPtestant CHARGE X. bail taken of the Protestant Right of rend Reve- Father brother which of the in God. in the oaths nesses.in 1822. of cdurse) " " required of committed laws criminal the cases. had to felon's a and." " That he had made and promises sod on grants of fines before conviction judgment the 11 party. wita (in conjunction with JonN Movellt.

to after this. to be imprisoned in felon's goal for at be three times to publicly whipped. two than bail to of find. 100/. our Protestant and bail. from each was bail the of 200/. the of the Soldier with two was of (partner sureties in at once Bishop). bail " the of the two two years.flee though his we from trial.and That. not our aqd So so made Commissioner Protestant if we of the Board have that our bail-works were always been very gentle. James and was.] year.in 500/. moment. that stationed our in London while cannot Protestant mildness been bail. give for life.works also whom and in the appeared so amiable. of Education. each: been Byrne to was : carried gaol. though he enlisted : " soldier. of taken. who in the a 1811. himself. whose period imprisonment has . on once him.did. for alleged libel.having end want firstflogged half death "That. charged this him declared his That on OATH. trial. " Byrne oath of sentenced. . this time. coachman in the Jocelyn family.the that was before indictment. though so PR0TB8TANT REFORMATION.even hardly has a a at this in might find whose has who has penny world. were regiment was but allow. Byrne from at soned impriprison. and.having asserted same Protestant Bishop attempted the said to commit was an offence. who FOR crime more was who libel. more the of two years.XIII. proved to the a this Protestant Bishop. the to we to a look into man gaols. 500/. with sureties LIFE. yet always year in the James mood for. two end with years. promoted a be Bishop of Clogher. had been that this unnatural at not memorable dove-like a . Bishop of Ferns. Nay. trial as a his broughtto Protestant criminal: That. case dove-l"e in this case.who of the let out prison. Byrne.works in these same characterized cases by gentleness and theyhave That. That James sureties into the at in 200/. pay. was an in imitation Bishop. fine of\"00/. Byrne had FALSELY . on this Bishop aforesaid. Byrne lay several months : " in gaol for at of sureties That this Protestant and that he Bishopwas. Soldier. Catholic. was.

and the should many from Catholics.1* and. to abstain any charge against the censorious a unfortunate poe- to king . rison compa" Catholic fines king before and the in Protestant of one. who may. then. a Sir John year or Hippesiey. happy day. to a this matter. II prevent the Protestant religioji from being subwas " verted. as recorded in the Statute-book as of the " rious gloto revolution. there James been reignsof Cox Protest* Betsey and a Why. too. no ? Ah granted before-hand consent informers ! but this is with I am of ! Parliament! that again. of this them in too in prudence. to pay ttfr lifein that goal from inability find the requisite bail. to under* Protestant of any I had sort king."Yet Sir John also be stands. Until. " lament careless those brought in of those as the deliverer to us specifynone to instances. trifling that there this shows might of might be tivo opip ana* w" * about to so punishments that as in the who time James. his and bofc. deliver this and to kingdom from Popery this and arbitrary power. we fines have." made.cruel 'punishments nfhis reign. soma " admirer us of the " revolution" glorious will be pleased from furnish with as something specific to the bail j andjfatt in James's even reign.we mention talk a no ought. fine and zealous to to Reformatio*. only posaibly. for. it is clear that this . and wrong nions have were very offences. but Parliament. there in the had racks. these were grounds. silenced 38 1 the were the offences of king James Act .! Protestant yean end probably. What had had I. was " two ago. been no charitable punishments ? been ants no people burnt. may " siblyreceive had been very and illegal There as But there] interpretation. that the tread-mill cruel and illegal. for . throne. " the same expresses. seeing that a immediately followed those who by exclusion perpetual with of Catholics. Bu^ party.which a might he have between enabled a make. forgotten These . asserted it in petitionto that.therefore. of strain. not expired un[Lf ago. granted ! away conviction our the Indeed What.

if the King King recovered. stillto notice things. which years Sidney take place till.gernon in putting death we Russell Sidney Alas to to for high deluded treason. to did that of " Reformation" have seen. as- we afterwards. were In this Protestant plot Russell Hussell did not and to two great leaders.1' to take costs a This of I should and was some now proceed the view ttye tquences. that it *Mes perfectlyagreeable numerous precedents in brought to of trial* of ! Popish plotters When the . their victims.and. Protestant formed for should on. had a attempt deny that he had part in . last. and especially . were of the pu- hese" proceedings. asserted have which been have of adviser deemed of his late deeds the to been Lord wicked. has me fctight contrary. the some short. and. The discard were. they the constantlydenying or prerogative of t"hment vroof of a King to pardon. bringing and the" Cathocourse ics to the their scaffold gibbet . was. The to King ill.. bring in make not army now of Protestants from sort Scotland.ton. he to was told. by innocent in the diabolical. this subject! A pulsion com- f used look look the upon into two murdered to and realities. continuallyhatching Popish the most plots. 382. ! how have these been as upon men. and. in all those against this to unfortunate the king. romance.which and lying history Catholic prejudice urge has been ter. The at to mitigate the of. Protestants in the reign "f Charles contrivances II. But. was Protestant plot went scheme pay and in to rise in an arms against the Government. Reformation. and entirely the " that it was an it directly proceeding from the case.[ a PaOTESTAXT REFORMATIO* " revolution Protestant.the King got real was plot ! die. his only Was not complaint . tiieconspiracy . which true.and a con- piracy was settingaside The his brother by force of but the fcrms. of particularly " of this But grand there vul- which Reformation" the third. ". third. that the indictment was agreeable to was law but.

to He plaint but There of was one. this many law. law. it was the a England required were here been that upon might (if it of which law these has possible) of raised very cheeks revilers saved Poj.tfc cas f " am prerogative. i came that very Popish Queen . My Lord yieldingto shall in the cuttingly said. that related the to evidence his acts. to arms. and he was of its chiefs. possessed of that Russell find. Sidney that the If any ignominious death. this King. the as But. only parole witness law blush the this of in " high treason. under guidance offences Goi aside Popish brother. the innocent to persons. As to deny me" one - Sidney. observe.he the errors taken refuge abroad. he conspired of that and destroy the set King. which deserved He did all the had of another to that man c before assisted desolate.. though. brother. pron ing confessed to his younger and be loyal in future.he did tion of Charles actually sit had of the trial.which. at the very least. to Lord 383. at it is said At the by rest friends. he " had work been of the last leading in the even thorough godly one of the reign. he could that and one this deserve* not not one deny. gratitude this law jts author from heart of every English Mary. after this. on this the which ought to en. was. against and. two. did not [LETT but guilt. and Charl been of the him not to Commissioners the for trying and bringing block. wt place of execution. civil war plunging try. deny. ment him. " he thought Jit Strafford. not Russell it. lives for. while at ordered and his ripped he was yet al of t body to be quartered. II. conspiracy had no existed. years. by force of had by opei am against the into he an King horrors who pardoned him. be deny his confess explicitly his bowels to That part of his sentence. King.PftOTESTANT ltEFORMATIOir. by the " the intercession in family. pardoned been. remitted prayer. out. great to his Yet. who. bellion this too. or.

wholly excluded. men that he hew in proceedings . "feat he 385. but with the a great deal they suffered. damnable a errors abjured of Popery ") contrived drawers ! accommodate him with a couple. are by a Parliament tyrannicalPopish people Keiling. about And but these Protestant the was patriots only of insurrection with what years and more introduction Foreign O'Quigly With what charged. crime high treason. . Philip has she was lbcall " the bloody" the to wife hold of. good old Sydney been cause. really was not witness against him without seeing two bear the the the thought of dying u witnesses who against him. armies. jirst from There bat of his Ministers. for and 'time.Protestant " Reformation. trtfiil knaves have taught generations of thoughtlesspeople while. Seeing. no opinion. on for which Hampthan templated con- den in the creatures field and we the who scaffold/' What more so Credulous have . however. mind. only more were twenty-seven and ie ago ? the Siiearses Lord Edward and "Fitzgerald scores and Watt knd Down And were and Despard. specialplea. had to ttown-lawyers (allProtestants. for . no "charged with and ? Oh. who. from a became Protestant plotter. to that Sidney and that that had there be could such a strong but attachment one this Popish law. Thistlewood. and up as a Itadfor coadjutor. in the to be sense amused and with this miserable 4nd all of justiceconcurred and justice. u received So much died substantial for the " more. by searching his out and It was making in all up second witness rested upon of this of his flaw own papers the had with vain. . whom been a "nguinary Popish tyrant oar great object with all base deluders. and ihyself! Aye. suffered that that hundreds Catholics death upon evidence men were slight indeed.in which was one our own Protestant days. more Ings. 384.not a compassing made death of the the King. compared not men against him. of others Brunt and charged? Tidd less . that II. too.

truly. that while Ings in the world.refuse him merit of . But. have now. Well. pecuniary treaty of King of France. enemy as historian. had had to he over as much right to this. " said. if it to 1.Protestant tn Reformatio*. cannot. mory. settle kingdom a After suet to be J: a deadly a sin for Popish!?/ advised with the king of England which what in pecuniary treaty Kinrr. and. but betray them. order to have our we introduced his brother-in-law the in conspirators. to [Lettii own informer. Well. if by French troop*V intended who " by Charles. 386. Olivers Brougham there men are not( had wardses. time. Church do to t for the purpose the Catholic re-establishing not in L- England. at one they rewarded and said. however. bringthem has justice. our Castleses. which we if James called common loaded been the deeds of his brother's the reign. there no must be such as as However. of ? the that be complained of by L troops were those. Protestant may have the been of to he may have been. while It is bringing those instigators. VI. as root eat 'z bring which German had been to means troops ancient and Church was established for 900 which guaranteed doing this can the people by Magna of I Charta? were And. others to and be the Younger and Hampden and Armstrong real same bona-fide -touching pensioners of fact has 315 to that King of from France. as House of Commons. Edward that years.' in the such Ed men wards. 'which become of be unquestionable with Dalrymple'sMemoirs. of France. not and Ed- Mr. me- he Charles's and to James's ever had impudence impute either to of them the acts having employed of people to instigateothers and then the commit to high treason. in I think Charles II. " approve the bringing in of Dutch all. with that the others the block. page be had Appendix ? all those 387. with justice. ever treaty was neither in the king nor Catholics and and money acted - upon. it Protestant Catholic hating and Sidney. in order to to our his fortify evidence. and and he. was.

that they had inclinedking on Charles and nothing to apprehend ? up. all writing single them. Here at one from aPopishly the throne gave these " Popish tyrants". or and keep there. of strike of the pen. then. any Englishman But. the came. again. have the King his Ministers to authorized any . war- and into prison. accused ? VYc are which hear thorn about always boasting . it alone to if there onlythis Act. these this suspended during not even reigns of Reformation Popish kings? Never. that to the to Dutch deliverer authorized put in prison. we was this proof of santly incesthis the that of arbitrarydisposition. And. any imprison. the moment third " for a singleday. as Charles's name. the from those againstwhom was Sidney conspired . or But. ought have satisfied the people. in dungeon that they chose from all communication keep the imprisoned friends.in gaol they chose.tending to the not secure the liberties hadbeeu all the one people . " the the deliverer " was.HIL] Protestant of that Reformation. person with " ^ ." Dutch whose ." grand ness busi- get rid of " " arbitrarypower" had " the moment moment that this was glorious " affair taken: place. by it was the Protestant to " Conventiou. of have pended sus- this second seven English liberty besides to we this. fchegood deeds the Act lecond many reign. at a James. " of Habeas Great Corpus. why Great at a " that he his Ministers ourselves " might suspect ! seen talk of this ? We Charter time . or keep them a there in virtue order. " glorious revolution. calls There the are Charter of this of rights of English Liberty" other and acts reign. from Minister. in 1688. Then. for seen one years and and. prerogatives enabling to a their had predecessors to been enabled.wives. of put people mere a rant. from never have we gratitudeto observe. to imprison any that whom they chose. and the last of whom his palaceby was the Dutch act ever guards. Russell and driven finally 388. but. famous Act of Habeas Corpus that it came but. This which reign gave Blackstone us.

" by Raleigh. ink.lost. fine colonies were All these made by this popishly Two inclined King and and by his really Popish take their name brother. was done. too. ought have A thirtyyears very before . Sir the Walter in the to reign. and little. to . and that was a not until that that of Charles charters patents quent conse- granted. the New the in the King's brother. we the in nature our of their offence Protestant All this while have our seen done own our dear times. mothers from the use and children and books accusers prevent tjiem of pen. have 390. consequences we its consequences. to their out offence of the names of their put them any . It were was little. the that who sun planted ever these finest and happiest colonies They were the lighted and warmed. to refuse them sers accu- of specification . from . and and. property and became real.which scaffold. feeling. in the two II. who. that succeeding reigns. paper with deny them the right of being confronted a their and . last. others far of greater are we but others. prison (ifalive)when at they pleased. we of which now already felt. fathers. Old of men city of England. yet to feel. [Lettei . now from King himself. too. to hold them for good them that. the done in the the f l reigns of Provinces these Popish kings . to i- husbands. the of them. namely. to bail without behaviour the names trial . the who These was greatest of Duke were all. York. and population event . but the attempt wholly failed. mind." that " ^ delivered 389. prosperitycame. witnesses ! still without or stating to even of the against them. greater in have and This great some and great in itself. the Carolinas. States) of settled under America. " of settling had (now to Virginia been E attempted be good Bess. parliament " house and " pulpitsring with " praises of from was the and gloriousrevolution slavery.Protestakt Reformation. planted by these Popish people. he that cipled unprinnext 3 minion. There us Popery another great thing.on lost that life. by moment. from that name another.

which loss. as Commonas Councilmen. and affect what grow they may. great maritime of which. we fourth. tunes." without been as calls it. English- once so high daring. these Popish kings Not Our colonies and came. by abused ancestors calumniated at at Papists. made England VI. men. in Reformation" fine spiteof " the reasoning of Black were stone. and Boulogne. in 1776 the up by the " Lord and . before taken a of the torments Number.and the end furnished by which. inflicted on and the view of the in Catholics (Irish and the English) trace the this " reigns of William. the deeds we of the Convention" the List of things to be imitated drawn . and Georges. and shall finallysee. shall find that Charges against James.came countries - charters patents. power. liter we We have shall.000 lasting ever- Calais thus county Oye to for put her the Protestant Continent England's expulsion from more Europe. who a " countries than that compensation glorious " European it about . to " Reformation" the third . not wrested a from a and only this. directlyback show. all After one Protestant two beyond reign. pro- this Reformation in third its progress. Then those came affair." was shall find handy it had ducing. mistress lost and of different parts of France. Aldermen. have less. to this hour.HI. that. of called testant Pro- Hills of Pains Penalties. now the close pale. from tose P"OTESTAHT their and " REFORMATIO* the which law mere motion. and of seal of ProtestantEdward barteredaway Crowns. and heretofore and unheard-of species of which are tyranny. Popish had. that monster that legislation. but by it -the which very name was created power. been in 1688 in new others.] jein. principles. all came were these more Popish kings. we Mayor of London. By different rhom were they lost! any rate. the shall Atane.inglorious planted for the example. that this famous . the Protestant Betsey 100. next 391. little better the wilder- From . those than a tight. we pure origin. this compensation was at of only us seventy years.

and had. Pen x. Catholic nobleman. been most at home. this know. the chara" tha the *? colonies Protestant cordially king tyrant colonies to declaring by we " erery act define that the a . years. and " glorious brjng. h fi herence to this Popish king." but. ones notice. an James. dawn though liberty. the above to request the that. persec the only that. of " affair. wholly ones abstained from first religious settling. from the proclaimed by pat Jam plate the Duke religious of liberty . were those the granted Catholic York (afterwards a to Lord Pen Baltimore. to I not even here. at an) granted adherent of to settled by the Catholic by had. notice. adhe thai than complete after dred the the to of religion for and Protestants. were only one from first freedom to last. x. and for to li am who suffered long We in marked much and imprisonment shall. more a years. cruelly unremittingly perse" Catholics. it all crossed Protestant the the Atlantic as it waa. united be by-and-by. fetch c last. that of mentioned - colonies. . omit to occur my read the again. to i which Catholics cruel began slaver)*. as proclaimed matters and strictly . to at the end for of a night two of whict lasted more than lest it hundred should and not But.PltOTESTAST REtORMATlOfr.

before get the the end of this have present been Letter. called of the " that Glothe Reformation Third. We have the seen.' 'heir Charges against George III.No. Tax the Septennial Americans. 392. Kensington. revolt in the ' face of the Doctrines * of Black- BTONE. Origin Ieavt attempt of Banks and Taxes. directly now Reformation and we are to see Reformation American the the Fourth. / o . and Funding. 31"* Dec. in the foregoing Letter." the tree aave t* proceeded and the from Reformation of the First. to carry it No-Popery" Scheme Money on. l"2ft. *""" m LETTER XIV. grew commonly out rjmus Revolution" Second . as naturally the the stem branches proceed from foot. to Excise. Iurnet's of Borrowing Bank Notes. XIV. grow commonly out called "the Revolution" directly we of Reformation to Third. to be and how much a severely they of these likely still " scourged which consequence all several Reformations. " William's "* Triumph War oyer James requires and the Catholics. . lmericans . to see how severely more English people are scourged. Iy FRIENDS. Bill. and we are.

