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In the Shame of Jesus

The Hidden Story of Church-Sponsored Anti-Semitism

William H. Heinrich

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What others have said … In the Shame of Jesus is the most thoughtful and fact-filled publication of its kind outlining the deceptions, distortions and lies that led to a horrific history of the relationships between Judaism and Christianity. It presents a historical overview of various ideas, individuals and events that led to Church-sponsored anti-Semitism beginning in the first century, as well as the rise of Christian Zionism. his book reveals the errors in the concept of !eplacement heology and offers suggestions, as well as a challenge to the reader on reconciling the sins of the Church and Christians down through the ages. Christians and Jews have both contributed to the causes that made the events of the past unfold as they have. he time has come when we must recogni"e, admit and repent of those sinful behaviors and attitudes of the past. he Christian Church is obligated to seek forgiveness on behalf of the Church and Christians of past generations and reach out to Israel and Jews world wide with the love of Christ. In #estern nations, Judaism and Christianity have fallen from their esteemed pedestals as the culture drifts further from its Judeo-Christian heritage into the secular culture. $t the same time Islam is e%periencing a global renaissance and phenomenal growth. he Church now has an e%cellent opportunity to recogni"e and do what is biblically correct. he solution to these threats and problems can only come from an informed public. Sound decision making re&uires that we know the history of the past which has led us to where we are today. #e can ill-afford to allow ignorance of past generational actions and ignorance of 'od(s plan and will to control the decisions we must make in the present and near future. Some of that critical insight that is needed can come from this informative and well-documented research and presentation called, In the Shame of Jesus. )dward *abak+ian, )d..,. -rofessor )meritus of eacher )ducation at the College of .ew Jersey

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$ valuable contribution to the literature of church history that is recommended to Christian leaders in all walks of life. 'ilbert $. -eterson, )d.,. Chancellor. 0ancaster 1ible College 2 'raduate School

In his book, In Shame of Jesus, ,r. 1ill 3einrich calls for a greater understanding of Israel by the church. 3e also stresses the need for the church to support the nation of Israel and the Jewish people. 3e makes a contribution to the e%isting scholarly literature about the important part of 1ible and heology. *enneth 4ayton, )d.,., $ssistant ,ean ,octor of 4inistry -rogram at 5ral !oberts 6niversity

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$ll Scripture &uotations in this book are taken from the .ew International 7ersion of the 1ible. Copyright 8 9:;<, 9:;=, 9:=> by the International 1ible Society. 6sed by -ermission of Zondervan -ublishing 3ouse.

In the Shame of esus! Second "dition Copyright 8 /??=, /?9? by #illiam 3. 3einrich $ll rights reserved -ublished by )vidence of ruth 4inistries, Inc. -5 1o% 9 #itmer, -$ 9;@=@-???9 0ibrary of Congress Cataloging in -ublication ,ata #illiam 3. 3einrich In the Shame of Jesus Includes bibliographical references. IS1. :;=-?-@@;-;>:9/-A 0ibrary of Congress Categories Church 3istory heology $ll rights reserved. .o portion of this book may be reproduced in any form without the written permission from the author. -ublished in the 6nited States of $merica

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he purpose of this book is to inform readers of the errors of !eplacement heology and the horrific history it fostered. he desired outcome is to have an enlightened reader think, pray and act biblically. .

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Why I Wrote this $oo% 4ost Christians today have only a vague knowledge of the history of the Church, especially as to how it relates to the Jewish people. 3owever one cannot understand the present Band the prophetic futureC without knowledge of the past. Dor two thousand years the Church has opposed the words of the $postle -aul concerning the Jewish people, and today many Christians are not even aware of this tragedy. In )phesians /E9>-9= the $postle stated that Jesus is our peace, Fwho has made the two GJews and 'entilesH one and has destroyed the barrier,I that divided them. F3is purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the twoI that Fthrough him we both GJews and 'entilesH have access to the Dather by one Spirit.I 6nfortunately, the Church has reinforced the barrier with the false doctrine of !eplacement heology. !ather than being compassionate and uniting with the Jewish people, the Church has usually fought against them in the name, or shame, of Jesus. his book presents hidden truths that have been long ignored and calls all true Christians to pray and act. 6nderstanding these truths will enable the reader to understand why Jewish people have been historically opposed to evangelism and Christian aid. It will also reveal why support for the Jewish people and survival of the state of Israel is not only critical, but is also a biblical imperative. $t no time in history have the Jewish people and the state of Israel been so significant in the eyes of the world. 6nfortunately, all too often Church leaders have led their followers in anti-Semitic actions. oday Christians must support the biblical view concerning both the Jewish people and the state of Israel for one simple reason J to be in line with 'od(s prophetic plan as outlined in both estaments. .ot only does this book cover the errors of !eplacement heology and the history of suffering it has fostered, but it also covers the rise of Christian Zionism and the emerging evangelical Fleft.I oo many Christians are unaware of the biblical and historical facts that pertain to this important issue. In this time of unprecedented conflict and strife, we need to think and act biblically. Dor two thousand years, the doctrine of !eplacement heology and the history it fostered have brought great shame in the .ame of Jesus. 1ut, today(s Christians have an opportunity to demonstrate the true love, character, and will of Jesus J in the .ame of Jesus.

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Ta&le of Contents Chapter I 'uestions on (eplacement Theolo)y 9. #hat is !eplacement heologyK /. #hat are the Doundations of !eplacement heologyK <. ,id Jesus end or fulfill the law B!om. 9?E9-> vs. 4t. @E9;CK >. #hat were the important first century cultural and political influences on !eplacement heologyK @. #ho were some of the early Church fathers and modern theologians who promoted !eplacement heologyK A. #hat are the primary arguments against !eplacement heologyK >? ;. #hat is the prophetic significance of the wild olive treeK Chapter II A Historical *vervie+ of Church-Sponsored Anti-Semitism and the (ise of Christian ,ionism. 9. Introduction /. he Century after Jesus <. he )arly Christian -eriod B<? -- 9<@C ;? >. he !oman 1y"antine )mpire B<9/ -- A<AC @. he !oman )mpire )ndsL he 4iddle $ges 1egins B<9@ -- A9<C A. 4uhammad and the Dounding of Islam ;. $rab 4uslims Con&uer 'a"a and Jerusalem BA<>, A<AC =/ =. !oman Catholic Crusader -eriod B9?:A J 9/:9C :. urmoil in )urope B99:? J 9>;?C 9?. he -rotestant !eformation 1egins B9@9;C 999 99. he $ge of !eason 1egins B9A??C 9/. he !ise of Christian Zionism in the Dace of Church-Sponsored $nti-Semitism B9@/@ J 9=??C 9<. .ineteenth Century - !estoration 4ovement 9>? 9>. 0ate .ineteenth CenturyE 4assive Changes 1egin 13 9> 9@ 9A /< /= @@

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9@. he !ise of $dolf 3itler snd 'erman $nti-Semitism B9:?/ J 9:>>C 9;= 9A. -ost-#orld #ar II B9:>@ J 9:>=C 9;. 4odern Israel is 1orn B9:>=C 9=. 4iracles and Conflicts in 4odern Israel B9:>=--resentC /?. Summary Chapter III A Christian (esponse/ Closin) Thou)hts and a Call to Action 033 9. #hat 4ight 'od be Calling 4e to doK /. !easons why Mou need to $ct .ow Ta&le of 1i)ures 9. John Chrysostom /. he ,iscovery of the hree Crosses of Calvary <. 'erman Jews Commit Suicide >. Crusaders #orship the F rue CrossI :9 @. Crusader 7ision of Jesus A. #oodcut ,epicting Jews as ,emons :: ;. Silver !eli&uary 3olding Dlesh and 1lood of Jesus = Jews !e&uired to #ear Identification 9?/ :. 4assacre of Jews 9?. he ,eath of Simon of rent 99. #oodcut ,epicting Christians 1urning Jews 9?A 9/. Jews )%pelled from Spain 9<. orture Chamber of the In&uisition 9>. 4artin 0uther(s $nti-Semitic 1ook 9@. $n )ngraving of 4artin 0uther 9A. )cclesia and Synagoga on a 9>th Century 4anuscript 99A 9;. he -assion #indow of )cclesia and Synagoga 9=. 4artin 0uther -reaching 9:. he ,rowning of 4aria von 4on+on /?. he 1eheading of #olfgang -inder
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/9. )dict to 1urn Jewish 1ooks 9/> //. Illustration of the Slaughter of 'erman Jews /<. $ 9AAA Jewish -rayer 1ook 9/: />. Jewish -etition to !eturn to )ngland 9<? /@. Israeli 4edallion 3onors Cromwell and 4anasseh /A. $msterdam 5ccupation ,ecree for Jews /;. Illustration of a FJewish SowI /=. #illiam ). 1lackstone /:. Jewish -rayer 1ook Inscription <?. $ !abbi(s -lans for Jewish -eople to !eturn to Israel 9@? <9. 4ontefiore(s #indmill </. 3anson(s 3ospital <<. .ew 3omes for Jewish Immigrants <>. $ -oster of $merican Jews <@. heodor 3er"l at the Dirst Zionist Congress <A. he Dirst Zionist Congress <;. *uwait )dition of the -rotocols of Zion. <=. 1alfour ,eclaration <:. -ope -ius NII and .a"i Soldiers >?. -rotestant and Catholic Clergymen with .a"i Soldiers 9=9 >9. $erial -hotograph of the 1ergen-1elson Concentration Camp 9=< >/. F#ill we live to see the liberationKI 9=> ><. Jesus is ,epicted as Carrying a Swastika >>. Canon 0aws Compared with wenty .a"i 0aws 9:9 >@. $ Child Surrenders to .a"is 9:> >A. 3itler !e&uired Jews to #ear Star of ,avid >;. .a"i 7ictims in a #arsaw 'hetto >=. ,avid 1en 'urion ,eclares the State of Israel is 1orn /?> >:. $nnouncement of the )sther

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/9/ @?. Jewish !efugees in Dlight to Israel @9 3olocaust 4useum @/ 4odern Jewish F3olocaustI @< )thiopian eenagers /9A Appendices

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9. Dre&uently asked Ouestions Concerning Israel and the Jewish -eople />< /. 4odern 4issions to the Jewish -eople />: Wor%s Cited 9. 1ooks /. -eriodicals <. )lectronic !esources >. 6npublished #orks Ta&le of 3aps 9. he 4adaba 4osaic 4ap /. Jewish Communities in Israel ;th to 99th Centuries <. Crusader 4ap of Jerusalem

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4reface #hen the author was a little boy sitting in Sunday school class, his teacher, 1rother 4ilton *eeler, spoke of 1ible prophecy and how the 0ord was doing profound miracles in Israel. Mears later, while attending 7alley Dorge Christian College, the words of 1rother 4ilton were revived. he author(s interest in the Jewish people Bhereafter respectfully referred to as Fthe JewsIC, Israel, and biblical prophecy continued to grow while doing graduate studies at 0ancaster 1ible College and 'raduate School and post graduate studies at 5ral !oberts 6niversity. Drom prior knowledge, this author was aware that the Jewish people had suffered at the hands of some Church leaders. Incredibly, his research uncovered that for nearly two millennia the Jewish people suffered horrific pain and suffering and today most Church historians refuse to discuss it. hey pretend that nothing evil ever happened. 7olumes have been written by Jewish historians, but evangelical libraries, bookstores and encyclopedias appear to have a serious case of denial. #hat so-called Christians have done to the Jewish people in the .ame of Jesus has brought utter shame upon 3is .ame, 3is Church and Christians. his book has the potential of disturbing some while angering others. It is intended not to condemn anyone, but to lead Christians and nonChristians to a greater understanding of doctrinal and historical truth. 1elievers should think and act biblically, rather than from ignorance and emotions. his book will inform readers of our shameful history and encourage a demonstration of love and kindness in the future.

Ac%no+led)ements he author is grateful for the counsel given by ,r. )d *abak+ian and the editorial work of several friends including )li"abeth $d+an, $nita 3ermann, )lana 1eckett, 1onnie *repp, and 4ichael 'riffith. 3owever, he is most grateful to -aivi, a Dinnish volunteer who spent ten years helping the elderly in Jerusalem. hey first met when she was a volunteer at the International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem and he was doing graduate research that eventually developed into this book. wo years later, they were married along the Sea of 'alilee and she has become his partner in life and ministry.  3e is grateful for her insights, encouragement, and suggestions. #hatever merit this book has is theirs and whatever faults it has are his.
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Introduction If we as individuals are re&uired to confess our sins before each other and before the 0ord, then the Church has a serious unresolved issue J the confession of sin to the Jewish people and to the 0ordL and to ask for forgiveness from both. his book is not an indictment against Christianity or Islam. !ather it is a study specifically focused on !eplacement heology and the horrific history it fostered upon the Jewish people. he history is presented chronologically and includes the rise of Jewish and Christian Zionism, as well as the rise of Islamic pro--alestinian terrorism and anti-Semitism. 'reat care has been taken to be ob+ective, although at times the information uncovered was rather discouraging and depressing. hroughout history, many Church leaders have come to the aid of the Jewish people, but often they were in the minority and were threatened or shunned by their peers. It must also be said that the Church has come to the aid of countless other people and thousands of pastors have been martyred for standing up in defense of Christian principles in the face of tyranny. 5nly 3eaven has recorded all the sacrificial deeds done by thousands of men and women who honored the name of Jesus. 5ne cannot correct what has been done in the past. 3owever, understanding the past can help focus our discernment in determining what to do in the future. 'od promised a multitude of descendants to $braham, through both Isaac and Jacob Bname changed to Israel J forefather of the Jewish peopleC and Ishmael Bforefather of the $rabsC. Met today the $rabs number in e%cess of /@? million while the Jewish people number only about 9< million. #hy is there such a huge discrepancyK #hile the Jewish people were persecuted in the 5ld estament and Inter- estamental -eriods, their suffering continued at the hands of so-called Christians and $rabs in the Church $ge. In fact, the Jewish people have suffered more from the socalled Christians than from the $rabs or any other people group. .ow is the time to demonstrate to them true Christian love. Dinally, my intention is that after learning the truth, you will dedicate yourself to serving 'od by praying for and supporting the Jewish people and the state of Israel. hat is not to say that the -alestinians or anyone else are to be forgotten. Dar from it, but rather, add Fthe peace of JerusalemI to your prayer list and support a ministry in Israel as the 0ord leads you. - 1ill 3einrich, ,.4in.

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FPComfort, comfort my people,( says your 'od.I Isaiah >?E9
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Chapter 1 'uestions on (eplacement Theolo)y If Israel is the Fapple of 'od(s eye,I then !eplacement heology is the worm in the apple. Dew Christians today are aware of the historical theological doctrine that continues to be the root of heartache and suffering of the Jewish people. !eplacement heology, also known as Supersessionism, has a long historical association with Church-sponsored anti-Semitism that fostered numerous forms of persecution, murder, theft and rape. hose actions and every other unimaginable crime were perpetrated for nearly two thousand years, all too often in the .ame of Jesus. 6nfortunately, since the average evangelical is unaware of this history and he is also unaware that it is the ma+or reason for the division between these two religious groups. .or do evangelicals understand why Jewish people do not want to hear a word about Jesus or about Fbeing saved.I In this chapter, the following critical &uestions concerning aspects of !eplacement heology and counter arguments are presentedE 9. /. <. >. #hat is !eplacement heologyK #hat are the foundations of !eplacement heologyK ,id Jesus end or fulfill the law B!om. 9?E9-> vs. 4t. @E9;CK #hat were the most important first-century cultural and political influences concerning !eplacement heologyK @. #ho were some of the early Church fathers and modern theologians who promoted !eplacement heologyK A. #hat are some of the arguments against !eplacement heologyK ;. #hat is the prophetic significance of the Fwild olive treeKI he doctrine of !eplacement heology has been so deeply ingrained in the Catholic and -rotestant psyche, that at times it is innocently e%pressed without the speaker or listeners reali"ing it. $n e%ample is found in the introduction of a book published for pastors on the sub+ect of understanding congregations as Femotional systemsI J a sub+ect not related to !eplacement heology at all. 5n the first page of his introduction, the author stated that the Church Fis the body of Christ, the .ew Israel, and shepherd and flock.I 9 ,eclaring that the Church is the F.ew IsraelI is !eplacement heology. Israel is still Israel and the Church remains the Church. 1. What is (eplacement Theolo)y5
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Steinke, i%.

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!eplacement heology is a Church doctrine that believes in the following three points. Dirst, all of the blessings and promises, including 'od(s salvific plan given to $braham and his descendants, are now passed on to the Church because the Jewish people re+ected Christ. Second, the Jewish nation is forever damned for the sin of crucifying Jesus. hird, all divine covenants with the Jewish people are therefore broken, and 'od has no plans for a national Israel. herefore, 'od has permanently forsaken the Jewish nation. he only e%ception is that 'od still has a plan for the salvation of individual Jewish people. 'od has replaced the Jewish people with the 'entile F.ew IsraelI in 3is eschatological plan. herefore, the words IIsraelI and FIsraeliteI are representative of the ChurchL and the Church has FreplacedI or FsupersededI the Jewish people as 'od(s people chosen to bring the good news of salvation to the world./ he error of this interpretation is that although 'od has given 3is authority and blessings to the Church to evangeli"e the world, 3e has not permanently forgotten Israel as a nation. his is evidenced by more than three do"en biblical prophecies that have been fulfilled or are becoming fulfilled in the past century concerning the return of the Jewish people to their ancient homeland. here were three keys to establishing !eplacement heology as a viable doctrine of the Church. Dirst, was to place the guilt of Jesus( death upon the Jewish people. he Jewish people throughout Church history have been condemned as the FChrist-killersI and thus are said to be collectively guilty of Fdeicide.I he irony is that all Christian confessions of faith have declared that Jesus suffered and died under -ontius -ilate, not the Jewish people. Second, the practice of allegori"ing or spirituali"ing selected words of Jesus allows the reader to apply this interpretation, removing the natural meaning of Scripture. he lingering challenge for theologians of this interpretation has been to e%plain the numerous prophecies concerning the return of the Jews and the 9:>= establishment of the Jewish state. Since !eplacement heology has been firmly ingrained, connecting the return of the Jews or the state of Israel with fulfilled prophecy is vehemently denied. Dinally, the most significant issue in this entire discussion is whether there is a permanent ,ivine +udgment against a national Israel. here is no &uestion that when the Jewish people re+ected the *ingdom, Jesus turned to the 'entiles and the Church was created. $gain, the entire issue hangs on whether 'od has any future interest in the Jewish people as a nation. If there
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Dor 'od(s purpose and plan for the 3ouse of Israel, see ,eut. >E/;-<9L Isa. /E/-<L 9>E9-<L Jer. /<E@-AL </E<;->/L )"ek. <AE//-</L <:E/@-/:L $mos :E99-9@L Zeph. <E9>-9@L Zech. =E;-=, 9<9@L !om. 99E9@, /@-/;.

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is no interest, then 'od broke 3is covenant with $braham, Isaac and Jacob J and, as will be shown, this is a serious theological problem for all Christians. 0. What are the 1oundations of (eplacement Theolo)y5 here are several 1ible passages that have been incorrectly interpreted as condemning the Jewish people. In fact, even some Jewish scholars, such as #illiam .icholls, have improperly concluded that the gospels were written with an anti-Jewish flair to them. In .icholls( opinion, the entire narrative concerning the three Jewish and three !oman trials < gives evidence to the 'entile Christians that the Jewish people had a passionate desire to e%ecute Jesus. #hat he fails to reali"e is that only the Jewish leaders who controlled the temple and most members of the Sanhedrin BJewish Supreme CourtC tried Jesus. .either the disciples, nor those who were healed, nor any other followers desired to see 3im crucified. hat is why 3is trial was held illegally during the night. Since neither the Sadducees who controlled the temple nor the Sanhedrin had !oman authority to inflict capital punishment, they appealed to -ilate to have Jesus e%ecuted. $ number of Scriptures have been misinterpreted to blame all the Jews for the crucifi%ion. he three parables Bthe two sons of 4t. /9E/=-</L the only son of 4t. /9E<<->9L and the wedding ban&uet of 4t. //E9-9> and parallelsC have been focused on the Church rather than on the life of Jesus. #hen the parables are viewed from Jesus( viewpoint, the meaning becomes clarified. 5ther misinterpretations include the condemnation by 5 prophets of the Jewish people because of their sins. -rophets such as 3osea, Jeremiah and )"ekiel condemned 'od(s people for their wickedness and warned them of pending +udgment if they did not repent. heir prophetic warnings were for their audiences at a given time in history J not for Church leaders to use as condemnation throughout history. $nother error is that the Church blamed all the Jews throughout history for the action of Judas, the single betrayer of Jesus. 0ikewise when the religious leaders shouted to -ilate FCrucify himQI and then responded with F0et his blood be on us and on our childrenQI this was interpreted, and often still is interpreted, as meaning that every single Jew wanted Jesus crucified. It is true that FallI the Jews before -ilate shouted these words, but they were the -harisees and Sadducees who had illegally tried Jesus J not all the Jewish people in the nation were before -ilate. In fact, most were still asleep.
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Jewish trialsE Jesus was before $nnas, Caiaphas, and then the Sanhedrin. !oman Jesus was before -ilate, 3erod $ntipas, and then returned to -ilate.

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$ final misinterpretation pertains to the seven FwoesI of 4athew /<. Jesus made specific reference to the corrupt -harisees and the Church misapplied the reference to all Jewish people. Centuries later the authors of the 1abylonian almud also condemned these same leaders. > Met shamefully most students in seminary never read Jewish literature to learn that many rabbis in the time of Jesus also lamented the corruption of their leadership. 3. 6id esus end or fulfill the la+5 !omans 9?E> states that Jesus ended the law whereas 4atthew @E9; states that Jesus did not come to end the law, but to fulfill it. $ basic premise of biblical interpretation is that Scripture cannot contradict itselfL the 0aw of .on-contradiction. he following study will demonstrate that the difficulty is not a matter of biblical conflict or interpretation, but translation. (omans 17/1-8 -aul stated that he often prayed for his people who were "ealous for 'od, but were without the proper knowledge of 3is plan. .ineteenth century $nglican scholar ). #. 1ullinger said that such "ealousness was with great blindness.@ -aul could have easily identified with that statement as he too was once so "ealous for 'od that he willingly killed those who opposed him B'al. 9E9<-9>C. he $postle stated two important points concerning the divine plan of 'odE BaC righteousness comes only from 'od, and BbC the Jewish people did not submit themselves to divine righteousness. Dinally, in verse > he said that Jesus is the goal Bor Fend,I according to some translationsC of the law and that there will be righteousness for everyone who places their faith in 3im. his verse has been the cause of various interpretations and debates throughout the Church $ge. It is significant in understanding one of the core foundations of -auline theology as well as !omans :E<?-9?E< and 9?E@-9<. A he word of great debate and e&ual significance in !omans 9?E> is the 'reek word telos, which is generally translated as Fend.I Telos is followed by the 3ebrew word Torah, which means Flaw,I or Finstruction.I Since the passage is focused on the 3ebrew word, its 3ebrew definition must be considered.; he laws of 4oses are generally considered an e%ternal
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Babylonian Talmud. Seder .ashimE Sotah //b, -esahim @;a. 1ullinger, 9A<. Cranfield, /E@9@. !obinson and ,avis, <;@.

