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Generations of mobile communication

D.AADISH 1041010001 ECE-A 4TH YEAR

Mobile radio telephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are sometimes retroactively referred to as pre cellular (or sometimes zero generation) systems. Technologies used in pre cellular systems included the Push to Talk (PTT or manual), Mobil Telephone System (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), andAdvanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS) systems. These early mobile telephone systems can be distinguished from earlier closed radiotelephonesystems in that they were available as a commercial service that was part of the public switched telephone network, with their own telephone numbers, rather than part of a closed network such as a police radio or taxi dispatch system. These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks, though briefcase models were also made. Typically, the transceiver (transmitter-


to Improved



Service (IMTS) in the US until the rollout of cellular AMPS systems, a competing mobile telephone technology was called Radio Common

Carrier or RCC. The service was provided from the 1960s until the 1980s when cellular AMPS systems made RCC equipment obsolete. These systems operated in a regulated environment in competition with the Bell System's MTS and IMTS. RCCs handled telephone calls and were operated by private companies and individuals. Some systems were designed to allow customers of adjacent RCCs to use their facilities but the universe of RCCs did not comply with any single interoperable technical standard (a capability called roaming in modern systems). For example, the phone of an Omaha, Nebraska–based RCC service would not be likely to work in Phoenix, Arizona. At the end of RCC's existence, industry associations were working on a technical standard that would potentially have allowed roaming, and some mobile users had multiple decoders to enable operation with more than one of the common signaling formats (600/1500, 2805, and Reach). Manual operation was often a

receiver) was mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" (dial, display, and handset) mounted near the driver seat. They were sold through WCCs (Wireline Common Carriers, AKA telephone companies), RCCs (Radio Common Carriers), and two-way radio dealers.

fallback for RCC roamers. Roaming was not encouraged, in part, because there was no centralized industry billing database for

Radio Common Carrier

RCCs. Signaling formats were not standardized. For example, some systems used two-tone sequential paging to alert a mobile or hand-held that a wired phone was trying to call them. Other systems used DTMF. Some used a system called Secode 2805 which transmitted an interrupted 2805 Hz tone (in a manner similar to IMTS signaling) to alert

mobiles of an offered call. Some radio equipment used with RCC systems was half-duplex, push-to-talk equipment such as Motorola hand-helds or RCA 700series conventional two-way radios. Other vehicular equipment had telephone handsets, rotary or

systems. Three standards, TZ-801, TZ-802, and TZ803 were developed by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation), while a competing system operated by DDI (Daini Denden Planning, Inc. [4]) used the JTACS (Japan Total Access

pushbutton dials, and operated full duplex like a conventional wired telephone. A few users had fullduplex briefcase telephones (radically advanced for their day). RCCs used paired UHF 454/459 MHz and VHF 152/158 MHz frequencies near those used by IMTS. 1G (or 1-G) refers to the first-generation

Communications System) standard. 1G speeds vary between that of a 28k modem (28kbit/s) and 56k modem (56kbit/s), meaning actual download speeds of 28kbits/s to 56kbits/s. 2G (or 2G) is short for secondSecond

generation wireless telephone technology.

generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard

of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommu nications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being The replaced main

in Finland byRadiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were

by 2G digital telecommunications.

difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital. Although both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency, typically 150 MHz and up. The inherent advantages of digital technology over that of analog meant that 2G networks eventually replaced them almost everywhere. One such standard is NMT (Nordic used Mobile in Nordic

significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages). All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it. After 2G was launched, the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system. 2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G, and 4G; however, 2G networks are still used in many parts of the world.


countries, Switzerland, Netherlands, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the North Access America and Australia,[1] TACS (Total

Communications System) in the United Kingdom, C450 in West Africa, Radiocom and RTMI in Italy. In Japan there Germany, Portugal and South 2000[2] inFrance, were multiple

2G technologies

2G technologies can be divided into Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)-based and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. The main 2G standards are:  GSM (TDMA-based), originally from Europe but used in almost all countries on all six inhabited continents. Today accounts for over 80% of all subscribers around the world. Over 60 GSM operators are also using CDMA2000 in  the 450 MHz frequency band (CDMA450). IS-95 aka cdmaOne (CDMA-based, commonly

countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed. A general rule can be applied to make it sound simple. " Frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength ".  Analog has a smooth decay curve, but digital has a jagged steppy one. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. Under good conditions, digital will sound better. Under slightly worse conditions, analog will experience static, while digital has occasional dropouts. As conditions worsen, though, digital will start to completely fail, by dropping calls or being unintelligible, while analog slowly gets worse, generally holding a call longer and allowing at least some of the audio transmitted to be understood.