But an we George HI. if their faith still existed to in the kingdom. 394. James's Dutchman. Alfred Great a Catholic. have give a sketch. and Protestant the tion Reformathe worked. immediate which terrible such on. were now hardly to say. King of France.Protestant Reformation. bear that that were also Catholics. made set aside. time. James the the sway and the Deliverer the It is doomed finally triumphed kingdom necessary submitted to Irish. James. that . that King Were James his and family we are set aside. which are now . which in net*- enough the to now began heard at series world never of before. were We have seen. up. aid " Dutch " German paid by England. "n least. who and James the American faithful bled Revolution. [Litter and . shall. under a oppressions they endure former of acts I sovereignswere against them. were was king in his stead. and that those and gave won kingsof that title ' England. was not at forgetting. how the " took " place. and that. Banks. that a to particularly was in mind. we as it could scarcely be owing any thing short of the The superintendance had had . and whole to of the former. the Stock-Jobbers. but to of Providence. that tofore here- Catholics unknown suffer punishments . heirs set aside too. But. because in they Catholics the same to bear that the who mind. of really conquered France. over proof. and William. of these shall find going increasing in number "nd . in his Irish with all that 1 found and adherents cause jects. further acts. till it and produced Debt. 393. sub- fought in his so bravery disregard of life of with the the which of many Irishmen and hare given armies. Englishman. because he and they were we Catholics* shall now see Bearing what these things constantly in mind.

expenses bloodshed deliverance rivil war to endure for the sake of the from yopery. ricun in the of George grew out Revolution. all of the Ante* a think one's blood year ran cold. o AH thw who had -as- 2 . Protestant Deliverer" for the " 396. grow the relaxation first 395. English Revolu- (mark the justice of God !) which produced code. events . or Glorious Revolution ? A one rery pertinentand duty important question. when. for and that ages the fcis was Petto luman destined come. of the in this most penal dreadfully American " But Dutch HOW did the Revolution " out Deliverer's. had. III. and most iat it is my actory manner in the fullest and the the satisof my . treated him William King Louis England. and tawl to Snjlaad pay for that hatred. presentinga of makes 18th mass of punishment which. these. o this probability.. ity.IV." tfere a mere But enough. end.my to answer friends.by-and-by. for this points to very heart ubject. scourge the in nation the for ages and can produce. and which tion. least. hated for this. came of the sudden. source. had. King James Lours have seen. in the firstplace.] and. XIV. as been received of in France.though they producedsuffering to nothing compared to to what was to follow . as we 397. mt to at Protestant Reformation. ha$ yet receive from to " quarter blows far heavier than it has ver yet had The over sustain. in all human that trace it to its true nation specially as. a Dutch there were army the English nation and " Sup** of " Next. Scotland and Ireland. to nought K"rt. see American therefore we Revolt^ producing wonderful and must. effects mind hardly contemplatewith steadiness. rith the greatest possiblecare. We on shall.

and English people IDENTIFY the FOREIGN ENEMIES of the in harm war their old of wanted that King ! his w e England . this the inventors reason case. in vain that t England he minded the people. that to Frem T 1 restoring him saw his rights. affair of fi little consequence It was. is of this the The nation. thou facult t silence be the reasoning so PURSE is seldom " quieted easily: and. with the [L dreadful purposes war. Protestant though for for some the out preservationof the relig t keeping most Popery tugs and at slavery. that his had been compelled the France."soon this most began part dreadful that sensitive and accoutrements almost expenses God and " make part parcel "no-j kingc ' human war frame. England in such a that quite sufficient. wanted him in vain to assist in . war. in France they : the was French fighting for Men of againit . did not hurt Fra it n get rid of James bis son. though attended to most quences inventors. with disgrace enough. it James was protested. the But. hone'st very well. but.PftOTEiTAVT lUfOUMATIOK. it answered all the as an history of this to us. declarations. though passion muddles feeling may to head. but. and t knew 400. It did and answe great object of its inventors. and That the inventors that they cox got* meant it no was vain to King . it not attei respect. indeed. and. The Good of this famous ! what has this ! were suffered ' for that horrid of this hypocriticalcry pesses famous no-popery" war er .

lli XIV.]
~

PitOT"SVAHTtlUrORlCAXIOJF,,
were,

u-

The taxes
fcnd the
much
as

of course,

in

to those expeqqes proportion
more

;
ad

5

{

people,who they had
but
to

already paid
in the

than

four began

times
not

paid

time

of James,

only

'^*

ty murmur,

give no

very

insignificant signs of
France
and
was

sorrow

"?.

for having been .French

"delivered!"
and
as

powerful ;
state

the

::;
"j:

King liberal
Force,
was

zealous;
far
as

the the
;

of

things

.was ticklish.

law, and

suspensionof
but, yet
a

4

law,could go,
was, at
jo

pretty
upon, that
ta

fairly put
get. the

in motion

scheme
to

~i
a

last,hit
hard An
at

money,

and

not

tug

very

tender

part, the purse.
was

:

r

401.

Act of Parliament
5th year

passed,in
and

the

year

1694,

being the
,
.

of William
is in

Mary, chap. 20, the
words the

title of which

Act

the

followingwords;
; words ; words
ever

that
peace

___

wery

man

should

bear

in mind

fatal which before for

to

2-

and the
cursor

happiness of England
a

were

the pre-

"f
r
rt
r

of

scourge

greater than
"
"

afflicted any
to

part of
""

God's

creation.
rates
"

An

Act

granting Tonnage
other and
to

their

Majesties several
and

and

duties upon

of

Ships

"

Vessels, and

upon

Beer,

Ale,

and

Liquors,
ADVANr
persons
as

"

|
p

fcr

securing

certain

RECOMPENCES

"

TAGES
shall

in the VOLUNTARILY thousand

said Act

mentioned,
ADVANCE

such
sum

"

the

of fifteen
on

"

hundred

pounds
This

towards

carrying

the

War

"

against France"
the
interest
manner

Act
sum

lays certain
of

duties,sufficient
Then of
it

to,pay

of this of

1,500,000/.
the mode

points out
the much

the

subscribing ;
and then

paying
so

interest, or
of the

annuities;
sum

it.provides, that, if

whole

be
a

subscribed

by
the

such

a

time,
"

the

subscribers
*

shall

have

charter, under
COMPANY

title of

THE

GOVERNOR

AND

OF

THE

BANK

"

OF

ENGLAND"!

Protestant
402* Thus and bad
never a

Reformatio*.

[Litter

"

arose

loans, funds,

notes, banks, bankers, bank-

NATIONAL
or

DEBT;

things that
this
war

England
for"
serving pre-

heard,
the

dreamed

of, before

Protestant
which

as religion

by law
a

established ;"
and

things
career

without

she

had

had been

long

glorious piest hapand

of many

centuries,and
in the world heard
"

had

the greatest and she
been
never

country
never

;

thingswhich
it not

would,

could, have
called
the

of,had

for what
that

is audaciously
to

Reformatio^,"
that the is to say,
use

seeing gain;
;

lend

money
to

at

interest;

for

that

is to say,
to do

receive money
was

for

of

money

seeingthat
the

this

contrary, and
Church
;

still is contrary

to

of principles
or

the

Catholic of

and, amongst
a

Christians,
never

fessors pro-

Christianity,such
which

thing was
"

heard tion." Reforma-

of

before

that

is

impudently called
Mr.
I

The

The

Reverend

O'Callaghan,
the be honour
to

in his excellent last republish
man,

littlework, which

bad
to

winter, and
every the ancient

which young

ought
man,

read

by

every has

and

pecially es-

in the

kingdom,

shown,

that

philosophers,the Fathers
the Canons

of the

Church,
of

both

Testaments,
and

of the Church, the decisions
all

Pope

j

Councils,
the
use

all agree, money
to be

declare,
Indeed the

that
no

to

take money

for
ever

of

is

sinful.

such

thing was

attempted
cast

until justified, of the

savage Jews

Henry VIII.
did it ; but,
mere

had
then

off the supremacy
had
no

Pope.

Jews

civil

rights. They existed only by
be shut up,
were
or

sufferance.
sold,
at

They could

banished, regarded
as

or

even

the

king'spleasure. They
who

a

sort

of monsters,
to

professedto

be the had

lineal descendants

and
OF

hold
and

the

opinionsof those
Saviour
of
men.

who

murdered
were

the

Son

God

They

not

permittedto

KIV.J

-

PjtOTESTANT

REFORMATION. If

practise their blasphemiesopenly.

they had

synagogues, selves themon

they were
were

unseen

by the people. The horrid
to

wretches view
not

compelled
on

keep
days.

out

of public
were

days, Sunte

and with pollute

Saints9
.

They
streets

allowed
roads

their presence
on

the
set

or

the

of

a

Christian country,

days

apart for public devotion.
usury,
was

In

degraded wretches
money

likes these

that

is, receiving
the

for the
that

use

of

money,

tolerated, just for

same' cause
403.

incest is tolerated amongst
the

d(%s.
may
now

How
even

far

base

of spirit

usury

have not,

crept in
nor

amongst
as

Catholics
to

themselves
matter
"

I know

is it of

importance

the

immediately before
Reformation"
as

ine.

It is certain, that, before the
no

there

was

such
or

thing

known

amongst

Christians
the

receiving of money.
are

money,
It would

profit in any. shape, merely for
be easy
to

use

show,
a

that

mischiefs
we

enormous

separable in-

from

such

practice; but,
end.
which
"

shall

see

enough of

thosemischiefs
this national

in the

Suffice it, for the present, that
was
now

usury, of the

invented

for the first

time,arose
404.
Was not
"

out

Reformation/'

This

monstrous

thing, the

usury,
; not

or

funding system,
only
arose

only

a

Protestant
not

invention

out

of
ex-

the

Reformation";
purpose Church
the

only
a

was

established

for the

press this

of

carrying on

war

for the
the the had

preservation of
;

of England

against
was

effortsof Popery
most

but,

inventor, BURNET,
for the
"

indefatigable
existed.
to

advocate
that the

Reformation"
not

that invented

ever

So do for
*

thing

was

only

by Protestants
intended

injury to Catholics
this purpose; it
was

; it was not

not

only

by them

only destined, by the
o

-and wisdoi$

5

;"

Protest

aut

Refoumatiok'.

[Letteu Jl
terrible of all t
was

of justice
scourges,

God
te
to

to be

a

scourge,

to

be

the most
;

the

Protestants
at

themselves
"

it

not

only

destined look
was

make,
usurers

last,the
with
no

Church

by law established"

at not

the

very thus

: the thing quiet feelings

only

thus
was

done

and

destined very

to

operate

;

but,

the

instrument
been

the the fittest,

fittest,that
" *

could

have

found

in the whole
whose
was,

world.
as

405.
was

Burnet,

first name,
in the he

the
a

Scotch

call

it,

Gilbert,

first
was
a

place,
monstrously

Political
lyikg

"Church
historian

Parson;
;

next,
he
was

next,
THE

a

Scotchman
OF

;

and, lastly,
for his

he
"

RECEIVED

THANKS

PARLIAMENT
that is to

History of
most

the

Reformation9';
and

say,

a

mass

of
ever

the
were

base upon

falsehoods paper. could

that misrepresentations

put

So
have

that,
been

the

instrument
on

was

the
man

very

fittest that
at

found

earth.
to

This

had,
he

the
a

accession

of James
to

II., gone

Holland,

where
"

Li

became
;

Secretary
where

William

(afterwards the
and

liverer") Dethe

and

he

corresponded with,
in

aided in
"

"

Glorious
year

Revolutionizers" after
the
"

England;
the
as
"

and,

1689,
made
,

the

deliverance,"

deliverer
a

t.

him
u

BISHOP

OF

SALISBURY,
services
!

reward

for his

glorious
406.
This
was

revolution"
was

the

fittest man
to

in the
to

world

to

invent

that

\\

which become
when and

destined

be

a

scourge
a

England.

Though

a

Bishop, he

was

still

most

active
"

politician ; and,
war

the when

of carrying on difficulty
those

the in
"

no-popery"

arose,
to

fears,mentioned
of

paragraph 400, began
/aw-established Church" backed

be

powerful, this Bishop
who

the

it was,

invented, who

advised, and

who,

by

XIV.]
the
"

PaOTESTAHT

REFORMATION.
.

Deliverer," caused
of

to

be

adopted the scheme
taxes,
and

of Sorrowing, the

mortgaging
labour
"

the

of

pawning

property
"

and

of future

generations.
purses

Pretty people,
this
in

deliverance

! their

Besides

sparingthe
on

of the

and scheme

quieting
had
;
a

discontents and

account

of taxes,

further
to

still

more

important object
had money and
to

view
to
see

namely,
the
new

make

all those
new

who

lend

wish

king and
of the
was
"

dynasty,

all the

grants
held upno-

and

emoluments
!

glorious

revolution"

folks this
"

That

the

permanent

object of
"

popery" project.
407. The
case was

this, and
here is the

we

stand ought clearlyto under-

it,seeing that alarms, dangers
been
set

true

originof
II. and

all

our

present
son

and

miseries.'

James
were

his
a
u

had

aside,
"

because been

they
made
;

Catholics

:

glorious
of it had

revolution
immense

had

the

great

makers

which possessions,

had

been

publicor

church be

sessions. pos-

If James from

were

restored,
all the every

all these titles

would

taken

them,

with together'
in
as

of

all the nobility,

bishoprics, and,
"

short,
the
"

thing granted
was
"

by
to

the

deliverer," necessary
take the
care,

And

deliverer"

liable

die9 it

was

to these

great possessors

and
or

glorious" actors
should
not

to

if

that James, possible,

his son,

be
were

successors

of the

deliverer. this

Acts

of Parliament
:

passed to provide against
had shown that Acts

danger

but
were,

still, rience expein the
some

of Parliament
the
to

cases,

of but

little avail, when

great body
them.

of

people,
thing some-

feeling acutely, were
was

opposed
to

Therefore,

wanted the
new

bind

great
The

numbers cry of
"

of the people
"

fast

to

dynasty.

no-popery

had

Protestant

Reformation

fLtriER
weigh
down

some

power;

but

it had

not

power

sufficient to
u

that
to

which,

in later
"

times, Castlereag

had

the insolence

call,the

ignorant impatience of taxation;** and for
in former

which

impatience the English were,
"

times, always

remarkable,
*

408. The
him
or

"deliverer," and
all

all those who who said had

had been

brought
fattened
w

in, togetherwith
elevated
same

those
as

by him,
boat:
but

were,

I

before, embarked people
were

hi
"

the

the

great body of the
very few if

not

yet

thus
were

embarked.
thus

Indeed,

of them,- comparatively,
a

embarked.
to

But,

all,or
the

great part,of

those

who

had
be

money

lend, could, by
to

temptation of
on

great
the
was

gain$

induced
; if

lend

their be

money

interest to
do

Government
easy, to
see

they could
all

induced

to

this, it would

that in

this
same

of description boat too;

persons and that

tlcen be
who the
must

embarked

the
a

they, fc

be necessarily would be

class

having great
the the
most

influence in
zealons
porters sup-

community,
of the

amongst
and
"

"deliverer,"
makers of the

"glorious"
"

aiders,
had

abettors, and
taken 409.

revolution

which

just

place.
For
It

these
had
"

purposes

this

funding-system

was

vented. into

the

twofold

object, of raising monfey
war;

carry
"

on

the
"

no-popery"
Government

and,

of

binding
who
as

to

the
to

No-popery
money the

all those
; and

persons were,

wished
is

lend
the and

at

high interest

these

always

ease,
most

most

greedy, most
slavish
was

least public*spirited, selfish,

base

and

and

unjust part of

the

people,
of the

The

scheme, which

quite worthy of the mind
its

Prate"tan.tIfohop.BuRHEr, answered

purpose:

it enT

XIV."
ablcd

4

Peotestamt
"

Reformation.
the and
" "

the

"

deliverer
to

to
"

carry
"

on

no-popery

war

:

it bound base and

fast

the

deliverer and

his

bringers-inall
those

the who

selfish and

greedy
scheme

unfeeling part of
in
a

bad money.

