The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences

Taxonomies

Contributors: Larry E. Sullivan Editors: Larry E. Sullivan Book Title: The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Chapter Title: "Taxonomies" Pub. Date: 2009 Access Date: October 08, 2013 Publishing Company: SAGE Publications, Inc. City: Thousand Oaks Print ISBN: 9781412951432 Online ISBN: 9781412972024 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412972024.n2516 Print page: 510

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translate. Taxonomies gener ally fall into one of three domains: cognitive. The original Bloom's taxonomy was revised in 2001 by Anderson. thinking. support. organization. Page 3 of 4 The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Taxonomies . who changed the levels from noun to verb format and reversed the order of synthesis and evaluation as being the most cognitively complex.org/10. object. Receiving refers to being aware or conscious of something. Characterization refers to the influence of the internal set of values on an individual's behaviors and life. paraphrasing. analysis. Examples of behaviors that demonstrate comprehension are giving examples.n2516 The classification of different educational skills or abilities. solving. which is defined as making judgments or evaluations about information based on a specific set of criteria. which focuses on the recall of facts or concepts. In 1956. affective. Other cognitive taxonomies also exist. The least complex cognitive skill is knowledge. and evaluation. Bloom's subcategories for the affective domain are receiving. and psychomotor. and matching. Benjamin Bloom developed a taxonomy for the cognitive domain. comprehension. and reasoning. Krathwohl. Knowledge-level skills may include defining. Taxonomies in the affective domain classify emotional reactions and feelings. Valuing refers to the attachment of a value to a phenomenon. or describe. making inferences. describing.Universiti Teknologi MARA Copyright ©2013 SAGE knowledge http://dx. application. responding. The most sophisticated cognitive level is evaluation. The cognitive taxonomy comprises six levels of complexity: knowledge. Organization refers to putting together different values or ideas into one's own set of complex values. and manipulating. Analysis involves breaking down information into parts and may include classification. Evaluation may ask the student to appraise. justify. compu ting. although Bloom's original and revised taxonomies remain the most commonly cited. valuing. synthesis. Comprehension refers to a level of understanding in which the individual can interpret.doi. and analyzing relationships. Taxonomies are often used to define educational objectives and to classify instructional and assessment tasks.4135/9781412972024. which focuses on skills relating to memory. designing. Application refers to the ability of an individual to use acquired knowledge in a new situation and may include demonstrating. and characterization. Responding refers to reaction to a stimulus. or summarizing. and several other contributors. or experience. either defined internally or externally. and compiling. composing. outlining. Synthesis is the ability to take parts of elements into a new whole or into a new pattern. Synthesis may include categorizing. or criticize.

Harrow's classification levels include Reflex Movements.Universiti Teknologi MARA Copyright ©2013 SAGE knowledge Skills in the psychomotor domain refer to abilities to physically manipulate objects and tools. including Harrow (1972).org/10.4135/9781412972024. Physical Abilities. other researchers. and Harrow (1972). and Non-Discursive Communi cation.doi. Skilled Movements. see Anderson et al. and Krathwohl (1956). Bloom. http://dx. Hill.n2516 See also Page 4 of 4 The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Taxonomies . For more information. (2001). Engelhard. Basic-Fundamental Movements. While Bloom did not develop subcategories for the psychomotor domain. Perceptual Abilities. have continued this work. Furst.

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