CS 158B – Project report Name: Elaine Lim & Allison Nham Due ate: !

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VIRTUAL LOCAL AREA NETWORKS
1. Overview: %he &irtual Local Area Net'or(s )&LAN* is a s'itch net'or( technolo+, that ena-les 'or(stations or e.ices /rom i//erent LAN se+ments lo+icall, +roupe to+ether re+ar less o/ their +eo+raphical location0 1n this paper# 'e 'ill intro uce some (e, aspects o/ &LAN an iscuss the -ene/its o/ &LAN an 'h, it is 'orth'hile0 2. How VLAN works: A .irtual LAN is no i//erent /rom a tra itional LAN# -ecause it is consi ere as a -roa cast omain0 %his means e.er, -roa cast pac(et propa+ates throu+h the net'or( 'ill -e seen -, e.er, host on the net'or(0 1n the tra itional net'or(# i/ user 'ants to sen a pac(et to the net'or(# his -roa cast pac(et 'ill ha.e to tra.el to all other users on the LAN0 2hile this ma(es sense /or some users 'ithin a 'or(+roup to see each other3s messa+es# it is unli(el, that all users in a compan, 'oul 'ant to recei.e other3s messa+es0 As a result# a &LAN is esi+ne to e/ine smaller -roa cast omains 'ithin a s'itch0 %his means each &LAN is assi+ne an i enti/ier an an, pac(et can onl, tra.el /rom one -roa cast omain to another i/ -oth omains ha.e the same i enti/ier0 3. Require e!"s "o se" u# VLAN: 1n or er to implement &LAN in a net'or( en.ironment# 'e nee &LAN4a'are s'itchin+ e.ices that must either compl, 'ith 1EEE 8$"015 stan ar s or must ha.e a .en or4 speci/ic implementation o/ &LAN0 %hese e.ices can -e intelli+ent s'itches# 'hich operate at

Pa+e 1 o/ 6

the !AC la.er# or routers# 'hich operate at the net'or( la.er# there are some limitations 'ith !AC a ress4-ase Pa+e " o/ 6 . MAC address-based grouping: 1n this case# the net'or( mana+er +roups all mem-ers in a &LAN to+ether -.i e into three +eneral cate+ories: port4-ase +roupin+# !AC a ress4-ase +roupin+ an protocol4-ase +roupin+0 A. port is that the net'or( mana+er nee s to recon/i+ure the mem-ership as the user mi+rates /rom one port to another0 B.# an < -elon+ to &LAN 1# ports " an 5 -elon+ to &LAN "0 1/ the user mo.es to a i//erent port0 =o'e. e/ines their ne' port as a mem-er o/ their e:istin+ &LANs0 %his metho is eas.es# the net'or( mana+er simpl.i es &LAN capa-ilities0 2ith &LAN mana+ement so/t'are# the net'or( mana+er 'ill -e a-le to recon/i+ure &LAN in/rastructure# re+ar less o/ 'here the resources or users are locate 0 $.en ors# &LAN +roupin+ metho can -e i.e separate &LANs amon+ ports on the same s'itch0 %his means the net'or( mana+er can e/ine a mappin+ o/ &LANs to a -unch o/ interconnecte s'itch ports0 9or e:ample# in a s'itch 'ith /i. means o/ !AC a resses0 Each s'itch trac(s the !AC a resses 'hich -elon+ to each &LAN0 %he (e.er# one ra'-ac( o/ &LAN mem-ership e/inin+ -. Port-based grouping: Port4-ase +roupin+ is the most common techni8ue in e/inin+ &LAN mem-ership0 As its name implies# a port4-ase &LAN allo's us to ha.e ports# ports 1# . /or settin+ up an monitorin+ a &LAN +roup -ecause it 'or(s 'ell in a net'or( 'here the mo. T%#es o& VLAN: Depen in+ on the .er o/ the 7S1 re/erence mo el0 Althou+h a s'itchin+ e.ement o/ users is hi+h0 =o'e. it is the so/t'are that pro.anta+e o/ this metho is the net'or( mana+er oes not nee to recon/i+ure the s'itch 'hen the user mo.ice is re8uire to han le a &LAN /ormation# in realit. a .