The

succeeded ! what

its effecting did it

imme-

diate objects : but, for future

good God
What for

scourge

provide
what
an

generations!
had
in store
to

troubles, what
a

shocks,

it sufferings evil

people,whose
for the
whose

rulers, in

hour,

resorted

such

means

purpose

of causing
was

to be of

trampled
to
sum

under the
at

foot

those

only crime
!
mere

that

adhering
410. The

faith of

their

fathers
was a

first borrowed

trifle.
it
was

It

deceived far from

by

its

seeming insignificance. But,
to

very The
ventors inwas

being intended
knew
well what

stop with
were

that

trifle.
Their

they

about.

design

to

mortgage,
all the
to

by degrees, the
houses,
who and

whole

of the

country,
and

all thfe
even

lands,
labour,
The
the alone

all other lend swell
at

property,

all
State.
"

those
soon

would
to

their,money
a

to

the and

thing
end of

began
"

great

rate

;

before
interest
to

the

glorious"
the

no-

popery

war,

the

of

the
a-

DEBT,
year,

annual

interest,
was a

amountedsum

1,310,492/.
the whole of the
on

which, observe,
had

greater
to

than

of

the

taxes

yearly
So here

amounted here
on

in the
taxes

reign
laid

Catholic
ever

James
mind

II. !
that
:

that
were,

were

for

;

account
account

of this of
this

grand

no-popery

affair ;

merely
was

on

"glorious revolution," which
purpose difionad
the

expressly made King
a :

for the
were

of

getting
laid

rid
on

of

a

Catholic
ever,
to

here

ad* than

taxes,

for

greater
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treatment

amount

whole the

of the

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raised

by
1

that

King

! Thus

does

justiceof God

work

The

of the

Ca-

American it how was Revolution that it grew and. further something scheme. ble capasea. disputing has. truly horrible approved of was the main body o{ or the English people at either this treatment. by the what ua " the things which . see ! must not However. winked it: this debt-scheme the purpose invented by a testant Pro- Bishop for Catholic . " led to produced the Revolution. for so with many which These of chief a the which without power ages.the cunning. lopping off of and naval large and part of a the new dominions mercantile her that of England. she were been must glory. with the and " of the probable ultimate we effects of this to out see dreadful At present have how gether it. [Letter : at this time. and Quakers. revolution the " let or. been of vitals every of deep CJ scheme. starvation this is the midst now of abundance! to Yes. rather. that religion there than the are dom kingof gion reli- nay. valuable the first. be' c at last. and second-rate were complished ac- possessing in Europe. feedthe fattening on it has country." the American which " of which it arose. has. clad and. birth. : verily.to- glorious revolution. creating of of power. the the world the Church parsons a putting in all churches. us now see produced that of . dominion her become second. by the things were accomplished. let see directlyouvt wars rious glo- revolution and its "no-popery" and debts* . never till. from of its ominous Usurers the breeding swarms Jews. produced in the what the world saw fore. worse of the in the labouring people fed and gaols we than the felons 411. on. while there persons the any other the scheme. two a or. of utterly extirpating the in the number still lives religion: and. the main 1 thanksgiving for mass plenteous harvest.We shall. was tholics. Law- picture we exhibit up. crafty. in are the kingdom of a greater one Catholics . ing description. therefore. anticipate.Protestakt Reformatio*. Reformation fourth.

] 412. placeman things were were the were of of enacted they people they by " were held forth to the as great'things. the deep the of the scheme former taxes : set live upon and made have in feeling for those it divided the their the bore the burden two short. in part was having powerful interest to upholding part ? that which oppressiveand 413. into these classes. and " forth as great gains lution. a community completely divided. and. great principle of the and most vernment. a grand principle the a maintained. contrivance deaf it : did to very voice well of for present who it made the nation from the all those who were foreboded mischief in it made all those terested in- the the no funds rich to advocates for the who taxation: poor. The " wars. was repealed." glorious revono Another and These no great to gain9' sit in . Taxation did not marched like it. and . one short. THREE one should at parliament this had been YEARS of the " least: of the was. consent. went on ruinous the went other on Taxes. English Go- it is expressly which asserted explicitly work in Magna Chart a. that House laws pensioner Commons. be expected. always. the land . had own The great that protection of they could This was people of England be in taxed without always their the been.XIV. At on dreadful people been the that glorious there revolution be a new it bad settled and called held every enacted." This last act. and Protestant on a the debt manded de- the wars. would how be was of Canterbury it to more of this body else. the had the the not tax-payers Government tax-eaters latter back. same increasing. way. lived upon when the the was large part of taxes rich people next- themselves door in ? When that man's neighbour the received taxes paid by man ? When. Catholic times. use : Protestant Burnet's Reformation. was the than that of any a Catholic Archbishop But. gained soon Glorious. and The interest brought with " couple of civil strides. in more of course. and at nation and .

we We to keep this cool. between the and were law. demolish the year Yet. that those they had themselves chosen have at and them. the chance. a other act. unless they seven voted might. was in it . to this barrier the of liberty and of the property and in 1715. men YEARS years Yes. which this* our world was of. of avoiding oppressive taxation. that of state things. useless us no to feel shall indignation and do well to They can good. nay. chosen by the sit . but only thing and tility hos- done Protestant dynasty the also that never this had also. the heard the like of. has scourged they the had new famously. and compact pealed re- Protestant ever dynasty .. observe. this law. and yet to . in the new least . by lics Cathonot that under this has to no hand that . never thing. ought us so bear in mind. the only of protectionthat to left to new people. together with no their Ascendants for for should who choice at all. not that done it was thing. chance. the the people. of means every was in short. selves our- 415.indeed. But. by chosen to the very whom people men had sit only for to THREE for that whe ever.. it was 414. this solemn Chap. and that. which . xxxviii. and oppression. It is do the king's pleasure. sit for for us yearsl rage. state : sitten in the the at mons of Com- since ! But fresh choice That law . were even so and new parliaments. a demanded state new and debts every of things which a almost new year in such state at of thingsfrequent intervals.Protestant Reformation* [Letter House act placemen ever and pensioners have the every was. people sit three enacted that would they would sit for seven for SEVEN. even uphold the system necessary . that thing done from religion of not fathers what ! Good has God it not ! What has this nation suffered. choosings give the short a absolutely necessary much as a to people It was. securing the was a people a vital law. of taxes taxes ' three years. too. being first year this vital reign of George I. sort. was THREE YEARS for abolished and changed men for SEVEN the ! .

RESTLESS and AND " FACTION renew ARE the rebellion be DESIGNING within this to endeavouring and an ' kingdom.that years has befallen we England not during last three this fatal hundred source. that or r" thenceforth. should " any then any called. expenses by occasioning in order. probably at POPISH to " juncture. )f this memorable 417. is a this and measure. shall taste long while The followingare Act.to and the more much greater and of and this u continued serve elections violent of Members to . and * and were animosities ever subjects said clause ' known before the was enacted may * the this said provision. this BILL. which But is this SEPTENNIAL in .] ' P"oiffiSTANT Reformation. that and the said clause proved grievous more " burthensome. have in its original black tvery oopery word " and here white we and a we must " have no- of law it too . if WHEN it should A continue. and . for have are complete of this law we we tasting the effects them for a to :he present hour. the invasion ' from abroad destructive peace and security of . and ret to come. or There is hardly one great calamity. all the words. ' " Whereas yeai by an Act of Parliament made in the sixth and An of the reign of their' late blessed Majesties King memory) and intf- 4 William Queen Act : Mary (of ever * tulated. which do clearly trace 416. time have at no Parliament after be whatsoever. assembled held. for this hostility ! suffer.t in Parliament. years oh "should " continuance to longer than accounted the said for three the only which be the farthest. matchless perfectly which we has must led to such dreadful effects thing which . in and the words. the to disgrace. for the was frequent meeting among other callingof that 11 Parliaments from at It things enacted. its nature.XIV. of be from day " by the writ summons Parliament been very should found " appointed to meet : And whereas hath it has by " experience. among lastingheats realm than .

have same well known. shall by bis k " Majesty. stronglydisposed revert to former it was suspected. by and Spiritualand assembled. religion. we we power of doing However. Popish at : faction"! election ? What The could faction "do were an J*2 truth is. to for the f" e " be accounted day " which by the writ of been. smarting disaffected enormous taxation." " Be it enacted with the by the King's adrice and " Excellent of the Majesty. new of whicla. pretty election. there time with the which always was House of . therefore. or successors. where.along and bound people's civii political it was rights . seven on " and and may no respectively hare longer. the great body lash of new people. was heirs. in same. done and felt the to effects of it from that owe even that day this . at and Parliaments or that " any time hereafter be called. to unless this present be his any be such sooner Parliament dissolved " after summoned. by the Commons. that Commons every Parliament were assembled up the religion. present Parliament or Parliament st " hath to any future shall be appointed hare"a is " meet. while . at here again! that the The " restless tion" Popish factaken a ri work whole So lights. this present Parliament. were " be account designs and wishes a mere of ". tailment cur- have remember. or summons this. 418.it the have now resolved. they state . that the followers of which. assembled continuance from held. the to most precious away / 1 rights of the merely on of the of the harm people. the next chosen. at indeed. that a during religion. became were towards to order their of things ." it ! is So. these of the pretences false under the the the people. that every they would. that it. [LjTTU most " the Government. they should the deed to was not have . and and consent Lords Temporal. members was having the timents sen- and. almost . Parliament " authority of the all That shall shall years. this terrible of English liberty we our to the hostilityto the dominance the religionof fathers was . and.PmOTEfTAVT RlFOHMATIOtf.

of ParliameHts for one predominant. they chosen 419. " now " somewhat became went its present form and to the castles of Englishmen thenceforth on things be visited by of excisemen. from bands them beginning thom pass quietly into the (as had told they would) other of the Jews.682. hearts to to The people looked . which annual amount about four taxes much as whole of And the reign of yearly about the Popish had times James up II." and against when the things . they money.844/.. on eight same " much had raised yearly this no-popery" people though or men 420. ! to as the whole That of is to the taxes swelled as 8. when.500. . other as by the " means of the " no-popery" Protestant 1 and measures for preserving Religion had by laiv established."the debt up up the to to from .. The Accordingly went on increasing prodigiously. but a who. and money-changers. of course. it comes The 5 tion na- sensibly felt received most no weight of these the and the burdens alleviation from circumstance of their back being righteously merited. Quakers. " will do many much other to in the way of talk are against Popery.840. James 1 say. name of which assumed times. until the reign wars. and passing of lose the for no more. burdens less zealous most active. Things in this way.] P"OTESTANT heard even REFORMATIO*. the SeptennialAct. for three.with were fear. Commons' House for that After session. Protestant been heard which little beginning in former had never reigns. George HI. Now. and of in Catholic . already. the the people the . of it times in the swelled swelled 146.0001.years never or for seven as years often or as year saw . with of the nearly all to control taxes that and taxes to they had pending ex- ever had regard the laying of public money. The yearly was interest had as 4.682/.821/. with aching former happy days shame to and and the nobilityand gentry began their Swift estates perceive. would saw a Parliament one called. that. had the had very a EXCISE-SYSTEM.744.XIV.

to leave . Burnet. applied the brought against them was by Burnet's by the tribes.a would scheme both to. TO and making . of no-popery" debt.the whole. in the same great the of the - money- boat with Government. In this dilemma. and men ruin. to hoped. first. but proceed and show this i reformation The the fourth commenced proceeded. had Ireland it of was that these. and was Scotchman. countrymen. first. forward and it now too late look very back. our to suffer for the our crime I shall how adhering to " the religionof on their I now and fathers. same But motive this desire which led counteracted effectually to the of creation of the debt . and dreadful. by no means especiallyto of a of Fain to ancient would score family they." or authority of king. destitute have pride. sponge even at that time. at : 422. family extinguishing EVER ! rights besides and all (hose of FOR Aye. cause then. it It was. the necessity of embarking. CONVENTION." taking of that with revolution a " the principles and in these assembled as its example respects. was But.bringing the first dawn Catholics of of relief and to the ing long-suffer! What England. slow to look to this certain. Septennial gentlemen to proceeded. masses and owners keeping embarked. 9t [LETTER by tbe scheme of the to not by and the " no-popery war. which. the 421. state further " . namely. a tax American colonies. very from slowly in their attempts t shift the pressure of the debt . without beginning . it HIGH ADHERE HIM and ending with his but setting _ authority. perhaps. yet. and new danger of continuing resorted interest. part. parliament. upon the the manner end.PaOTESTAKT created RlFOEMATIOK. the obviate these to dangers. and in the throw the came " and. Scotland. measures fourth. CHARGES TREASON people . to this. having for " the effect the glorious revolution. proceeding with with against TO aside his his the king. "Reformation" necessary to their shoulders ! Now. tbe was danger of touching to the pay was interest that of the debt.

] their out own " PaOTESTAjTT R^F0RMATl6?T. in number. and abject submission. as CHARGES in paragraph 379. containing. therefore. the the owners stock Junds. English The we Whigs convention did those of America. but what against George. enough done. of against James The This is a : did those against George. same money-people with more of England : were. to deal ation. a so heirs of aside. Whig means. in the a colonies cool and had hut they had clever. not. . Protestants us We accused a have paragraph . have if hesitation the subject of they been at entangled in this Burnet's artful web. a sharp- most resolute and seen brave and people funds. \ the Americans world doomed for . [ shoulders to to that of the Americans. that 423. stamp a things and sighted. complicated in as money-people of there und were like those were England. resisting of means. . Happily not not them. with. It is curious they should. havetUeen a hardly known bands of poor in the devils have been parcel and of toil the for Scotch haughty insolent masters. so WHIGS! that there in and who Septennial people were Whigs who A Whigs A were Whigs. embarked there ance. taxover The and Americans debts. They not. resist- in tlie would boat been had the government on if they had. and The they resolved once. had reached to . English Whigs have 60 seen published America were declaration. them to Bishop's deadly at trammels once. American charges favourite twelve against James number with twelve . might to day. the Whig America. resist.XIV. England) his one approves the setting of James in and . they imposed . as the " rious" gloBut people the now had call themselves too . his heirs one approves The setting of George called a aside.at the the people England curse. creep. of by slow to degrees. Whigs for the Whigs seen. they resolved submit the septennial commands. had in charges 379. a They duty on sent tain cer- tea pay a tax. and Popish king of and it is fair for to see what Protestants Catholics . might. and.

without going of In the ntry . and the that nial Septenthe gentlemen declared. enacted. they said. wrong. had same them. essential circumstances as was no be as wanting. of repented fill haying ^juriesand usurpations. no Catholic ever was ever to be more." charges against Majesty in are an their Protestant king. that. and must. tifying justhat glorious never took good affair. had done a Protestant They thought. passed charges the were the follows memorable : " 4th " of July. possibithat two glorious revolution must. of Now. he only commit and must acts of a tyranny to be a Catholic. they said. could it do wrong. Protestant) seemed to king no (being. on Act of Congress. as the charges against James so found Act found of Parliament. [Letter tone. alas ! these American he had Whigs talked and so did not listen to the Blackstone. and. could. The These as 425. seeing future case. are . his II. the be Americans think to hard. by any that. the whole the he of them. in an the charges against George III. to the like was to take place again I a . 1776. and king to do wrong any 424. not also up. but drew without " having been in it ! short. according be a lawyer. in any again. " Blacks in say. thus " course. " there never lity. have he design overthrow the testant Pro- religion cated his . a though of monkish piouslyabout king might or. they " la glo* late rious. have So abdi* by going authority to this " of the kingdom. another revolution. to justify must : crrcumstaacea not a part of them. out into the bargain. a superstition" They do thought. abdicate cou least. But. but . history . at dark ages nay and ignorance that wrong. only ever that king might out his authority. in future think.Pact accused the estakt Reformatio*. king again. and. laws must The must king not must not only endeavour subvert . was that so they should " forbidden positively Blackstone all the but to do what told glorious exist in Englishmen. history of present King of Great Britain *" is a. care too a " Protestant king of.