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observance while the laws of Jesus are generally considered issues of the heart. Dor e%ample, the circumcision of the heart BCol. /E99C has replaced circumcision of the flesh in the 5ld estament B'en 9;L 0ev. 9/E<C. he 5ld estament is not e%clusive to e%ternal observances, as evidenced by FcircumcisionI of the heart as recorded in ,euteronomy 9?E9A. 3ence, if the .ew estament law replaced the 5ld estament law, then this e%ample of circumcision would give the appearance that the law would replace itself. he consensus on the meaning of the law is thisE It is for guidance, instruction and teaching of Scripture and its application to daily life. = $t times, the word FlawI has a specific reference to the five books of 4oses B)"ra ;E/L Josh =E</L 4t. //E>?L 0k. /E//L 9AE9AC which, as a class of books, is known as the orah B'reekE -entateuchC. he word Torah can also refer specifically to a covenant of 'od B)%. <>E/=L / *gs. /<E<C, but by the .ew estament era, it also referred to the entire 3ebrew 1ible BJn. 9?E<>L 9/E<>L 'al. >E/9-/<C. Met the understanding of the word Torah appears to have been somewhat ambivalent in the days of Jesus as some Jewish people claimed to be observant of it while perverting its intention B'al. <E9-@L AE9/L 4t. /<E9->, 9<C. Jesus taught a positive attitude toward the law B4t. @E9;-/?C and desired that those who followed 3im observe it more than did the legalistic -harisees B4t. @E/?L /<E<C. 3owever, rather than teaching the law from a legalistic viewpoint, Jesus emphasi"ed its benevolent characteristics B4t. 9/E9-9>C are to be obeyed from the heart. he $postle -aul underscored this theme when he said the orah was holy, +ust and good B!om. ;E9/C, but it will not bring salvation B!om =E/C. he curse of the law falls upon those who violate it B'al. <E9?, 9<C but through Christ Jesus we can come to 3im and plead for forgiveness and the curse of the law is removed. he law was not removed, but the conse&uence of the curse is gone by repentance of the transgressor and forgiveness by Jesus B!om. =E9->C. -hrases such as Funder the lawI and Fworks of the lawI were used by -aul writing to 'entile congregations who were attempting to observe Jewish laws as if they had to first become Jewish in order to become Christian.: Some early 'reek Church fathers translated verse > to read that FChrist is the end of the law.I hey may have translated telos as FendI because they believed that the Church had replaced the nation of Israel in 'od(s eschatological plan. he result is that for centuries some churches have promoted this interpretation. Jay 'reen, for e%ample, in his linear wordfor-word translation has translated the verse to read FDor Christ BisC the end of law for righteousness to everyone believing.I9?
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he word telos has two other definitionsE Dirst is Fcessation,I FendI or Ftermination,I and the second is Fculmination,I Fgoal,I Fob+ectiveI or Ffulfillment.I99 Cranfield states that there are three interpretations to this word, Ffulfillment,I FgoalI and Ftermination.I Some early Church fathers considered only FfulfillmentI and FgoalI as possible interpretations. 9/ St. $ugustine, on the other hand, promoted the application of FterminationI to the passage and centuries later 4artin 0uther also stated, FChrist is the end of the law.I9< 5nce the word FendI was accepted in early translations, later translations were re&uired to accept it or be critici"ed for changing the meaning of the biblical te%t. he difficulty with accepting the meaning of FendI is that if Jesus said that 3e came to fulfill the law B4t. @E9;C, why would -aul later declare that Jesus ended or terminated itK $ better translation for !omans 9?E> would be FgoalI or Ffulfill,I which means to understand the Scripture so as to live a lifestyle that is holy and honorable to 'od.9> James ,. '. ,unn also suggests that telos could possibly have the fuller or further sense of FfulfillmentI or Fgoal,I in emphasi"ing the grace of 'od B!om :EA-9<C.9@ Just as the goal of an athletic race is the end, likewise the law of the 5ld estament pointed toward the eventual goal of the plan of 'od that all nations are brought into the blessing and covenant of $braham. 9A In fact, this theme is carried throughout the book of !omans. #hereas Jesus referred to fulfilling the law B4t. @E9;C, -aul confirmed this when he said the law was not nullified by Jesus, but confirmed or established B!om. <E<9C. In the meantime, to reconcile what some perceived to be biblical contradictions, some scholars have attempted to +ustify the use of FendI in the passage. 'erald !. Cragg reads the passage as Fthe end of the law,I probably meaning that in Christ the law is superseded Bcf. <E/9L 'al. <E/@C, rather than that the goal of the law is reached. 9; John *no% states that the Jewish people trusted in the meticulous observance of the laws and festivals and, in doing so, they became legalistic, which was their method of attaining righteousness. *no% said that according to -aul, the Fend of the lawI means that the Jewish attempt to attain righteousness by legalistic observances and

99 9/ 9< 9> 9@ 9A 9;

Zophiates, @/>. Cranfield, /E@9A. Ibid., @9; citing 4artin 0uther(s Lectures on Romans. Moung, Paul, the Jewish Theologian,. AA. ,unn, <=1E@:;. 3oward, <<9-<;. Cragg, :E@@>.

12

attitudes results in bankruptcy. 9= he best interpretation was given by Jesus in 4athew @E9;, or as an old adage says, F0et Scripture interpret Scripture.I .onetheless, the translation of FgoalI for telos may not always be applicable in all .ew estament uses. In !omans AE9>-9@, for e%ample, both verses state that the Christian is Fno longer under the law,I which would indicate that either FendI or FterminateI would be the best choice in these translations. 3atthe+ #/1. Jesus was a orah-observant Jew whose disagreements with the -harisees are very much in the spirit of the perennial intra-Jewish debates so characteristic of rabbinic literature. 0ittle wonder then, that Jesus in 4atthew @E9;-/? clarified 3is position on the orah. his passage follows the Sermon on the 4ount of moral and ethical teaching that has 5ld estament origins. Jesus then proceeded to 4atthew @E9;-/? Bcf. 0k. 9AE9A-9;L 4t. /<E/-<C where 3e clearly did not abolish the law, but interestingly, 3e did not affirm it either. Jesus knew what the -harisees were thinking and made 3is defense of anticipated ob+ections Bvv. 9;-/?C. 3e not only reaffirmed the necessity to observe the law Bv. 9;C, an observation of which the Scribes and -harisees prided themselves, but then 3e elevated the re&uirement for righteousness by stating that what 3is opponents were doing remained insufficient. ,o not think that I have come to abolish the law or the -rophetsL I have not come to abolish them, but to fulfill them. I tell you the truth, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the law until everything is accomplished. $nyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. Dor I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the -harisees and the teachers of the law, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven. 4atthew @E9;-/? he key theme of 4atthew @E9; is that neither the 0aw of 4oses nor the words of the prophets were to endRterminate, but rather, to continue and be fulfilled by the teachings of Jesus. Sherman ). Johnson states that the phrase Fto fulfillI means Fto fill, to enforceI or Fto e%press in full
9=

*no%, :E@@@.

/?

significance.I9: $s $lfred -lummer stated, the ideals presented by Jesus are immeasurably higher than those of the Jewish laws. /? 3ence, the goal of the law is fulfilled, and in that sense it could be said that it has ended, but obviously not terminated. he phrase, F,o not think that I have come,I presupposes the e%istence of the opinion that Jesus came to destroy the law and the -rophets. he Sermon on the 4ount appears to have occurred early in 3is ministry, and evidently, there was at this time a rising suspicion that 3e came to make radical changes in Judaism. 4atthew placed his passage in this section of his work for a specific purpose. $ccording to ,onald $. 3agner, the purpose is that Fthe ethical teaching of Jesus that follows in this sermon Gof the 4ountH, as well as later in the 'ospel, has such a radical character and goes so much against what was the commonly accepted understanding of the commands of the orah that it is necessary at the outset to indicate Jesus( full and unswerving loyalty to the law.I/9 In essence, the rabbis were preaching messages that were not faithful to the 5ld estament te%t. Dor that reason Jesus repeatedly reminded 3is audience that Fyou have heard that it was saidI B@E/9, /;, <9, <<, <=, and ><C. )verything that 3e did and preached was built upon the foundation of the law and the -rophets. o Jesus, the inward transformation toward righteousness was superior to the e%terior appearance of righteousness. Si% times Jesus stated the literal interpretation of the law, but then presented its real intent. Dor e%ample, 3e mentioned the si%th commandment of murder Bv. /9C but gave pronounced +udgment for the condition of an angry heart which prompts it Bv. //CL he mentioned the seventh commandment concerning adultery Bv. /;C, and proceeded to warn of adultery in the heart Bv. /=C. 0ikewise, Jesus spoke of divorce B4t. @E<9-</, cf. ,eut />E9C, swearing and oaths B4t. @E<<-<;, cf. summary of 0ev. 9:E9/, .um. <?E/C, legal rights B4t. @E<=->/, cf. )%. /9E/>-/@L 0ev. />E/?L ,eut. 9:E/9C and to loving one(s neighbor B4t. @E><->;, cf 0ev. 9:E9=C. he -harisees believed that observance of the law was an end in itself regardless of inner feelings Bsuch as hatredC. #hereas the laws of the orah governed the actions of mankind, Jesus presented the intended purpose of the laws. 3e brought truth to which the 3ebrew Scriptures pointed, as stated by John FDor the law was given through 4osesL grace and truth came through Jesus ChristI BJn. 9E9;C. Dor this reason, the Fnew commandI BJn. 9<E<>C that Jesus gave was actually from 0eviticus 9:E9=, but it was new in the sense that now it had a broader meaning to include a sense of brotherhood. //
9: /? /9

Johnson, /:9. -lummer, ;>. 3agner, 9?<.

01

he phrase, F he law and the prophets,I was a common first century e%pression denoting all three sections of the 3ebrew Scriptures B5ld estamentC J the orah, the #ritings and the -rophets. /< In essence, Jesus said that the entire 5ld estament was F'od-breathedI and therefore, eternal, never to be abolished or terminated. It testifies to the desire of 'od throughout history. 4atthew stated that the work of 'od at this point is not complete, but rather, the phrase points beyond itself to future acts of 'od . /> he 'reek word, ataluo, meaning FabolishI or FdestroyI is found seventeen times in the .ew estament, as well as in other writings. $ntiochus I7 )piphanes used it in reference to the attempted destruction of the law in the second century 1C in / 4accabees /E// and >E99. he word is also used in reference to the destruction of the emple in 4atthew />E/L /AEA9L /;E>? and $cts AE9>. In / Corinthians @E9, it is used in reference to the decomposition or destruction of the human body. Dinally, the first century historian Dlavius Josephus, in his work, The !nti"uities of the Jews used it twice B9A./.>L /?.>./C in reference to the abolishment of governmental authority. 4atthew used the word, not only in this sense, but also in opposition to Ffulfill.I he 'reek word for FfulfillI is plerosai. here are several possible interpretations to this difficult word. $ccording to -aul *roll, it could mean, B9C Jesus came to accomplish or obey the 3oly ScripturesL B/C to e%plain the full meaning of the 3oly ScripturesL B<C to bring the intended completion to the Scriptures, and B>C to emphasi"e that the 3ebrew Scriptures point to Jesus as the 4essiah and are fulfilled in 3is work. ,.$. Carson states that the word plerosai means Fthat Jesus fulfills the law and the prophetsI in that they point to 3imL 3e is the fulfillment. he antithesis is not between FabolishI and Fkeep,I but between FabolishI and Ffulfill.I/@ he life, work, ministry, death and resurrection of Jesus fulfilled the law and prophets. he $postle 4atthew used the phrase Fto fulfillI si%teen times/A to convince the Jewish people that Jesus was their long e%pected 4essiah. Jesus fulfilled the prophecies regarding 3imself B0k. />E>>C and the demands of the 4osaic 0aw. In the phrase, F$nyone who breaks,I the word for FbreaksI can also mean FlooseI as in 4atthew 9=E9=, meaning a rabbinical decree that certain actions are forbidden. he word is found in James /E9? where Fwhoever
// /< /> /@ /A

.I7 Study 1ible footnote on John 9<E<>. 4atthew ;E//L //E>?L $cts />E9>L /=E/<L !omans <E/9. 1oring, =E9=;. Carson, 9><.

4atthew 9E//L /E9@L 9;L /<L >E9>L @E9=L =E9;L 9/E9;L 9<E9>L <@L /9E>L />E<>L /AE@>L @AL /;E:L <@.

//

stumbles at +ust one point Gof the lawH is guilty of breaking all of it.I It was important to observe every one of the A9< laws, even those that were deemed to be of less importance than the most important ones. his was reflected in the teachings of Judah the -atriarch who compiled and recorded the #ishnah Bthe Ftraditions of the eldersI in 4t. 9@E/C. 3e said Fand be heedful of a light precept as of a weighty one, for thou knowest not the recompense of reward of each precept.I /; 4essianic scholar !ay B!euvenC )hrenshaft gives insight from the Jewish perspective. 3e states that first century rabbis would have declared that misinterpretation of the law was e&ual to its destruction. herefore, when Jesus said that 3e did not come to destroy the law, 3e meant that 3e did not misinterpret it. Met it was the -harisaic leaders who accused Jesus of misinterpreting Scriptures. hese same -harisees could not find anything Jesus did that would have been indicative of breaking the law. If Jesus had advocated termination of the law, then 3e would have been found guilty of breaking it./= he phrase F3eaven and earth to disappear,I according to )hrenshaft, does not reflect the permanency of the 4osaic 0aw, but rather, it would be easier for heaven and earth to disappear than for the law of 'od not to fulfill its mission. #hen the legal sacrificial code was abolished by the sacrificial death of Jesus BCol. /E9<-9>C, the law of 'od fulfilled its mission. .ote the following benefits of observing the 5ld estament 0aw, as affirmed by various .ew estament writers. 9. service, he 0aw provides instruction on how to honor 'od through worship, and obedience B-s. 9:E;-:L $cts 9=E9<-9>C.

/. he 0aw provides instruction in the maturity of healthy relationships in family and community B0ev. 9:E9=L 'al. @E9>, AE/C. 9E=L <. he 0aw gives direction to attain happiness and prosperity BJosh. -s. 9E9-<L 0k. 9/E</C. >. im. he 0aw is a line of demarcation to identify the deeds of man as good or evil toward 'od and his fellow man. It is also the guidance system toward sound doctrine B9 im. 9E=-9?L / /E@, 9L 9 Cor. AE9-9/, <E9<L !om. /E9/L !ev. /?E9/-9<C.

/; /=

#ishnah, $both /E9.

!ay B!euvenC )hrenshaft. $nderstanding of #atthew %&'()'*. httpERRwww.kehilatdvarhashem.orgRmattitya.htm as retrieved on 4ay /?, /??@ 9>E@:E<> '4 .

03

=C.

@. he 0aw e%poses our guilt of sin, its depth and therefore points all men to Christ Jesus B'al. <E/9-/>L !om. <E9:-/?, >E9@, ;E;3ence, it is called Fholy, +ust, and goodI B!om. ;E9/C. A. he 0aw reveals the holy, +ust, and perfect nature of 'od that is the universal standard of mankind. #hen this standard is understood and reali"ed, the meaning of Christ is manifestedB!om. /E9;-9=, ;E9/L / -eter 9E>C. 5nly when the 0aw is recogni"ed is humanity recogni"ed as weak, sinful and imperfect.

called

;. he 0aw accomplished its function through faith. 3ence, it is the Flaw of faithI B!om. <E/;, <9C. =. he 0aw is written in the heart of the believer by the 3oly Spirit B!om. ;EA-/@C.

In conclusion of this important sub+ect, note that the 0aws of 4oses that transcend both estaments and understanding the purpose of the ,ivine law brings to light the essence of the love 'od has for 3is supreme creation. Dinally, a rabbi once said that to understand the words of Meshua, one must understand how Jews like to argue and debate Scripture. $rgumentation and debate are ways of learning and gaining insight. $s previously stated, if one misinterprets a passage, he is destroying it. So when Meshua said that 3e did not come to destroy it, 3e meant that 3e did not come to misinterpret it. 0ikewise, when the $postle -aul said that Jesus is the end of the 0aw B!om. 9?E>C, he was not referring to the 0aw as the instructional orah, but in the first century rabbinic sense when the word F0awI was a broad term meaning the entire 5ld estament. he life, death, and resurrection of Jesus were the fulfillment, meaning FendI of the purpose of the 5ld estament. 8. What +ere the important first century cultural and political influences on (eplacement Theolo)y5 !eplacement heology was not created in a spiritual vacuum, but a cultural and political environment with attitudes that e%isted for centuries. #ithin this cauldron of hatred was Jewish anti-Semitism, meaning Jews who hated other Jews because they accepted Jesus as their 4essiah. he $postle -aul recorded several times the physical abuse he suffered for preaching the gospel in the traditional Jewish synagogues. Some believing Jews from !ome e%perienced the -entecost event B$cts /E9?-99C and had returned home to their Jewish 4essianic synagogues.
/>

Soon 'entiles became interested in this new form of FJudaism,I and the congregations became a uni&ue cultural mi%. ensions between them came to the point, when in $, >: )mperor Claudius banished all Jews from !ome. his e%odus included -riscilla and $&uila B$cts 9=E/C. he !oman historian Suetonius recorded that the mass eviction was the result of civil unrest created by one called FChrestoI or FChrestus.I here can be little doubt that followers of Jesus were the point of the controversyL the traditional Jews attacked the messianic believers +ust as they had attacked the $postle -aul. /: $fter the death of Claudius, )mperor .ero permitted them to return to !ome, but the 'entile believers had difficulties integrating with their Jewish counterparts. 4ore importantly, the opposition of unbelieving Jewish people and the removal of the 4essianic ones appeared to have fostered the concept that 'od had transferred 3is eschatological plans into the hands of 'entile Church leaders. he $postle -aul wrote his letter to the !oman believers to put an end to this opinion in order to prevent a Church split between Jew and 'entile.<? !eplacement heology has cultural-political roots in two distinct disasters. Dirst was the destruction of Jerusalem by itus B$, ;?C, after which it was rebuilt. he second disaster was again the destruction of the 3oly City by 3adrian B$, 9<@C. itus killed thousands, dismantled the emple and burned it, putting an end to Jewish sacrifices. Jewish people of Jerusalem, who were not evicted by itus, were killed, enslaved or deported by 3adrian. he 'entile Church saw this as divine punishment against all Jewish people for crucifying Jesus.<9 In order to permanently remove any Jewish connection to the land, 3adrian renamed the country F-hilistinia,I or F-alestineI in honor of the ancient -hilistine enemies. he name has been attached ever since and is now heard fre&uently on the nightly news. $t 3adrian(s command a ma+ority of Jewish people were dispersed throughout the world. he few traditional and 4essianic Jewish people who remained were prohibited from entering Jerusalem e%cept for one day every year when they could mourn for the loss of their emple. 6ntil $, 9<@, the leadership of the Church in Jerusalem was Jewish. $fter this date, 'entiles controlled the Church and soon the Jewish roots of Christianity were lost. 1y the time Constantine became )mperor of !ome in
/:

,avid -arsons, FIsrael in the .ew estamentI $ news report issued by the International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem. www.c>israel.orgRarticlesRenglishRe-i-?<-9-paws-israelnt.htm. !etriived June 9:, /??@.
<? <9

Ibid.

It should be noted that there has been a continuous Jewish occupation from the days of Joshua Bcirca. 9>@? 1CC to today. #hile thousands of Jews were evicted from Jerusalem, about two do"en villages continued to thrive during Islamic occupation.

0#

<9<, there was hardly any resemblance to a Jewish heritage in the Christian faith. $s stated previously, the 'reek 'entiles allegori"ed or spirituali"ed the interpretation of the parables, prophecies, and other key passages, rather than the natural meaning. Conse&uently, the Jewish people considered Christianity a cult after it re+ected the law, meaning the five books of 4oses. $ ma+or influence that is fre&uently overlooked is the culturalpolitical environment of the Church in the first three centuries. #hile the !omans hated the Jewish people, at least Judaism was a recogni"ed legal religion +religio licita, whereas the followers of Jesus were perceived to be promoting a new and illegal religion +religio ilicita,. he !omans thought of Christianity as a dangerous cult, and Christians &uickly found themselves under more severe persecution than the Jews. herefore, to limit their pain and suffering, early 'entile Christians dared not blame the !oman 'overnor -ontius -ilate for the crucifi%ion of Jesus. Instead, they blamed the Jews and claimed that Scriptures supported their viewpoint. his teaching was so strong that the )gyptian Coptic Church actually canoni"ed -ilate and his wife with other saints of the Church.</ 0ikewise the 'reek 5rthodo% Church also canoni"ed -ilate and -rocula, while the )thiopian Church celebrated St. -ilate and St. -rocula ,ay on June /@. << he desire to reduce or escape persecution has been found in several early writings. Dor e%ample, ertullian B9A?-/<?C recorded a comment that when -ilate informed Caesar of the crucifi%ion of Jesus, -ilate allegedly stated that he had become a Christian in his heartE F-ilatus, et ipse iam pro sua conscientia Christianus.I <> It is hard to believe that a highly respected Church leader such as ertullian created a fraudulent account like this one. hen, on the other hand, it is e&ually hard to imagine the severity of persecution that occurred at this time. <@ $nother ma+or influence of early !eplacement heology was the failure to understand the prophecies that pertained to the return of the Jewish people to a re-established Israel. $ spirituali"ed answer solved this dilemma since the doctrine forced the Jews out of 'od(s plan. Dor e%ample, the 1ible repeatedly states that one day 'od would bring the Jewish people back to the -romised 0and. !eplacement heologian )usebius B/A?-<<:KC declared that these returning Jewish people would not be real Jewish people, but 'entile believers. In a lengthy statement he said, F hus the remnant according to the election of grace and that which is called in the prophecy, Pthe remnant that is left of the people,( I has proclaimed the sign of the 0ord to all the 'entiles and have +oined to 'od as one people that is drawn to 3im, the souls of the 'entiles that are brought out of destruction to the knowledge of the 0ord, a
</ << <> <@

!okeah, F$nti-Semitism in )arly Christianity.I Immanuel. @/. 4aier, A>. ertullian, !pologeticum. /9E/>. !okeah, F$nti-Semitism in )arly Christianity.I Immanuel. @>.