er si+nalin+# /rame ta++in+ an time4 i.+roupin+0 9irst# all users must -e con/i+ure initiall. o/ 6 .anta+es is that it can a//ect the net'or( per/ormance ue to the nee /or inspectin+ the Net'or( la.ision multiple:in+ )%D!*0 1n the ta-le maintenance o.e 'ithout loosin+ their mem-ership0 =o'e. -ecomes a hu+e 'or(loa /or a lar+e net'or( 'ith thousan s o/ users0 1n a share me ia en.er si+nalin+# 'hen a host -roa casts its /irst /rame# the s'itch retains the 'or(station>s !AC a ress to+ether 'ith its &LAN mem-ership in a cache a ress ta-le0 %hen this in/ormation 'ill -e -roa cast continuousl. &LAN cannot han le# li(e NetB17S0 '. at least in one &LAN an this clearl.er4.er4.e aroun 0 C.pe0 1t also allo's the users to ph.sicall.er a ress in the pac(et0 9inall.e -een implemente : ta-le maintenance o.# the other limitation o/ the protocol4-ase &LAN +roupin+ is that 'or(stations 'ill -e runnin+ non4routa-le protocols that the La. VLANS e (ers)i#s: 1n or er to etermine the &LAN mem-ership amon+ s'itches across a net'or(# three metho s ha. Protocol-based grouping: 1n a protocol4-ase +roupin+# the &LAN /ormation is -ase on 1P a ress pre/i:# meanin+ it must -e -ase on the source a ress in the 1P hea er0 Each s'itch must etermine that the pac(et -ase on the protocol t. up ate their &LAN mem-ership as the users mo.anta+es o/ protocol4-ase +roupin+ is that it allo's partitionin+ per protocol t. to all other s'itches on the net'or(0 Pa+e .er# one o/ the isa . nee to constantl. mo.ironment# &LAN mem-ership e/ine -.i e in the La.pe pro. !AC a ress encounters a serious per/ormance issue ue to the coe:istence o/ mem-ers o/ i//erent &LANs in the same s'itch port0 %o the en # /or those Note-oo( PC users# the. 1P hea er0 7ne o/ the a .

pes o/ lin(s in a &LAN0 A s'itche port can run on either access lin( or trun( lin( mo e0 2hen a nee o/ connectin+ users 'ithin a sin+le &LAN +roup arises# the access lin( metho 'oul -e use 0 %he access lin( is normall.er# the cache a ress ta-le nee s to -e up ate 'hen the net'or( e:pan s or ne' s'itches are a e into the net'or(0 2hen a s'itch 'ants to tal( to another s'itch# a /rame ta++in+ metho is use so that the s'itch can (no' 'hich &LAN a pac(et is inten e /or0 %he -roa cast pac(et is transmitte li(e an.es the pac(et# it 'ill e:tract the ta+ to o-tain &LAN in/ormation0 1n a %D! metho # channels are reser.sical LAN se+ment0 Pa+e < o/ 6 . other pac(et o. constructe # users ma.ironments0 Althou+h it re uces some o/ the o.er the net'or(0 =o'e. are tal(in+ in the same ph. the t'o metho s a-o. other Ethernet /rame0 1n a case 'here 'e ha.ia a s'itch0 %o +et /rom one &LAN to the other# the net'or( mana+er nee s to esta-lish a trun( lin( to connect t'o s'itches to a router0 9or e:ample# i/ user A on &LANs1 'ante to tal( to user B on &LANs"# he must tra.er# the net'or( mana+er still nee s to up ate the a ress ta-le manuall.e multiple &LANs on a s'itch# 'e cannot simpl.e /or each &LAN to support multiple net'or( en.e# it 'astes -an 'i th since a e icate time slot o/ one &LAN cannot -e use -.0 *. connect them 'ith one another . another 'hen the channel is not -us.er# 'hen the s'itch recei.ironment# there are t'o t.=o'e. T%#e o& +i!ks i! VLANs: Depen s on 'hat (in o/ en.el /rom the s'itch to the router an then return to the s'itch0 Because s'itches an routers are lo+icall.erhea cause -. a s'itche port in access mo e that is attache to a 'or(station0 %he -roa cast /rame transmitte on an access lin( is similar to an. thin( that the. i/ there is a chan+e in &LAN mem-ership0 !oreo.