4 VII. " has hither eat multitude to of officers of new and offices. *' combined others subject us and to unac- a jurwdiction/emjw tQ wr vonstiMion. refused to ' I. " obstructed assent ofjustice. let facts be o a world. . " judges dependent on of their and offices. to " IX. . the consent tegisla- " 1 VIII.L] i [Protestant Reformatio*. unless right inestimable people would the " the right of representation in relinquish Leg is- " lature dable " a to them. our harass people. in times of peace. He has mite tenure laws for establishing judi- " ' V. without tures. a his will the amount alone. mea- fatiguing them compliance with ' III. He " pass laws for the accommodation those of large districts of people. " He has affected to render the military inde- pendent of. into for the sole purpose his sures. sitory of of their the " public records. He " has bodies legislative and distant from at places repo- unusual. and He has superiorto. direct object the establishment States. He " has dissolved houses representative firmness his repeatedly on for opposing the with invasions the " rights of He has people. the administration to * IV. and % for mi- " to tyrants only. salaries. of our stand- ing armies. called the ' II. uncomfortable. by refusing his ciary powers. of an absolute tyranny submitted ver these candid has To prove this. " has kept among us. with civil power. " and He their substance. for the and " payment He sent of their created swarms ' VI.

of the benefits govera- of ment He ABDICATED out 4( here. taxes on us " X. does how that same justice credit to demand then. think. were whether than grew grounds of the out one these whether . stage redress " and these in have whose the waging against we us. that the French Ife- volution. not and . giving his assent to their' " of pretended imposed legislation. especially of us. However. lution revo- directly question entertain now of man. not question the with of other if. doubt. He He has without our consent. caution II. out Reformation the . bit. revolutions the last the better those but. a I should or " proceed " to show. Revolution I am up the consequences but at the end of my paper. us. of mative affir- of this can. Now. fifth. " has trial deprived by jury. I 427. the former who has and. " XII. of " oppressions. no read this Number.Protestant Reformatio** " " knowledged acts by our laws . is unfit be tf " free people" justice to 426. by to prince act " character every the ruler " which a define a tyrant. by declaring war of In his every protection. at against James present moment. that we the memory assert. demat expressly monstrous exaggerations. .? we give full the the charges us. and grew then to immediately sum of the American . most liave terms: petitioned our for " ' humble repeated petitions A " been answered is by repeated thus marked injury. in many has us cases. the to close be . made the of . that of the here at late are King seme mands.

in its down feeds. the " Reformation. "I - l\ c. FROM.. We have now traced . to the from the beginning. enal Code. iibricav BRSfceUTlONS "Reformation" UP TO brought relief AMES to Catholic*. " ./4 Reformation... ST. Ita'fore was ta called the. AW-CHUHCH LORJUBLB OFTENED. rRonucRs Second softenino'of the- .namely.. remains . CONSCIENCE.. Revolution. LETTER XV. v MOTIVES a \ OF FEAR.. American " Revolution.. RrIQN LIBERTY OF J II. . Hy *"'""'" Friends. XV.! " . of the as t( it now stands." England mqre . eench OFBOSB8 OF PENAL AT LA CO|"". " "fee present day. view event shall bring under my proofs of this proposition. ta followit along through French r Revolution. in the reign of Henry Vrfl. ent Oe this In the is what next I propose Number I to do in the pre- Number. ' ' h /: 428.. the and./Code. " Lesult : Reformation as far as relates to Rrli* oion.'i i No.. ' all that is.'tha t.!j . and . - unto .

dfd. . though to them penal code against was' make everj. .the.^proii -gwd Calholics. such as. name. 430.the a ma* and degree of softening.. concluding Number. which. accordingto the poor. parsing.bad been^ad England crush Catholics at its tia"Ho'exting religion for those to same ever. mf violation of . the in body. tnen. that rENAl CODE. we have se*s how they were r andpn fined. give a List of all abbiei. than it anv since And.we this monster have in sketch n this HORRIBLE CODE. I shall. wfi cause. We have seen how the cruelly " Catholics were ti good -Queen Bess and James I. shudder we withliorror. and shall these the heads give names' of the paHi^i to -whom they were hjrt^e 429. in the and priories. . those :measutts)vhtch the as we have grew in -outuf directly to . vise Very outset. when look were lis sul ^We^ave firafcity. when have done/ that. for safety. .whjch. time moral. Itevolutian. that event. better and that and people wen free. other of pfoperty. Bttt. parcels. Magna and Charta. the wr" legislation. [Lirni the powerful more and more more wealthy. " confiscatory The American . . teeabow Catholics lined*. robbed^ pillaged.Protestant Reform atiok. hut.by inducingthe English go the sake of its "so own soften. under " of law. fed better I clad. by which we they had of the this long been -scourged. gentleness.I of Counties.mulcted. iat think: it.any dictates has of ever humanity seen and justice b thing else that the world existing . must before ner speak immediate and of . which range the were belonged seized under on to the the Chtnrch and' by Reformation-people. just man .

in1 that University expressly House to* "jfOxford "ays * publishesat the'" Clarendon a Tress" that (p. without for petitioning 0 'its erasure! 4^1. "that Englishmen We then seen.in James to II. any cause that *** fir".- the sarrte in the.** We* successor. never that there was find any of probable woful fetidence. evident Clergy of the StstaBUvhed Church. was set aside here that the it is of we reallyhorrible. "treated fbrmer. during this reign " hare the the r that had the and hastiness. 348.robbed. the' abandon Ungratefully persecutionsof we thareh seen bf law the to established Protestants and.what a an of justice. Witinuatiori). then. pillaged they afterwards cruellyas the two have that' Charles'I. suffer the on inscription to lybttf Hill.. cause of truth. in the put -MoinraEtfT Fish-street city of London. PENAL the But. the the law-church though holds in Lor so a CLAUEirrjoN (whose 'name work which much honour). to be to efface . handed ove? 'be by Scotcbrmen. to And greatest consequence code to the .than jbe displeasure of Almighty to God/' What an tirifamy. that the trace this its real authors This namely. what and what shame to William suffer it to restored is it to us.* XV. reign of . them * We to haVe the seen Charles II.her immediate were Witt to this addition. u Committee of the of -Commons. CODE it was after James grew II. what on put the lying inscription pillar. fcf whom them most as fought against Cromwell. it . make the who' were very were diligent and able other to solicitous ^* *** discovery. jiMttgedv have seen g"od Bess. then. who now suffer it remain.. is p2 enough \\awugb"\" . infamy "act 'to charge the Catholics with the it .] FnoT*S"JStft HwOHIfAtl^ " irftfee reign of 'tatted. be the king on meanness.

abolition.aa4 OF This GENERAL ALL HIS this he No set to SCIENCE CONwas SUBJECTS. 433.clergyof the themselves an against him. It went in- . proclamai suspending GRANTING TO OFFENCE.in great . by (displaced by has done tbc respect whose mortal remains our revolutionists) present King himself " great honour. issued to tion. woe reigi-of religien. "t bishops presented of this his him insolent petitionagainst tfee exercised exercise jail Jus which . a m wished general toleration all . enjoyed and They "" by predecessors* prod need the and whose led the way in that opposition. tbey were glorious revolution. James for II."and most the most active bitter real to of all the was foes of that his fortunate un- king. and. the the sovereign of the to come Church that persecutionsappeared when the woe from him. James so II. wished to 432. softening now the were King the for tolerations .contain the whole of it. or her.give liberty of showing French very conscience to subjects. he put an end he to the penal cofe. It must we are going a mere to see a sketch two of this terrible Numbers on co"Lq. ASIDE FOR the A penal laws relating LIBERTY religion. and man lb For EVER! Church his can family deny.. the a world matter to saw real persecutors and this is we to bt stmm fully explained and minute account understood. and before to come of the the causes which finally n led to its. prerogative.part. . like be not sketch . only offence all his wishing "to . code. Now. King was for the penal code.f the wbole AOTISTAVT BeFOHKATIOF* [LeTTTI until the of this Church's history. were SET The Six this. hundred this would . bat. Put when who now.

shall be taxed wan Members the III. a the coronation of till nearly twenty as we after that and broke of George HI.] -" " PROTEST A"T RfeFOHM ATXOX. which they deemed arms apostaey. even them from offices of It took power trust. their houses .. It took from all.. abjure It shut the religion. guardians from executors. shall it up.in with -application respects.at oflast. It con* canoe. and . though fined from right was at Quakers a VI. all those under married: . away It them the of go to 20/." from right of presenting to given rate to to the Church.. apostate and them that IV. the most insignificant . V. elections.. his taxed thus all every become wb6 refused . from or maintaining from from case suits at law. adhere to and- only because. stripped the .XV. " creasing in Elkabeth ti" events bulk anil in cruelty. it double* and no man without to consent. code.in which well nine their fathers years J 'had lived and died. heavy penaltiesin woman of disobedience VIN.It stripped of the mons' Comvote at gentlemen of their right to be House. livings/in and Jews . from yeare see. she be executrix her bus- . Charta right that to though Magna his own says. practisingin law their five.. out an . VIL? " disabled them from keeping in for their defence. during a period of some hundred The code to differed. in . I.its regard 434. miles travelling houses. England ENGLAND and Ireland this respectively. from or being phasic. mere than express hundred purpose of ment) of Parliamen* all made for the punishing because. Acts silted.. Itt peers of their hereditary rightto sit in Parliament chosen II. and. month for keeping that It Church.. they our continued as faithfullyto as the religion. If two- a kept away from could Church* not she forfeited to thirds of her dower.

a master private family. or profits. a or by for 10/. if he to to banishment for was life (withoat judge X. call him befcn fused. refusal for months. to bja. Protestant into not possession of to the heir.. legacies. the child or sent disabled or inheriting. the It the saying of with a mats by a fine 1 20/. . .. for sending so a child was Catholic from ever foreign school. ft Catholic on imposed schoolschool- fine of in so month employing and It 21. or procured another return it... 101 month. this merciless. returned to to daya the wards. . or jury). in to convicted to going to chureh. above without sixteen information. a him. if he returned.. the possession of the might belong. goods* debts. whs It con was obliged account for any profits. soned. any he rendered incapable of possessing land* which next land. and. sums enjoying lands. he any any yean. of age. a made tracts such made man incapable of purchasing lands" him. XL. purchasing. two to suffer death* to It enabled justices of the peace any man call beta them... [LetW" band. and. punished mass of money XIV. ft hid four justices of of not peace. refused im the Catholic six and came religion. and that man they choNi jure to ab- if such.or. after- also who to CeUkolk faith. and hearing of fine of 602. during ransomed her husband?* him the to life-time. and. and) continued was his. enabled been and might. XV. 100Z. all . Any and Catholic who and who priest. imposed. case a ma* IX*. seas. day the fine master employed to a XIII. .be impcb a unlets any by at.Pmtsstant RferoRNufrTiox.. the did abjure any person in three religion. re- them. compel sentence him him abjure hisjrtligion.not returned his from beyond. a were null for and void XII.

and that the he residence any priest or refused to to schoolmaster might of. the first the place. work rarities "ouf s. then. order heard of mass. them " III.. unhappy csde Ireland and. Catholic could purchase than any nor hold under lease.base.. and punished a with UL imprisonment. IN many the other ADDITION. in had. of amongst laws savage justice and humanity. in one single act* been licted on. given (out for for of the revenue \n part the Catholics) 20/.or usher Protestant. of the school- usher. finally as to felon*" the conn- clergy were not allowed be sort in of try. The Catholic 1 banishment. if trust suspected or of holding in proany ." f I A? WH"W0*1* and cod*" " puaisbed*witft hanging .. and. a 50/. petty for a Catholic. other contract. or of being concerned for a gale. quartering! the code was 43$. public. a English of code as . or power condemn in a (without judge jury) 20/. . mortgage. " call before where name Catholic. discovering them. Any in Protestant. to declare. without at being registered rewards were and kept as a prisoners raised large. hud if he obey him this inhuman they inquisition. fop he more thirty-one years. and on. of a few in- few strokes the pen. violations of lie Irish ilLihe laps* contained. and and know when who were present. or bishop.and justices him 10/. any . even I. was punishments. In IRELAND still more ferocious all the Bare hideously of the bloody j. " following" twenty schoolmaster." to a year's imprisonment No a felons any gaol." one V. for a for an archbishop. master or priest. or to pay even IV. to A. manors. Catholic a vate pri- or. for. Catholic . any he Any two peace on might oath . x gttff vipginj^ q"J"qw4lS) .

rent produce of more exceeded the by And ing see- than on one-third. impressed. " enter a the his stead. of to toarry a Catholic. Merchants. horse away In order VII. but to be jurymen in the trial of any be seized were " IX. of Catholics might for the of the to militia and. . or out. " XIV. were mar- riages between Protestants and Catholics annulled. and war compelled Catholic shed their blood in the against that same Prince. during to be Catholic a Prince. was the same as go the nearest Pro- relation. whose to heirs testant at Catholics. from tenant amount him. "XII. divided. share heirs. and similar cases. and then. estate-. mind.Protest Protestant a xt Reformatio*/ [Lettii thus might Jite-a' bill against4"e'si"-: suspecting. and take the a pected trustee. to lio Protesta?it heir. law were " XI." VIII. in. Catholics to time.or Catholic the property. he was " share alike. all in order break set all Catholic and the families.just if the be Catholic entailed heirs on had been dead. though the property might If there up were them. Ireland. more Any Protestant Catholic take the worth from to than upon the Jive pounds. Horses . towards besides the be this. taken were " compelled whose a war pay double and a X. forbidden All Protestant estate Ireland. VI. tendering him might him Jive pounds. Catholics militia. though. Property of to a Protestant. might lease with horse in a dispossess the Catholic. of justice in these were prevent none smallest known such use chance testants Procases. the compensated of Catholics same for their by levy on goods were.the entail property the in was heirship and If * were aside. amongst had an all Catholic XIII." the Any Protestant which seeing farm of of a farm. and at lands the only. ships with losses goods might by privateers.

" might though ijt been fruit of his a toil. have that been. not sell. child. out portions. by law established. or " Catholic father own could be guardian to. however " bad " .could mortgage. father had. his to child. even of his estate.or be between XVI. and made in participator all in spiteof him.if any one of son' Catholic all father became Protestant. giveth thee. . upon oath. was. this is only in her part). though) many XT. the Lord. husband. this savage thy days be " long which said thy God." said this horrid code chose to for. could or legacies. the A Protestants." a who Every priest." great ind ulgence.this the to possess not the. ii the but pretended its own be a Protestant and the child taken a from father. leave . . but p to award "' (out of * the 5 .-^"the - XJL (of this JLastly: as but. might have celebrated proceeded a from them. have score. If any wa3 became the parent Protestant. Church. possessions. be her made to declare. husbands. custody of. by title he might own hold jt.XVO - ! PJU"TB#1IAMT children REFORMATIO**.if wife the his Catholic of the turn Protestant. ." of a . and a marriage between two Catholic condemned not Protestant..Chancery as was to make distribution "Wives -ptrty -unto it own thought fit.custody of Catholic Protestant a relation. pleased not only to open her doors. XVIII." code a Dishonour the was sons them. Wives. however was have young. the be disobedient of will a them. her a it set aside . XVII. the and or $o.. then pro" full value of his property such " of all sorts. to be instantly summoned. wife or bad a mother and she might XIX." to obedient " your says the great Apostle. was " to hanged. a however immoral. and of be the the . for. and could whatever the not father. " put into child -the -of a . may Honour thy father in the land thy mother.

blood that not chill at this recital. come ? to As to injustice.as of the above the barbarity. to the of Alfred. the founder nation.aathors"of institutions Magna-Charta. reflects. the he. but code. whether the of could of truth. of motives rewamd to our these to "finishers! things are. with me. of aH the faith of venerable be Ann tMo. whose Is there will these a man. the them use offered Church Catholic and prieststo induce means to come over . to name. as who. the terrible made of to prevent tk"ttttor-marthese of sures mea- riage of ever Catholics have and Protestants. being herself. Protestant all tbeso of Church wove of flicted in- England. These however two small.that purpose cruelties for the dominance to avowed that of will giving and preserving prenot. being. they call for spontaneous voice there love condemned in this ua by the of * nature shocking assemblage. the any part. but heartily join to in best endeavours time the to justice to-be done the ferers suf- for the 437. only because. com- immorality. have a eradicate religious error. ea that when men. not Church. they our adhered faith -fidelity the faith of their and of our fathers to . . themselver to Could themftnte suggested men. beesinjg who.takes) thirty pounds who priest. were" he reflects and barbarities inflicted wirh because. in a year his for life to any- Catholics hie would abjure religion and declare belief herit 436. which when we so and those of justly boast. further I am. a single man. when a and reflect*. to are two things whether formed which impel desire to ask. a# to grant the flano ment. Englishmen. shame to cause only feel deep me sorrow and for the past.

had in argument. in to and who) barefaeed would must.what. too.*rho telievtd sincerely i that the Church than The. that easily persuade What. she. Very likely. join quite communion? all short. honours. if she was sure that erery really loved another.Church were that arguments ? in her the mosi over cogent and the his convincing woman aa Who has much over power man mind wife ? of her husband? the Who other convert as Would one persuade One to a ? change of religion other in nineteen.Law-Church all. out would That in the cases* of twenty. worldly all who to ^These the she held continually.would. And were disposedto clerical order. belonged other to to her in sure communion. religionwas those sup* the had all the ported by arguments Catholic more eogenl by:which religionwas. reli- But. subdued make had the religiousprejudices.solemn to in order to be 7 entitled suffer if. as that. to fear from of all riages? inter-mar- And. vow she to well knew. who "who that had beloved would by that other.why annul them the Law*. direct one have it necessary offer. the favour so the pay? And. if were sure that hers the true were faitfi. words/a and sum specific of when money the any join her.why not them. allurements. all the. felt strong to \f" in addition. inter-marriages. what she sure were Law-Church was object to this. natural cm/ to all the. emoluments. she found . the powers. break as pensioned convert. passion which almost every had case. in . both the partiesof to the same gion. supported? . if * of this. I . if she mor* that the arguments for her were clear one than who and those for her opponent. his. why punish were them sure so severely. if NOT QUITE SURE this. would she allthese.