/A

people which from the four corners of the earth even now are welded together by the power of Christ.I<A )usebius continued to say that the dispersed Jewish people, who he thought were stealing and plundering the nations of the world, were being used by 'od to force the 'entiles to come to Christ. 3is strange ideas are illustrated in partE $nd these same refugees from the lost race of the Jewish people, the disciples and apostles of our Savior belonging to different tribes, thought worthy of one calling, and one grace and one 3oly Spirit, will cast away all the love which the tribes of the 3ebrew race had to them, as the prophecy says. 1ound together, then, by the same mind and will, they have not only traversed the continent, but the isles of the 'entiles also, making plunder of all the souls of men everywhere and bringing them into captivity to the obedience of Christ according to the oracle which said, Fand they shall fly in the ships of strangersL they shall at the same time spoil the sea, and them from the sunrisingI BCf. Isa. 99E9>C. )usebius, Proof. :9. he Fblame gameI intensified with unbelievable false accusations coming from both sides. Dor e%ample, rumors were spread by pagans and Jews alike that Christians participated in child sacrifice. Church father, 5rigen, B9=@-//@C wrote an incredible defense of the Christian faith titled -ontra -elsus, which was in response to vicious attacks by a certain individual named Celsus. In this work, he said the following concerning the rumorE 3e GCelsusH seems to have behaved in much the same way as the Jews who, when the teaching of Christianity began to be proclaimed, spread abroad the malicious rumor about the gospel, to the effect that Christians sacrifice a child and partake of its flesh, and again that when the followers of the gospel want to do the works of darkness they turn out the light and each man has se%ual intercourse with the first woman he meets. his malicious rumor some time ago unreasonably influenced a very large number and persuaded people knowing nothing of the gospel that this was really the character of Christians. $nd even now it still deceives some who by such stories are repelled from approaching Christians even if only for a simple conversation.
<A

)usebius, Proof. :9.

0.

5rigen, -ontra -elsus AE/; $ Jewish writer, 4inucius Deli%, claimed that Christians placed an infant in dough, ate it, turned out the lights, and had an orgy of adultery and incest.<; Such statements were usually received from the pagan servants of Christians under the pain of torture.<= $fter the destruction of the emple, when Jewish people gave a so-called FblessingI, they referred to Jesus as FJesus ben StanaI or FJesus ben -anteraI, implying that Jesus was born of a prostitute and a !oman soldier named -antera. <: $s was often the case, those critical of the Christian faith were in a constant search to discredit the historical events that surrounded the life of Christ. Three 9roups of e+s $t the close of the ministry of Jesus there were three groups of Jewish people. Dirst, the disciples and several women including 3is mother 4ary, none of whom would ever have cried, FCrucify 3im, crucify 3imQI $ second group was those who loved to hear 3im preach, teach, and perform miracles. hey are the ones who placed palm branches on the ground as 3e entered Jerusalem on what is known today as -alm Sunday. 3ow can !eplacement heologians fail to answer the &uestion, F#hy did those who were healed by Jesus, decide to crucify 3imKI he answer lies in the fact that they were ignorant of the illegal nighttime trial of the third group J the wealthy house of Caiaphas and his Sanhedrin. Dor the elite -harisees and Sadducees the wealth, social position in the emple, and security would have been destroyed if the miracle-worker Jesus had become the political-messiah that everyone was e%pecting. Dirst century Jews believed that the politicalmessiah would cast off the !oman domination and restructure the emple. #ere this to happen it would in turn destroy the status and wealth of the religious elite. hey were the same corrupted Jewish people whom Jesus fre&uently addressed as FhypocritesI and who in turn often plotted 3is death. he diversity of the three groups was evident when Jesus rode into Jerusalem and the religious leaders who were planning to kill 3im said of those cheering Jesus, F.ot during the festival, lest a riot occur among the peopleIB4t. /AE@C. he reason they did not want to kill Jesus during the -assover was because the public sentiment for Jesus was so strong that any attempt to harm 3im would have resulted in a riot. his would then have activated the !oman legions to &uell the violence. In fact, the same Jewish
<; <= <:

4inucius Deli%, .cta/ius. Ch. :. !okeah, F$nti-Semitism in )arly Christianity.I Immanuel. @:. Ibid., A9.

/=

people who cheered Jesus as 3e rode 3is donkey into Jerusalem would later be the Fgreat multitude of people and of women who were mourning and lamenting 3imI B0k. /<E/;C on 3is way to the crucifi%ion. 5bviously not all the Jewish people desired to kill 3im, but all those who were in front of -ilate Bi.e., 4t. /;E//C. he -harisees who often plotted to kill Jesus are hardly mentioned in the gospels by the time Jesus was taken to the Jewish trials, yet were active in 3is death. Since the Sadducees mostly controlled the Sanhedrin, it is very possible then that it was they who took Jesus to the !omans while the -harisees, like -ilate, did not want to have innocent blood on their hands. he Jews are as much to blame for anti-Christian propaganda as the Christians are for anti-Semitism. he significant difference is that the Jewish people did not resort to murder, theft, and destruction as countless so-called Christians did. Dive centuries later rabbinical writers said that of all those who persecuted them the Christians were worse than the pagans. >? Clearly the cultural and political influences upon both Jews and Christians played a significant part in the formulation of their future relationship. 6nfortunately, both sides permitted it to become a negative one. #. Who +ere some of the early Church fathers and modern theolo)ians +ho promoted (eplacement Theolo)y5 "arly Church 1athers $ comprehensive answer to this &uestion could fill volumes. 5nly a few ma+or figures are described herein to demonstrate the power of their influence. Some early Church fathers whose ideas changed the Church for centuries areE Ignatius, B$, <A-9?=C, hird 1ishop of $ntioch, lived at a time when he may have had contact with one or more of the original apostles or their disciples. !egardless, he certainly had access to original teachings of the Christian life and Church and that is what made his opinion profoundly dangerous. 3e stated that, FIf anyone preaches Judaism to you, pay no attention to him.I>9 In another writing he stated, SIt is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practice Judaism. Dor Christianity did not base its faith on Judaism, but Judaism on Christianity.I >/ #hile in other areas of doctrine he was an outstanding church leader, in this arena he was clearly anti-Semitic. Justin F4artyrI B$, 9??-9A@C was one of the most influential early leaders who was eventually martyred for his faith, and hence, his name was
>?
>9

Babylonian Talmud. Shabbat, 99Aa. Ignatius, Philippians. A. Ignatius, 0pistles to the #agnesians. 9?E/-<.

>/

02

changed to Justin 4artyr. 3e was born in the year 99? in Samaria, and therefore, was very familiar with the political and religious events in Jerusalem. 3e was among the first to claim that the Church is the true Israel, the key element of a !eplacement heology. >< Justin discussed the 5ld estament law, the divinity of Christ, and the Fnew Israel,I that he called the Church.>> In his ma+or work, 1irst !pology to !ntoninus Pius, he wrote that, he Jews count us GChristiansH as foes and enemies, and, like yourselves GpagansH they kill and punish us whenever they have the power. Dor in the Jewish war which raged lately, 1ar *okhba, the teacher of the revolt of the Jews, gave orders that the Christians alone should be led to cruel punishments, unless they would deny Jesus the 4essiah and utter blasphemies. >@ 4artyr made the comment that Jesus was Fcrucified under -ontius -ilate,I>A yet later contradicted himself by making the following statementsE he Jews who are in possession of the books of the prophets did not even recogni"e Christ, even when 3e came, and they hate us who declare that 3e has come and show that 3e was crucified by them Gthe JewsH as predicted.I>; 3e continued, FDor the circumcision according to the flesh, which is from $braham, was given for a signL that you may be separated from other nations, and GseparatedH from usL and that you alone may suffer that which you +ustly sufferL and that you may be desolate, and your cities burned with fireL and that strangers may eat your fruit in your presence and not one of you may go up to Jerusalem. $ccordingly, these things have happened to you in fairness and +ustice, for you have slain the Just 5ne GJesusH, and 3is prophets before 3imL and now you re+ect those who hope in 3im, and in 3im who sent 3im J 'od the $lmighty and 4aker of all things J cursing in your synagogues those who believe on Christ. Dor you have not the power to lay hands upon us, on account of those Gthe !omansH who now have mastery Gover youH. 1ut as often as you could, you did so.>=
>< >> >@ >A >; >=

4artyr, 2ialogue with Trypho. 99, 9/<, 9/>. 1lumenkran", FChurch Dathers.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. 9:;;. 4artyr, 1irst !pology to !ntoninus Pius, 9<9. Ibid., 9<. Ibid., <;. 4artyr, 2ialogue with Trypho, a Jew, 9A. Italics and inserts are mine.

<?

3owever, 4artyr(s most damaging words were, Dor these words have neither been prepared by me, nor embellished by the art of man, but ,avid sung them, Isaiah preached them, Zechariah proclaimed them, and 4oses wrote them. $re you ac&uainted with them, ryphoK hey are contained in your Scriptures, or rather not yours, but ours . Dor we believe themL but you, though you read them, do not catch the Spirit that is in them. >: 3is writings were later used to support the erroneous doctrine and e%pand its interpretation in daily life activities of Christians. @? hese life activities had negative effects in various forms upon the Jewish people. 3owever, Justin 4artyr is not considered anti-Semitic by some Jewish scholars, such as #illiam .icholls, because 4artyr said Christians should pray for the Jews that they might be won to the true faith. @9 he author of the )pistle of 1arnabas B$, 9?? - 9/?C was not the 1arnabas of the 1ible but a Christian writer. his ancient form of Fidentity theftI was common of the time and eventually developed into classification of books known as the Pseudepigrapha Ffalse writings.I It is ironic that these writings were composed by fictitious authors who attempted to convey the truth of 'od as they understood it. @/ he 0pistle was so influential that some clergymen argued that it should be included in the .ew estament canon. Concerning the error, the author of the 0pistle stated that since the Jewish leadership re+ected Jesus the Church has become the true Israel. 3e encouraged Christians to take their 'od-given role as the new Israel because the Jewish covenant now e%clusively belonged to them. @< Durthermore, he also stated that believers are not to imitate the Jewish lifestyle as it placed sin-upon-sin. .otice his anti-Semitic toneE I urge this further counsel on youE keep watch over yourselves now and do not imitate certain people by heaping sin after sin upon yourselves and sayingE F heir covenant is ours also. 5urs, indeed, but in the end they lost it.I
>: @? @9 @/ @<

Ibid., /:. Italics and emphasis are mine. !ausch, ! Legacy of 3atred, /9. .icholls, 9;A. Ibid., 9;?. F he )pistle of 1arnabas,I The !postolic 1athers, /;?-</;.

31

0pistle of Barnabas >EAb-;a 1ut how did we receive itK 0et me tell you. 4oses received it as a servant, but the 0ord in person gave it to us in order to make us the people of inheritance by suffering for our sake. 0pistle of Barnabas 9>E> It follows, then, brethren, that the 0ong-suffering 5ne looked forward to the time when the people, prepared in 3is 1eloved, would possess unadulterated faith and so 3e instructed us in advance about everything. 3e did not want us to suffer shipwreck by being, as it were, proselyted to their law. 0pistle of Barnabas <EA Bcf. @E;L AE9;L ;E@L 9@E;L 9AE9-:C ertullian B9A?-/<?C was an influential leader according to Jewish scholar and historian #illiam .icholls.@> 3e was a bishop in Carthage, .orth $frica, and wrote against the Jewish people in both of his booksE !gainst #arcion and !gainst the Jews. 3e firmly stated that 'od had re+ected the Jewish people because all of them re+ected Christ, and now 'od has permanently favored the Christians J the essence of !eplacement heology. @@ ertullian also affirmed the so-called accusation of Fblood libelI whereby the Jewish people supposedly murdered non-Jewish people to obtain the elements needed for the observance of -assover and other festivals. @A ertullian was right when he said that the commandments given by 4oses were for the purpose of redeeming 'od(s people, but he was wrong in saying that the commandments were given because the Jewish people had a strong compulsion for idolatry, sensuality, theft, and greed J all of which culminated in the crucifi%ion of Christ. @; he Jewish history of rebellion against 'od reached its "enith in the Fdeath of their 'odI @= J and as such, all Jewish people are guilty of deicide Bthe murder of 'od, meaning JesusC.
@> @@

.icholls, 9=9-=;, /?;.

)froymson, ,avid -. Tertullian4s !nti)Judaism and its Role in 3is Theology. -h.,. thesis, emple 6niversity B$nn $rbor, 4IE 6niversity 4icrofilms, 9:;;C, //=L See also ,avid -. )froymson, F he -atristic Connection,I !nti)Semitism and the 1oundations of -hristianity. $lan . ,avid, ed. .ew MorkE -aulist -ress, 9:;:L and Stephen '. #ilson. F4arcion and the Jews,I in Stephen '. #ilson, ed. Separation and Polemic, #aterloo, 5.E Canadian Corporation for studies in !eligion, 9:=A. >@->=.
@A @; @=

ertullian, !pology, ;E9 and 9E9/. .icholls, 9=/L !uether, 9/>. .icholls, 9=/L !uether, 9/<-/>.

</

4arcion B99?-9@>KC re+ected most of 3ebrew Scriptures because the 'od of the .ew estament had replaced an FinferiorI ,eity of the 5ld. In fact, he cursed the Jewish people and their 1ible. 3is theology was greatly influenced by 'nostic philosophies that made him controversial in the Church. 3e also proclaimed that the covenant of 'od to the Jewish people was permanently transferred to the Church, which is the essence of !eplacement heology. Some scholars believe that he originated the phrases F5ld estamentI and F.ew estamentI to mean that the former should be discarded. 3is teachings remained a strong influence even after he was removed from the Church.@: )ventually he was declared a heretic and was e%communicated in the year 9>>. 6nfortunately, his opinions never dissipated, but rather, intensified. )%cept for a few small -rotestant movements, !eplacement heology was not removed as a result of the !eformation, but continued to grow in Catholicism and -rotestantism. he twentieth century historian Charles 1ryant $braham states that, F he 7atican Council II 1ishops( Conference B9:A@C, recogni"ed that the historic infrastructure of )uropean anti-Semitism is traceable in no small measure to one specific doctrine of early ecclesiastical, residually 4arcionite, supersessionism, a dogma unchanged by the -rotestant !eformation.IA? 4elito BK-9:?C, the famous 1ishop of Sardis, carefully guided the Church through the turbulent times of persecution. 3e demonstrated great courage and leadership as well as accurate interpretation of Scripture. 6nfortunately, he too had succumbed to one erroneous doctrine as reflected in his writing words accusing the Jewish people of killing JesusE 3e who hung the earth is hangingL 3e who fi%ed the heavens has fi%edL 3e who fastened the universe has been fastened to a tree. he sovereign has been insultedL he 'od has been murderedL he *ing Israel has been put to death by an Israelite right hand. 4elito, Peri Pascha, lines ;99-;9A A9 #hile previously all Jewish people were accused of the death of Jesus, 4elito was the earliest Christian writer to accuse all the Jewish people of deicide, the death of 'od. 3is writings had little effect during his lifetime, but later in the fourth century, they were enhanced by John Chrysostom.
@: A?

been of

.icholls, 9;=-;:.

$braham, F5live 1ranch heology.I Restore #aga5ine. 9/E/>-/A. See also httpERRccmsn cache.comRcache.asp%K&T9::@;;:A<9?;=2langTen-6S2D5!4TC7!)<.
A9

4elito -eri -ascha, lines ;99-;9A, as cited by #ilson from S. '. 3all, #elito of Sardis F5n -aschaI and Dragments. 5%fordE Clarendon, 9:;/L See also .icholls, 9;;-;=, >@=.

33

heologically, deicide is an impossibility -- one cannot kill 'od who is eternal. he irony of 4elito is that he believed that the Church needed to observe the -assover in a similar manner as the Jewish people. 3e made a contrast between the Ftwo -assoversI A/ - Christian and Jewish. 3e understood the words of -aul to be taken literally when he said, F herefore let us keep the festivalIBI Cor. @E=C. 3e and other -assover-observing Christians were known as the 6uartodecimians or FfourteenersI by 3ellenistic B'reekC Christians.A< 5rigen B9=>-/@>C was born to a Christian family in $le%andria, )gypt, where he was a teacher and well known for some of his unconventional ideas. 3e applied 'reek -latonic philosophical ideas to Scripture resulting in the allegorical interpretation, or Fspirituali"ationI of parables.A> 3e then applied his own interpretation rather than the literal meaning of the te%t. 3is comments on the Jewish people reflect his unabashed anti-Semitic attitude in this comment, F$nd these calamities they Gthe JewsH have suffered, because they were a most wicked nation, which, although guilty of many other sins, yet has been punished so severely for none, as for those that were committed against our Jesus.I A@ he irony is that, according to scholars, 5rigen was, in fact, Jewish. AA 5rigen(s method of interpretation was later carried to its full development by $ugustine, the bishop of 3ippo in .orth $frica. John Chrysostom of $ntioch was the $rchbishop of Constantinople. 3is life seems to have been an irony. 3e was known for his elo&uent sermons and his unrelenting attacks on )mpress )udo%ia and her sins. In fact, he preached a pious and righteous brand of Christianity that often offended local clergy as well as those in government. )ventually he was sentenced to be e%iled, but the threat of a riot by the populace caused his enemies to reconsider their decision. A; 3e most certainly would be considered to be one of the great righteous leaders of Church history were it not for his anti-Semitic attacks. 5f them he said,
A/

he phrase is used by Jewish scholar #illiam .icholls, 9;;. 3istory has preserved two written documents concerning the observance of -assover. Dirst, the -assover Seder was observed by the Jewish people of Sardis as recorded in the 4ishnah B-esahim 9?E@C. Second the early Church father 4elito observed the rite as recorded in 4elito(s 3omily Blines @=?@:@C. Since these are incredibly similar, it must be assumed that 4elito depended upon the Jewish -assover rite to observe -aul(s command.
A< A>

'arr, 9><->@. Derguson, F5rigen.I 0erdman4s. 9?>. 5rigen, ! gainst -elsus. /.=. 1lumenkran", FChurch Dathers.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. 9:;;. Derguson, FJohn Chrysostom.I 0erdman4s, 9:9.

A@
AA A;

<>

by are

hey were murderers, possessed by the devil, their debauchery and drunkenness gives them manners of the pig.... Dor Jews abandoned 'od for the crime of deicide there is no e%piation possible ... 'od always hated the Jews ... Jews are the most worthless of men J they lecherous, greedy, rapacious ... they worship the devil. It is incumbent of all Christians to hate the Jews.A=

he reason why Jews continued to suffer, according to Chrysostom, was because, Mou killed Christ. It is because you stretched your hand against the 0ord. It is because you shed the precious blood, that there is now no restoration, no mercy and no defense . . . . Mou have eclipsed everything in the past and through your madness against Christ, you have committed the ultimate transgression. hat is why you are punished worse now than in the past.IA:

being

A= A:

Schaff, :/9.

Chrysostom, John. 0ight .rations against the Jew.I Cited by !uether in 1aith and 1raticide. 9>A.

3#

Digure 9. John Chrysostom was described by his contemporaries as short with a wide and furrowed forehead and deep-set eyes. 3e was known for his powerful and elo&uent speeches, theology, and antiSemitism that impacted generations of clergymen. #hen speaking of the 3ebrew children who had been in )gyptian bondage, he told his congregation, F hey built a brothel in )gypt, made love madly with the barbarians, and worshipped foreign gods.I ;? 3e also highly critici"ed Jewish Christians who continued to observe Jewish feasts and attended worship in a synagogue. ;9 #ords such as these were repeated for generations to come. he synagogue is not only a brothel and a theaterL it also is a den of robbers and a lodging for wild beasts ... #hen 'od forsakes a people, what hope of salvation is leftK #hen 'od forsakes a place, that place becomes a dwelling of demons ... he Jews live for their bellies. hey gape for the things of this world. heir condition is no better than that of pigs or goats because of their wanton ways and e%cessive gluttony. hey know but one thingE to fill their bellies and be drunk. Chrysostom, .rations against the Jews. 9.<.9L 9.>.9. It is difficult to imagine how one who understood the Scriptures so well and was so strongly committed to being a faithful servant of 'od, could also be so arrogantly wrong about the plan of 'od for the Jewish people. #hat may be even more difficult to imagine is how the Church canoni"ed him as a saint. Clearly his FsainthoodI reflects the sentiment of the !oman Catholic Church at this time. Conse&uently, this skillful and persuasive writer influenced teachers and pastors for centuries to come. 6nfortunately, this is not true of all of Chrysostom(s teachings because he populari"ed the allegorical or spirituali"ed interpretation of the parables of Christ. $s stated previously, by Fspirituali"ingI the parables, the intended 3ebraic meanings and implications were removed and the reader is free to replace these with his own spirituali"ed interpretation. 3e did the same with 5ld estament prophecies concerning the return of the Jewish people to the land. Conse&uently, he did not recogni"e a political state of Israel as influential in the proverbial Flast days,I a study which is commonly

;?

Ibid., 0ight .rations against the Jews. A,/ $scribing the statement incorrectly to )"ekiel 9AE<9L /<E<. Cited by .icholls /?:, >A9 nAA.
;9

Ibid., 0ight .rations against the Jews. 9.9, Cited by 1orovoy, 99/.

<A

referred to today as Fend-time 1ible prophecy.I ;/ he irony is that he still provided a biblically balanced view of Israelology for the individual Jew. ;< Saint $ugustine B<@>-><?C, 1ishop of the Church in 3ippo in .orth $frica, is considered to have been one of the greatest theologians since the $postle -aul. 1ecause of his insight and wisdom, the Church has been greatly blessed. $ugustine understood the Church BF)cclesiaIC to be the chosen bride of Christ and the bridegroom as Christ who left his mother, the synagogue BFSynagogaIC. his interpretation is seen in his commentary of -salm >@ wherein he said, )cclesia is the new bride, Christ is the bridegroom . . . #ho then gave birth to the Son of 'od in the fleshK Synagoga. 3e will leave father and mother . . . $nd who is the mother he leavesK he Jewish people, Synagoga U. It is this that the passage refers to that asks, F#ho is my mother and who are my brothersKI;> $ugustine(s influence continued for centuries. he imagery of )cclesia as the bride of Christ, and Synagoga as the re+ected and defeated Jewish people eventually became prominent in )uropean Churches Bsee Dig. 9AC. 3e believed that while the Church had a .ew Covenant, 'od still had a plan of salvation for the individual Jew, a position not held by most Church leaders. o his credit, he was rather reserved in his attacks upon the Jewish people. 3e reali"ed that there was a cultural difference between Jewish and 'entile believers. Durthermore, he stated that when a Jew became a believer it was wrong for Christians to e%pect the Jew to change customs. his is a troublesome point for many evangelical pastors and Christians today. In his work -ity of 7od, $ugustine stated that he desired to see the Jewish people become incorporated in the kingdom of 'od regardless of their cultural and religious traditions.;@ $gain he said he believed there was no merit for a 'entile believer to become like a Jew or a Jew to become like a 'entile believer. !ather, every culture throughout the world ought to worship the 0ord within its own cultural setting as -aul instructed. 6nfortunately, Church history is filled with many who failed to comprehend this all-important lesson and therefore they persecuted the Jewish people for being Jewish. he irony is that while replacement theologians use
;/ ;< ;> ;@

'annon, >@. Ibid., <@. $ugustine, 8itrau9 Peints. I.@Aff. 'annon, <A.