referred as simply CDMA in the US), used in the Americas and parts of Asia. Today accounts for about 17% of all subscribers globally. Over a dozen CDMA operators have migrated to GSM including operators in Mexico, India, Australia   and South Korea. PDC (TDMA-based), used exclusively in Japan iDEN (TDMA-based), proprietary network used by Nextel in  the United States and Telus

 While digital calls tend to be free

of static and background


the lossy

Mobility in Canada IS-136 a.k.a. D-AMPS (TDMA-based, commonly referred as simply 'TDMA' in the US), was once prevalent in the Americas but most have migrated to GSM.

compression they use reduces their quality, meaning that the range of sound that they convey is reduced. Talking on a digital cell phone, a caller hears less of the tonality of someone's voice.

2G services are frequently referred as Personal Communications Service, or PCS, in the United States.

2G networks were built mainly for voice services and slow data transmission (defined in IMT-

 In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal transmitted by a cellular phone may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies, but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. National regulations differ greatly among

2000 specification documents), but are considered by the general public to be 2.5G or 2.75G services because they are several times slower than presentday 3G service. 2.5G (GPRS) 2.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packetswitched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. It does not necessarily provide faster

services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit-switched data services (HSCSD) as well. The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networks

The above systems and radio interfaces are based on spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the GSM phones EDGE standard and Mobile

("2.9G"), DECT cordless

WiMAXstandards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies. Its evolution LTE another Advanced is technology

similarly evolved through the introduction of 1xRTT. The combination of these capabilities came to be known as 2.5G. GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s. It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whether the user actually is utilizing the capacity or is in an idle state. 1xRTT supports bidirectional (up and downlink) peak data rates up to 153.6 kbit/s, throughput delivering of an average in user data

a 4G technology. WiMAX is verging on or marketed as 4G.

The following common standards comply with the IMT2000/3G standard:  EDGE, a revision by the 3GPP organization to the older 2G GSM based transmission methods, utilizing the same switching nodes, base station sites and frequencies as GPRS, but new base station and cellphone RF circuits. It is based on the three times as efficient 8PSK modulation scheme as supplement to the

80-100 kbit/s


networks. It can also be used for WAP, SMS & MMS services, as well as Internet access. The following standards are typically branded 3G:  the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, 

original GMSK modulation scheme. EDGE is still used extensively due to its ease of upgrade from existing 2G GSM infrastructure and cellphones. The Universal Mobile Telecommunications

standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2Gsystem infrastructure. The cell

System, created and revised by the 3GPP. The family is a full revision from GSM in terms of encoding methods and hardware, although some GSM sites can be retrofitted to broadcast in the UMTS/W-CDMA format. While DECT cordless phones and Mobile

phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:  the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.

WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements, they are not usually considered due to their rarity and unsuitability for usage with mobile phones.

Applications of 3G
The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are:      

because of different frequency bands. Mobile WiMAX is currently (April 2012) not available for the European market.

Technical definition
In March 2008, the International

Mobile TV Video on demand Video Conferencing Telemedicine Location-based services Global Positioning System (GPS)

Telecommunications Union-Radio communications sector (ITU-R) specified a set of requirements for 4G standards, named the International Mobile


Advanced (IMT-Advanced)

specification, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s) for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users). The term "generation" used to name successive evolutions of radio networks in general is arbitrary. There are several interpretations, and no official definition has been made despite the consensus behind ITU-R's labels. From ITU-R's point of view, 4G is equivalent to IMT-Advanced which has specific performance requirements as explained below. According to operators, a generation of network refers to the deployment of a new nonbackward-compatible technology. The end user expects the next generation of network to provide better performance and connectivity than the previous generation. Meanwhile, GSM, UMTS and LTE networks coexist; and end-users will only receive the benefit of the new generation architecture when they simultaneously: use an access device compatible with the new infrastructure, are within range of the new infrastructure, and pay the provider for access to that new infrastructure.