but also. penal code ? Fires. than to two the torments above described. bowelled. If was. of millions had people. to of those their find the worldly ruin. and never quartered Besides. punishment. as and which they themselves were been And. how all they were. on \a hundred years. to the utter religion of their fathers. good God death hundred and that more seventy-seven persons. the not not above a penal code. as persons. what shall we express which of was cient suffifor abhorrence the or of. about millions upon upon of people. either notorious traitors. for the at of making examples of few. very the persons only the the apostates most from faith of their fathers. for at part.Tk0TE$TAKT ask sensible and REFORMATION. men if agree these that punishments unjust shall we cruel. inflicted. of. and those all men know not they were.indesi. for millions thousands racked to death. who that in nought religion of their had and say fathers born. the of few. and justification. killed in were. of on adhered none. all Catholics the serenty of aboit cruel and in* but what. conspirators against. audacious very least. and. during that period. purpose that the lb punishments ing set in Smithfield purpose the of a reclaim-' . person of the Queen if we . to of say nothing who the thousands Catholics. of. let It were be for the forgotten. |t ! death. hanged. 1 religion say. [LlTTrt what you. of those apostatized from who. but who but that all punishment. Talk had : no of the "fires in Smithfield"! which ! was " which condemn two and justification. there we no we for punishments Mary's few reign. just Englishmen. ! prison. the inhuman had she to r" of plead in justification 438. however unmerited flicted.or the and royal authority the insulters .or most felons.

for a where we to look but justification. forthese as punishments. and Patrick William good Was and it thus that St. breach this a done. ustifr and ad introduced. with regard with to Ireland. if we never come ad bf i all atrocity. executed in cold -arid -blood. and. legislative in . not a for punishments. and rebels. hurch And. of the ground of qualification barbarities of F our abhorrence than two above-mentioned inflicted on' Wre hundred years. solemn too. were. of the on admonitions but barbarities apostates. . but all and of every innocent persons. which one quelling of that had be dangerous and the had and the Jearlyproved be same. and justification. inflicted. le under circumstance. conspion itors. we all agree all that men there know was none. as is law this the " tolerant. millions in the upon lillions of P all ess people . on who refused to apostatize. adopted in all the of deliberation. on not felons. are ratification )r. even those who ad. flagrant ! of treaty the English ing 439. here the the meek' by established proofs that St. the "? works? Have we mild. f Protestant faith and St. these under circumstances.3fVj fed no PttOTOSTAXT Reformatio*. of Wickham Swithin the* reli- Alfred inculcated.' bf on ersevered Dnicience lose for ages in defiance not inflicted. apostate led to conspiratorwere and must hasty conclusion. they luring a few liter the months of a furious and unreflectingzeal. as faithful to their to s their the God. juet rebellion. barbarities contrived premeditated and absence calm- provocation . that that such it would postacy irone : extirpated. been were as while to feeling king the cruel" to lash persecution.or even destroy the no if we find.

from of from the 1. why be so lenient Quakers even and to Jews . 440. a sudden. if religionhe arise from to a your men motwjp from why Apt to if your error desire to convert . nothing short seemed of the satisfied with victims. the put them. ftod the What ! and courts justice of on ? punish men for sf retaining insults and the faith their them fathers. 1778. and que heconej out apostates. total extermination of to But. . hunt Catholic the origin. to and have which. of your you the venerahW institutions* all scourge. pillage. because laws they that protectionof had all the their Catholk? . and and of that the hid ahbfct the real which of inaeat to tithes kinds.558 torment Jews! insatiable to Here was foundation went on rancour. but suffer thorn my appoint parsons Zaw-Church had taken no churches? no Ah! and friends.Christ? cathedrals laws Was the it out of and arose work* the like these. while of the insult. resolved the he end long period. true from to the face earth) and ful adherents " faith of the seem authors have of those institution? " Aye. tJie face of things begun change the Church. added to millions cent people. then. of that torment. that the and the palaces of univemities. for were inflict all sorts cruelties not having Catholics.gion of. and barf them will!' barbarities But why. now. producing. while saints of that of very your but religion. in as 1778." the persecutors we to answered. to all of . only your taken and not punish. Quakers whole to others the like. ancestors framed " for the* security of their children damnable" Church-Calendar boast treat their religion idolatrous and them con obstinate none idolaters. by law established.

first demand.. standard we the unfailingthe backed of independence. settingan b tot example " to every oppressed people. on excepted 1 There too. which foe fa*isV ages. England her arm. unhappy.we revolution glorious/' made England. RKfJOAIiATiaiK. a cessation of . shall be [y to believe souls ef parties we to have been by 424 ig [jfiMCAtf* a sort of miracle. of the which " humanity jajrtioe^and. without even Catholica of the code both suddenly softened. Gathelic dwavwy event religion for j the cause of the of beginning. and. before leave the to of the the contest. grew immediately in no* papery/' or WBS*. pushing towards success. penal code found ! Acd. refused . right event.. been with to surrender of that. Ireland ejveiy part of the world. until look real there back cause to para- and 425* There and we see the of this see humanity generosity. " thus have seen.extinguishing the.ha*e clearly. at.. ertteb. I most deeply lament. thought capable of existing in safety. air Catholics native obtained of their country. Holland had . in Ireland! en.. before the end who of the war. as we.. trodden. countries. seen. I cordiallyrejoicein fear a tern* fitting'the |ft the very Thus was in gratified. a moment. we humanity whence the and generosity will we shall wonder the it came. the. and. on been ktvang by France.an Englishman. talr thereby. and espoamp- divers Acts Parliament. down was. for express ever purpose thus was rf. wi^i of the a great relaxation the it. latter . in Thig. and the the incessant American out pleadings ef revolution. in safety. so by Spain the and that. was soon Umgnr o"ned of invasion* in the war the part of France.SPiJ PnOTKfTANT all at once. that this cost cod femgh" aa.

individuals but. but French can Revolutic world what " Reformations" extent. This adhered parallel.Protestaxt Reformation. namely. " they applied the the of the plunder for. as here was great triumph for tl] i the by law with : established"? They. use France. French Revolution'. that. a who that wholly without 441. when the com p ' full and ion " natural In England contented itself with the plundering the secular . perhaps . the in What! calling for Not broken like put down that * matioa"! here here were this "Reformation"! monks . they a whole to the of the public . they this whole in though ought app difference. the poor in well of their all. and plunder was scrambled ! a amongst Well "church have . whole bad use. here abolished religion aud here Catholic as priestshunte a put to death had own in almost .and took the clergy we in pai France. formation" the the fifth. against saying the hearing here returninginto priests agairist kingdom. i public use England. of men. do. event was soon to ! religion great followed by anot greater. | had. deeds must hailed "? No delightthe the to of the were Reformation foremost but. the atxtt . was . seemingly or tn ma code. wlu the horrible persecution* of those. greater in the " Humiliation had to 1 English Government it is difficult to conceive the their mat endure. convents up. divided 442. and confiscated were and was nuns di the i were abbey-lands . on tear contrary. here savage manner as England from our been were laws.

would abdicating king. ifeukilation (as far |fce*V it that which our as legislative provisions could clergy called " go) and church was a new "idolatrous damnable Ind. "? they urged killed' and againstthe who that had which sacked was convents. put down it be religionin England wanted war9 to load Ireland can true.CV. in the f-not Cburch-of-England Christianity. stopped flight. and Wamnable"? abolished Can because . however. a ". not. and prebendaries. these established. yes but. herd {ras ed royal family a aside by for ever. and all ! who these had men religion in France all TITHES But all put down too! and bishopricks. though this ways was they fellows to for that doing this. there mere by what have they been in "glorious revolution". deeds " example to plead " the of the English ble-dBtillea 443. OTHERS might the be bptedto do the ! were Well. if they were fat beneficesand to ! pluralities tted do this with same impunity. And. he was. but. in order . idolatrous men and damnable:9 "Yes. brought back.' that feature might set defective law and likeness. t like war Protestant ! Can Reformation that our people. to it be that true'. but by put in accident. thout an and to death. ATHEISM. gentlemen of wicked to law- lurch. . What this it be true. aye ye. no here religion be established in the by law". ye. upheld Catholic horrid penal %"de. which you better us was than " suffer remain. that put down had they that put ? the men.] Protestawt Reformation. deaneries. wanted who the to they against liberty King James he give Catholics the kff conscience that they. then. church-clergy did And that French "Reformation men. told . "idolatrous who* rose priests." Now. by law.

but und. . the people of ftfirf . they bad there were no alter . his life by of the former ts giving. had new war which that we should a " if we seen which The is called Reformation.as enough. in for the the its progress and end. sterling. * [Le-ttrj^ religionf - fortysorts them of must Protestant be they seen knew our that thirty-nineof a false. to the FIFTH and. ever. cause you i idolatrous . they had such an one rulers make church seen by law. I it hai -beg left remember." numeratf 444. Protestant was ever It put the delity of the save the priests and not one pastorate seen test'. the the of war against for seven interest a debt. no it by law .Protestaht first place. deeds bo produced. to. Catholics.they. and Hexry-ths-wlfe* theirs to why to might not the French give Lepeau! is bad tell us Besides. If not. " the sort it be of religion. horrid in its French to a Revolution. a of hundred never millions have of pounds seen. last. cJiangt were of religion at their 'pleasure law-makers could to why. all the latter did at out it witha hesitation. pay.. just them af they pleased. showed.. up It his faith.saw about Reformation. French makers do the same? English lawfrom the cessor suc- take the spiritual supremacy give it to of Saint killer. pray. and. though Atheism than could WORSE what. created tj that war. though it caused committed. FAT CLERICAL " POSTS.. Peter. if of faith generally were ledged acknowto authority the sort English law-makers . and. great triumph Catholic while. damnable*"? It them might be people to bq than damned Alas! of on could it cause to more damnedi there remains only the abolition of the as a TITHES valid the. if/ standard . your the us party against nation. Reformation" that objectisa.

Ifntrosity.withor the jppt $r loss of any right. Ah law-givers had But.of.. civil military* But _ the greatest good that it produced fell to The in fke lot of ill-treated Ireland. their it should breasts. advantage. I. they. be said? Shall it ever be ever E'd sry own a are again? Shall not once by sweeping away and for vestige of this horrible still oppressivecode. but to pie Irish have never appealed with pars J 445. 1793. we saw at established. It still shuts Hats. did be Resentment. 50XLEGI5 $us jnade Breach for the education. Protestants.. before the and doing. amongst the ef a. making expected to see change who had man faing ever m ! Those were now considered almost beneath dogs. I Catholic. softening. that of Catholics the ! exclusively. shall this we always now. now. something boil with that her "Mme". one and be. and made capable of being many other acts MAGISTRATES now. public expense. were tyere the Irish people* who men. cast a their ^Telandj be*al code and for the second a time. . . And. were revolutionists were po\reyes. it has and greatly injurious. HIGH with an which !.: by-law. still disqualifications that are distinctions Catholic are odious of those #ad insulting. than if. "Alas! that said of sucoess England. they daring. brethren and : ioncile ourselves consciences to our long ill-treated code to ? The is still a penal code it is just ground of complaint:. on Brfol.immunity. which their hereditary .the which been no Jook place. when now might have been. there were TREASON army of four hundred must thousand have beennot men. may worship by choice.* " "ifigdom to* the retaining. j er less. in the peers out House of Lords.

[Lette* " " right. the It excludes in under offices to government. able appear " " ! VII. Bay if your \ lovely as yfli as they are. and 11. V.Pkotestiht Reformatio*. except . the to vote. this insultto cathedrals.though Quakers that or Jews from allowed any en} sch ! flight VI. allows Ca freeholders. sight of features be so the peoplet . by law out established. It ex parliament of to now united that right all Catholics all in England! IV. mons. in of the Ireland. a of the taxes lege. and this Universities And. injustice. you call college to idolatrous Catholic which sively that religion.t ! H consistency.prohibition? Why tins so sedulous keep tl* symbols of worship out of the. in England. with as oat were of the House of Con* not to if caprice resolved which k. to are It them the presenting and them any benefice. behind this code. ! bells/ all the magnified* ing. chapels. while this very there purpose." III. gentle ZaM"-church. rites to be private houses in any the and it forbids has the a Catb performed building which use steeple to bells ! What ! forbid of steeples and bells all the religion. you "jf . maintain. of the taxes. for memboiju kingdom. which that built and created endowed both the ail the all the steeples and churches. This code still forbids priests in in or their in canonical habiliments. and if those of your rival present. It prevents endowing for educating college. too. hand Catholic gentlemen Then. Catholics from admits from all from corporations. in the Catholic religi and this. at " elections. sincerity teach and excl dam What. and out here all a things. why galling. children is now. Why. eccl to them inferior offices right of Ireland.for is supported above is.

the pecuniary papers penalty. bishops are into the such able what Nreachers. a in Ireland. looting at vestries on XI. between. personal property. or a to capacity of guardian X. you. 300/. be VIII. of in Ireland of It ten Protestant. child. have arms It for* J^ids every hnless he Catholic have a his or house. men. in children. money.0 j0nr. so not in the to see many brutiahly gnorant Secent as not the real motives It forbids any act for this a uncommonly priest in tholic Ca- prohibition. beau* titfulchurch Utxhras to law your created why. to however. in freehold pounds a -year. who or celea a marriage a Protestants. to Catholic IX. Death. compelled code to pay for those Lastly. at Uphurch. out so keep rival out of sight ? Nay. penalty. you afraid steeples and the more bells. now gentle kingdom lorely /aw-church. .amiable. or sast. that public feavc recently announced such marriage has* aow . others.] gikj do. . and you like axe it. JPrbtestant and that it Catholic. pieland. if used. disgustingdeformity. in the any to It forbids laymen to the Ireland. to guardian in child. I say. us. the repairs. by Sjithoiics! One pritaess tfapld jfcere the " would think. though they [I. de- is death or . and fc^e mostly married of from the bargain. that peoplewent the better to idolatrous*1 Alas ! exhibitions. between the two Catholic priest. "Uef are a mass "|U"TJfeT4XTHlIQRMATIQf of who that . the ever most gentle. Some of the judges have that it is the a cided. disables Irish Catholics the from questions relating to are repairof. and of bearing *W tool What! whose gentle and parsons and men and only all-persuasive ^ Jaw-church. this on still inflicts death. whyri" are this be and are ^be you. . ites 500/.

and the of which condemns 'to death to as for the 9. tolerably curious a established our by law. . regards for the " teaching of that religion.marrying one pair. ill put together. adhere r to It Then 'face of Catholic priest.ct letter. lastly. in the on public prints tell us. other of wkich condemns pay the fine of five hundred a pounds! And. fragment of i when all idea a i longer continue? to Is it conversion when ages peers " Protestantism that the avowedly abandoned.- [Li die "been openly' celebrated Lieittaxavt a oy Dublin. in it is. writing. are be stopped in their to bencij fr it freeholders we free-men to be deprived a of their which chises. Dublir scene r at this moment. act. between (who of the must Lord Ireland Lady be a tettaat) -and American Catholic So a late States! that. of the King 446. and Church as idolatrous which was.on ! part. to is this to code. continue is is any now.of teaching treason! to our only df few high A Lord Lieutenant and who must Ireland. and h. "hibits.. taking that this 1 Catholic comes a wife. to complimentary the occasion.PftOTEftTAWT " 'Its?MM in AtTOW . the protesting against arms a Catholic who must supremacy. damnable" a vAi yean 'be guilty . who have taken an belong ' Church. notorious Catholic than their feith has. then. its I spite of persecution.done to more maintain ground ? A\ stiH are be cut off from to hereditary rights and 'out of way the to nours. the bridegroom. gentlemen lawyers and to be shut Commc the House Rre . in k la two unrepealed laws. the whole lie under stigma. Well.

and of which " a^l makes consequences. 'l)ccans^-th"y' and a r^ligbn ^ueate ^ttfefr'afed mrt'r^m. we are. our forefathers and hundred each a here we are. the chopping of St changing and St. is this now -to 'tjoMi . and extent it * one shudder to think of ? at * 447.-from ctmtbtreto be tfatra peef Id* Ae infttdted/tfmslnjured/tfras. be come And we. the end of three the hundred work scenes day : when Henry are. forty in which of Protestant lived religion. as "'WtaStatrtry irritated. with such world never beheld f \ f * before us here here these with awful questions still before sorts . while faith . "Wbtmrer^o part whdte'bV people of the containing'tnen -of all^ranfe. Methodists. wind . TtiBgfan'. most support. too. by 4tp'kdlding a predominance. we condemning all the eternal " are.instead for nine of the years onefold. "defeat. tif *ie \w. years Here. divided rest to split up flames . and are. too in war. impelled'toi^'for xttcslarrtry ^^feriger. . to ta the those seeing concession the nature late. we blood. taxes? % off the then ^11 fc college "a"of men. thSs ^JWrie*"mt ^At^bodj flie Nbfaulflg one-'tTiirti ^ftsgdom. VIII.lr* "xt"rsively. and Austin Calvinists. *nd dfsgrace of to their "natrv" rtcountr^ ^Hfcrfifcg'tfie ^a^e^ne^ r~m*e her * 'tlwr-abt^iwing justice? Law-Church in peace. from the then. distress. motley herd and of Church people. began of ' " Reforraation" here we after as passing through the r of plunder i and we of are.M*" watment fe Jfatoifeft . merely to gratify the still to army. Jews. " into here sects. still to numerous and r expensive danger of exposed. with every Quakers. irittttfe mad all tm to -16T fliem with' re- and i^ew-to'th^ this. winch.

the placeof to supply. : Rsjoajf A-rtow. t 1.Pmtestax? remains Patrickstill . of the consequences of this great. how nation . mad-houses. as far as religionis concerned..taxiag-housa.we guilds. what its been in other respects ... next number. have. jt inspired .of what effects hare . and then we shall have- before us. is called the Reformation". . the . tad . and alms-houses. corrupted.and impoverishedthe the . 448.been the " . r m what it war the heart when. hospitals. convents. debased people. how it has itfcaa enfeebled. "I f ft ID 5i Qi .and. fatal event. aad jails. memorable..affects. and " . sanctified the ihrane * " of Alfred. shall see ia the . and how it has brought barracks. Such. poor-houses. whole .