3.

$ugustine(s allegorical interpretation, $ugustine himself would have argued strongly against the !eplacement heology position. ;A he significance is that $ugustine declared that 'od had not permanently forgotten the Jews nor broken 3is divine covenant with them, but maintained a compassion for the Jewish people. 3odern Theolo)ians 'erhard *ittel and )manuel 3irsch were influential replacement theologians of the early twentieth century 'ermany. he world came to grips with the fruit of their teaching when the doors of the concentration camps were opened. he horrors of human suffering could not be described, and since then some churches have avoided discussion of the sub+ect. In post#orld #ar II 'ermany, however, the world(s leading biblical archaeologist #. D. $lbright wrote an incredible observant and scathing article on the liberal 'erman seminaries and churches. Clearly, he placed the blame of the 3olocaust not only on the Church, but also on the two most highly respected 'erman theologians, 'erhard *ittel and )manuel 3irsch. *ittel was the editor of a massive theological dictionary that today is in nearly every liberal and evangelical seminary library. $lbright wrote as followsE wo of the most violent and dangerous .a"i scholars came, unhappily, from the ranks of outstanding .ew estament scholarsE 'erhard *ittel, editor of the Theologisches :orterbuch 5um ;euen Testament <Theological 2ictionary of the ;ew Testament= and )manuel 3irsch, neo-4arcionite and e%istential theologian of the 'erman Christian movement. In view of the incredible viciousness of his attacks on Judaism and the Jews, which continued at least until 9:><, 'erhard *ittel must bear the guilt of having contributed more perhaps, than any other Christian theologian, to the mass murder of millions of Jews by the .a"isL an apologia pro /ita sua <a defense of his life= written by him about the beginning of 9:>A paints an utterly ama"ing picture of a diseased conscience. hrough the e&ual viciousness of his long-continued campaign against the 5ld estament and the Jewish elements of the .ew and through his systematic teaching that the 'erman State could do no wrong, )mmanuel 3irsch prepared the way for the collective breakdown of -rotestant conscience, without which the e%cesses of the .a"i movement would scarcely have been conceivable.;;

;A ;;

'annon, >A. $lbright, 9A@.

<=

0ittle wonder that Jewish people today often e&uate Christianity with $dolf 3itler and .a"ism. In more recent history, !eplacement heologians such as Colin Chapman claim that since 'od conveyed all the blessings of Israel onto the Church, the Fland of IsraelI is spirituali"ed and becomes the whole world wherever the Christian faith is established. 6sing $ugustine(s method of spirituali"ing Scripture, Chapman said the words of Isaiah ><E@-; that referred to the return of the Jewish people from the north, south, east, and west are interpreted to mean that pagans from all tribes and nations will come to faith in Christ.;= he blessing of Jerusalem is not the physical city of today, but the heavenly city which is the future home of the Church. he words of 3osea AE9-/ concerning the resurrection of Israel mean a victorious Church.;: Dinally, the reign of the 4essiah from Jerusalem is also spirituali"ed to mean that Jesus will reign through 3is people, the Church. =? If it were not so deceptive, this interpretation would be a comedy. !ick 'odwin was a nationally recogni"ed 1ible teacher of the 9:=?s and 9::?s and made this statementE FIt is hurting our witness to the $rab nations when we sanction anything Israel does. -olitical Israel is not Israel. hey Bthe JewsC have no right . . . to be on that land.I =9 3e then said the following in 9:== concerning !eplacement heologyE he representative view can therefore advocate love for the Jew, while being able to re+ect his anti-Christian nation that persecutes Christians and butchers other people who need Christ +ust as much as they do. It can work for the conversion of Israel without becoming the pawn of a maniacal nationalism, a racial supremacy as ugly and potentially oppressive as its twentieth century arch enemy, $ryanism Bi.e. .a"ismC.=/ 5bviously 'odwin determined to ignore the three do"en biblical prophecies that have been in the process of being literally fulfilled for decades. hese prophecies provide evidence that Scripture is trueL that 'od has a plan for national Israel and !eplacement heology is simply wrong. =<
;= ;: =? =9

Chapman, 9/;. Ibid., 9/:. Ibid., 9<;.

!ay 'odwin made this statement in his 9:== audio tape series titled F he Shepherd-Sheep !elationship.I Cited by 4ichael 1rown in .ur 3ands, 9:<.
=/ =<

!ay Sutton, F,oes Israel have a Duture.I -o/enant Renewal ;ewsletter. <.

his is not an e%haustive list, but other theologians areE -auline '. 4ac-herson. -an the 0lect be 2ecei/ed> ,enver, C5E 1old ruth -ress, 9:=A, >AL See also ,avid Clinton.

32

0ouis $. ,eCaro lays the blame of current 4iddle )ast problems s&uarely on the doormat of Israel, especially in his book, Israel Today& 1ulfillment of Prophecy> $mong his accusations is this statement, F$rab suspicion of Israeli e%pansionism coupled with the unresolved refugee problem, keeps the $rab world in a constant offensive and defensive position.I=> )vidently, the ill-advised pastor does not reali"e that Israel never sought to e%pand its geographical area, but only to defend itself against $rab terrorism. he recommendation on the back cover of ,eCaro(s book is by another scholar of like-mind, 0oraine 1oettner. 1oettner said, F4ore effective than any other writer that I have read, he Gmeaning ,eCaroH maintains that the state of IsraelU has no basis whatever in 1iblical prophecy, and that it is based on the same political and military principles that activate the other nations of the world.I 3is comments were followed by Johannes '. 7os, whose opinion of ,eCaro(s book is that FI am impressed with its high degree of 1iblical scholarship, good sense, and sound point of view.I =@ It is ama"ing what some professors in evangelical 1ible colleges and seminaries call F1iblical scholarship.I #hat +udgment will there be for those who espouse their own views over Scripture and lead other pastors into the same errorK In /??@, e%e 4arrs published Power of Prophecy, wherein he vilifies and scandali"es the Jews throughout the 5ld estament and history. 3is writings go beyond literary and scholarly ignorance. Dor e%ample, in the 1ook of )sther, he stated that Oueen )sther was a se%y seductress and concubine who tricked *ing $hasuerus into saving the Jewish people. 3e described the book not as a work of 'od to protect 3is people, but as the criminal acts of the Jews against 'od. 4ore recently 4arrs stated that the Jewish people still kill Christian children for their blood which is needed for -urim cookies. 3e claims to have considerable evidence of such rituals, but fails to give any from police sources that, if his accusations were true, would defend his claim. Dabrications as this, written by someone considered to be a Christian leader bring great shame to the .ame of Jesus. =A Dinally, many missionaries from )urope and .orth $merica transferred this error to the nationals they trained in foreign countries. Conse&uently, many national churches throughout the world have accepted
Paradise Restored& ! Biblical Theology of 2ominion. Dort #orth, NE ,ominion -ress, 9:=@, @<, //>L See also )arl -aulk, The 7reat 0scape Theory. ,ecatur, '$E Chapel 3ill 3arvest Church, n.d.L See also 'ary ,e4ar and -eter 0eithart, The Reduction of -hristianity. Dort #orth, NE ,ominion -ress, 9:==, /9<.
=> =@

,eCaro, //. Ibid., Cover and Dorward.

=A

Dor additional comments on e%e 4arrs, see FChristian $nti-SemitismI by Carol !ushton in Prophetic .bser/er. .ovember /??A. 7ol. 9<, .o. 99, 9->.

>?

this doctrine. In Japan, for e%ample, the Church has been challenged by two theological monsters, their pagan emperor worship and !eplacement heology. #hile the former is no longer as prevalent as it once was, it still has a powerful influence and has control over new believers. he latter, on the other hand, is prevalent in nearly all of the evangelical churches and it appears unlikely to change in the near future because the selection of Christian literature printed in the Japanese language is highly limited. here is only one chain reference 1ible, printed by #ord of 0ife -ress and heavily dependent upon the !yrie Study 1ible by 4oody -ress. $ll the footnotes presuppose the traditional !eplacement heology. It is only as students begin to think independently of study notes that they reali"e the fallacy of the theology.

-. What are the primary ar)uments a)ainst (eplacement Theolo)y5 !eplacement heology states that the 0evitical ceremonial laws of sacrifices and feasts ended, but the moral law continues throughout the .ew Covenant. #hile this is true, attached is the erroneous component of the doctrine that the Church has replaced national-ethnic Israel forever. here are three difficulties with the above statement. Dirst, the church has replaced Israel in terms of spreading the gospel worldwide, but this replacement is not a permanent one. Second, some messianic theologians state that historically the salvation of Israel was always by 'od(s grace and the 4osaic Covenant never taught that salvation is by works or good deeds. -aul(s comments to Jewish people about being saved by works are simply a refutation of first century Jewish beliefs and not a confirmation of biblical fact.=; Dinally, for 'od to replace Israel with the Church, 3e would have to break 3is covenants with $braham. Some believe that since 4essianic Jewish people maintain their Jewish heritage and culture as part of their worship, they are deliberately rebuilding a wall of separation between the Church and themselves which Jesus had destroyed Bi.e., 'al. <E/=L $cts 9?-99L 9@C. .owhere in Scripture did Jesus ever remove cultural walls. )phesians /E9> states that Jesus is our peace and 3e made both groups BJews and 'entilesC into one group and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall. *osher food laws were instituted by 'od to keep the Israelites Blater known as JewsC from being assimilated into neighboring pagan cultures as well as for hygienic purposes. Some laws, such as those related to sacrifices
=;

Juster, 99A.

81

and feasts, pointed toward the coming Jesus. 5thers revealed the purpose and plan of 'od in the lives of men and women. $s a whole, the law was a theological challenge. $ key point to understanding the Jewish people(s position in relation to 'od is that they have a covenant that can never be broken and an obedience covenant that has been broken. Dailure of the second covenant does not necessitate a failure of the first. #alter *aiser has listed five fallacies in the theory of !eplacement heology. hey are as followsE 9. /. <. he F.ew CovenantI was made with the 3ouse of Israel and Judah. 'od never made a covenant with the Church. he failure of the Jews, like the failure of the Church, was calculated in the plan of 'od B!om. 99E=C. he .ew estament clearly teaches that 'od has not cast off disobedient Israel B!om. 99E9, /@-/AC, for they are the natural branches into which the Church has been grafted. he FeternalI aspect of the promise of the land is not to be e&uated with the FeternalI aspect of the $aronic priesthood B9 Chron. /<E9<C or the !echabite descendants BJer. <@E9:C.

>.

@. -aul(s allegory of 'alatians >E/9-<9 does not teach that national Israel has been replaced by the ChurchL it teaches that the &uest for +ustification by works leads to bondage whereas +ustification by faith and grace leads to freedom and salvation. == $dditional arguments are as follows. he -salm writer said that the covenant between 'od and $braham is Fto a thousand generationsI B-s. 9?@E=C, which indicates permanence. )ven though several other passages repeat this promise, !eplacement heologians argue that the Jewish people broke the covenantL 'od would never break it. herefore, 3e remains faithful and +udgment has fallen upon the Jewish people. 3owever, the 1ible responded to this argument long before there was a !eplacement heologian. .ote these words from -salm =:E If his sons forsake my law and do not follow my statutes, if they violate my decrees and fail to keep my commands,
==

*aiser, 9?.

>/

I will punish their sin with the rod, their ini&uity with floggingL but I will not take my love from him, nor will I ever betray my faithfulness. I will not violate my covenant or alter what my lips have uttered. 5nce for all, I have sworn by my holinessV and I will not lie to ,avidthat his line will continue forever and his throne endure before me like the sunL it will be established forever like the moon, the faithful witness in the sky. -salm =:E<?-<; Drom the words of 3osea is the promise that even in spite of disobedience 'od would never cast away 3is people. 3ow can I give you up, )phraimK 3ow can I hand you over, IsraelK 3ow can I treat you like $dmahK 3ow can I make you like ZeboiimK 4y heart is changed within meL all my compassion is aroused. I will not carry out my fierce anger, nor will I turn and devastate )phraim. Dor I am 'od, and not manV the 3oly 5ne among you. I will not come in wrath. 3osea 99E=-: Clearly, 'od said that if 3is children break 3is covenant, there would be a punishment to come. ,ecisions determine destiny, yet 'od will not discard 3is covenant. hat means that for the Jewish people, the covenant is still in effect, a thought which most 'entile believers have great difficulty processing. .otice these promises of 'od concerning the land covenant to $braham in 'enesis 9<E9@E F$ll the land that you see I will give
83

to you and to your offspring forever.I If the offspring or descendants were to be cut off, then obviously the land would not be given to them Fforever.I 5n that day the 0ord made a covenant with $bram, saying, F o your descendants I give this land, from the river of )gypt as far as the great river, the )uphrates -- the land of the *enite, *eni""ites, *admonites, 3ittites, -eri""ites, !ephaites, $morites, Canaanites, 'irgashites and the Jebusites.I 'enesis 9@E9=-/9 In 'enesis 9; 'od affirmed 3is covenant with $bram, changed his name to $braham Bv. @C, and promised that he would become the father of many nations B3eb. goyim ? 'entilesC.=: #hen 'od gave the orah to 4oses, 3e told the 3ebrew children that if they disobeyed 3is commandments they would be cursed and, if they obeyed it they would be blessed B,eut. /=C. Clearly, there are some promises that are based on the faithfulness and obedience of 'od(s children. 3owever, there are other promises, that even when they were disobedient, 'od would punish them but not cast them off. he entire premise of !eplacement heology hinges on the theory that 'od has forever cast off the disobedient 3ebrews. 0eviticus /AE/9-<: specifically reads that 'od would punish them for their sins and 3e would allow them to be taken into captivity by other lands and people. 4ost certainly, this was a tearful remembrance as the ten northern tribes were enslaved and deported by the $ssyrians B;//-/9 1.C.C. he 1abylonians BA?@-@=A 1.C.C did likewise with the tribes of Judah and 1en+amin. $ll captive 3ebrews eventually had the opportunity to return home but only a remnant made the decision to do so. 'od had also told 4oses that 3e would remember 3is covenants with Jacob, Isaac, and $braham B0ev. /AE>/C and would not re+ect them. .ote the decrees, the laws, the regulations and the promises the 0ord established on 4ount Sinai between 3imself and the IsraelitesE Met in spite of this, when they are in the land of their enemies, I will not re+ect them or abhor them so as to destroy them completely, breaking my covenant with them. I am the 05!, their 'od. 1ut for their sake I will remember the covenant with their ancestors whom I brought out of )gypt in the sight of the nations to be their 'od. I am the 05!,. 0eviticus /AE>>->@

=:

#ilson, /?.

>>

In the fifth book of 4oses, 'od said that if 3is people sinned 3e would destroy them. .ote these wordsE If you ever forget the 05!, your 'od and follow other gods and worship and bow down to them, I testify against you today that you will surely be destroyed. 0ike the nations the 05!, destroyed before you, so you will be destroyed for not obeying the 05!, your 'od. ,euteronomy =E9:-/? !eading this, one would conclude that if the people sinned destruction would follow, similar to the legendary Sodom and 'omorrah. Met while these cities were destroyed a remnant was permitted to survive. 5therwise, 'od could not promise a return. he -salmist many years later wrote a similar promise of 'od. Dor the 05!, will not re+ect his peopleL he will never forsake his inheritance. -salm :>E9> Centuries after the -salmist, Isaiah was given these comforting words for his peopleE 1ut you, 5 Israel, my servant, Jacob, whom I have chosen, you descendants of $braham my friend, I took you from the ends of the earth, from its farthest corners I called you. I said, WMou are my servantWL I have chosen you and have not re+ected you. Isaiah >9E=-: !epeatedly, 'od promised severe punishment when 3is people chose sin, but 3e also promised they would not be completely re+ected. If the !eplacement heology is true, can we conclude that our salvation is in +eopardy every time we commit a sinK 5f course notQ In spite of the fact that 3ebrew children were evicted from their inheritance, 'od remained faithful
8#

to 3is covenant. Isaiah said that the #ord of 'od would go forth from Zion BIsa. /E<C throughout the whole world. his is precisely what happened during and after the ministry of Jesus Bcf. $cts 9E=C. In Jeremiah <?E99 BT >AE/=C 'od said 3e would destroy the enemy nations of Israel, but 'od did not promise destruction if the Jews re+ected 3im, as !eplacement heologians claim. ames 1/1 In this passage, the half-brother of Jesus said that his writing was addressed to the twelve tribes who were dispersed abroad. It is impossible to think that James, who was also the leader of the Jerusalem Jewish-Christian Church, would not know the true plan of 'od. his introductory verse clearly reveals that he believed that the .ew estament believers were successors and the fulfillment of the covenant recorded in the 3ebrew 1ible.:? The Apostle 4aul he $postle -aul went to an e%traordinary length Besp. !om. :-99C to e%plain the present and future relationships of the Jewish people and 'entiles to 'od. he first century Church in Jerusalem was composed essentially of Jewish believers like -aul, who, by the way, always maintained his Jewishness as a -harisee and never departed from his Jewish convictions. :9 #hen he wrote to the Church in )phesus, it was not about any particular problem but rather to e%pand their understanding of 'od and 3is purpose and goals with a closing comment on spiritual warfare. It is within this conte%t that -aul made some interesting comments B)ph. /E99-9=C about the unbelieving Jewish people, as well as believing 'entiles. 3e reminds his 'entile readers that at one time they had no covenant of promise and were hopelessly lost Bv 9/C. 3owever, by the blood of Christ Jesus both groups BJews and 'entiles, if they are believersC are brought together. .ote the passageE Dor he himself is our peace, who has made the two one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility, by abolishing in his flesh the law with its commandments and regulations. 3is purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace, and in this one body to reconcile both of them to 'od through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility.
:? :9

'rudem, =A/. Moung, Paul, the Jewish Theologian. %%i.

>A

)phesians /E9>,9Aa $ similar message was given by -aul to the 'alatians. Dor all of you who were bapti"ed into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. here is neither Jew nor 'reek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. If you belong to Christ, you are $brahamWs seed, and heirs according to the promise. 'alatians <E/;-/: he $postle -aul was probably in )phesus when he made the following comments to the Corinthian Church concerning the Jewish peopleE hough I am free and belong to no man, I make myself a slave to everyone, to win as many as possible. o the Jews I became like a Jew, to win the Jews. o those under the law I became like one under the law Bthough I myself am not under the lawC, so as to win those under the law. o those not having the law I became like one not having the law Bthough I am not free from 'odWs law but am under ChristWs lawC, so as to win those not having the law. 9 Corinthians :E9:-/9 F here is neither Jew nor 'reek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.I his verse is taken to the e%treme by wellintentioned Christians to prove their point that Jewish people need not relate to their Jewish heritage. If that were true, then those same Christians would lose their identity as well. hat is ridiculous. he focus on the passage is that all believers are e&ual to 'od through faith. here are additional problems. !eplacement heologians fail to e%plain why a Jewish rabbi named Jesus and 3is disciples would begin a religious movement that would ultimately kill millions of their own people. )ven more ama"ing is that they essentially say that the Jews who wrote the Scriptures did not understand what they were writing. I Corinthians 2/12-01 he $postle said that he is free, but enslaved himself to Jesus. Met to the Jewish people he became like a Jew in order to win some to Christ. 0ikewise, to the 'entiles he became like a 'entile. Clearly, he was driven
8.

then

by a deep passion and commitment. It hardly seems possible that he would have had such a passion to win Jews to Jesus if the Church had replaced Israel. (omans 11/02-37: 1#/0#-0. In a similar manner, when writing to the church in !ome in the early spring of $, @;, -aul said, FI am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of 'od for the salvation of everyone who believesE first for the Jew, then for the 'entileI B!om. 9E9AC. his was written /; years after the death and resurrection of Jesus. If -aul knew that the Church was to replace Israel, he most certainly would not have said the gospel was to go first to the Jew. 3e hardly believed that he was preparing the Church to abandon the Jew. .otice that in Chapter 9@ he came to the defense of the impoverished Jews in Jerusalem. 3is words and the blessings that are affiliated with the gift, .ow, however, I am on my way to Jerusalem in the service of the saints there. Dor 4acedonia and $chaia were pleased to contribute for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem. hey were pleased to do it, and indeed, they owe it to them. Dor if the 'entiles have shared in the JewsW spiritual blessings, they owe it to the Jews to share with them their material blessings. !omans 9@E/@-/; Concerning this matter, at least -aul gave us some consolation when he referred to it as a Fmystery.I )vidently, he desired his readers to understand the sub+ect that would otherwise contain some difficulty. 3erein he stated that for the sake of the fathers, the Jewish people will be saved since 'od will Ftake away their sinsI B!om. 99E/;C. Since 'od desires to have the Jewish people saved, it behooves believers to demonstrate true Christian love toward them, especially since he said it prophetically. Certainly -aul would have become saddened if he had known what the Church would do to in another century or two. Met, with these words bringing clarity to the sub+ect, the Church leaders are certainly no less guilty for what they did to the Jewish people than the Sadducees are for the crucifi%ion of Jesus. he mystery, however, deepens with the following two verses of !omansE Dor 'odWs gifts and his call are irrevocable. Just as you who were at one time disobedient to 'od have now received mercy as a result of their disobedience.
>=

!omans 99E/:-<? -aul said that the covenants 'od promised to $braham are in some mysterious manner held in an account for the Jewish people, as well as for 'entile believers. Since the gifts and calling of 'od are irrevocable, the gifts and calling to Israel will never die. 3owever, +ust as the Israelites were evicted for a time from the -romised 0and, so likewise have the gifts and calling been given to the Church for a time. (omans ./10 In this passage, -aul clearly stated that, F he law is holy and the com- mandment is holy, righteous and good,I and obviously was not terminated. $ll the laws of the 5ld estament were considered holy simply because these were instituted by 'od. herefore, the obvious &uestion, :/ F#hat laws are still in effectKI $s was previously stated, the sacrificial laws and festivals all pointed to Jesus in some manner and 3e fulfilled their purpose. :< 5ther moral and divine laws remain in effect. $n e%ample is 'alatians @E9>, which underscores the continuation of 0eviticus 9:E9= wherein the true follower of ChristR'od loves his neighbor as himself. Jesus taught this same principle in the -arable of the 'ood Samaritan B0k. 9?C and in a discussion with the -harisees B4t. /<E<@->? and parallelsC, as did 'amaliel, the teacher of -aul, whose teachings were later recorded in the 1abylonian almud, Sabbath <9a.:> $nother e%ample of a orah law being fulfilled is that Christians were not re&uired to observe the 0evitical law of kosher foods. he purpose of the dietary restrictions of 0eviticus 99 was to keep the people of 'od separate from their pagan neighbors Bthe worldC. his commandment was fulfilled in !omans 9/E/ in which -aul said, F,o not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. hen you will be able to test and approve what 'od(s will is V 3is good, pleasing, and perfect will.I he 4osaic 0aws include divine, ceremonial and moral laws. Jesus fulfilled ceremonial laws but divine and moral laws will continue throughout eternity.

