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Holy Angel University Department of Electronics Engineering

FM and PM Modulators

Submitted by: Bermudo, Kevin Karl Daivd, Jonathan Sese, Andiel Deign D-402

Submitted t0: Engr. Karen Felix

September 16, 2013

Format: Still Picture Report Topic: FM and PM Modulators Description: Frequency Modulators Basic concept of FM is to vary the carrier frequency in accordance with the modulating signal. To produce a carrier an LC or crystal oscillator circuit is necessary. For Frequency modulators components like the Voltage-Variable Capacitor, also known as varactor, will be discussed in the report such as its operation. Crystal oscillator will also be discussed and other modulators like Reactance Modulator, which uses a transistor amplifier and Voltage controlled oscillator. Phase Modulators Modern FM transmitters use some form of PM to produce indirect FM. This was done for the purpose of optimizing for frequency accuracy and stability of the carrier. Two main subject was tackled the Varactor Phase Modulators and Transistor Phase Modulator. SCRIPT/STORYLINE The scenario was about a student who is having a hard time of understanding Frequency Modulators and Phase Modulators. A host was present in the video, the apple, which vanishes unknowingly after the discussion also a computer generated voice does the narration in the video. For an introduction, typical life of a student was covered in the video until leading to the resolution of the host to the problem. VOICE OVER Computer Generated voice: Warning you are about to watch a video about FM and PM modulators First part of the program was prepared by the host of the event. So sit back, relax and enjoy the show in 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 After series of BBV Apple: Hi! Im apple and for today our discussion is aboutdrum roll please (drum rolls). FM and PM modulators. This concern is from our letter sender that is currently a fourth year engineering student. He had this difficulty of understanding FM and PM modulators. The Letter: Dear Apple, I am asking for your help because I need it pretty bad right now. I love my chosen field but seems like it doesnt love me at all of even like me. I want to learn, I want to know, I

want to happy. I want to be satisfied. So please apple grant this lad simple request from you. Love, Pineapple Apple: So now we have already heard the request of this lad as for now about the granting thing am I going to give it or not? Hmmm hmmm let me think, hahaha, ofcourse I will give this lad request. I will grant it but granting it will never be easy thats why I will give it to him through dreaming. Yes! You heard it right, dreams, pretty creepy eh? You want to know how and would you want to know how I can grant the request of the poor lad. Anyway before we go to the granting thing let us first watch how is, basically, the typical life of an engineering student. So folks please enjoy the show ---The Journey begins Showing series of pictures from morning to school up to sleeping CGV: The music background is about to change CGV: You are now entering another dimension CGV: Welcome, we will now start the discussion about FM and PM modulators. Modulation is the means whereby a signal of some type is entering into and carried by an electronic signal carrier. Within the scope of modulation the type of signal or information that is introduced into and carried by the electric or optical signal carrier may vary depending on the configuration of the carrier and the source. Different types and various kinds of broadcast and communication are used today. The use of modulation has been part of our technology today ever since electricity was harnessed and use for communication purposes. The basic concept of FM is to vary the carrier frequency in accordance with the modulating signal. The carrier is generated by either an LC or a crystal oscillator circuit. In an LC oscillator, the carrier frequency is fixed by the values of the inductance and capacitance in the tuned circuit. The carrier frequency may be change by varying either this inductance or the capacitance. Now we will observe a voltage-variable capacitor. The component was frequently used in this application is a varactor or voltage-variable capacitor. Also known as variable capacitance diode or varicap. This component is basically a semiconductor junction diode that is operated in a reverse-bias mode. Now we go to varactor operation. We have here a voltage source, a resistor and a varactor shown in here its P and N type. We connect this using wires. Observed that it is forward bias thus it allows current to flow. The external potential forces the holes and the electrons toward the junction, where they combine and cause a continuous current inside the diode as well as externally. The depletion layer simply disappears.

In reverse bias observed that positive-positive repel and negative-negative repel. When a junction diode is formed, P and N type semiconductors are joined to form junction. Some electrons in the N type material drift over into the P-type material and neutralize the holes there. Thus a thin region where there are no free carriers, holes or electrons is formed this is called the depletion region. It acts like a thin insulator that prevents current form flowing through the device. In the circuit, the capacitance of varactor diode D1 and L1 form the parallel tuned circuit of the oscillator. The value of C1 is made very large so its reactance is very low. C1 connects the tuned circuit to the oscillator and blocks the dc bias on the base of Q1 from being shorted to ground through L1. The values of L1 and D1 fix the center carrier frequency. The modulating signal varies the effective voltage applied to D1 and its capacitance varies. Crystal oscillators provide highly accurate carrier frequencies and their stability is superior to LC oscillators. The frequency of a crystal oscillator can be varied by changing the value of capacitance in series or parallel with the crystal. By making the series capacitance a varactor diode, frequency modulation can be achieved. The modulating signal is applied to the varactor diode which changes the oscillator frequency. The important thing to note about an FM crystal oscillator is that only a very small frequency deviation is possible. Greater deviations can be achieved with LC oscillators. Rarely can the frequency of a crystal oscillator be changed more than several hundred hertz from the nominal crystal value. The resulting deviation may be less than the total deviation desired. The reactance modulator is one of the best FM circuits because it can produce frequency deviation over a wide frequency range. It is also highly linear, that is distortion is minimal. The circuit can also be implemented with a field-effect transistor (FET) in place of the NPN bipolar shown. Most modern FM transmitters use some form of PM to produce indirect FM. The reason for using PM instead of direct FM is that the carrier frequency oscillator can be optimized for frequency accuracy and stability. The output of the carrier oscillator is fed to a phase modulator where the phase shift is made to vary in accordance with the modulating signal. Since phase variations produce frequency variations, indirect FM is the result. A simple phase-shift circuit can be used as a phase modulator if the resistance or capacitance can be made to vary with the modulating signal. A varactor can be used to vary capacitance and achieve phase shift modulation. A varactor can be used to vary capacitance and achieve phase shift modulation. A standard common emitter class A amplifier biased into the linear region is used in PM. The transistor from collector to ground acts like a resistor. The transistors resistance forms part of the phase shifting circuit. An improved method of PM is use ta parallel tuned circuit to produce the phase shift. At resonance, the parallel resonant circuit will have a very high resistance. Off resonance, the

circuit will act inductively or capacitively and as a result will produce a phase shift between its current and applied voltage. Phase mo. Oops its already time you need to go back to your real world now and you will be leaving in 5 4 3 2 1. Now signing off.