1825. England and Population Wealth. Plenty. in the fore- " fathers. but a change greatly ^misapplied . enjoyed so Catholic by our ages. of nakedness and of hunger. in the the and ** every in and which ease Reformat *' tion *' *r given us and harmony and for dantly. that there was that the the Reformation thing. paragraph 4. XVI. stare us everlasting: face and ' spite. hunger. in that misery. remains to be fullyestablished." 450. been that amply proved I have not fifteen fore* in and going Letters. of Ireland* Former Former Freedom. ' Kensington. devastation. LETTER Former Former Forms* XVI. what with Catholic forefathers and lived. plunder. of misery. Power. and bloodshed . of that and ears as to its more remote w" them. This 449. perfidy. hypocrisy. fair and honest inquiry had. the charge of beggary. now compared to have. perfidy. mi told that the people you. quantity of food those made which we raiment This I am they had. wrangling stun our ' nakedness. was engendered in beastly lust. called for the worse . and are. at which turn. Ease. *" innocent of devastation. and Happiness. they consequences. make Letter is to conclude that and to goo4 this assertion. and by rivers English and Irish . . some that. and All this has has exchange for the happiness abun- Christian so many charity. which my " the event called the was formation Re- had impoverished England a " degraded In the main body us. now before that now us. in Reformation" been a change. Zltt March. 4" " blood'. I have good my charge of beastly lust. that that " " beggary.No. " task task. I would this teach case. brought forth in hypocrisy cherished and and fed and by plunder. about do. except how our "yet shown. the that word of and Ireland. bVy Frienbs. what sort detail.

us. America According to no\ V. every plaee. read the statements superiority o former times . wealth. [Let than any worse 451. of have us freedom an least. and us in Catholic a times. it is no wonder was that a that.t of a H pe" and have the peoplehave read and believed so much in praise of the said. of if be not have possess almost created us. Few made some dared attempt he was refute few and. and that. always estimates government of it. one and/ree before. NOW. to be when the we shape other. England they should poor. people nation fed have clad. I I did choose to be better to rather prove thai as not pledge myself power. about our prodigious inc present over in population. begg England by hiring a million of Prussians. and and that the Reform* have House we of Brunswick Whigs. of at power. I will better ever now freedom the " of the nation bette than more show and only . But. wealth. p. beggarly the " having the all very few people on of it.) unblushingly asserts. and that the that not thing were " tc population. Austrians. the jj eve] c lousf wealthy. wealth. Read has modern written than it romancers. or obtained hearers. above power. or the about fiion." this is the He the way in which the wealth every Sc a i reasons. or. sacks. required more than third town of the a " " " " " " of whom for nary man revenues . too.Protestant Reformation. all things and. and especially " of wha Reforms and its that effects. virtuous efforts. word . 502.. for ai ru all monstrous men lies .1 without really conquer. superiorfreedom . read the monstrous that one (vol. pretty sure however. lies of Hum-e. rich by tlie money that " gets. This same Henry cor France. to they to succeeded them . reward are sm . could wretchedly poor country. to begotten are caused nine-tenths but born. 5. capable of making a gr county of England is now in the kingdom* was reij effortthan the whole the garrison of the to maintain Henry V. historians. fox been and the arista so dependent on the government poor this criterion of a squeezes makes government ou. But writers have. before since Reformation was been bat. if and the attempt. and all sorts of hirelings. when of Calais. powerful been since that event. must Hume.

forge churches for? We are told been the of their men "piety there what jmk"eaij" yes. of three first were ^attestant Imsand mm reigns. the women. know. This may amounting will who verify. and And. can believe. men. state listen to tasty 452 tawe tm fjrre when calamity. when 46. a thousand. iaparishioners. HMfdfhuts and to these hold in great numbers too. Register. size of the churches. or a Our forefathers built that we were for to ever. proved to 2. every one says. there nWpjft do s*tre not coatuna before that.and towers if there had and steeple. hundred ftftd children. hut there must have The Lord bafldinga* might favour *mt to raise the work. particuThat it is feriyin bjsmI was No. therefore. of Volume times that false.Then times the again.must hehere. *nd mortar. Ihtfnwl and Wales.fire.and. They manifestly built. thousands patted dovpi.V WLJ actor lat no PuoratfravT the lash of of Riroftlc atioit. the notoriously a ufetion haglish has added third to its during population modern be records bo fast twenty and nay more bare. persons each. bad this as men so thingsever was . if they be not.in general.four. and day are false .761 upwards of in parishes. to number hold three. make asjtttve could there for putting together such to of latge ^niantities . -our over again. to and Ighich they cultivated. out are of 11. have built 4ttoh.hands have stone as well been as prayers. walls not 4suf feel thick. do fmUions of acres. that parisheswere instances. than in the Engnow populous in Catholic we Vfe. go q2 . and when we parish know churches more united. There any must one have been ta perform the labour would and. men "Bton (fading all the of their present should What sectarians.that nad not this a have been We for it ? Necessity performed. little thinking of the devastation Next we come behold! which any one the lands. NOW the truth. NOW. how could the men ktkmr bhour have been performed? . not. . with only a few hundred" the thirty1 of parishioners. I will lay it before is there are PoruLOUSKESS because facts. over years! In short. in than two from the returns Parliament.if there now see largeand most been ancient costly churches. bsaa people to fill the buildings? And. but lave been . a thing not no to be provedby which po- records because of the numbers three of we people ia our in own fbsroer times.

females." states they have 7 . here nothing say nothing numerous " Wat THAN Tyler had got together.and were. men MORE ONE-FIFTH and Wales ! able-bodied And. too.000 and.486V half of infirm. in what the population of England he calls an-" Estimate. III.243 14. Suffolk. then. must leaving 483.Pjlotestant Reformatio*. but. so that^ insurgents. gentry. at 2. army rich and of the all nobility.000 church. still remain. Cornaoif Tbey never grew to corn the sides of which hills*. The The half of the* course. upwards of 16. together with amounted men. were than able paras meti t" churches. the same at time. 8). were. He. of a " BLACKHEATH bodies . Hampshire. the sick. . p. a place* government has been of the one a pensioner. Devonshire on wall. the churches at one gious these have able houses that time. and every and Priests. and a Scotchman. in some cases. or. writings dtt now never the romances population are mere subject of ancient . to say Kingfe Norfolk. stairs.000 bodied Tyler " So there that. refr that there were in this whole kingdom! amounted. so the males. III. want.978.046.092.'and nothing of "the Vol. attempt a stir.' on of all the he Blackheath. people. if they had how had mouths eat the ous numerperformed such labour without of Hampshire and ? shire. assembled. . feel that implement. most conspicuous in this species of deception. had. to 'say (Hume. the aged. luan. Dorsetshire. and which* marks still bear the uneffaceable The modern. of the with view forth to a paying court they have been put of the day. [Lett*! and we into Sussex. hundred date). this corn they ? aitf Why could should they not have performed to prodigioatf And. There was 523. The -these children. labour. Priest to to in number. DorsetOn the high lands hands there acres together.or steps. Wales. Essex. each in ! 1381* not quite twelve Hume says. steps of These still not. p. (four men thousand to years assembled of the Vol.243 left of able Now. which are spots of a thousand of the plough. made a bodied and the men. "in Hertford. in nine They made the hill into the form of the flat parts* order to plough and sow and out are. 9. the Monks able more to about as 40. of 40. collected them ean England together in we ia the space of about six days ! Do we want.in flats. of * ten. cases cultivated. Friars.000 there were men. George Chalmers. of in 1377. Lincoln". that after Chalmers's on Wat had. 1.

that " " than The it is now. frequently XQO. one to every thirty square parish each miles . of to penance. for the/ purpose. There churches. there authorities a country as Hume relate at also." as if it had been a part of the Gospel. however. once.J thing writers.000 do 4k pilgrims or at time assembled the Canterbury.These are facts that nobody can and six miles wide. geography square of parishes and religious country.000 of those inha38 say. and have been ? A and with a part of the site of its ancient and with splendid churches.church to every piece of land two .000 strangers at a time. . The of miles the in tella the number us. as to the number of dispute.in answer. the Cathedral only remaining.000 looking and. convents streets. and. we so There roust. deny. that \nen one than and bodied of England the same Wales one frequently all treme ex- bled. to kneel lie ! tomb one_sing!e -$aint. a renowned and even visited.3KVI. then.in of of the island. throughout the parish church to every four square kingdom. then.000 TENTH were here Scotch of all W" that.gloomy the published accounts bitants 3. town. were of lies himself formation Refingland not was more populous before the us. That is to say. if must to believe more pensioned 'Writer. being reto admit corded "houses. But. land.a noble. according Arciidall. by no small part of the Kings. be said with to regard Irk742. as of the height from of keeping the people in mind till were. what mustCantcrbury itself Monstrous city it was. and population of these days. if the father endeavour and to persuade to come. it is too well known in books without number. in refutation the were. with about 12. that. and woy religioushouse to every piece of land five miles long onp . The best criterion of the population in the number and size of the jg. at corner and time. if Canterbury could give entertainment So 100. and one religioushouse (includingall the kinds) miles. . * than ancient this. a beggarly. on mMy more Pbotestant Reformation*. of ? these* Let himit the hr" observed. make at offerings. venerated. where there were. Well. in at the city. fvhich they have fallen. in Mlf hisv relates. to be found houses. and Nobles of all Europe. yet it has been sucked 1"y enlightened Protestants. shrine Xuomas men Bucket. covered barracks. same he fnay must fail with all but right downto idiots. Ithe^able moo em believe. with paupers.grand. . inhabitants. have We were been this A 50. " down And. Tt is now Princes. and that of the religious was one miles.

be three been rated. " nof veal probity tad the canals. . that" returns to the Tax-office [propertytax]. I have that authorityfor what in the A return. " reign Reformation. and There were. and less in those places where they be It is sate This is by retail. aad for mutton tiiree farthings. of course. half-naked half-starved. people got of mines. in our (Vol. mind. to millions. escape Pitt of and his taxing eye Harry^ understrappers? OW is. kei than two and a Why when these were churches? What And . printed by order of the Hone year 1804. 4. at findingout what included the rent him a poor hand.Hume Now. avoirveal above or dupois weight. the and dated 10th July. prove the rackof rental England and Wales to be thirty-eight millions a year. no projecto foi relieving of their native the Irish by sending them e"t they ? ! Ireland built ? how art these in those land! 453. then. and as the ti annual found p. Chap. 3. they were for? By religioushomes maintained Alas a was days. to know we 197. in order to compare of then with we the first present see amount of the rental annual must see of the of the country.. that pershall take for beef or pork above son a halfpenny. were "this.*' Here. Jhe rack- . So that. [LETTR |S in the reign of Henry veligious-hooses one of these to every was a and * where little more there piece of land parishchurch miles were VIII. siat miles each way . 1804. of Commons. then. what was there that could the all-searching." the whole Wales. a fine. three millions must the Act of Parliament. and.. worth in order money. and of rental. must now what then the we rental what -Wales now is. just before the in England and of the lands Hume. a pound. which says. of " " " Inexperiencemust have made wth Pitt. but. we have the rental to a certainty. according to rental was codntry is a questioneasily Henry VIII. ibr. 24th " year " *' " " in no Henry VIII. and. and I have no such authority with regard to the amount of the rental as it its just at tins the rental was moment . and I wish to England and pice of meat speak here nothing that I have not unquestionableauthorityfor. every half each built to piece of way. states.) quotes undoubted what look these at authorities. sold for less" now the the butchers' shops. had. for compared their land.. country.P"OTSITAVT R"FOSJtATIO*. rich and Her thei not a people were populous. THE In WEALTH the of the of decided.

in Bank-restriction in time high prices . of the whole was amounted time of to thirty-eight millions.. average. abounded This in of men gentlethat men good estate. Reformation" of Parliament. thai very year fat hogs.XVi.. in time I gave "yf high prioe of meat 18s. and taken veal the mutton more' on -pork. the justice " "of the year peace then . now. and. under who has of twenty heavy*penalty. taking head. I think. Harry's as tenpence a pound by orders the meat Act in for less than be to sold. would never proof of the superiorgeneral opulence and ease overset and happiness . are No of that than the facts. a score . contented over Act itself says. the money in hundred of years before L above-mentioned was 1439. for for before and after. of observe. Old Now. of still higher it as reign of Henry must However. This. than retail. It is safer undoubted authority to go to But." fellows. for a XI. and In have seen. the superiorgeneral opulence year of Henry VI. Chap. the clear yearly value about about value a not of pounds. were. defiance and was to cavil.] mental 9 PaOTXSTANT REFORMATIO*. fallen in twenty millions. Act. after that settingforth no man cause the enactment. proas a shall. where This man can as bid. in the at Harry VII times The VI. then meat take 180-f. had four hundred that we a pounds have of our money and one all know. Mr. that the country the year. feet. . ought it was. beef. strikingmanner. shows.. the three farthings. some places. act lands and This tenements was justice of the peace. miany years. and all together. therefore. So that a halfpenny of Old Harry's money was equal in value to tenpence hons of Pitt's money of rental in the time millions in : and. that the general price was a fairly presume. to on. I will t\yo other Acts which refer. " with A having thousand of them. as we to have sixty rental 1804.the three mil" become of Harry. Curwen said. to 1822. fore. *"f Catholic times. such a calling themselves historians. price. very the nation it is to wealthy before there are " But. not people are behaviour set and. indeed. hundred tices jusAct of the ' peace of Henry of the small VI. as the 1 8th in a corroborating. taking of our twenty the value have we money. halfpenny. in time of monstrously high rents . only the had we thirty-eight had 'also fallen have nature millions.we the halfpenny and may. they more conclusive the proof is of a dispute any the to point. be- meat. this fact of The Act. and including 1804. vides.