:/

Dor additional study on this sub+ect see Chapter @ in 1rad 3. Moung, Paul the Jewish Theologian.
:<

Some believe that the Deast of rumpets has yet to be fulfilled, but will be when the heavenly trumpets are blown at the time of the !apture.
:>

Ibid., >@, n9<.

82

In light of this discussion of how the 5ld Covenant is fulfilled by Jesus, it is easily understood that when the Church came under 'entile leadership the relationship of the covenants, as well as the meaning of law and grace, were soon lost. o understand the full meaning of the .ew Covenant the 5ld must be studied first. :@

(omans 2-11 his passage, and especially 99E9;-/=, speaks strongly against !eplacement heology. !omans :-99 is not an appendi% to chapters 9-= but the clima% and focus of the letter. :A he apostle -aul warned the new 'entile converts to the faith not to FboastI B99E9=C or become FarrogantI B99E/?C. hey were only wild olives who were grafted into the Folive treeI BJewish heritage or Israel, 99E/>C.:; 'od granted them mercy to receive nourishment of the tree B99E9;C after which -aul discussed the unity between heritage Bthe treeC and the 'entiles Bengrafted branchesC. In !omans 99E/A he spoke of the ethnicity of the Jewish people in his comments about the ultimate salvation of Israel. In reality, the Fgrafting inI is for both Jews and 'entiles who accept the 4essiah by faith for the forgiveness of sin and security of salvation. !eplacement heologians insist that the allusions to Israel and the Jewish people are symbolic of the Church. 3owever, the difficulty with this interpretation is that if the word FChurchI or FChristianI were placed in these passages, they would make no sense whatsoever. Conse&uently, -aul was speaking of the Jewish people, not the Church. his is proof of discussion of Jewish people and not the Church in !omans : and is evident that the true foundation of !eplacement heology is bad hermeneutics. he $postle statedE I ask thenE ,id 'od re+ect his peopleK 1y no meansQ I am an Israelite myself, descendant of $braham, from the tribe of 1en+amin. 'od did not re+ect 3is people, whom 3e foreknewU. $gain I askE ,id they stumble so as to fall beyond recoveryK .ot at allQ !ather, because of their transgression, salvation has come to the 'entiles to
:@

his writer suggests that a good beginning point is to read the #ishnah, the first century 5ral 0aw B raditions of the )lders in 4t. 9@E/C that was recorded in the second century $,. It is a commentary on the orah and regulations of daily life that were created by various religious leaders but challenged by Jesus.
:A :;

Stendahl, =@. ,eut. =E=L -s. 9/=E<L Jer. 99E9AL 3os. 9>EAL -s. @/E=L See also #ilson, 9/-9>.

@?

make Israel enviousU. Dor if their re+ection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the deadK !omans 99E9-/a, 99, 9@ his is a clear statement written several decades after the crucifi%ion, clearly indicating that 'od did not re+ect the Jewish people. It is also the death blow to !eplacement heology. #hat irony. he $postle wrote as if he had foreseen the coming tragedy of his people. o emphasi"e the point, -aul then made a comment on what the prophet )li+ah told 'od about the prophets of 1aal who had killed all the prophets of 'od B!om. 99E<C and only he was left alone getting ready to die. 'od answered by saying to )li+ah that seven thousand prophets were still faithful to 3im. In the same way in the post-resurrection period, there will be a remnant of Jewish people who will be faithful to 3im. 3istory shows there has always been a remnant of 4essianic Jewish people, sometimes very few in numbers, but they have managed to survive. his is not a predestination message for 'entiles. he difficulty with this section of !omans 99 is the apparent contradiction as to whether Jesus re+ected the Jewish people B99E9@C or not B99E9-/C. he rhetorical &uestion of verse 9, F,id 'od re+ect 3is peopleKI has the obvious negative answer given in the ne%t verse. herefore, if 'od did not re+ect 3is people, then why does verse 9@ read, FDor if their re+ection is the reconciliation of the world.I Clearly, the word Fre+ectionI has a reference to the Jewish people being in harmony with the !oman-'reek culture or world, and not being a distinctive people as 'od commanded them to be. he word is also found in $cts ;E/;, <:L 9<E>A and in I imothy 9E9:, as well as in various 5ld estament passages BJudges AE9<L II *ings. /<E/;L -s. >>E:, /<L A?E9, 9?L ;>E9L ;=EA?, A;L 9?=E99L Jer. ;E/:L <9E<;L 0am. /E;L @E//L )"ek. @E99L 99E9AL and 3os. :E9;C. -aul most likely was referring to the 3ebrew word for FabandonI as used in I Samuel 9/E// and -salm :>E9>.:= he nuance of meaning is often lost in translation. )vidently, there were numerous times when 'od entertained the thought as a prospect, &uestion, or conclusion of re+ection to keep a remnant of faithful believers for 3imself. 3ence, this now disagrees with the few references wherein 3e said 3e would not re+ect these people BI Sam. 9/E//L -s. :>E9>L :@E<L 0am. <E<9C who had an appetite for materialism. -aul did not speak of a remnant, however. 3is choice words for F'od(s peopleI clearly denote an ethnic or national entity. :: 7erse 9@ has a comparative structure to verse 9/ in which both passages refer to a restoration Bin life and richesC. his is preceded by verse 99 in which the Jewish people stumbled but were not permanently re+ected or cast away. he concept that 'od is provoking 3is people to
:= ::

#ilch, <9. ,unn, <=bEA<>-<@.

#1

+ealousy rather than being provoked by them is uni&ue. Clearly, if 3e had lost interest in them 3e would not have considered encouraging them in this manner to return to 3im.9?? (omans 2/3-# .ote these verses in chapter :. In verse < are the words Fmy brethren, my kinsmen.I .owhere else in Scripture is a 'entile ever referred to as Fmy brethren, my kinsmen.I o have done so would have been against all cultural norms of -aul(s day. Clearly, this phrase has reference only to the Jewish people. In verse > the phrase Fadoption as sonsI is indicative that the Jewish people are also a lost people in need of salvation through Christ Jesus. In that same verse the divine FgloryI of 'od and the FcovenantI were only made between 'od and $braham, including his descendants, not between 'od and the 'entiles. $lso in verse > is the phrase Fthe lawI which can refer only to the law of 'od given to all men through 4oses. 'od never gave any 'entile Fthe law.I he Ftemple service and promisesI cannot possibly have been for any people other than the Jewish people, for they are the only ones honored to have the temple of 'od. ,o those who promote !eplacement heology actually think that the temple service was given to themK Dinally, in verse @ is the phrase F#hose are the fathers.I his has specific reference to $braham, Isaac, and Jacob Bwhose name was changed to FIsraelIC who were the patriarchs of the Jewish people and not the patriarchs of the 'entiles. (omans 2/-! 11 he phrase Fall Israel will be savedI is at the end of -aul(s teaching and has been somewhat problematic. o understand this passage it is important to review a previous passage beginning in !omans :EA. #hen -aul wrote chapters : - 99, he began and closed this section with the words Fall IsraelI B!om. :EA, 99E/AC. he &uestion arises as to the meaning of this phrase, especially in light of :EAb that states for they are Fnot all Israel who are descended from Israel.I he phrase Fdescended from IsraelI is generally defined as an ethnic lineage whereas the previous phrase Fall IsraelI refers to all people, Jewish people and 'entiles who have been grafted into the covenant promises. o imply that ordinary Jews do not need Christ for salvation goes against all Scripture. In essence, all those who accept Christ are blessed by the grace of 'od to be a part of the covenant. (omans 17/1
9??

Ibid., <=bEA@<-@>.

@/

his passage is a clear indicator that the word FIsraelI was not intended to be synonymous with the word FChurch.I .ote these words of -aul, F1rothers, my heartWs desire and prayer to 'od for the Israelites is that they may be saved.I If the word FIsraelitesI is replaced with Fthe Church,I the statement obviously does not make sense. F1rethren, my heart(s desire and my prayer to 'od for the -hurch is that they may be saved.I 5nly twice in all of the .ew estament passages could the word FIsraelI have a possible reference to the Church B'al. AE9AL !ev. ;E>C. In all other seventy-five references, it is impossible to replace it with the word FChurchI and have any meaning whatsoever.9?9 here is little &uestion that the first century Church in Jerusalem was Jewish. $ point of difficulty for replacement theologians is that if the blessings of $braham were passed on to the 'entile Church, why did Jewish churches ever e%istK 5bviously 'od did not remove 3is covenant from the Jewish people for all eternity, but rather, the Church is the agency of 'od(s redemptive process B)ph. /E99-9<L !om. 99E99-</C. (omans 11/;! 17! 02 he Jewish leadership, by their decision to re+ect Jesus was therefore divinely blinded. #hyK he answer is in verse /@, Fthat a partial hardening Bor blindnessC has happened to Israel until the fullness of the 'entiles has come in.I -aul said that it would not be until after the last 'entile is saved that the Jewish people would recogni"e the 4essiah whom their forefathers re+ected. 'od will be faithful to 3is #ord as to bring salvation to the Jewish people because Fthey are beloved for the sake of the fathers.I he FfathersI is a specific reference to $braham, Isaac, and Jacob and not to the 'entiles. he FrootI of !omans 99E9A is not a 'entile tribe but the Jewish people. In verse 9;, some branches of the tree Bthat grew from the root of $brahamC were broken off Bthose who re+ected JesusC but a wild olive branch Bthe 'entilesC was grafted onto the tree of $braham. In !omans 99E9=, -aul specifically stated that the roots of the Christian faith are Jewish and for that reason believers should not be arrogant toward the Jewish people. his will be horrific news for some Church leaders and Crusaders on the ,ay of Judgment. Clearly, the message is that the covenant promises 'od gave to $braham are also for any 'entile who belongs to Christ. -aul, in his letter to the )phesians, said 'entiles are +oined with the Jewish peopleL they do not replace them, but this discussion refers to those who accepted Christ. #hat

9?9

1rown, The 1our 7ospels. 9/:.

#3

about those who still refuse to believeK 3as 'od forsaken themK In !omans 99 he addressed this when he said of the unbelieving Jewish peopleE $gain I askE ,id they stumble so as to fall beyond recoveryK .ot at allQ !ather, because of their transgression, salvation has come to the 'entiles to make Israel envious. 1ut, if their transgression means riches for the world, and their loss means riches for the 'entiles, how much greater riches will their fullness bringQ I am talking to you 'entiles. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the 'entiles, I make much of my ministry in the hope that I may somehow arouse my own people to envy and save some of them. Dor if their re+ection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the deadK If the part of the dough offered as firstfruits is holy, then the whole batch is holyL if the root is holy, so are the branches. If some of the branches have been broken off, and you, though a wild olive shoot, have been grafted in among the others and now share in the nourishing sap from the olive root, do not boast over those branches. If you do, consider thisE Mou do not support the root, but the root supports you. !omans 99E99-9= he answer to the &uestion in this passage is an emphatic, F4ay it never beQI 'od has not forsaken the Jewish peopleL and therefore, 3e obviously still has a plan for them. his simply underscored an earlier word given by the prophet Isaiah, FCan a woman forget her nursing child, and have no compassion on the son of her wombK )ven these may forget, but I will not forget you.I 'od asked a rhetorical &uestion and obviously a nursing mother could never forget her child. Met, if conditions were so terrible that for some reason she would, at such a time as that 'od would not forget the Jew. 4any Christians do not fully comprehend the meaning of the words of -aul when he said that believers have been grafted onto the olive tree. hey believe that the Jewish people are dead to 'od and that 3e is dead to them. ,o they believe Christians are grafted onto a dead olive treeK herein lays another mysteryE If the Jewish people are spiritually dead, how can 'entiles be grafted onto themK 5r are 'entiles grafted onto their covenantK #hile the !omans physically crucified Jesus, the Sadducees Btemple leadershipC in their hearts had only a passion of murder toward 3im. Since both -harisees and Sadducees re+ected Jesus and plotted 3is death, 'od bestowed a season of spiritual blindness as of 3is #ord on the nation they represented. In !omans 99E99 -aul asked if the Jewish people stumbled as if to fall, and again the answer is negative. o stumble is to lose a step, but to fall
@>

is to be cast down in a manner that is condemning forever without the possibility of getting up. -aul said that they did not stumble so as to fall down. $gain I askE ,id they stumble so as to fall beyond recoveryK .ot at allQ !ather, because of their transgression, salvation has come to the 'entiles to make Israel envious. !omans 99E99 #hile their stumbling was a loss of walking in union with 'od, it is not permanent. Since 'entiles have accepted the gift of salvation, it is the plan of 'od that their acceptance would provoke +ealousy and win the Jewish people back to their Dirst 0ove. -aul admitted that the Jews re+ected the salvation message but immediately stated that they would receive eternal life by the acceptance of Jesus B!om. 99E9@C. his statement also underscores the fact that in their present lost state they are dead, contrary to some opinions that the Jewish people still have access to salvation by being faithful to first-century Judaism. -aul predicted that the Jewish people will one day accept the 'iver of 0ife. Jesus gave a similar prediction when 3e lamented over Jerusalem B4t. /<C and her failure to recogni"e 3im as the 4essiah. In sorrow, 3e said, F...you will not see me until you say, P1lessed is 3e who comes in the name of the 0ord(I B4t. /<E<:bC. 4essianic scholar $rnold '. Druchtenbaum has prepared an e%cellent summary of the distinction between the Church and Israel. 3e saidE 9. -entecost, he first evidence is the fact that the Church was born on whereas Israel e%isted for many centuries.

/. he second evidence is that certain events in the ministry of the 4essiah were essential to the establishment of the Church J the Church does not come into being until certain events have taken place. <. he third evidence is the mystery character of the Church. >. he fourth evidence that the Church is distinct from Israel is the uni&ue relationship between the Jews and 'entiles, called one new man in )phesians /E9@. @. he fifth evidence of the distinction between Israel and the Church is found in 'alatians AE9A.
##

A. -erhaps one more observation can be made. In the book of $cts, both Israel and the Church e%ist simultaneously. he term FIsraelI is used twenty times and 0 lesia BChurchC nineteen times, yet the two groups are always distinct.9?/ In !omans 99E/: the $postle -aul said, FDor 'od(s gifts and his call are irrevocable. Just as you who were at one time disobedient to 'od have now received mercy as a result of their disobedience.I If these gifts and calling of 'od to the patriarchs became revocable, did 'od change 3is mind or lieK If either is true then obviously the promises of 'od are not irrevocable. 0 Timothy 3/1--1. he 5ld estament embodies the law but is not all law. hose who state that the .ew estament replaced the 5ld have missed the ob+ective of the 5ld estament. $ common saying is that the 5ld estament is the .ew estament concealed, and the .ew estament is the 5ld estament revealed. If the 5ld Covenant was abandoned by 'od and completely replaced by the .ew estament, then why did -aul tell imothy that all Scripture is inspired by 'od and profitable for teaching, reproof, correction, and training in righteousness B/ im. <E9A-9;CK 5nly a few books of the .ew estament were written at this time. hese certainly were not compiled into canonL -aul said this FScriptureI had only one definition J the 3ebrew 1ible J the very same te%t the !eplacement heologians say was discarded. (evelation 01/10 John wrote in his book of !evelation B/9E9/C, that the city gates would have the names of the ancient Israelite tribes. here are no names of any 'entile tribes or groups. his illustrates the point that it was never 'od(s plan to terminate the covenants. $nother argument against a !eplacement heology, a massive study that is easily beyond the scope of this book, is the fact that without a modern state of Israel there obviously would be no need for a 4illennium !eign or *ingdom $ge. 0ikewise, if there is to be no 4illennium !eign then obviously there is no need of the Jew today in the divine eschatological plan of 'od. hroughout the book of $cts various actions are recorded that clearly indicate that the apostles were Jewish people who remained within
9?/

Druchtenbaum! 99A-9=.

@A

the religious framework of Judaism. If they had been given instructions to move out of Judaism and build an entirely new organi"ation, then the following passages would have been radically different. .ote, however, that the first century Jewish Church in Jerusalem still functioned within the normal Jewish religious and cultural traditions. In $cts < -eter and John went to the emple to pray at the regular Jewish prayer times. In the first century, all observant Jewish men prayed facing the emple three times a day. In $cts 9=E9= -aul completed a .a"arite vow, hardly a restriction any pastor today would place upon himself. he event described in $cts /9E/? occurred about twenty-five years after the resurrection of Jesus. $t that time James and the Church elders said to the apostle -aul, FMou see brother, how many thousands there are among the Jewish people of those who have believed, and they are all "ealous for the law.I If grace replaced the law as is often taught in evangelical churches, then obviously James and the Church elders prided themselves in sin and 0uke recorded it as truth in the inspired inerrant #ord of 'od. In $cts /9E/<-/A -aul and several other men went into the emple to offer sacrifices, obviously indicating that they still observed Jewish laws and practices. If the Church replaced Israel, then why did -aul say that he was still loyal to his Jewish heritage and why did he follow the Jewish pattern of Sabbath worship as described in $cts />E9>-9@K

.. What is the prophetic si)nificance of the +ild olive tree5 he prophet Jeremiah made the association of an olive tree and the people of Israel when he said, F he 0ord called your name, Pgreen olive tree, beautiful in fruit and form(I BJer. 99E9AC. 3osea also referred to Israel as an olive tree B3os. 9>EAC as did *ing ,avid centuries earlier B-s. @/E=C. his highly resistant tree is known throughout the 4iddle )ast for its endurance in an e%tremely harsh, dry climate. Met, it is a sight of beauty, producing a bountiful fruit year after year. If it were completely cut down, a shoot would grow up from the root system, whereas other trees would die. It has always been highly valued for its fruit and valuable oil. It is no wonder that the prophets associated the chosen people with this most valuable tree of the -romised 0and. 6sing this imagery, the $postle said the 'entiles have been grafted into the covenant of Israel.9?< -aul, however, used the metaphor of the wild
9?<

he covenant is found in Jer. <9, but is given additional detail in )"ek. <AE/@-/;. See also Col. 9E9<L Jn. 9@E9A-9:L )ph. @E/L itus <E@L !om. @E@L 9 Cor. /E9AL !om. =E9>L -hil. 9EA.

#.

olive tree Bthe 'entilesL !om.99E9; - />C, implying their desperate need for cultivation and pruning, that has been grafted onto the original olive tree Bthe Jewish peopleC. 3e never spoke of a new tree that would replace the old, as is the message of !eplacement heologians, but believed the Church would become a part of the Jewish people and their new covenant. In his letter to the )phesians, -aul said the 'entiles were without hope and distant from 'od B)ph. /E99-9<C, and in his letter to the Corinthians he said they were idol worshipping pagans BI Cor. 9/E/C. 5bviously in his opinion the 'entiles had nothing to offer, had no hope for salvation, yet had the opportunity to receive the blessings of 'od simply by being faithful to 3im B!om. 99E/?C. hese blessings are the result of the divine plan to graft the 'entiles into the covenant of Israel, completed by the resurrection of Christ. Just as a wild branch is grafted onto an olive tree, so the 'entiles are grafted into 'od(s plan that 3e began with 3is covenant with $braham. 9?> o -aul the Church could not e%ist without being integrated with the roots of biblical JudaismL otherwise, it would simply be another religious organi"ation.9?@ !ather, he saw both Jews and 'entiles as fellow citi"ens together in 'od(s household B)ph. /E9:-//C. It would most certainly have been devastating for him to know that the Church and Judaism would eventually split and that Christian anti-Semitism would reign for centuries. $fter Jerusalem was destroyed, the Church divorced herself from the olive tree, and by the fourth century, the separation was complete. Sporadically since the first century, there have been saints who have attempted to be the proverbial peaceful olive branch and have tried to show the true love of Christ to the Jewish people. 3owever, the momentum has been growing in the past half century among a number of evangelical believers who reali"e the need to recogni"e and learn of the Jewish roots of their faith. he grafted wild olive branch that -aul spoke of is beginning to blossom. Dinally, because both Jewish people and 'entiles are in the image of 'od, both are also referred to as Folives.I he 'entiles, however, are wild and uncultivated but are historically of the same stock as Israel because $braham was a 'entileL yet over the centuries the Israelites BJewsC were transformed by the #ord of 'od. It is understood among evangelical Christians that 'entile believers are grafted into that household of faith that is of $braham. herefore, the promises and covenants given to him and his descendants are available for believers Bboth Jew and 'entileC who have placed their faith in Christ Jesus. It is at this point that !eplacement heology goes off track in teaching that, because of its denial and crucifi%ion of Jesus during the -assion #eek, Israel is no longer of any interest to 'od. 3e has completed the plan of salvation
9?> 9?@

!ichardson, :-9>. Johnson, 0arly -hristian @ionists. 9??.

