Port and Harbor Engineering

Radianta Triatmadja
Lecture note 5
Basin Design
Basin Design
Resume of the 4
th
Lecture
Tidal constants
¯
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
n
i
i
i
i
T
t
A
1
2
cos o
t
n
Amplitude
Phase
Period
Phase : change with time and place
Amplitude : change with location but not with time
Period : Doesn’t change with time and location
N = 200, 9 are normally used
Most Important
Tidal Constants
• S2
• M2
• O1
• K1
MWL = Mean Water Level
HWL = High Water Level
LWL = Low Water Level
CDL = Chart Datum Level
CDL = MWL-Amplitude of (S2+M2+O1+K1)
40.Air Pelayaran Sebelah Barat Surabaya
(Karang Jamuang)
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
Time
E
l
e
v
a
s
i
An Example of Water level
Fluctuation
hours
d
m
Neap
Spring
Tidal Constant
Main lunar semi-diurnal component
Main Solar semi-diurnal component
Lunar component due to monthly variation
in moon’s distance from earth
Soli-lunar constituent due to changes in
declination of sun and moon throughout
their orbital cycle
Soli-lunar component
Main lunar diurnal component
Main solar diurnal component
Moon’s biweekly component
12.42
12.00
12.66
11.97
23,93
25.82
24.07
327.86
M2
S2
N2
K2
K1
O1
P1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Semi diurnal
Diurnal
Long period
Remark Period
(hrs)
Symb
ol
No
Type of Tides
Ship : 8000 DWT
MSL = 0,0 ; Amplitude of S1 = 0.2; M2 = 0.3, O1 = 0.4 ; K1 =0.6.
Dredging 0.5; Sounding tolerance = 0.5, Sediment = 0.5 m
Volume of Dredging ?
CDL = 0.0- (0.2+0.3+0.4+0.6) = - 1.50 m
Draft = 8.0 m
Basin Depth = 8.0x 1.14= 9.1 m
Depth required for dredging = 9.1+1.5=10.6 m
Bottom level = -1.50 -10.6 = -12.10 m
Example
-2
-4
-6
-10
-15
-20
-0
Ship : 8000 DWT (2 ships maximum at a time) 1000 DWT (12 Ships at a time)
MSL = 0,0 ; Amplitude of S1 = 0.2; M2 = 0.3, O1 = 0.4 ; K1 =0.6
Volume of Dredging ?
1500 m
1000 m
200 m
Harbor
Size of Basin
Basin area should accommodate:
• Space for Berthing (loading & unloading)
• Space for ships anchored
• Space for ships maneuver (Waterway
should be clear all time)
Size of Wharf and area of berth
Passenger ships
1.22 280 230 30000
1.21 240 198 20000
1.23 220 179 15000
1.23 190 154 10000
1.20 170 142 8000
1.25 150 120 5000
1.21 120 99 3000
1.14 100 88 2000
LOB/LOA Length Of
Berth
Length of
Ship (LOA)
Size (GT)
Average LOB/LOA = 1.21
Size of Wharf and area of berth
Cargo Ships
1.27 330 259 100000
1.30 280 216 50000
1.29 240 186 30000
1.24 170 137 10000
1.27 160 126 8000
1.19 130 109 5000
1.20 110 92 3000
1.25 80 64 1000
LOB/LOA Length Of
Berth
Length of
Ship (LOA)
Size (DWT)
Average LOB/LOA = 1.25
Wharf and Pier
LOA LOA
LOB
Wharf and Pier
LOA LOB
Example
• After some analysis it was found that the
wharf should be able to serve 3
passanger ships at the same time. All of
them are 3000 GT. How long is the total
Wharf length?
Answer :
According to table >> Each ships should
have 120 meter of berth. The total
berthing space is 360 meters.
Area of Basin for Anchorage
L+4 D +145 m
Wind Velocity 30m/s
L+3 D +90 m
Wind Velocity 20m/s Mooring during
Storm
L+4.5D +25 m Bad anchoring
L+4.5D Good anchoring Mooring with 2
Anchors
L+6D+30 m Bad anchoring
L +6D Good anchoring Swinging
mooring
Offshore waiting
or Cargo handling
Radius Sea bed, Soil, or
Wind
Mooring Type Objective
Area of Basin for Ship Maneuvering
Turning Basin
• At least equals the area of circle with R
=1.5 L
Calmness of the Basin
0.7 ~ 1.5 Very Large Vessel
(> 50 000 GT)
0.5 meter Intermediate and Large
Vessels
0.3 meter Small Vessel
( < 500 GT)
Maximum Wave Height
(H33)
Size of Ship
Example
• The amplitude of M2, S2, O1 and K1 are
0.5 m, 0.3 m, 0.1 m and 0.2 m
respectively.
What is the quay wall crown level for large
ships?
Length of Berth
50 15 ) 1 ( + ÷ + = n nL L
OA P
e L d
P
2 ÷ =
) 2 /( 3 e d A b ÷ =
e
d
15 m
25 m
L
p
Size of Wharf and area of berth
Passenger ships (one)
280
240
220
190
170
150
120
100
Length Of
Berth
(OCDI)
1.0 280 230 30000
0.96 248 198 20000
0.96 229 179 15000
0.93 204 154 10000
0.88 192 142 8000
0.88 170 120 5000
0.80 149 99 3000
0.75 133 88 2000
LOB/LOA
(OCDI/BT)
Length Of
Berth
(BT)
Length of
Ship
(LOA)
Size (GT)
Size of Wharf and area of berth
Passenger ships (three ships)
840
720
660
570
510
450
360
300
Length Of
Berth
1.22 770 230 30000
1.21 674 198 20000
1.23 617 179 15000
1.23 542 154 10000
1.20 506 142 8000
1.25 440 120 5000
1.21 377 99 3000
1.14 344 88 2000
LOB/LOA Length Of
Berth (BT)
Length of
Ship
(LOA)
Size (GT)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000
Gross Ton
Berth
Length
OCDI
Example of Wharf
Crown Height of QuayWalls
Above HWL
0.5 ~ 1.5 m 0.3 ~ 1.0 m For Small
ship (Draft
< 4.5 m)
1.0 ~ 2.0 m 0.5 ~ 1.5 m For Large
Ship (Draft
> 4.5 m)
Tidal
Range <
3.0 meter
Tidal
Range
>=3.0
meter
Crown Elevation
Problems of Appron Elevation
Floating Wharf
Width of Pier
LOA LOB
B
Small Pier
Office
Office
Small Passenger pier
Office
Water depth sufficient
no dredging required
Space beteween ships
35 – 50 m

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