abounded there were of solid sources re- property take that. as notion can a a " proof of people are ihem. that wealth times. . leaving her nothing but those Jittle specks in the sea. Richard AcU" to which I have il" III. in men part of and hand our the country course. that England was that it so of real wealth abounded abounding in men . at beggars ! England was. that. of in cases always great If we were of emergency. part of France seen. twenty pounds a year of our money! And our yet the Scotch ancestors were a historians set would make us beyond all dispute. in Catholic . every thing shows. and because the king's revenue small. yet this is was precisely twenty year in the and Jurors of " " cited by Hume. or twenty-six and eight pence copyhold. he was met and his way escorted on by two thousand gentlemen of the What ! 2000 country gentlemen. what for many centuries.. before the held possession of a considerable *' compared with than the fact. that towns the Reformation" took. which a shillings juror at twenty year in "re"" hold. clear of til clear yearly income is to say. to last. Chap fixes the 4.tint things prore . in the reign of Queen Mary. ever us is. find such ! In we a troop of country gentlemen there now then a country short. at least.! generallydiffused. that we nor behaviour" ruled19 how of small by men quickly we Cardinal should Polk When Botany see Bay! landed at Dover. [LBTtU f I The other of the luded. "which 2nd and has nation's what Their poverty ! the government more. to " now " to it into heads over us dislike to we were have to a men of a snudl to behaviour Justices set . describes it! so beggarly a country as Chalmers Aye. and Caa they must have been found in Kent and Surrey too. to say.Peotutakt of the country. Jersey and Guernsey ? What do we . 454. as we have the two of Boulogne and Calais from her. in country on horseback. from real a charges." England country. that really wealthy \ country that every ." wretched which has. if take fancy of the Peace of four hundred as days of good pounds a year . was of These believe.brought POWER do we present condition. That property of. what As the of the want " it is now. that out wring of i farthing upon And this is the " doctrine been acted at since the into our Reformation. the worth not a and the rest of the Scotch historians. be governed would not king Henry. is 1st year of a qualification REFORMATIO*. if we were. more Reformation.

foes. to see look up the rearms. that she so had seldom And it by war. necessary insult and injury by her wellis.fcVJfcJ* . Nothing petty ever She was held in such high honour. strength than gained strength in than and you can were. her power was universally acknowledged. of an tion anticipahas of those She has mortgaged. ilways ready for war They had the resources in. of her Her war-like but exertions have been the effect.but she has shown vorld that the pretensions are. spect held in which for so -many. while. well-founded. to see the deference with at which the she was treated of our by all tions. if your look at but \ve neighbours are. even holds bia moment. England was many ages . and a state formidable before arsenals none We *ave. in its Reformation has from the wrested us a large *"urse.the And. France that rant more was never a country " " Repretensionsto cope with England until the Reformation she has not began. and And.the hour of necessity. Since the such all the to aaly had pretensions. without q France 5 . and. resources. there she now known resources future tor defence. indeed. can greater degree. and. great standing armies. are we ^xe already become. You may in of attack. never cost a . Protwakt than 'this ? Reformatio*. you weaker effect. she spent before-hand. kings and had kings and princes in their train. we had. the Debt. and knew what those to fightfor before they men they were It is impossible to look back. They had and arms men . thought of approaching her. Can back and look to the days of littlenation ? we St low America.not resources. the inevitable consequences feelingthat we that fast becoming. our barracks. they nevertheless. and. riage mar- alliances England. na- without blushing with thought Her None but the greatest potentates presumed to present think of queens state. internal her choice lies between Power foreign victoryover *s her. occasion what has she to assert been for the last hundred Above and fifty half the years ? time at war to be paid. but. and than any we has have erected ever them into beheld. you a relative. indeed. contemplate of war. with of that she now her hopes of safety rests solely on her war. tad any ormation " " " " portion nore of our domjpions. were fcf which Catholic forefathers had .inviting in case weakness. Spain in despite of us. or have have more convulsion. that it is vol capacityof persuading her well-known their interest to assail her. at She.

perhaps. They looked upon bare bones and rags as indubitable marks failed to resist any attempt to of slavery. They tlieir property without cause clearlyshown.and they never body to put them to board on cold potatoes and water. ! " alas ! those sighing. for mental had no taste enjoyment . where the die hare an man " tell " of any Reformation sound has singleadvantage tfett brought. of parliament? Oh! to vote at elections for members want because they shall then have an influence over the conduct "f those members. Church the set common great power people. Do .but you care special ] upon I tooth to kings nor parliaments point. You may twist the word to freedom as long as you please. They did not read they did not talk about debates. except it be freedom t" instead an creeds forty religious . in tlje imposing of taxes had the the smallest. . feel. all vote at elections. at last. But do we? we. have call not nothingeke. imposing taxes. days are never to return And.influence ? in the But it the main making body of and The people Church had to protect them . 455. it is thing that the yon may our and it means nobody can. and the in general can that men privilege have. but they thought thirst and suffered any hunger great evils. instance. was in Catholic the naturally nor times. this cardinal suffered neither " " affix these marks upon them. if this'be not you took well secured are a yon. can we think of their submission instantly produced by their and winV threats'. any. or right stand in this respect. of Now any how paid.they newspapers.Protestant Catholic RzFOHUATioir. not to Oh ! then from doing they will prevent the members wrong? Why. property* If to this. and they never Catholic slave. or it comes men' of those that do called want Why things are.a fiftieth part even of us ? And have the main body of of laws the ns . who as can to the FREEDOM me of the one nation. Now. at neither kings whole guardian of parliaments could our its power defiance . the of shows. it is not of one ? Freedom not a is not empty abstract idsja . that ought That is all . What be only use. that is the use. but. history \ . yon what yourself forefathers will. compared with our Catholic ancestors! They did not. tical poliany anddo for privileges? rights Why they. quiet enjoyment of your property. And of what use is that? wrong. and full quiet enjoyment of your own It means.it comes to nothing. [Lsmi tone lofty 1 our of the oat ancestors.

mi of . joined. state means a government It is the chief business well clothed.after all. over of the of people. the open ceedings. as being. . or rather. the impartiality in the prosummonses . the side was invariably on much and obtained lead. amongst. a sufficiency aifood and Good body of not a of things in which the main. forefathers took the kings and phurch It did nobles nead have because "dependent - because. arrest. the neverfailing badge of slavery. unquestionably. the trial by jury. it wag that. that one part of the lives* people in There can the other morality. is the object the true marks are ? To cause of Government to Jive happily. what those liberties ? The phrase in every month are . leaving the main body of the people to the mercy those other The is a liberties of England branches. sort* for almost aay crime of the crime. of them. the kings nor upon it acknowledged another Church. nobles. the precautions taken the divers writs and by trial . we and have to only lost. and. which is. which do not men inherit up us our The treadto in their from sunset mill. They canmen not of be happy without raiment. our in all the justly boasted their this . indeed. but. it is cruel. of pure 456. protectionof the got nothing supply - place .but of necessities his^all-controlling . liberties These the are of England'7 Andf there " " " its is of its power left has the other branches of the had our we Catholic not owe forefathers them all to less ? or of these we than one we have ? Do that them Have singlelaw. honesty. sunrise. POVERTY.no . unless the of all punishment without trial before absence duly and authorized and well known judges magistrates. no sincerity. whatever and neither because. }*. but may about the same do not boast contempt . however. to punish such people no be part to lead miserable virtue. we gives securityto -property from them? houses we to life. Bare bones and rags What of the real slave. no a people continually sufferingfrom want in the last degree. of 'State.XVL] -that and which the the Protestant Church Reformatio*.the great badge. not the crime crime of the heart.in fact. or has been en grossed by. Protestant origin. triumphs. perpetrator. and of many others of much character*. these. but laws which and possessionof property . regulatethe descent the safetyfrom by due and settled process . well fed and are government cause to take care. the a the law to shut law to banish to for life if " utter any " thing having into tendency bring we representatives inherit.

is called De Laudibits Legum Anglice of the . in the-reignof Henry VI. Prince the Chancellor to wrote to Edward. of are as follows every : inhabitants France give their King the *' growth of that year. witif founded on complete than before a judge and taken jury. which study them and uphold them. the burn with shame. LawAuthority. by a description of the state of the French people. ** and . Fortescue of England for nearly twenty years . [Letter the 457.Protestant Reformatio*. in deplorably well . work written a by a famous lawyer for a Prince . England. in the the 15th century. . that Is. fourth part of all their wines. I shall begin with Fortescue which account ner gives of the state and manof living of the English. into This book was." here. and it is a book of many years ago. state of the to lish. words that. of effects of the explain England.such man can call more the can deny to be proofe question. exile. No doubt in such the truth of facts. English. To what are now now degree the poor are main body of . *" " make Besides year to cheeks my all this. a being of nature also in exile him. all future. miserable we how too people. but/ refer authorities. and to the Laws Prince. York and in consequence of the and the wars between the Houses of Lancaster. when the Catholic Church was in Lord Chief Justice was height of its glory. related man can a It was "woik. that I am was by about lawyers in quote. laws 'the of speaking -generally of and of the the tween be- nature England. as I transcribe laws them of France. the every vintner gives the fourth penny . relating to . in High Chancellor Being by Henry France. purpose. Chancellor. and him to induce was him written This work. it and was intended also to to be read by the other cotemporary The passage lawyers. It must after have been true account. he was appointed Lord in VI. or Praise Laws translated of England. such as no man oaths of credible nesses. Eng- purely The of the and incidental it was not intended a answer any temporary 458. to series the Letters. His words. -wretched now. quoted frequentlyin our courts at this day. and then by a descriptionof the state of the English. shall authorities " will to particularto cite my infer nothings I will give no very as no estimate in ". them. they will this know state but before and we 6ee what I I was their be this vaunted Reformation. in Latin. with addressed King's sdn. difference proceeds to show the difference in their effects.

priest-ridden" the rest of that Chalmers Hum*. of his wine the of what and he makes " towns boroughs are " c' money. sorts. unless better sort of the offals of sheep. coarsest any do they wear their frocks . Another and grievance is. upon. and tribe!would fain have believe. he is soon he is " presently . Their some of caning consists of frocks. upon that the them. the peasants live in " " " " " " " " " drink misery. within assessed yearly upon are every village call them out.assessed more the King's tax. Their constant unless upon other liquor. except it be the with small quantities.were. taste. so lies . and woollens." English. are boroughs those people. do not Of so other boiled it be the much taste. had consideration the kingdom. and do in not eat that a very flesh. . common cities. to serve King in his is often as. or festival days. world. that onlysort . as for their poultry. made sackcloth . " *' *' *' " quails. any cloth* extraordinary times. their legs being extrowse. and to become rich. in all as at the least. neither is there ever " abatement of taxes.are them. throughout the year. slightas they are.pain of the galhares. their accoutrements. for the expenses *' finds some and maintains two cross-bow-men. great hardship and is water. for whom " served to thrive in the. they do not wear better than common no vas.. other very heavy taxes of these tilings. whereby Then level with the rest. he pleaseth to " " Without any frequently done. They bacon. whom at scription bis de- of " the that same time. reserved. And if it happen the merchants. the well arrayed wars." Paotestant Reformation. the soldiers consume the eggs. every villageconstantly . and use bullocks. which at arms. " killed for the of the of people. that scarce is obthat a man by way of a dainty. they and are soup. Exposed interany these and to " calamities. nor under any in the garment but from the knees upwards . which " for the mission other King's or service . except on The women go posed and naked. King yearly great all Che sums of *' c' " are King's troops. of his -which pay to assessed So And by sale. men subsisted and paid yearly by always considerable. are indulged them. who live in the villages. except of the. or little short jerkins. and also like. neither do they " " holidays.partridges. barefoot. and m those English. either as fat of which or " they inwards which and make " " roasted."VIJ . proportionately recomes " " than to a his poorer duced neighbours. find more. and the like.

who have them 3d. who like horses and drawing gravel in Hampshire and Sussex . from the grains-tub. to use or and to enjoy. hath all things which conduce to make happy" life easy and great abundance. detected in robbing the are pig-troughs in Yorkshire . that the day would If any one when come. and tell them.interruption denial of any. game! Good God old Chancellor. silver. the English now food. go." and " " " " enjoy whatever the increase he the produceth. press whole assembled. read to the degraded " ** and deluded wretches. Every one. They wise " no water. by his the like . 459. fruits of the earth. a day allowed by the Magistratesin fed than the felons Norfolk . cry . it is. this account of the state of their Ca- tkelic i( who lived under what is impudently called forefathers. have the at audacity to call " the dark the French ages . with their No Popery dirtytongues. Englishmen. and satisfactions againstthe party offending.that the inhabitants are all the necessaries and conveniences of life. upon a are religious fed. they are clothed throughout in good woollens. Go.without the let.I ' Protbstaut band Reformation."" The make new cannot alter the consent laws. or ones. where. or and. [Lettei / King oi England without in the ex- a " " " mere of wretched of the beggars. their bedding and other furniture in their 'houses are of wool. of those he retains in his sendee. in or oppressed. the told the ! Look the at capacity of blushing that picturefits precisely the parts of the picture .he shall have injured. They are also well provided with all other sorts of household goods and necessary implements for husbandry. or whether and flock. we which 460. who are. popish superstition and tyranny'1. the ! the had raiment. who are eating horse-flesh and and Cheshire ed harnessin Lancashire are grains(draff) . provements proper industry. . Go. according to his rank. unless of with at certain times. all over England. are his own. all sorts They " " u u " " " of of flesh and fish. own makes. when they raise their hands from the pig-trough. sea- and read this to the eating weed in Ireland . who who are now poor souls. and that in great store. rich in gold. which they have plenty every. and in those times. all the in- " " If he be in any his amends " " Hence and drink score. Every inhabitant his farm of his is at his kingdom fullyto liberty Parliament we . in " u and by way doing penance. if you blush at the thought of left. %\ testant Pro- Look the then pictureof have how all and. worse the m gaols.

] Ibis PXOTESTAXT ReFOftK ATIOIT. and picture. hut.that there was to be a a/tio^ ". the be day-labouring potatoes the only food of the ploughman .be enough^ of the late Rector to stop with it. " if he had been would told this. once-famous extract that. gives. as as English. have said. even a picture more boasted he have when . stating. the Cathe English so hapChurch. . would have to than twice. still have in the midst of all this suffering. would (as in the case last year of clare decomplaint againstMagistrates at Northallerton that brea the general food of working D an d water were would said ? Why. that made py the Church French well the had that for. been addition. sittingon' that very Bench which he himself on . if he have people in England ? What Reform he had been told. the baseness should No the ingratitudeand to Popery ". by being conv conduct. in more told. that it was But. when allowed the hadsitten the for twenty years.we told. if he present had. Selbourne. of total devastation Church and Poor by a accompanied Debt and enormous creating an property. Oh! .that. and in the case was English people lost more by* Reformation have than lost. I am in Hampshire. upheld by wars. and and never the case in France : its property . . in England. .moral. not White. free and happy fathers. man than thrice. an village. if he had the soldier. who persecute those Englishmen and the faith of their pious.degrading what to human he fit hit own tfatore. nay. in the reign of Richard II.XVI. was indigent an effectual provision. our state. it may not. " God's will be done: let them suffer/' tholic be said. when carried to the field as be opened to feed the English . in his history of thtft from a record. woold would What hmre said ? country. " about the year 1380. the Church very basis of the laws. sum England. but the Laws. for disorderly were punished. provision made by related to the Church . said. and requiring a constantlystanding army enormous taxes. men This ws* pefled to fast a fortnighton bread and beer '7 country but this " so that the " . of itself. he wept would have foreseen . would been that would the time more was to come. then. a any other people could 462. and in have for his country even but. the was Aye! But. The very first clause of Magna Charta A vided pro- for the for the this any laws was the that not of its property and stability rights. brave. Fortescue's authority would. " cry he would 461. and when soup-shops would the Judges. and the injustice and the crueltyto adhered to Irishmen.

bread do we nlone want is more the than food. for. Go. for the . the four and of meat. in paragraph 453. let us eome of Parliament.. to them to eon* beef. food. was as the time A this law 0 continued 0 4 A in force fat goose Ale. I of Parliament wages Acts. 0 ." of true a This is conclusive. many things mentioned. compel them the Pope be not put down. the Act to above see... that. What main this to been convince that the the " body of the people have 464.Protestant * Reformation. this Acts are Act what such These There The declare several the of one shall may be. sort. but the follows. purpose. and. if. it is fact that from the know well. cloth. . two suffice.. to of Parliament. but HI. to cry in time. quoted. first. veal. and. his from transcript the record.it is conclusive as general mode as trifling tell harnessed the of livingin those happy days. that that Judges now have declared the Bench. he may. pork. dung-cart filling' an a acre or weeding corn. drawers. factmitsf mention [Letts* be true. quarter. following 8. the follows 0 0 : " pair of yard 2" 1 4 Russet A A broad gallon. fact. without Act as of 23d of Edward There will be A A A fixes other our the wages.. enough for d. It is in ' Act of Parliament we have even been the .. by 0 0 0 3 1 4 1(5 1 1 3 1 0 0 8 2 4 Proclamation Wheat the wine flail-fed ox ox 1 0 0 . day.. Red wine "" fat hog 2 years Ud 0 . instead of suffering fast on bread and nice potatoes and pure water. are impoverished by by other Acts have spoken truth. rather. 1 This His White or. 0 0 0 3* 4 6 4 reaper of grass quarter of wheat Mowiug Threshing The 0 0 priceof shoes. of the miserable had no "dark purpose to ages" answer. and tnat shoes cloth the 0 * of throughout provisions. workmen or Reformation"? will prove. to the and the fact is. tinue to regale themselves on 463. which After naming That Act fixes the price of meat. in Hampshire. the preamble sorts beef. mutton OF FOOD has these THE These words being THE : " POORER mention SORT. the grass-fed fat fat White Ion gal0 0 0 6 4 0 A A A sheep unshorn sheep shorn. to Acts But. is purelyincidental. of poorer us. gravel" No Popery". 1 1 woman man hay-making. But. an a It is an tal incidenIt must fact.