@=

for all people, obviously including the Jewish peopleL 3e has not fulfilled all of the promises 3e made in various covenants beginning with $braham. herefore, evangelicals recogni"e the divine ongoing biblical purpose for the State of Israel as well as the current spiritual condition of the Jewish people. he imagery now takes an interesting step in !omansE $fter all, if you were cut out of an olive tree that is wild by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more readily will these, the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive treeQ !omans 99E/> he branches of the cultivated tree were cut off and died, and wild olive branches were grafted onto the cultivated tree. hen -aul made an interesting statement by saying that the Fnatural branchesI would be grafted onto their own tree, meaning that the Jewish people who had been broken off and removed from the tree will be grafted onto the tree from which they had originally grown. 3ence, the final tree will be of natural and grafted branches, both Jewish people and 'entiles in the covenant of $braham. his leads to the conclusion that, first, the 'entile Church did not replace Israel but instead has become part of their promised covenant. Second, the broken branches of the olive tree will be grafted onto the tree, which is indicative that Israel will be saved. .ot only will the Jewish people be saved, but there will be life for 'entiles as well. his restoration may not be restricted to the Jewish people but could mean all those who come to the foot of the cross for salvation. he history of church-sponsored anti-Semitism is actually the history of Satan doing his very best work to keep these words of -aul B!om. :-99C from becoming a reality. he truth of the matter is that in the twentieth century more Jewish people have come to the saving knowledge than in all the previous centuries combined. he state of Israel was born and many other prophetic words have been fulfilled or are in the process of fulfillment. he mystery was e%plained. he fact that the 'entiles would be saved was not a new thought to the first-century Jewish scholars. hey always knew the 'entiles would someday be saved. he first-century Jewish people, however, strongly believed that 'entiles would be in a second-class position to them. .ever in their wildest dreams did they ever conceive of the idea that the 'entiles would be on an e&ual footing B$cts 9@L )ph. >C, and for them this constituted a mystery. -aul continued this point in his letter to the !omans,

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I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, so that you may not be conceitedE Israel has e%perienced a hardening in part until the full number of the 'entiles has come in. $nd so all Israel will be saved, as it is writtenE F he deliverer will come from ZionL he will turn godlessness away from Jacob. $nd this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.I !omans 99E/@-/; In this passage, -aul used the word Fmystery,I which seems almost out of place because so many of his other teachings are clear and concise. $ cursory view will &uickly highlight the obvious insight. he wild, unpruned olive tree is symbolic of the undisciplined 'entile people who, by the grace of Jesus Christ, were grafted into the Jewish covenant. 9?A !omans 99E/A states that all spiritual Israel will one day be saved. his is based on the prophet Zechariah who specifically said that there would come a day when 'od willE $nd I will pour out on the house of ,avid and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. hey will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son. Zechariah 9/E9?

ohn ;/88! 8.! #Drom the gospel of John B=E>>, >;C, the !eplacement heologians again demonstrate their confusion concerning the accusations made by Jesus. In verse >> Jesus said to the -harisees, FMou are of your father the devil and you want to do the desires of your father.I 0ater 3e said in verse >;, F3e who is of 'od hears the words of 'odL for this reason you will not hear them, because you are not of 'od.I his is a further indication of a distinction between the true spiritual Israel that is considered a FremnantI and the carnal Israel that remained unfaithful not only to Judaism but also to the message of Jesus B!om. :EA-=C. he Church fathers, as do Jewish scholars of today, read this passage claiming that Jesus referred to all Jewish people as devils, when in fact 3e was speaking to an element of the leadership. $s stated previously, if Jesus
9?A

'arr, 9>.

A?

were speaking to all Jewish people, then 3e most certainly was also speaking to 3is mother, brothers, disciples, and those whom 3e healed and raised from the dead. Such a conclusion is absurd. hese comments were addressed only to the religious elite of the Sanhedrin who were most likely all Sadducees, -harisees, and their supporting scribes and teachers of the law. -ope -ius NI once said that Fspiritually, we are all Semites.I 9?; he more a believer learns of his spiritual heritage, the more he reali"es this is true. -aul said, FDor it is by grace you have been saved, through faith -- and this not from yourselves, it is a gift of 'od J not by works, so that no one can boastI B)ph. /E=-:C. Dor those who believe that Jesus came to place an end to Fthe law,I notice that Jesus said he came to FfulfillI the law, not to replace or remove it. Durthermore, -aul spoke of the goodness of the law B/ Cor. <EAL 'al. <E/@L @E9C. #hereas, the law was central to Judaism, in -aul(s theology Christ was central B'al. /E/?-/9L -hil. 9E/9C. he discussion concerning the termination of the law is a misinterpretation of the word translated as FendI B!om. 9?E>C, but rather, Jesus is the Ffulfillment,I FgoalI or FconclusionI of the law. 9?= $braham was given a vision to look into the future and he re+oiced when he saw Jesus, for he knew that through 3im all the people of the world would be blessed B'en. 9=E9=C. #hat $braham did not see was the covenant being taken from his descendants and given to the 'entiles forever. Acts 00/3 he first century Jerusalem Church was not a 'entile congregation, but a sect within Judaism, which became known as the FSect of the .a"arenesI B$cts />E@C. Jewish scholars, -rager and elushkin, suggest that anti-Semitism arose in the early Church because the Jewish believers Fby continuing to be Jewish peopleI threatened the legitimacy of the Church. 9?: his hardly seems possible, however, since the book of $cts records that in a single day three thousand souls were saved. 4ore likely, the Jewish leaders were not only threatened but were absolutely horrified at the number of their brothers and sisters who were converting to the new sect of Judaism. 99? Acts 0-/00

9?; 9?= 9?: 99?

#ilson, 9:. Strong(s .o. @?@A. -rager and elushkin, :9.

Christianity was not considered an independent religion, apart from Judaism, until after the destructions of Jerusalem in $, ;? and 9<@.

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-aul affirmed that the Christian faith does not replace the 5ld estament but is its fulfillment. 3e made this statement, F1ut I have had 'od(s help to this very day, and so I stand here and testify to small and great alike. I am saying nothing beyond what the prophets and 4oses said would happen.I -eter in the book of $cts was told that salvation was for the 'entiles. he Jewish people had no problem believing that since it was a part of their oral tradition. -eter, however, found it impossible to believe that 'od would open the door to the 'entile people to become e&ual to the Jewish people. his was a great mystery, according to -aul, that not only would the 'entiles be saved, but also they would have a part in the body of 'od as he wrote in his letter to the church in )phesusE Dor this reason I, -aul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for the sake of you 'entilesV Surely you have heard about the administration of 'odWs grace that was given to me for you, that is, the mystery made known to me by revelation, as I have already written briefly. In reading this, then, you will be able to understand my insight into the mystery of Christ, which was not made known to men in other generations as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to 'odWs holy apostles and prophets. his mystery is that through the gospel the 'entiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise in Christ Jesus. )phesians <E9-A his tells us that the mystery of the ages has finally been revealed. #hat is this mysteryK -aul continued to say that this mystery is that through the gospel the 'entiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise of Jesus Christ B)ph. <EAC. he mystery is that the 'entiles should be fellow heirs of one body and share in all of the promises of the Covenant. -aul did not say that the promises of the Covenant were e%clusively for the 'entiles, but that both 'entiles and Jewish people would come together. Since this was written some three decades after the crucifi%ion, obviously -aul must have reali"ed that the Jewish nation still had a part in 'od(s plan for the future. herefore, we can say that 'od has only one people -- all those who have placed their faith in Christ Jesus for their salvation. In John 9?E9A Jesus said, FI have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. hey too will listen to my voice, and there will be one flock and one shepherd.I he Fother sheepI are the 'entile nations who were not part of
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the flock Bthe Jewish peopleC, but will be under one shepherd in one flock. his is because the 'entiles and Jewish people must both come to salvation. he Jewish nation should have been saved before the 'entiles, since they had the #ord. hey were chosen by 'od to give 3is #ord to the people of the world. 1ut by the first century they not only failed in this role, but they also failed to recogni"e and accept Jesus, the -romised 5ne of their Scriptures. 3owever, many of the common Jewish people did accept Jesus as their $nointed 5ne, and they became known as the F.a"arenes.I 3ence, there was a split in Judaism. 5n one hand there was the Jewish leadership, including the )ssenes, Sadducees and a number of -harisees that re+ected Jesus as their 4essiah. 0ikewise the Zealots were only interested in overthrowing the !omans and had no interest in a 4essiah. he incredible miracle of the past two thousand years is that an overwhelming number of Jewish people have decided that Jesus is their 4essiah in spite of the tragedies of the Church. hey are known by a number of names such as the 4essianic Jewish people, Dulfilled Jewish people, 3ebrew Jewish people or Completed Jewish people, but not as the 'entile Church. hey reali"ed that the .ew estament is not a separate document but a continuation of their 3ebrew 1ible. He&re+s ./1;: 17/2 In Jewish thinking, the law is central and always has been and here lies the difficulty for Jewish people. he law e%isted to enable men to be obedient to 'od. If, however, the law, instead of 'od, is the central identity of one(s life, then abolishment of the law is a loss of identity and to replace Christ for the law constitutes a new religion. his remains the teaching in which a Jewish teacher instructs his students that Christianity is a new religion.999 he result is that today 4essianic Jewish people are challenged about their FJewishness.I 5rthodo% authorities will emphatically insist that Christianity is incompatible with Judaism because the FChristiansI interpret the teachings of -aul as eliminating the 4osaic 0aw, thereby eliminating the Jewish identity. he foundation for these arguments is based upon centuries of Church-sponsored anti-Semitism, !eplacement heology, and failure to recogni"e that Jesus came to fulfill the 0aw, not eliminate it. $ll of this simply adds fire to the intense argument. 9alatians 3/13-18! 0--02: -/1#-1-aul made specific mention that the Jewish people are not to be forever forgotten by 'od. .ote that the promises of 'od to 3is chosen
999

his is the continuous argument of .icholls as well as -rager and elushkin.

-3

people through 4oses B,eut. >E<;L 9?E9@L 9>E/L 9@EAL <<E/:C are reiterated to the 'entile church in the following manner. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is writtenE FCursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.I 3e redeemed us in order that the blessing given to $braham might come to the 'entiles through Christ Jesus, so that by faith we might receive the promise of the Spirit. 'alatians <E9<-9> Mou are all sons of 'od through faith in Christ Jesus, for all of you who were bapti"ed into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. here is neither Jew nor 'reek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. If you belong to Christ, then you are $brahamWs seed, and heirs according to the promise. 'alatians <E/A-/: .either circumcision nor uncircumcision means anythingL what counts is a new creation. -eace and mercy to all who follow this rule, even to the Israel of 'od. 'alatians AE9@-9A he significant point of the $postle is that when a person placed his or her faith in Christ Jesus, that individual becomes a new creation. he peace and mercy of 'od is upon anyone who has made this decision. -aul was concerned that converted 'entiles attempted to base their salvation on observing Jewish laws. #hile he pronounced a blessing on both groups, recogni"ing their individual identities, he affirmed that salvation was attainable only through Christ. he phrase FIsrael of 'od,I as it is understood today clearly reflects the loss of Jewish roots in the Church or there would be no debate concerning its meaning. In the first century there were many sects of Judaism that spent seemingly endless hours debating one another. )ach one would hold its theological position against all others and, in the process would claim it was the FIsrael of 'od.I 3ence, the phrase is also found in Jewish writings that predate Jesus. hese are e%tra-biblical books such as I 4accabees, the -salms of Solomon, I )noch, the estimonies of the welve -atriarchs, and the $ssumption of 4oses. hese works have been assigned to two classes of books, namely the $pocrypha and -seudepigrapha Bmeaning FDalse #ritingsIC. o think these authors could possibly have
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referred to the Church is ludicrous. he phrase never referred to the Church but was a figure of speech to enhance a particular debating position. 99/ Conclusion/ !eplacement heology is unbiblical, anti-Christian and most fre&uently anti-Semitic as well. It is generally personal pre+udice covered by a legitimate biblical robe. Drom the days of the primitive Church until today, there have been Church leaders who have preached this doctrine as gospel truth, yet they have deliberately forgotten that Jesus said that 3is gospel was to be preached first to the Jew, then to the rest of the lost world B$cts 9E=C. he fact is that both testaments present overwhelming proof that 'od has an eternal plan for Israel and that !eplacement heology is anti-Christian. he following chapter is the tip of the proverbial iceberg concerning the effects upon the Jewish people that were fostered by this heretical theology. he root of the !eplacement heology doctrine is the inaccurate interpretation of various Scriptures. 4ost significant is the fact that Jesus did not FendI the law, but 3e was the goal or completion of the law. hus 3e fulfilled it. If Jesus intended to terminate the law and replace Judaism with the Church, 3e failed miserably in communicating this to the disciples and the world. -aul, 4atthew and the other disciples were Jewish people. $s such they thought like Jewish people, dressed like Jewish people and spoke like Jewish people. hey had a Jewish mindset and knew Jesus as a Jew. he challenge for 'entile Christians is to understand the 1ible through Jewish eyes. Drom this new perspective the depth of biblical understanding will become astounding. he world owes a great debt to the Jewish people.

99/

See !ichardson, ;>-=> for detailed study on this sub+ect and 'alatians AE9A.

-#

F(Comfort, comfort my people,( says your 'od.I Isaiah >?E9

AA

Chapter 0 A Historical *vervie+ of Church-Sponsored Anti-Semitism and the (ise of Christian ,ionism Introduction 3atred of the Jews is an historical phenomenon that appears and subsides, then reappears periodically with varying degrees of intensity. It is a shame which for the most part, is not recogni"ed by the Church as evidenced by its lack of mention in various biblical and Church encyclopedias. #hen Church history is studied, the focus tends to be on theological debates, the development of various doctrines and schisms, and the good deeds of the Church throughout the centuries. 5n the other hand, seldom are students informed of the horrific events that were perpetrated upon the descendants of $braham, Isaac, and Jacob. his historical chronology is only an overview of the Church-sponsored anti-Semitism. 4any readers may have difficulty believing some of the decisions made by Church officials, as well as the actions that followed. Dor that reason, fre&uent &uotations from the Church fathers and official Church policies are presented. hese primary sources were significant leaders in their day and are not the ideas and opinions of another historian. Christians need to understand that we have a history of shame concerning the Jewish people. Christians and the Jewish people need to understand the followingE B9C Jewish people and Christians worship the same 'od. B/C Christians who are anti-anyone do not reflect the life, nature, and ministry of Jesus. B<C ,uring the past two centuries the evangelical Christians have made significant contributions to the establishment of the state of Israel and B>C as more and more Christians understand what has been done to the Jewish people in the .ame of Jesus, there will be an outpouring of sorrow and repentance. In order to discuss these issues in a meaningful manner, it is important to first understand several historical features. hroughout most of the ministry of Jesus there were three groups of Jewish people. he first group consisted of 3is disciples. Second, there were those who loved to hear 3im preach, teach and perform miracles. hey were the ones who placed palm branches on the road before 3im as 3e rode a donkey into Jerusalem. he third group was the corrupt emple elite which consisted of all the Sadducees, scribes who were also the teachers and the upper echelon of the -harisees. heir wealth, social position and security would have been destroyed if the miracle-worker Jesus had become the
-.

e%pected political-messiahUmainly because of the belief that the politicalmessiah would overthrow the !oman overlords and restructure the emple services. he diversity of the three Jewish groups was evident when Jesus rode into Jerusalem. he emple elite were planning to kill Jesus. F1ut not during the Deast,I they said, For there may be a riot among the peopleIB4t. /AE@C. he obvious reason the -harisees and Sadducees did not want to kill Jesus during the -assover was that the public sentiment for Jesus was so strong, that any attempt to harm 3im would have resulted in a riot. his in turn would have activated the !oman legions to &uell the violence. he same people who cheered 3im as 3e rode the donkey into Jerusalem would later be the Fgreat multitude of people and of women who were mourning and lamenting 3imI B0k. /<E/;C on 3is way to the crucifi%ion. 5bviously not all the Jewish people desired to kill 3im, only a few who held positions in the emple leadership. 5nly a few decades later, in the book of $cts, the $postle -aul called upon the 'entiles to help Jewish saints in Jerusalem. hese Scriptures reflect the cooperation between Jewish people and 'entiles under 3is leadership. hese Scriptures also disprove Jewish arguments that the .ew estament was intended to be anti-Semitic. -aul wrote the following of the 'entiles in 4acedonia and $chaiaE Dor 4acedonia and $chaia were pleased to make a contribution for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem. hey were pleased to do it and indeed they owe it to them. Dor if the 'entiles have shared in the Jews( spiritual blessings, they owe it to the Jews to share with them their material blessings. !omans 9@E/A-/; The Century after esus Drom the time !oman occupation began in A< 1C until $, ;?, there were thirteen Jewish rebellions. )lsewhere in the !oman )mpire, peace Bknown as Pa9 Romana or F!oman peaceIC was enforced by a powerful military presence. -eriodically a Jewish leader would announce his messianic intentions and social unrest would elevate. -alestine, as it was later called, was such a hard place to rule that in >? 1C 3erod $ntipas, later known as 3erod the 'reat, was given the task of subduing the Jewish people. In $, /A, the challenge was assigned to -ontius -ilate. 1oth leaders were tyrants who crucified thousands of Jewish people. Into this politically and socially tense world Jesus came to preach the gospel of salvation and peace.
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$fter the destruction of the emple B$, ;?C, the Jewish nation and Jewish people worldwide continued to be the proverbial Fthorn in the fleshI for the !omans. In its first century, the primitive Church in Israel was essentially a Jewish movement. here is undeniable proof that the leadership of the apostles was completely Jewish, and they had no desire to disconnect from their Jewish roots. Durthermore, they did not believe that the teachings of Jesus, 3is ministry, and 3is concept of 'od were contrary to Judaism even after the emple destruction.99< he Church(s disconnect from Judaism would come later by 'entile leaders. Dirst century Jewish people, known as the F.a"arenesI B$cts />E@C, never considered themselves to be Fconverted Jews,I but rather, they believed they were the essence of the Jewish faith. 99> he $postle -aul never said he was FconvertedI to the Christian faith but simply preached Jesus as the 5ne who fulfilled the e%pectations of the 3ebrew 1ible. 99@ his all changed radically when the Jewish people were evicted from Jerusalem and the 'entiles took control of the Church in $, 9<@. he Jewish people originated the conflict between themselves and the Christians. his was especially true after the e%ecution of James, the halfbrother of Jesus, by the Jewish leaders of Jerusalem. 3is martyrdom greatly increased tensions. Jesus had warned 3is disciples that they would face Jewish opposition and told them that 3e was sending them out like sheep in the midst of wolves B4t. 9?E9AC. his prophecy was &uickly fulfilled as they were beaten in the synagogues B4k. 9<E:C and faced persecution from those who were stirred up by the Jewish people B$cts 9<E@?C. Stephen was the first Christian martyr at the hands of the Jewish people B$cts ;E@>-=E9C. his led to the persecution of Jewish believers by traditional Jews B$cts =E9a-<C. -aul and Silas reasoned with the Jewish people in a synagogue B$cts 9;E/C in hessalonica. 1ut some of them reported -aul and Silas to the city officials stating they were troublemakers B$cts 9;E@-:C. -aul later returned to Jerusalem where Jewish rioters beat him until !oman soldiers intervened B$cts /9E</C. hen they plotted again to kill him B$cts /<E9/C. he Jews hardly ever left him alone. 0ater in his first letter to the Corinthians -aul said that he had been brutally treated, cursed, slandered, persecuted and had become the scum of the earth BI Cor. >E9/-9<C. In the following decades, the persecution reversed from being instigated by the Jews against the Christians, to centuries of Christians persecuting Jewish people. he Jewish believers, unfortunately, were faced with persecution from everyoneE the -harisees, 'entile Christians, and pagans. In their deep distress they populari"ed the
99<
99> 99@

$mir, ;@. .icholls, 9@=. ,oukhan, //.

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$ramaic phrase F4aranatha,I Bor possibly marana thaC meaning, F5ur 0ord, come.I99A #hen the .a"arenes saw the !oman army surrounding Jerusalem in $, AA, they remembered the words of Jesus in 3is 5livet ,iscourse B4t. />C and &uickly fled for safety to the ,ecapolis cities, such as -ella, east of the Jordan !iver. 3ence, they were spared the starvation, persecution, and death inflicted upon the remaining Jewish people. he 3oly City was completely destroyed along with the emple in $, ;?. his not only was the fulfillment of ,aniel :E/A, but the destruction ultimately pointed to Jesus as the F$nointed 5neI mentioned by ,aniel. $t the hand of the !omans thousands of traditional Jewish people BZealots, Sadducees, and )ssenesC were either slaughtered or taken into slavery. he only survivors were the -harisees who had remained and the .a"arenes who had escaped. )ven though Jesus predicted the fall of Jerusalem to occur within one generation B0uke 9:E >9>>L /9E</C, many refused to recogni"e the obvious sign. #hile Jesus also predicted their dispersion from the land B0k. /9E/>C that prophecy would not be fulfilled until the end of the Second !evolt in $, 9<@. 5f the thirteen revolts in Judea after the !omans entered in A< 1.C., the revolt of $, AA - ;? was so massive that it has become known as the FDirst !evolt.I $n estimated A??,??? died in Jerusalem alone J either by starvation or the sword. he destruction changed the perception of traditional Jews toward the .a"arenes BJewish people who believed in JesusC. he -harisees found themselves in the temple ruins of Jerusalem and were filled with hatred against everyone. 99; he destruction was said to be a +udgment of 'od that was brought on by the corrupt Sadducees Bincluding the family of CaiaphasC as well as those who accepted Jesus as their 4essiah. he -harisees also had a passionate hatred for the Zealots, now also deceased, because their insurgence started the rebellion. #ith the )ssenes, the Zealots, and Sadducees gone, the anger of the -harisees now pointed toward those who believed in JesusVthe .a"arenes. #hen the .a"arenes returned from the ,ecapolis cities, they were accused of being traitors. In the eyes of the -harisees, the .a"arenes were the reason why 'od permitted the temple to be destroyed. .onetheless, the .a"arenes began to work with them to rebuild the city. )ven though there was bitterness and resentment between them, they worked together to face the greater challenge of living under !oman tyranny. heir separation would become complete at the end of the Second !evolt that would come a little more than si% decades later. )arly Church leaders said that the Jews brought the destruction upon themselves because they re+ected Jesus their messiah. hey added to that the idea that because of that re+ection, the Jews had broken 'od(s promises to
99A 99;

1rown, .ur 3ands. <=. .icholls, 9@=.

;?