In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone mobile communication technology standards. It is a successor A to 4G the third system

generation (3G)


providesmobile ultra-broadband Internet access, for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other mobile devices.

Conceivable applications include amended mobile webaccess, IP telephony, definition mobile TV, gaming services, highvideo conferencing, 3D

television, and cloud computing. Two 4G candidate systems are commercially deployed: the Mobile WiMAX standard (first used in South Korea in 2006), and the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard (in Oslo, Norway and Stockholm, Sweden since 2009). It has however been debated if these first-release versions should be considered to be 4G or not, as discussed in the technical definition section below. In the United States, Sprint (previously Clearwire) has deployed Mobile WiMAX networks since 2008, and MetroPCS was the first operator to offer LTE service in 2010. USB wireless modems have been available since the start, while WiMAX smartphones have been available since 2010, and LTE

The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak bit rates, new frequency bands, wider

smartphones since 2011. Equipment made for different continents is not always compatible,

channel frequency bandwidth in Hertz, and higher capacity for many simultaneous data transfers (higher system efficiency in bit/second/Hertz/site). New mobile generations have appeared about every ten years since the first move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission and at least 200 kbit/s peak bit rate, in 2011/2012 expected to be followed by "real" 4G, which refers to all-Internet Protocol (IP) packetswitched networks giving mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access. The fastest 3G-based standard in the UMTS family is the HSPA+ standard, which is commercially available since 2009 and offers 28 Mbit/s spectral


Advanced (Long



Advanced) is a candidate for IMT-Advanced standard, formally submitted by

the 3GPP organization to ITU-T in the fall 2009, and expected to be released in 2013. The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced is to reach and surpass the ITU requirements. LTE Advanced is

essentially an enhancement to LTE. It is not a new technology, but rather an improvement on the existing LTE network. This upgrade path makes it more cost effective for vendors to offer LTE and then upgrade to LTE Advanced which is similar to the upgrade from WCDMA to HSPA. LTE and LTE Advanced will also make use of additional spectrums and multiplexing to allow it to achieve higher data speeds.

Coordinated Multi-point Transmission will also allow more system capacity to help handle the enhanced data speeds. Release 10 of LTE is expected to achieve the IMT Advanced speeds. Release 8 currently supports up to 300 Mbit/s of download speeds which is still short of the IMTAdvanced standards. IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced[edit] The IEEE Advanced evolution 802.16m or WirelessMANof 802.16e is under

downstream (22 Mbit/s upstream) without MIMO, i.e. only with one antenna, and in 2011 accelerated up to 42 Mbit/s peak bit rate downstream using either DC-HSPA+ (simultaneous use of two 5 MHz UMTS carrier) or 2x2 MIMO. In theory speeds up to 672 Mbit/s is possible, but has not been deployed yet. The fastest 3G-based standard in

the CDMA2000 family is the EV-DO Rev. B, which is available since 2010 and offers 15.67 Mbit/s downstream. System standards IMT-2000 compliant 4G standards Recently, ITU-R Working Party 5D approved two industry-developed technologies (LTE Advanced and WirelessMAN-Advanced) for inclusion in the ITU’s International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced program (IMT-Advanced program), which is focused on global communication systems that would be available several years from now.

development, with the objective to fulfill the IMT-Advanced criteria of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile reception.


Advanced is formally

a mobile

communication as a



candidate 4G system to ITU-T in late 2009, was approved into ITU, International

Telecommunications Union, IMT-Advanced and was finalized by 3GPP in March 2011. It is standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as a major enhancement of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. The

LTE Advanced
See also: 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) below

technology received its first implementation in October 2012 by Russian network Yota.  by NTT

an LTE-Advanced network and vice versa. Any exceptions will be considered by 3GPP. Consideration Radiocommunication of recent World Conference (WRC-07)