and see at the thrashing of wages are wheat now. in twelve days . by the quarter . he would earn hog.. th* in.) These Protestant Reformation* prices are who bursers taken took from the Preciosum the accounts of Bishop Fleetwood. the how from " 1800 popish. the popish people might work harder work in enlightened Protestants. a a ! In our people burfed in Popish superstition" days of Protestant of mental light" and enjoyment. authority. when a printedby order of the House report was of of Mr. easily believe.cart man and that 3d." were sort. to set this matter at rest."the allowed are by the Magistrates of Norfolk. We to see average. as to wages. as to Sussex. port. at the mowing by the adre " " " " " " " " " " " as ." They might do more This is contrary to all the assertions of the feeloa day. the price of the job-labour . pork. cloth coat herd shepit in earn dung.XVI. and.cart man very nearly would shoe's filler This ! a of pair day dung-cart every earn a a fat fat shorn sheep in four days . containing the evidence of Norfolk. so that we may easilybelieve. and mutton. Two the food of the poorer than the price of more and the when a woman a beef. sofers . able to work. sort. will get the No Popery gentlemen about six of old ewethe Popish dung-cart man while ounces mutton. I have no parliamentary authority since the year of 1821. a halfpenny less than the Catholic dung." And. George. and. than But. price of wheat. than the quarter of a fat sheep. on an " proceed priest-ridden Englishman stands No Popery" Englishman. two years old. . mind. he would a grassearn fed ox in twenty days . mutton a We and -cart then. alred price of made a quart of for the earn wine ! yards the of the 2s. rather more 466. for a day's. " inclusive. got. compaiison with . " that " veal. the them All from kept by of convents. 6" days .*' were dung a and filler had halffor a day's work. for they insist.weeding. Commons. poorer sort 3d. Ellman. and let us compared with the price of food." when a fat goose was lowed.that 'the Catholic religion made look at But. 465. the reaper would would . let us people idle. dated 18th The June. that wood's Fleet- book is of undoubted may. for his day. the world knows. had . that the food of the poorer beef. 1821. this was priest-ridden people". a day for a single man That is to say. and of Mr. it cost 2d. report was how these The accounts are for 20 will now years.

which the labouer us We have hud to purchase with his wages. pupils. observe. it would. and he.that Ireland 467. they mighty cause of all their millions . that 10 enlightened Protestant" for his give as " shillings* as bushel fi wheat. eight he does ing ought to receive. for thrashinstead of the /our shillings. settle the question of religion for ever and I I have ever now proved. and the " the evidence df Mr. had to qpxefivepence a bushel popish superstitionslave toawst " |or his wheat. but. who popishfool" that the " is. Mowing an a acre of crass 0 0 . I could refer to divers other acts of. clergy . quarter in like manner. " make him as for ought mowing to. if the Bible- Society and " Education as and the ledge Christian-knowthis little book of gentry would.parliament. receive. " and. as compared with years the of the present day. There ! That the " state. but I have given it. If we was had the records. well off as dark the ages" man twelve of 3s.and parkindly ticularly for he has an item in the instance. all confirming the trutfaf to be put into the hands Fortescue's account. in Bishop the wood's Fleet- book. [LeTTEE NO-POPKRT MAM. much the priest-ridden. of wheat. as far as relates to this kingdom. instead shillings." to So in enlightened" man. many people were most by the of a expenditure the " labouring things prove their treated by superiors. had to George states. which shillings. 30 pair of autumnal gloves for convent. 24 times suffered himself to be that order was. in high situations was. settles the " matter . Mau'm look at the relative price of the wheat. who thinks of gloves dark have ploughmen ? We priests as well as the ride as well as theirs. that the seen. 1\ d. And there that are. 6 4 " 3 4 7$ 0 Thrashing Here are " quarter of wheat. of passed during several* centuries. was no proof. but theirs seem to to have the the that rein pay and of persons It is curious spur less.. ours for " fed used that with at the same time more. now improvements. .receive an acre of grass a . : both mount. calculate . " that servants/' This was sad " superstition" In our enlightened" and Bible-reading age.PftOTlSTANT REFORMATIO*. theirs ages" people had. in the same we should. that of the happy life of our Fortes cue's Catholic description wanted There ancestors correct. very low If you when compared the pay of the working classes. " ! let But. doubtless.find. roTfflK NAM.

but/ we of this Protestant impoverishment. that . this will singlefact might see the The The 469. in court sat never sinecure. found. at any rate. in Catholic of the moment progress. that theirs was ae plenty of work . ! The Judges of the lives a of leisure who had In that been one fact. there the be no time Catholic the mind to this who doubt this mind and has. 27 Henry VIIL. lives. iaciyears Chief character of dentally stated - by man. but.that in its horrible the compulsory of pauper disgraceful name heard of in England. much did of the Judges not average pay of the then did and. To be Litt^etojt ages." when pretty easy " and. money. and Here their pay is another was not bitable indu- honesty and had innocence generalhappiness and harmony that reigned in the country. the debt cannot XIV* to clearly traced event. had sure. our wiltfindit. the main the bare fact. exist. weie . read think. wrote. lams. if multipliedby 91 pounds to money). doubt. for." they would for their found have contemplation" ! They would have. I that of such this a man. we have of our long calumniated religion As to fathers.XVLJ pay 20 a P"OTESTAttT of the ReFOEM ATI"*. 25. chap. in former called the "Reformation" and in especially the enormous seeing Number taxes I Numbers. this have of the in most body of the people since can fact. thus far. Judges had. to amount you year. a man. these and times that they were heard the " Reformation" and it is Wl begun. of course. have. tracing well-known that sever ' impoverishment fact. they would " " they led lives of great that they. exceed not year exceed not so 1. from lived in 8 to 1 1 ! Alas ! if they had this found have little time enlightened age. of any Neither can any there. collections for the . that interesting been impoverished and sway . next enough. the fabric of the Catholic Church was. 468. and that ten times adequate to their enormous proof of the great and labour. the I bring myself no to conclude. without The poor. progress Act.200/. dung-cart (which brings it to wbile-the 60/. and that But. year. a 'year of our money. Fortescue says. twenty the true Justice the so King's Bench. So that a Judge. in the this little work. fourteen as pay in those " dark lived that and dung-cart fillers. in . been impoverishment the degradation have caused that by event. leisure and Fortescue hut three contemplation/* and hours in a day. began the poor monasteries not were actuallyseized on till the be enough. as man degraded fact.

TO sessment as- granted. the Edwaed. in this had been came. chap. 1st year Edward iron* and by mahing beggars.. the above Act authorized be churchwardens to collected." And. were Magna of Charta. by came this Protestant forth as a Act. most impiously calls him. it was . after the to cause eight times. Acts The This Act the sort of precursor Horrid resource. for a aecond the dawn death. punishing reign. [Limi country * fact. without success. oar days of mental enjoyment. he was. to cane voluntary alms mad. instantly. to as a felon I This was pot him of to that admire " Refobxatios. and open begging which had of England horror. by burning with a red-hot 470. prayers branded to chained. they actual their slaves. torn Wing down. this. 3. iron power collar. mned the Gopeople." who. to be a slave of the for life. The ** them make bread slaves them and for two wear an years. bad been which them. it punished the persevering beggar. relieved by alms. No made other resource of tyranny ! which the law been which had vided. to two All avoid manner of shifts had the resorted to. that true as Protestant was Church.Peotxstast Repoevatio*. with necessitons the and. gave because England ! plundered of the which justice. passed that compulsory Act. this During BEG the former at provision for reigns. her be hand they sought by ! u allaythe trying cravings of hunger Next came good Queen Bess. they were resenred for our u disobedient. 471.they appear have been even were or thought of. mark9 by law last compulsory mark. bj siicmg off part of his firs. began his Protestant VI. water was and meat refuse of bread I For. to establish Church people nature. at the fame time. ment assess- off to the possible moment. put But. oftence. to poor to which is ia been force the present order and day. bj an Act." as pious young Martyrman. of This and that the established." and to which ! we are still called upoa praise Saist Fox. pat a atop magistrates and to sheriffe. the indelible poof. venunent always held ft great To began to disgrace da* so-latery happy land. If the slave ran away. had water 4" still there for those who and to labour alone the days yet to * and of cold come : potatoes and were enlightened Bible-reading days. and meat with in to their masters to feed even them in this : upon case. LICENSES last. proaad and. and. and to hone-flesh to as never draff (grains). reason.

Fa~ the Poor ". Amongst these was was one Child. to preamble whatever. when the comparativelylittle numerous. of the people without kep( down " ~ this race was that same " country. one of the provisions relatingto these thers" have that they may to send such to be. to ! transport this was and make slaves - And. the projectors of putting down the means to find out pauperism. of the * report a remedy. was gracious God in the to man a " in FortescueV Charta And we country 1 This this monster country of Magna this ! And cannot dared any publish had wretch. become were a ragged Defoe. except in as far as the poor-law had rendered of before the unnecessary the passing of it . as long taxation light f the pauper But. any had a " " " " plantations of them ! / That is to say. got the of the Church spoils this cruel and All But. "pauper the land. And ubique jacet . and. of proposed Act. . reign could this Act. racks. knight or baronet.XVL1 Protestant Reformatio*. of nation wretches.and. Fo former in the described times. This. it was measure of ^absolute necessity. says that "good Bess. whose name Josiah.which wa* quite worthy of his calling. rious carried purpose to the " " had come. frequentlyexclaimed. people by happy rtescue. ever. at work taxes were soon began to grow heavy. Locke 'was inquire. in which Fortescue lefta * conduce to make people. all the law-martial. into of his Majesty's they may as poor. it has no people. had debt down a place. and the all for the poor of putting at Popery for of one began ferred re- increase the such frightful rate. to Commissioners. having all things which life easy and happy"! 472. were barbarities that as had been exercised was and. that is. have not the grounds ashamed of which been to state to have seem The of it^ for. who a merchant been and made banker .contained a provision.in his Fathers to be called. bank when had and a created. His Sir Josiah. now of his tracts. the authors. much Things did not mend during the reigns of the effect." in her progress in one through the kingdom. had a never relished by those who the the poor. of so that the soul the reprobate conduct hard-hearted When revolution on 473. Stuarts. and for he is called. deliverer taken and a project! to learn. the Board that the to Parliament subjectto Trade. the poor cover . was power think fit. when a war a " glo* bees . upon seeing die miserable looks of the crowds that came to see her. to appoint men. project.

the poor. aod is to generalan observation and combe doubted 41 of. and a a long peace. of employ* has blessed merit for the poor. and relaxation of disciplineand .we humbly conceive it will be found to hare proceeded. as of this eril be looked 44 vice and idleness occurred are on the other. since the goodness of God these times with plenty no less than the former . for givingno to relief crimes. After who Locke. interesting *' Relax* did of ! discipline*1 What discipline?What he and taking away imposing of heavy taxes.that there a were no time. came. seem So. 'during three reigns. but. paupers he could the 4" deliverer". virtue corruption industry being as constant companions on the one side. arid their . themselves ! It does not have cause Mr. that plaint.! Protestayt and 44 " Reformatio*. not want nor from the scarcity of provisions." imputed to English labouringpeople ate and drank three times How the nodifferent were as tions any foreigners! of this insolent French Protestant from those of the' . at all in hardly think ation mean of to alluding that fact. said the as imputed their poverty to their to their poverty . his report contained no A kite. 44 " growing If the the kingdom this many of it well the last two feh the increase reigns causes " 44 " 44 44 44 44 44 44 41 into.the drawing away of the earningsof the poor to be given to paper-harpies Poor's property. present. crimes he much He their luxury prideand sloth. were the knew causes of evil disgraceful no this he it is therefore. wonder. seems in the been reignof Qr/EE*r Defoe. the Board [Lethe is anion. nor hag it been upon as only it has yean. as the 44 the last tliat this evil has burden on oome. frury a passage in the Report of The of mahipiicity it cannot war far their maintenance. Locke He knew that there very mast-have been was a for when this well. race the and of Malthus projectors. to have that very well. since been and a the increase* of the tax the poor. remedy^ 475. beinga fat place-man under there England . he their crimes not " father of the present' Scarlett' Lawyer He was being more merely his humble and followers. these . the fault was to in the poor to cause. us.** 474. growth poor have some it be other cause and can nothing else hut the . the and tbe and hideous and other tax-eaters ?. the givingof low wages compared with the priceof food and raiment.gave us as plentiful The of the therefore must trade as ever. by discipline The of the Church .

he of the years then deemed of but our present situation To wrote a better sure." led to our produced good . or the contents of the been day more to the than present. weed. the deluded if vengeance I were allowed creatures to to enjoy: to " " urge ' No take and pot a toe -crammed cry Popery1 care still.this degrading curse. If Defoe at offiesh and fish! our ** " would. efforts to extinguish me is the result of your . there have pig* trough. than that days ago.draff sea(grains). at last. poor. to regulate the affairs fifty for the Catholic Church -But still the pauperism remains to of England. that. allows 2d. here. people as in relating. " not of their poverty " degradation. have have grudged them he would enlightened age. FoutescuE. the declared Judges of the Court of King's Bench (1825) have the general food of the labouring people to be bread and water from the northern counties (18?6). one then." up in the face of the " the " " " look at this: here may say to the latter. in 1825. and while the Clergy hare recentlyput up. hold Church Here. . Fortescue! he be Hume wrote 50 long after Chiud. From hundred a projects. ever (in food of the labourers. I am former " " more' than on avenged. of the poor* laws. P"ots"tant Reformat***.] Chancellor the to .says. his and any unless no seen rate. intelligence. has It led and to " " De"oe. given. in thk one evil. the first protestant reign. in 1 824 states the labouring people of Suffolk to be a. pub.'' of the people. our Surely enough present and our now Reformation" present situation. a day to a singlelabouring man. lished has. that some great are numbers of people abounds are nearly starving.by a Clergyman. remind them they retire of the cause their straw. when td. at last" upon the spot. and seen* who looked the were English " fed.in this never-ceasing.'9 of which we are produced the bitter fruit. the " Locke.and pub* lished by the House of Commons. in great abundance. those sufferings tion. a scale. in speaking of the sufferings ia Hume. now tasting.XVI. 1821) states the common to be cold potatoes . informs us. 476." he the luxury amongst " horse-flesh.publishedby the magistratesof Norfolk. here. 477.Evidence. too deeply corrupted evidence of a Sheriff of Wiltshire to he reclaimed.and. that have deliglrted with had all sorts lived to of "upoa the good living the best possible proofof food laws. and that flesh eating horsethe and grains while in it is well known that country food. nest of robbers. in the field. too." for that they present situa" " What.

Born the I have now performed my which I I have and made bred good testant Probegan. case. my country. of the unpopularity and unmindful the prejudicethat would attend 1 the enterprise considered the long. long . law a R STORM AT 10 IT. when possess that is great and renowned the ing towards that I could do much counteract. it baseness as wonld have baseness it have been tongue. positionswith I can have had no love of truth and motive. but for the the been not persecuted. but a sincere and for the disinterested rich and the It is not powerful of my countrymen that I have spoken . I have. fear of of and would superlative the power. neither expresslynor of her ruin. guilty of any part of the cause am tacitly. greatest and moral in the world. but. when of those. making recently tree. the rubrical thanksgiving for it felony our timet to of an plenty .PBOTESTAKT from the pulpit. 478. had no motive. to whom triumph of calumny over the religion we owe was all that convinced of that we . in this undertaking. tell* the world or take that characters once and the of thought nothing worth. I have while and I has. light of the sun. I and the all the of had of been. churchdearly beloved parents lying in a Protestant and piety to place mine trustingto conjugal or filial by their side. . having a wife and rous numethe same of faith. that. surrounded her from God save I can. Fleet-street. and. impoversaw degraded task. to last.having the will restrained To be well as by clear the shafts of falsehood amongst amidst treated I pray folly. 183. is now a nation thieves . most that this nation. still further devastation misery. is self-reproach and that now. when I calumny been duty to hold so sacred my bade me speak. If' 1 Printed bj Yf kl Co***rr.having the remains familyprofessing most yard. a of the Church of England. justice. if. a apple from Kves are pawed. greatest of human dreadful at consolations. incorrigible the the most fallen. the proscribed. the event which perils. safelysay. I have poor. THE END. the in either most the that most ever ished.

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