$braham. herefore, all promises and blessings were upon the Church and the Jews would receive only the curses of 'od. 130 - 13#/ Second (evolt In erusalem. !abbi $kiva, a highly respected Jewish leader of the -harisees, declared Simon bar *okhba to be the messiah. his event was the final act of separation between the -harisees and the .a"arenes because it signaled the final re+ection of Jesus as the Jewish 4essiah. he .a"arenes remembered the words of Jesus in 4atthew />E@, wherein 3e predicted future false messiahs. 1ar *okhba Bmeaning FSon of the StarIC punished the .a"arenes for not fighting in the Dirst !evolt B$, AA-;?C and persecuted them for accepting Jesus as their 4essiah. 3owever, when he minted coins with the image of the Second emple as a symbol of independence from !ome and organi"ed the Zealots into an army of freedom fighters, he captured the attention of !oman )mperor 3adrian. he !oman response was utter destruction. 1y the year 9<@, the !omans not only destroyed Jerusalem, but 3adrian also decreed that any Jew found in Jerusalem would be killed, e%cept on Tisha b4!/, which is the day of mourning the destruction of both emples. 3is bitterness toward them was so great that he cursed the land by renaming it Palestinia, in honor of the ancient -hilistine enemies of the Jewish people. It is from Palestinia, that the modern name Palestine was derived. 3ence, there is no cultural or political connections between the ancient -hilistines and modern -alestinians. 3adrian also renamed Jerusalem -olonia !belia -apitolina, after his family name F$belia.I 3e died shortly thereafter and, in 9<=, )mperor $ntoninus -ius revoked the prohibition. 1y then, however, nearly all the Jewish people had been literally cast out from their land and only a few Jewish villages, such as iberias, remained in the distant countryside. $s to !abbi $kiva who endorsed bar *okhba, the !omans lacerated him with iron combs until he died and his flesh was sold in the Jerusalem marketplace. he massive eviction in $, 9<@ fulfilled the prophetic words of 4icah @E< as well as the prophetic words of 4oses, FI will scatter you among the nations and will draw out my sword and pursue you. Mour land will be laid waste and your cities will lie in ruinsI B0ev. /AE<<C. Met a remnant remain in the land to this day and through the centuries they have made significant contributions to Jewish life, culture and religion. hese contributions include the second century recording of the 5ral 0aws Balso known as the traditions of the eldersL 4t. 9@E9-/C which became known as the #ishnah. In the fifth century the commentary known as the Jerusalem almud was written in iberias. Shortly prior to the Crusader -eriod, Jewish grammarians in iberias developed the 3ebrew vowel-pointing system which today is standard practice in both modern and biblical 3ebrew. Dor centuries, Christian pilgrims to the 3oly 0and have often recorded a Jewish
.1

presence in the land. In contrast, prior to the Islamic invasion, there is no mention of any $rab presence in -alestine. he popular idea that all Jewish people, meaning every single one, were removed from the land is simply not true. Israel, the nation symboli"ed as a fig tree B4t. /9E9=-/?L />E</-<<C, was no more and the Jewish people would live for centuries without a king or leader B3osea <E>-@C. 4icah(s prophecy B@E<C that Israel would be abandoned by 'od was fulfilled. he land would become more and more desolate B,eut. /:E/<-/;C until the time that 'od would bring 3is people home. 6nfortunately, in the intervening years, the Church did not comfort Israel BIsa. >?E9-/C or bring her the message of salvation B$cts 9E=C, but rather all too often brought persecution and death BJn. 9AE/C. In summary, many Christians today believe that all Jewish people were evicted from the 3oly 0and and that was a sign that 'od was permanently finished with them. he fact is a Jewish remnant has always been in the land as proven by archaeology, manuscripts, synagogues and cemeteries Bsee 4ap /C. Dor e%ample, the Jerusalem almud was written in the land centuries after the eviction and the Sanhedrin met in iberias. Dailure to understand this significant point has not only fueled the belief that 'od was permanently finished with them, but in today(s conte%t has given a credibility to the facticious -alestinian claim that for centuries the land was barren of Jewish people. #ith the great scattering in $, 9<@ the fulfillment of two prophecies began. Dirst was that of the scattering itself, which was prophesi"ed in 4icah @E<. 5nce a ma+ority of the Jewish people were gone, the land grew increasingly desolate B,eut. /:E/<-/;C until the 9:th century when their return began. The "arly Christian 4eriod <37 = 13#> 13#/ 9entile Church ?eadership in erusalem #ith the destruction of Jerusalem and the eviction of the Jewish people, the 3oly City became a 'entile city. $ny connection between Judaism and Christianity was now completely severed. -rior to this event, only Jewish names were found in the leadership of the Jerusalem Church. 3owever, after the year 9<@, only 'entile names were found in Church leadership records. #orship services were no longer patterned after the synagogue service and the Jewish influence began to wane. 1y the time )mperor Constantine came to power in the fourth century, not only was the Jewish roots and heritage of Christianity lost, but the emperor began to legislate various decrees that were anti-Semitic. 99=
99=

.icholls, 9@=-A?.

;/

37-/ Council of "lvira )arly Church fathers used the $postle -aul(s selected passages out of conte%t to denigrate the Jewish people. he Council of )lvira decreed that close relations between Christians and Jewish people were forbidden. !eplacement heology was actively enforced by the issuance of anti-Semitic decrees. he Church of !ome gave an official FimprimaturI to the discrimination and persecution of the Jewish people in the early days of Christianity and the tradition was continued by -rotestant churches during and after the !eformation. The (oman $y@antine "mpire <310 = -3-> he 1y"antine -eriod is the beginning of an incredibly long and sad history of Jewish-Christian relations. o the Christians, Jesus was the symbol of purity, sacredness, and the fulfillment of 'od(s plan for humanity by 3is incredible sacrifice. 3owever, to the Jewish people, Jesus became the symbol of anti-Semitism, violence, libel, cruelty and death. Seldom have Christians respected and treated them as Jesus would have done. his is a great shame in the name of Jesus. 310/ "mperor Constantine and the $y@antine 4eriod In this era, !oman Christians ruled in Jerusalem, and Christianity was the official religion of the !oman )mpire. he center of imperial power was moved from !ome to 1y"antium BConstantinopleC, hence the name of this period. he 1y"antine -eriod is generally divided into the early period B<9/->:9C when large church buildings were constructed, and the later period B>:9-A<AC that witnessed the temporary -ersian con&uest. he 1y"antine -eriod began when )mperor Constantine supposedly converted to Christianity in <9/. 3e claimed to have seen an image of a cross in the sky prior to the 1attle of 4ilvian 1ridge where he defeated his ma+or rivals. $s victor, he was able to occupy the seat of power in !ome. hereafter, he placed the image of the cross on coins, along with pagan symbols, and made the cross the reigning symbol of the Christian faith. 99: oday scholars &uestion whether he had ever seen an image in the sky and whether he was a true Christian. he evidence that strongly suggests that he was an unrepentant pagan lies in the fact that he gave special attention to the pagan religions that worshipped the 6ncon&uered Sun and he minted coins with the image of that deity. he Church(s unholiest hour came when
99:

'uinnes, <<A.

.3

Constantine came to power. here certainly was nothing FgreatI about Constantine. 5f the many writings that have survived the centuries, there is no mention of his repentance of sin and confession of Christ as his Savior and 0ord.9/? -rior to Constantine, Christianity was the persecuted religion. #ith him in power, Christianity became the persecuting religion and the Jewish people were the primary victims. Durthermore, under his leadership, numerous pagan ideas and images were introduced into the doctrines and worship services of the Church to make Christianity more acceptable to pagans. Conse&uently, he further alienated the Church from the Jewish people and its Jewish roots. 4any scholars believe that he used Christianity purely for solidifying his political power. 313/ "dict of 3ilan Drom the time of Jesus until Constantine(s )dict of 4ilan, there were ten periods of e%treme persecution of Christians. o reduce the intensity of !oman persecution, some Church leaders blamed the Jewish people for the death of Jesus because blaming the !omans would certainly have sub+ected them to more persecution. 1y the early fourth century accusations against the Jewish people had become standard fare. .ow Constantine promoted anti-Semitism by legislative action. 6nder the )dict, also known as the )dict of oleration, )mperor Constantine granted toleration to all religions, e%cept Judaism, and with favoritism oriented toward Christianity. 3e removed all laws restricting their activities, and if their property had previously been confiscated, it was now restored. Dor the Jewish people, however, the loss of their rights and privileges was accelerated. Dor e%ample, in a law passed on 5ctober 9=, <9@, Constantine forbade Christians to convert to Judaism and Jewish people who married Christians were to be punished with death. 9/9 3e declaredE #e ought not therefore to have anything in common with the Jews, for the Savior has shown us another way . . . In unanimously adopting this mode B)aster SundayC, we desire, dearest brothers, to separate ourselves from the detestable company of the Jews. Constantine Life of -onstantine <E9=-9: Clearly the )mperor had no regard for $cts 9E= where Jesus said that the gospel should go first to the Jew. 3is decree remained in effect until the
9/? 9/9

!ussell, /;-/=. .icholls, 9:?-:<.

;>

-ersian invasion of A9>. 3e also decreed that the official day of worship would be on Sunday, a change from the centuries-old Saturday observation. he reason is generally considered to be that Jesus arose on the first day of the week. 3owever, by changing the day of rest, Constantine effectively forced the Jewish people to work on their holy day. o worship on Sunday also was very convenient in the FevangelismI of the pagans who already worshipped the !oman sun god 4ithra on that day. 9// Dor that reason, today the first day of the week is known as FSundayI and not FSonday.I 0ikewise, ,ecember /@, which was thought to be the shortest day of the year, became the day to celebrate the birth of Jesus because it was the pagan celebration of the 2ies Solis In/icti, the F,ay of the Invincible Sun.I 9/< )piphanius, a famous historian said that, 5n 4arch /9, </9, Constantine decreed that Sunday was to be a day of rest for everyone e%cept farm workers in the fields. #hile this granted religious freedom to Christians, it also placed a hindrance upon Jews who now had lost a day of work. 9/> Since the emperor had difficulty separating sun worship from the worship of Christ, he named the first day FSundayI and celebrated the birth of Christ on ,ecember /@, the Fbirthday of the 6ncon&uered Sun.I )piphanius, !gainst 3eresies. >/.<.>9/@ 1y this legislative action, Constantine placed a ma+or wedge between the Jew and the Christian. Dor a Jew to fail to worship on Saturday was e&uivalent to a Christian denying the risen Savior. he day of worship was a mark of Jewish identity. he first century Jewish historian Josephus affirmed this when he said that breaking the kosher food laws and not observing the Sabbath were two ma+or hallmarks of disloyalty to the 4osaic covenant.9/A Constantine also made a number of other laws limiting the liberties of the Jewish people. In </> he forbade them from entering Jerusalem e%cept to mourn the destruction of their emple on the ninth of $v. 9/; he irony of this regulation is that it implies that Jews could travel to Jerusalem any time, but were forbidden to do so. his was not focused on the few who could
9// 9/< 9/> 9/@ 9/A 9/;

,oukhan, ><. 4et"ger, 9?<-?>. .icholls, 9:/. odd, 9<?-<<. Josephus, !nti"uities. 99.=.;. 'ilbert, 9<.

.#

afford to travel, but prohibited local Jews living in the land from entering the city. Dortunately, the decree remained in force only until ><=. 6ntil now, anti-Semitism was in its infancy, but it was about to take on numerous roles.9/= #ith Constantine as both emperor and religious leader, the Church raised itself into pride and e%altation, thereby declining into unholy degradation. )ventually it e%ercised authority over nations, crowned and deposed kings at will, sold priesthood positions, persecuted the Jewish people, and effectively became a corrupted organi"ation. -ower over nations and kings was precisely what Jesus refused when the devil offered 3im power over the kingdoms of the world. he commission Jesus gave to bring the gospel first to the Jewish people B$cts 9E=C was officially terminated and would remain so for centuries. #hy would any Jew at this time even consider Christianity as a possible fulfillment of his faithK #hat fourth century Jewish people saw and e%perienced had nothing in common with the first century Jewish congregations in Jerusalem and the book of $cts. 4any Christiani"ed Jewish people no longer looked upon Christianity as a fulfillment of their own Judaism. !ather, they saw it as a false religion. his was especially true after the Church created the doctrine of 4ary as being the mother of 'od. 30#/ Council of Aicaea in Asia 3inor Constantine convened the Council at the encouragement of 1ishop 4akarios of Jerusalem to unify various Church differences because various religious factions threatened the stability of the empire. $ united Church would insure a united empire. #hile the Council is best known for formulating the .icaean Creed, a classic statement of faith, it also restricted the political and religious rights of the Jews. It eliminated the Jewish roots of Christianity, such as the Christian observance of the FDestival,I meaning -assover, as mentioned by the $postle -aul in I Corinthians @E=. #hile Constantine transformed the world by making Christianity the official state religion, the outlaw of pagan religions did not occur until much later in <:9.9/: 3e believed there was value in maintaining recognition of pagan deities, which again &uestions whether he truly converted to the Christian faith or if he used Christianity to solidify his empire. he Council reversed the prevailing teaching of a pre-millennial rapture of the Church. his opened the door for other interpretations and this doctrine, which had e%isted for the first three centuries, would remain hidden until the nineteenth century when John ,arby and James Scofield resurrected
9/= 9/:

Drend, A>?. !ussell, <?-</.

;A

it. he Council also decreed that Christians should have nothing in common with the Jewish people and disconnected the !esurrection ,ay Brenamed )asterC from -assover. $ma"ingly, both decrees are observed today by Christians without a thought of why or how these originated.

30-/ Christian Sites Secured &y 'ueen Helena 5ne of the few good things credited to Constantine was the preservation of holy sites in the biblical land. 3e sent his mother, Oueen 3elena, to visit the 3oly 0and. #hile traveling in the 3oly 0and, Oueen 3elena claimed to have discovered the F rue CrossI of Jesus. Dragments of Fholy woodI then appeared throughout )urope and were sold as good luck charms. It is from this tradition that the modern phrase Fknock on woodI originated.9<?

Digure /. he so-called discovery of the three crosses of Calvary by Oueen 3elena in $, </@, shown in a painting in the Church of St. Ouattro Coronati in !ome. She located many historic biblical sites and constructed octagonshaped churches to commemorate the biblical events. $t the site of the
9<?

Carroll, 9::.

..

crucifi%ion, however, she personally oversaw the construction of the 1asilica, known as the Church of the 3oly Sepulcher. his building was in the shape of a cross and was said to be the most beautiful Church in the world. Constantine personally dedicated it in <<@, two years prior to his death.9<9 Since that time the Church of the 3oly Sepulcher has been vandali"ed, damaged and rebuilt several times. Met it remains today as an archaeological monument to the place where Jesus was crucified and buried. 5n the other hand, many -rotestants believe the 'arden omb is where Jesus was crucified and buried. his identification was inaccurately made in the late 9:th century. $rchaeologists agree that it is a late Iron $ge tomb J about eighth century 1C. he accurate location of Christ(s tomb is in the Church of the 3oly Sepulcher. oday many of 3elena(s buildings are in ruins, but the foundations are key identifiers of authenticated sites of the early fourth century. here was little change, if any, from the first to the fourth century in terms of culture and traditions. herefore, there is little doubt among archaeologists that biblical sites identified by her are, in fact, authentic sites. 4any would have been lost had it not been for her work and uni&ue construction design. 33./ Was "mperor Constantine a Christian5 $s it was previously stated, Constantine claimed to be a Christian for the purpose of solidifying political power. 3e followed the historical patterns of the !oman emperors, all of whom claimed to be a god. It is unknown when Constantine considered himself to be deified, but in <<;, the city council of -istia, 6mbria, honored him with an interesting inscription. 5n an inscribed stone, discovered below the pavement of the Church of St. 4ary, is this readingE The -ouncil of Plestia to the deified 1la/ius 8alerius -onstantinus !ugustus. Plestia Inscription.9</ Several other dedication stones have been discovered that honored the deified Constantine, as well as his son, Constantius. Collectively they provide overwhelming evidence that Christianity did not replace the imperial cult Bemperor worshipC, but rather, Constantine became its replacement. #ith an emperor who claimed to be deified BgodC at the head of the Church, there is little wonder that throughout the centuries many Jewish people refused to accept Christianity, not to say anything about the persecution the Church leveled against them. 332/ "mperor Constantius Constantius, succeeded his father Constantine to the throne and, as head of the Church, made matters worse for the Jewish people. Dor e%ample,
9<9 9</

Ibid. 3orsley, /E9:9-:/.

;=

he decreed that any Jewish man who married a Christian was to be put to death and any Christian man who married a Jew forfeited all his property to the imperial treasury. 9<< his was +ust one of many anti-Semitic laws that made daily life for Jewish people miserable. 381/ Council of Antioch Since some Christians recogni"ed the Jewish roots of their faith, they maintained friendships with Jewish people. he Council prohibited Christians from celebrating -assover with Jewish friends and neighbors. 3-0 - 3-8/ ulian the Apostate Attempts to (e&uild the Temple )mperor Julian was a modest man who ruled with a sincere desire to be +ust and kind to his sub+ects, especially to the Jewish people. 3e was a philosopher, respected for his honesty, an organi"er and when on a military campaign, he slept on the ground with his soldiersL a far cry from so many other !oman emperors. 3e was raised in a Christian home, but in early adulthood he left his faith and turned to the pagan religions. In his short three-year tenure he instituted religious toleration, but was also determined to prove that Jesus was a false prophet. o accomplish this feat, he asked the Jewish communities throughout the empire to contribute to the rebuilding of the emple. 3is purpose was two-foldE Dirst to enlist Jewish people into his army who would fight against -ersians to the east. Second, since the destruction of the emple was seen by the Church that 'od validated !eplacement heology, rebuilding the emple would prove that Christianity was not a valid religion. $ thousand years earlier the -ersian *ing Cyrus appro/ed the rebuilding of the emple in the days of .ehemiah and )"ra, but this time Julian re"uired the emple to be rebuilt. In response, the Christian community was in panic. Shortly after the reconstruction started, a powerful earth&uake destroyed what had been accomplished. $mmianus 4arcellinus, who was in charge of the reconstruction, stated that, F1alls of fire came out of the ground and scorched and burnt the workmen, so that the work had to be abandoned.I9<> he work was destroyed and fire consumed combustible construction materials.9<@ Julian terminated his construction plans and a few weeks later he was killed in battle. 6nfortunately, the event validated the anti-Semitic Church doctrine in the hearts and minds of Church leaders.
9<<

Constantius, -ode9 Theodosianus 9A.=.A-;L See 4arcus, >. 'ibbon, 9E<@>.

9<>
9<@

$n e%cellent account of Julian(s attempt to rebuild the Jewish emple is found in an article by Jeffrey 1rodd, FJulian the $postate and 3is -lan to !ebuild the Jerusalem emple.I Bible Re/iew. 7ol. 99. 5ct. 9::@. </-<=, >=.

.2

3.2/ Theodosius I and the 6e)raded ?e)al Status of e+s heodosius I the 'reat came to power, and with his sons $rcadius and 3onorius, the conditions of the Jewish people degenerated. 7arious laws described the Jewish people in highly insulting terms, such as feralis secta, a savage or animalistic sectL turpitudo, wickednessL flagita, outrageous crimesL indigna ser/itudo, unworthy servitude.9<A 5n rare occasions heodosius did stand up for the rights of Jewish people. Dor the most part they were clearly second or third class citi"ens. 4any of his laws became known as the -ode9 Theodosianus, or heodosian Code, that would be in future regulations of the Church and adopted by the 'erman .a"is.9<; 3;;/ e+s 3artyred in Callinicum Christians in the town of Callinicum, along the )uphrates !iver, were led by their bishop to rob and burn a Jewish synagogue. 9<= he mood of the Church was to replace the synagogues with Church buildings. 3ence, the persecution and death continued. 321/ Church and State Bnited: (eplacement Theolo)y Affirmed 6nder the leadership of )mperor heodosius the 'reat, the !oman )mpire and the Church were formally united. 0ike Constantine he made Christianity the official religion of the )mpire, but he simultaneously outlawed all pagan religions.9<: Dor the ne%t thousand years the Church had governmental authority to enforce its decrees. Drom its earliest days both the !oman Catholic Church Bin !omeC and the 'reek 5rthodo% Church Bin ConstantinopleC claimed to be the new Israel because they Fare $braham(s true spiritual children, +ust as the .ew estament teaches.I9>? his is the essence of !eplacement heology. hese two denominations have had congregations in -alestine for many years, where their membership is mostly -alestinian $rab. Conse&uently, many $rab Christians in Israel today feel they have a biblical right to the land and the Jews should leave.

9<A 9<; 9<= 9<:

-arkes, -onflict. 9=@. -ode9 Theodosianus. 9A.=.: rans. from -arkesL See also .icholls, 9:@, >A?. odd, 9>/L .icholls /?/L -rager and elushkin, :@. !ussell, <?-</.

9>?

$s told to 'ary 4. 1urg by 'reek 5rthodo% -riest Dather 'eorge 4akhlouf on 4arch /<, 9::?. 9/;-/=.

=?

322/ 6iscrimination under Honorius 6nder )mperor 3onorius, Jewish people were prohibited from holding public office, military rank, or participating in the +udicial system. his prohibition continued in the Church until the nineteenth century and was later revived by .a"i 'ermany. $ccording to 3onorius, FJews and Samaritans who are deluding themselves with the privileges of imperial e%ecutive officers are to be deprived of all military and court rank.I 9>9 The (oman "mpire "nds: The 3iddle A)es $e)ins <31#--13> he Church slowly descended into the ,ark $ges for many years and for many reasons. he leadership became an elite social class. -rofessional rationalism entered the Church, Scripture was restricted from public use and was read only by the clergyL pagan ideals and practices were commonplace. he Jewish people continued to be the victims of Churchsponsored anti-SemitismL and the Christians were no longer a vibrant group of believers who dearly loved the 0ord. he Church became a social institution, fre&uently filled with corruption. Dortunately, there was always a faithful remnant. he Church fell into a spiritual decline with occasional revivals, but there was no longer the moving love of 'od desired by Jesus. 5ne must wonder what the potential of the Church would have been, if it had followed the instruction of the $postle -aul in his book to the !omans. 9>/ 81#/ Church 4atriarch 3urdered Innocent e+s Cyril, the famed patriarch of $le%andria, proudly used the doctrine of !eplacement heology to evict and kill Jewish people and steal their property. 3e wrote, FIn the year >9@, I fell upon synagogues of the very numerous Jewish people armed with force. I put some to death and drove the rest out, and e%posed their property to the e%cited multitude.I 9>< )vidently the 1ishop gave little thought to the 'reat Commission wherein 4atthew stated that the gospel was to go to the whole world, including Jewish people. .or had he considered $cts 9E= where 0uke stated that the gospel was to go to the Jewish people first. #hat shame he brought to the .ame of Jesus. #0. - #-#/ (ei)n of ustinian

9>9 9>/ 9><

Cited by -arkes in -ode9 Theodosianus. 9A.=.:, /?9. See !omans : - 99 in Chapter 9 on !eplacement heology. Schaff, :>/.

;1

6nder )mperor Justinian, Church law was elevated to the same authority as imperial law. his was in+urious to the Jewish people since religious law was less restrained in its attitude toward them than was imperial law. Specific laws to protect clergy remained in effect for Christians, but were dropped for rabbis. -reviously the imperial laws protected Jewish people from Church law. Dor e%ampleE Justinian(s .ovella 9>A e%plicitly stated that it was the )mperor(s intent to bring the Jewish people to Christianity and the Christian interpretation of the orah. Dor this reason, he favored the 'reek translation BSeptuagintC to the version of $&uila of the 5ld estament.9>> In @>A, he decreed that in the event -assover falls before the Christian )aster, the Jewish people were not permitted to celebrate their religious holiday. $s such, he underscored the policies of Constantine and the .icene Council. ,ue to the Justinian changes to the legal status of Jewish people, persecution rose to a new level that included forced baptisms and synagogue closures.9>@ In essence, the Church in the si%th century stated that anything related to the Jewish people or their culture was of Satan and needed to be removed. $n e%ample of this is seen on a mosaic map of the ancient .ear )ast that was discovered in 9==>. *nown as the 4adaba 4ap, all Jewish landmarks in Jerusalem were replaced by Christian structures. he message was obvious -- the Church had replaced Judaism.