limitin+ the -roa cast tra//ic to a speci/ic net'or(0 As a result# there 'ill -e less tra//ic /or the net'or( as a 'hole0 B.i es increase securit. scattere 'or(stations into a lo+ical 'or(+roup# this 'oul lea to a more mana+ea-le net'or(0 C. Fle ibility and scalability: B.anta+es that this technolo+..in+ iscusse some o/ the -asic concepts -ehin &LANs# 'e no' /ocus on some promisin+ a .sical location 'ithout the nee o/ recon/i+uration the 1P a ress0 %his pro. +roupin+ the users into a lo+ical net'or(# it impro. Increasing performance: &LAN helps to increase per/ormance -.>s . to mana+e to a.namic net'or(s0 An -..sicall.es the per/ormance -.ironment0 A.e in/ormation into one separate &LAN to separate them /rom the +eneral users0 D. More security: &LAN also pro.e to a i//erent ph. +roupin+ the ph. allo'in+ the speci/ic resources to o-tain the mem-ership in more than one &LAN# users on particular &LANs can share resources 'ith other users /rom i//erent lo+ical &LANs 'ithout the nee o/ a in+ a itional s'itches or routers0 Pa+e 5 o/ 6 . Improving manageability: &LAN also re uces the cost o/ mo.i es the net'or( mana+er 'ith the a-ilit. sen s pac(ets to esi+nate recipients in the same su-net# the a ministrator can +roup these users 'ho re8uire access to sensiti. -e!e&i"s o& VLANs: =a.in+ an chan+in+ 'or(stations0 Since &LAN mem-ership is not -oun e to a particular location in the net'or(# it allo's users to (eep their ori+inal 1P a resses e. has contri-ute in the net'or( en.en 'hen the. option0 Since a s'itch onl. mo. partitionin+ the net'or( into smaller -roa cast omains0 B.

.e iscusse the topic o/ &LANs# a ne' technolo+. that ser.e chan+in+ 'orl 0 Re&ere!/es 10 Lammle# %o an =ales# ?e. actuall. close to+ether# althou+h their 'or(stations ma.0 &ara arajan# Su-a# “Virtual Local Area Networks”# http:DD'''0cis0ohiostate0e uDEjainDcisC884BCD <0 “The Virual LAN Technology Report”# http:DD'''0.com0comDotherDp /DsolutionDenFGSD"$$.es as a net'or(e 'or( +roup o/ users sittin+ lo+icall.. -e locate in i//erent +eo+raphical areas0 1n conclusion# &LAN net'or( technolo+.C<$10p / 50 “Virtual LAN”# http:DDsearchnet'or(in+0techtar+et0comDcontentD$"B$B5Bsi 1F+ciB"B1C"$$0html 60 “VLANs in or!ation”# http:DDnet"10uc a.-e:# 1nc0# "$$10 "0 =el # @i-ert# “Virtual LANs”# Aohn 2ile.erc DccDt D ocDpro uctDlan Pa+e 6 o/ 6 . & Sons# 1nc0# 1BBC0 .is0e uDne'&LANs0htm C0 “Virtual LANs”# http:DD'''0cisco0comDuni. Co!/+usio!: 2e ha.in# “CCNP Switching Study Guide”# S. has promise a ne' (in o/ net'or( esi+n tool that assists net'or( mana+er in a aptin+ the net'or( to /it a competiti.

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