The LTE format




decisions regarding frequency bands to ensure that LTE-Advanced accommodates the

DoCoMo of Japan and has been adopted as the international standard.[3] LTE standardization has matured to a state where changes in the specification are limited to corrections and bug fixes. The first commercial services were launched in Sweden and Norway in December 2009[4] followed by the United States and Japan in 2010. More LTE networks were deployed globally during 2010 as a natural evolution of several 2G and 3G systems, including Global system for mobile Mobile

geographically available spectrum for channels above 20 MHz. Also, specifications must recognize those parts of the world in which wideband channels are not available. Likewise, 'WiMAX 2', 802.16m, has been approved by ITU as the IMT Advanced family. WiMAX 2 is designed to be backward compatible with WiMAX 1 devices. Most vendors now support conversion of 'pre-4G', pre-advanced versions and some support software upgrades of base station equipment from

communications (GSM)

and Universal

Telecommunications System (UMTS) (3GPP as well as 3GPP2). The work by 3GPP to define a 4G candidate radio interface technology started in Release 9 with the study phase for LTE-Advanced. Being described as a 3.9G (beyond 3G but pre-4G), the first release of LTE did not meet the requirements for 4G (also called IMT Advanced as defined by the International Telecommunication Union) such as peak data rates up to 1 Gb/s. The ITU has invited the submission of candidate Radio Interface Technologies (RITs) following their requirements in a circular letter, 3GPP Technical Report (TR) 36.913, "Requirements for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE-

The mobile communication industry and standards organizations have therefore started work on 4G access technologies, such as LTE Advanced. At a workshop in April 2008 in China, 3GPP agreed the plans for work on Long Term Evolution (LTE). [6] A first set of specifications were approved in June 2008.[7] Besides the peak data rate 1 Gb/s as defined by the ITU-R, it also targets faster switching between power states and improved performance at the cell edge. Detailed proposals are being studied within the working groups.

The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced is to reach and surpass the ITU requirements. LTE Advanced should be compatible with first release LTE equipment, and should share frequency bands with first release LTE.

Advanced)." These are based on ITU's requirements for 4G and on operators’ own requirements for advanced LTE. Major technical considerations include the following:    Continual improvement to the LTE radio technology and architecture Scenarios and performance requirements for working with legacy radio technologies Backward compatibility of LTE-Advanced with LTE. An LTE terminal should be able to work in







Advanced, 3GPP determined that LTE Advanced would meet the ITU-R requirements for 4G. The results of the study are published in 3GPPTechnical Report (TR) 36.912.

One of the important LTE Advanced benefits is the ability to take advantage of advanced topology networks; optimized heterogeneous networks with a mix of macrocells with low power nodes such as picocells, femtocells and new relay nodes. The next significant performance leap in wireless networks will come from making the most of topology, and brings the network closer to the user by adding many of these low power nodes — LTE Advanced further improves the capacity and coverage, and ensures user fairness. LTE Advanced also introduces multicarrier to be able to use ultra wide bandwidth, up to 100 MHz of spectrum supporting very high data rates. In the research phase many proposals have been studied as candidates for LTE Advanced (LTE-A) technologies. The proposals could roughly be categorized into:[9]    Support for relay node base stations Coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and reception UE Dual TX antenna solutions for SU-

      

Enhanced precoding and forward correction Interference management and suppression


Asymmetric bandwidth assignment for FDD Hybrid OFDMA and SC-FDMA in uplink UL/DL inter eNB coordinated MIMO SONs, Self Organizing Networks methodologies Multiple carrier spectrum access or Carrier Aggregation (CA).

Within the range of system development, LTEAdvanced and WiMAX 2, can use up to 8x8 MIMO and 128 QAM in downlink direction. Example performance: 100 MHz aggregated bandwidth, LTEAdvanced provides almost 3.3 Gbit peak download rates per sector of the base station under ideal conditions. Advanced network architectures

combined with distributed and collaborative smart antenna technologies provide several years road map of commercial enhancements. A summary of a study carried out in 3GPP can be found in TR36.912. 5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a term used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G is also

MIMO and diversity MIMO, commonly referred         to as 2x2 MIMO Scalable system bandwidth exceeding 20 MHz, up to 100 MHz Carrier aggregation of contiguous and noncontiguous spectrum allocations Local area optimization of air interface Nomadic / Local Area network and mobility solutions Flexible spectrum usage Cognitive radio Automatic and autonomous network

referred to as beyond 2020 mobile communications technologies. 5G does not describe any particular specification in any official document published by any telecommunication standardisation body. Although updated standards that define capabilities beyond those defined in the current 4G standards are under consideration, those new capabilities are still being grouped under the current 4G standards.

configuration and operation Support of autonomous network and device test, measurement tied to network management and optimization