9>> 9>@

.icholls, /??. Dlannery, A;.

=/

ruins

4ap 9. he 4adaba 4osaic 4ap was discovered in 9==> in the of a Ath century 1y"antine church in 4adaba, Jordan. It identifies churches of Jerusalem but no Jewish sites, including the emple 4ount. his map is a physical representation of churches replacing synagogues in the 3oly City.

-th Century/ (eplacement Theolo)y $ecomes an "sta&lished 6octrine 1y the si%th century !eplacement heology became an established Church doctrine. It was now official. $nyone who argued against it was chided and ridiculed. It formulated not only the way the Church interacted with Jewish people, but wherever possible, anything that resembled Jewishness was tabooed or destroyed. 4aps of the 3oly 0and were shown with Christian sites but without any reference to Jewish landmarks, synagogues or, as in the case of the 4adaba 4ap, no reference to the emple 4ount. In a similar manner today, 4uslim maps of the 4iddle )ast do not identify the state of Israel. #.7 - #;0! -13 e+s "victed from 1rance and Spain #hen *ing .ebuchadne""ar invaded Judea early in the A th century 1.C., rather than be captured, tortured, or killed, some Jewish people fled to what is today Spain. here they became known as Sephardic Jews and established many communities, as well as in nearby Drance. $ thousand years later, the Dranks, who dominated a land that today encompasses most of Drance, had little care for their Jewish neighbors. he Dranks gave them an ultimatum -- convert to Christianity or leave. 4any moved to the long established Jewish communities in Spain. 3owever, the 7isigoths, who ruled much of what is Spain today, gave them the same ultimatum. 3ence, in A9< the Jewish people were again evicted. 3uhammad and the 1oundin) of Islam he significance of 4uhammad and Islam is important in that 4uslims consider themselves as the divinely chosen people and believe 'od B$llahC re+ected the Jewish people and Christians. #hile the Jews were often at the mercy of Christians, at times the 4uslims came into the scene as well. 3ence, a historical overview is foundational to understand not only the 4uslim significance in Jewish-Christian history, but also in understanding the modern -alestinian-Israeli conflict. #.7/ $irth of 3uhammad <d.-30>
;3

4uhammad was born into a prominent family in 4ecca, but by the time he was nine years old his parents and grandfather passed away and he was raised by his uncle. 4ecca was a trading center with a constant stream of caravans traveling in and out of the city. $s a young man, 4uhammad traveled with some caravans to distant cities such as ,amascus and Cairo. ,uring his travels he received a limited knowledge of Judaism and Christianity that would later be instrumental in the creation of a new monotheistic religion. $t the age of >?, he claimed to have been visited by the angel Jibril B'abrielC who presented him with so-called divine revelations. 3e said there is only one true god whose name is $llah BF$llahI means FgodIC. In essence, 4uhammad resurrected the ancient 1abylonian moon god known as F1ell,I and constructed Islam around this ancient pagan deity by creating his own version of biblical history. here are three significant theological-historical points that are foundational Islamic doctrines. hese have caused centuries of violent actions and motivate today(s radical 4uslims against Jewish people and Christians. Dirst is what 4uslims believe to be the theft of the land covenant. $ccording to the 1ible, including the thousands of biblical te%ts and ,ead Sea Scrolls that predate the Ou(ran, 'od gave 3is covenant to $braham, Isaac and Jacob, their descendants who are known today as the Jewish people. Isaac was $braham(s second son, the first being Ishmael Bwhose descendants are today(s $rabsC who was born to 3agar, the housemaid of $braham(s wife Sara. he cultural norm of the time was that the greater covenant went to the first born son. herefore, culturally speaking, 'od(s covenant with $braham should have gone to Ishmael. Since the land is part of the covenant,9>A they feel all of -alestine belongs to the heirs of Ishmael. $ll promises of the land belonging to the Jewish descendants are considered to be a Jewish fabrication. Second, 4uslims believe both the Jewish people and Christians were given 'od(s #ord. 3owever, since both groups changed the original Scriptures, 4uhammad was given the final F#ord of 'odI known as the FOu(ran.I 3ence, Islam has its own form of !eplacement heology, in that 4uslims believe that they have replaced both Jewish people and Christians as the anointed people of 'od B$llahC. hird, when 4uhammad created his monotheistic religion, he believed that Jews and Christians would be easy converts since they too were monotheistic. 3e was sadly mistaken. In fact, they considered him to be a heretic and fought against him. )ventually, the polytheistic $rabs came into
9>A

$ccording to the 1ible, the promise of land 'od given to the $braham, Isaac and Jacob is found in 'enesis 9/E9-<L 9;E9:-/9L 9@E9= and Jeremiah ;E;.

=>

his religious camp and 4uhammad determined to either enslave all Jewish people and Christians or eradicate them. Ara& 3uslims ConCuer 9a@a and erusalem <-38! -3-> $ few years earlier in A9>, when 4uhammad was in $rabia and developing his religion, the -ersians, under *ing Chosroes II marched from the east and con&uered Syria and -alestine. $ppro%imately /A,??? Jewish men from 'alilee +oined his army and fought against the 1y"antine Christians to obtain their liberation. Chosroes slaughtered Christians, destroyed churches and terminated the Christian dominance. hese Jews were inspired by the hope of a messianic deliverance and that Chosroes would be their messiah. 6nder -ersian rule they en+oyed greater freedom which was due in large part as a reward for their assistance in the con&uest. 9>; 3owever, this freedom was to be short-lived. In A/:, the 1y"antines recaptured Jerusalem and e%pelled all Jews. 9>= 1ut that victory was also short lived as the 4uslim Crusaders were on the march. In A</ 4uhammad died without naming a successor and Caliph 5mar emerged as the leader. 3e made two significant decisions. Dirst, he enacted the 5mar Charter that permitted Jewish people to live in 4uslim communities as a protected people, but with restrictions. Some of these were later instituted by the Church. .ote the following Islamic restrictionsE 9. Jews were forbidden to touch the Ou(ran. /. Jews were re&uired to wear distinctive clothing. <. Jews were re&uired to wear a yellow piece of cloth as a badge whereas Christians were re&uired to wear a blue piece of fabric. >. Jews were not permitted to perform religious services in public. @. Jews were not permitted to own a horse. Such ownership was a sign of nobility. A. Jews were re&uired not to grieve publicly during funerals. ;. Jews were re&uired to pay an e%tra ta%, as were Christians. =. Jews were not permitted to defend themselves against a 4uslim. :. Jews were not permitted to testify against a 4uslim. 9?. he homes of Jews were not permitted to be higher than those of 4uslims. 99. Jewish graves had to be level as to permit 4uslims to walk over them.9>:
9>; 9>=

'ilbert, 9<. Ibid.

;#

Second, Caliph 5mar formed an army of $rab tribesmen from 3i+a", .a+d and Memen and con&uered one village after another as he advanced toward Jerusalem. -38/ 3uslims ConCuer 9a@a $fter the death of 4uhammad, his $rab 4uslim crusader army advanced around the eastern perimeter of the 4editerranean Sea defeating or destroying one community after another. 1y A<> the ancient -hilistine stronghold of 'a"a became the staging ground for future con&uests. In A<@ they captured ,amascus and a number of communities surrounding Jerusalem. .on-4uslims were terrori"ed by the thought of the coming Islamic Crusaders. 3ence, by the time they reached Jerusalem in A<A, the 1y"antine 1ishop surrendered it as to avoid further blood shed. he city(s patriarch, 1ishop Sophronius lamented that the citi"ens were Fchained and nailed for fear.I 1y"antine Church leaders and Jerusalem(s 'overnor Darwa paid bribes and negotiated peace treaties with the 4uslims. Some accounts indicate that Darwa converted to Islam as part of the peace process. 3owever, the treaties provided a temporary false security as Jewish people and Christians in various communities were mercilessly slaughtered. he 4uslim crusaders continued their warpath. In A<A they captured al-1asrah in Ira&L in A>9, $ntiochL in A>; Caesarea 4aritima, the city built by 3erod the 'reatL and in A>;, unisia. 1y ;?: they controlled .orth $frica. #ithin another two years they con&uered Spain with the help of local Jewish people who rebelled against the controlling Church. he 4uslims then moved into Drance. heir persistence never waned and only military defeats stopped them. 1y =>A they ransacked the Cathedrals of Saints -eter and -aul in !ome and desecrated numerous Christian holy sites. Christian defenders eventually regained some lost ground, but not before thousands of churches were destroyed and many Christians chose to convert to Islam as not to be martyred. hese con&uests would be remembered centuries later when the !oman Catholic Church +ustified the Crusades to liberate the 3oly 0and from Islamic control. -3-/ The Temple 3ount 9iven to the 3uslims he Caliph 5mar BaRkRa 6marC, defeated 1y"antine )mperor Dlavius 3eraclius at a battle at Marmuk B+ust east of the Jordan !iverC on $ugust /?, A<A. 3is victorious reputation preceded him to Jerusalem. 3ence, when his 4uslim army arrived, 1ishop Sophronius rode out to meet him and together they entered the city. Sophronius then invited the Caliph into the Church of
9>:

1lech, 99?-999.

=A

the 3oly Sepulcher to pray, but he refused stating that once he set foot into the building, it would forever become a mos&ue. Since the 1ishop surrendered Jerusalem, there was no killing, destruction of property, or desecration of churches. his was in stark contrast to what other cities e%perienced. 5mar was undoubtedly one of the kindest Islamic warriors in history as he did not re&uire the inhabitants to convert to Islam. Jews and Christians and their new $rab neighbors lived in peace under his rule and the rulership of his successors. Since the Church believed it replaced Judaism, the emple 4ount was used as a dump for garbage and e%crementL an ob+ect lesson to illustrate that the Jewish people were the refuse of 'od. o the 1ishop the emple 4ount and Saint 4ary(s Church that was beside it had no value, so he gave the properties to the Caliph for houses of 4uslim prayer. he Church later became known as the $l $&sa 4os&ue. ,uring the Islamic occupation, Jerusalem was never a capital city. o 4uslims, 1aghdad, ,amascus and Cairo were the centers of imperial power while Jerusalem was a small city that had no ma+or highways or rivers, but was located on an inconvenient mountain top. Jerusalem was never a site of great Islamic schools, Islamic ideas or theologians. In fact, throughout much of history the 4uslims looked down upon Jerusalem $rabs in the same way that in the time of Jesus, emple leaders looked down upon the Jewish people of 'alilee. Its only significance to 4uslims was that it was the traditional Fcity of the prophets.I 3owbeit, all those prophets were Jewish. Jerusalem was never a capital to non-Jewish people. herefore, to say that Jerusalem is the holy city of three faiths is at best a myth. 3istorically, it was the holy city only for Judaism and Christianity. In fact, throughout Islamic history other cities such as ,amascus were often more FholyI than the City of Zion. .th Century Anti- e+ish Hymn Jewish people were now persecuted by both Christians and 4uslims, but generally fared better under Islamic rule. $ recent discovery of a seventh century hymn written on a small piece of papyrus B9/.@ % 9A.@ cmL origin unknownC reflects the theology of the Church all too well. It honors Christ as 'od yet blames the Jewish people for 3is death. It reads as followsE he creator of all things, 'od the #ord lies in a manger born from virgin. 3oly 'od, whom John saw at the Jordan B!iverC coming from above to be bapti"ed by him. 3oly Strong 5ne, whom though 3e innocent, the 3ebrews killed in -ilate(s dayL 5n the third day 3e
;.

the was

rose,

3oly Immortal 5ne, crucified for us, to save the world by 3is will. 3ave mercy upon us. Jesus Christ Con&uers. 3ymn to -hrist 9@?

e+s in udea )ven though both itus B$, ;?C and 3adrian B$, 9<@C evicted Jews from Jerusalem, they never evicted all of them. $ vast ma+ority was dispersed into other countries, but there has always been a Jewish remnant living in numerous communities since the days of Joshua. he conse&uence of 4uhammad and his new religion has been pain and death for both Jews and Christians, as well as other people groups they encountered. In the first si% centuries after Christ more than >?? dioceses were established in .orth $frica, yet every one was eradicated by the year ;??. he Aihad Bholy warC of the Islamic Crusaders removed Christianity from .orth $frica. 4uslims launched crusades against thousands of churches across northern $frica, the 4iddle )ast and into southern )urope. In a continuous massacre, they killed all Jewish people and Christians who would not convert to Islam. his became the stimulus that would later resurrect the counter-Christian Crusaders against 4uslims and Jewish people. 0ikewise, in the 4iddle )ast, Christianity had spread into Syria, Iran and urkey, but Islamic Crusaders wiped out all traces of Christianity within a decade of 4uhammad(s death. he peace treaties negotiated in Jerusalem served only to secure ultimate victory for the $rabs and a crushing defeat for Christians.

9@?

3orsley, /E9>:-@?.

==

North South

4ap /. Jewish communities in Israel from the ; th to 99th centuries indicate there has been a continuous Jewish presence since the days of Jesus. ,uring this time Jewish people were treated as secondclass citi"ens but lived peacefully with their 4uslim neighbors. he first Islamic Jihad Bholy warC occurred in A<A when 4uslim armies con&uered the Christiani"ed 4iddle )ast, including the seven churches of !evelation 9-< in what is today known as modern urkey. In today(s politically-correct world it is fre&uently said that $rab 4uslims ruled in Jerusalem for centuries. his is hardly the case. Drom A<:-AA9 $rab 4uslims ruled the land from 1eirut, but eventually from AA9-9?::, non-$rab 4uslims ruled the land. hey were the $bbasids from 1aghdad, the Datimids from Cairo, and the Sel+iks from urkey. 3owever, for practical purposes, in this te%t they will simply be referred to as F4uslims.I $t first many Jews saw the rise of Islam as the messianic army coming to deliver them from Christian persecution. 9@9 hey were sadly mistaken, as Islamic leaders said that Islam was the replacement for both Judaism and Christianity. he violent and merciless reputation of 4uslim fighters had spread far and wide. he Jews reali"ed it would be only a matter
9@9

-rit", =@. he history of the Jews in the past two thousand years is filled with a number of self-appointed messiahs. Dor a comprehensive study, see !abbi $bba 3illel Silver, in his work ! 3istory of #essianic Speculation in Israel B9:/;C.

;2

of time until it reached Jerusalem. 5bviously, this messianic dream led to disappointment. Met for centuries Jews were able to live with less persecution under Islamic rule than under Christian domination. $s for the Jewish people, Islam was a mi%ed blessing. he Church had an apparent goal to either persecute or eliminate them, unless they converted. 4uslims, on the other hand, at this time did not re&uire conversion, but issued second-class citi"enship. $s happened so often throughout the centuries, Jewish people fared better living under pagan rule than under Christians. 3uslim Crusaders Slau)hter Christians in Aorth Africa In the seventh century, Islamic Crusaders were a massive militaryreligious force that swept across .orth $frica. hey destroyed more than >?? archdioceses and slaughtered thousands of Christians. he Islamic e%pansion &uickly covered a massive area from southern Drance to -akistan. hey would have con&uered )urope if Charles 4artel had not defeated them in ;</ at the 1attle of -oitiers. .early :?X of all Jewish people found themselves living under Islamic rule. Seldom was there a choice of religion and life. he choice was either life with Islam and payment of the Ji5ra ta9 or death. 1ut wise rulers soon reali"ed it was better to have live Jews and Christians pay the ta%es than to have dead ones who pay nothing. e+s and 3uslims ?ive 4eacefully in Spain $n interesting divergence of the Ji5ra ta9es occurred in Spain. here the Jewish people had for centuries lived under the oppression of the !oman Catholic Church. #hen they heard of the coming invading 4uslims, the Jews believed the 4uslims might bring their messiah. herefore, in ;9/ they +oined the 4uslim invaders and together they won. $s a reward, the Jews were permitted to live in peace and prosperity. Islam(s golden age then blossomed from the seventh century until the time of the !oman Catholic Crusades. he imams B4uslim clericsC believed that, if all the minority groups thrived and became prosperous, then the 4uslims would do likewise. Seldom have Jewish people lived in such tran&uility in the past two thousand years. It is almost impossible to comprehend that at one time Jews and 4uslims fought together and not against each other and that they lived in peace. Met Spain has a history that testifies to that point. In the centuries that followed lived one of Judaism(s most honored Spanish rabbis, 4oses 4aimonides B99<@-9/?>C. $lso known as !ambam, he was the preeminent medieval rabbi, physician and philosopher. 3e was the personal physician for the )gyptian Caliph, although some historians
:?

argue against this fact.9@/ !ambam(s ideas, while initially opposed, eventually influenced Jewish, Christian and Islamic theologians. 3e and many others are historical monuments to the true kindness e%pressed by Islamic rulers. he so-called F'olden $geI of Islam occurred in Spain when 4uslims were kind and respectful to the Jewish people. 23;/ 3uslims 4ersecute e+s and Christians in erusalem 1y the tenth century the 4uslim tolerance for non-4uslims had ended. -ersecution occurred fre&uently for both Jewish people and Christians. he critical breaking point occurred on -alm Sunday of :<=. Christians were reenacting Christ(s walk to 'olgotha when 4uslims attacked them. he riot swelled as 4uslims killed many and dragged the patriarch of Jerusalem to a stake where he was burned alive. hese constant attacks gave cause for the Church to call for a holy war against the 4uslims and recapture Jerusalem. 3ence, the infamous Catholic Church-sponsored Crusades were conceived. $ few years later the Datimids ruled again B:A: J 9?;9C during which time Jewish people and Christians again lived in harmony. 3owever, the seeds for the coming !oman Catholic Crusades had been planted and would produce their evil fruit.

(oman Catholic Crusader 4eriod <172- = 1021> 172#/ (oman Catholic 4ope Calls for Holy War $t the Council of Clermont, the !oman Catholic -ope 6rban II declared that the Christians in the 3oly 0and were being persecuted and churches and leaders were being attacked by 4uslims. 3e reminded the Council that .orth $frica and the 4iddle )ast were at one time Christiani"ed and the believers were ruthlessly slaughtered by the 4uslims. 3e also stated that the Church of the 3oly Sepulcher had been converted into a mos&ue, a statement that was not true. herefore, he declared that )uropean Christians must set aside their regional s&uabbles, unite, and march in a holy war to

9@/

0ewis, 9=/-=@.

21

route the infidels out of the 3oly City. #hat followed became one of the darkest eras of Church history J the Crusader -eriod. Drom 9?:A to 9/@?, seven ma+or Catholic-sponsored Crusades 9@< from )urope attempted to FpurifyI the 3oly City. he focus of the Catholic Crusades Breferred hereafter as the FChurchI or FCrusadesIC was to gain back the territory lost to the 4uslim Crusaders in the seventh century. #hile this ob+ective was a failure, the Crusaders did stop the advancement of 4uslim armies into )urope. he Crusaders were clergy-led peasant farmers, homeless people, fortune seekers and soldiers who were promised heavenly rewards, if they went to battle against the Finfidels.I hat name was given to anyone living in the 4iddle )ast, including Jewish people, Christians BCrusaders could not distinguish them from anyone elseC and 4uslims. he )uropeans were not only brutal to Jewish people in the 3oly 0and, but also to those in )urope. Dor e%ample, on 4ay <, 9?:;, in Speyer, 'ermany, Crusaders attempted to break into a synagogue. #hen they failed, they killed eleven Jewish people who happened to be walking on a nearby street.9@> he Crusaders were told that when they killed a Jew or 4uslim, they would gain merit and possibly even salvation. 9@@ 3ence, their popular slogan was, F*ill a Jew and save your soul.I 9@A hey offered a choice of baptism or death to most Jewish people. 5thers, they +ust killed. Centuries later in the 9=??s, the !ussians had a similar motto, F1eat the Jews and save !ussia.I9@; he radical 4uslims of today have a similar sloganE F*ill a Jew and go straight to heaven to be in the presence of $llah.I $ significant point of difference between the Crusaders and 4uslims of any era is thisE he Crusaders carried out their evil mission in direct disobedience to the 1ible and were the very antithesis of the Christian faith. 5n the contrary, Islamic terrorists employ violence to spread Islam in obedience to the Ou(ran. Dinally, while this segment deals primarily with the Crusaders, there was an abundance of anti-Jewish activity occurring throughout )urope, a few of which will be discussed later. 172- - 1722/ 1irst Crusade In 9?:@, -ope 6rban II convened the Council of Clermont-Derrand and called for a crusade to capture the 3oly 0and and return it to Christian
9@<

he !oman Catholic Crusades were in B9C 9?:A-9?::L B/C 99>;-99>:L B<C 99==-99:/L B>C 9/?/-9/?>L B@C 9/9;-9//9L BAC 9//=-9//:L and B;C 9/>=-9/@?. he atrocities committed against Jews, 4uslims and $rab Christians fills volumes.
9@> 9@@ 9@A 9@;

Schwar"fuchs, F he Crusades.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. .icholls, //:. Dlannery, :?-:9. 3ay, The Roots of -hristian !nti)Semitism. /;.

:/

rule. he organi"ers reali"ed that the trip to the 3oly 0and would be incredibly

Digure <. In 9?:A, Jews in #orms, 'ermany, committed suicide. 4en chose to kill their wives and children followed by suicide, rather than suffer torture, rape and death at the hands of the Crusaders. $nother Jewish community did likewise in 99>? when appro%imately =?? died. e%pensive. o raise the necessary finances, they plundered Jewish property in )urope and cancelled any loans that Christians owed to Jews. Church leaders believed that if the Jews and 4uslims should be removed from Jerusalem, then the Jews should also be removed from their )uropean communities. #ith some /??,??? peasants they marched toward Jerusalem, killing an estimated 9?,??? along the way. hey did this with a great dedication J all in the .ame of Jesus. $ bishop in 4ain", 'ermany, who desired to protect them, had to flee for his life. he Jews, however, remembered the first century battle of 4asada where nearly 9,??? committed suicide rather than surrender to the !omans. 0ikewise, these )uropean Jews chose to kill their children and wives, then commit suicide rather than submit to baptism or death at the hands of socalled Christians.9@= he Crusader horrors were so evil that some Jewish
9@=

-rager and elushkin, :A-:;.

23

communities were completely e%terminated. Scholars estimate that between <? to @? percent of )uropean Jewish people were slaughtered during the Crusader )ra.9@: o encourage peasant-soldiers to continue fighting, some Church leaders claimed to have discovered the true cross on which Jesus was crucified. $nother claimed to have seen a vision of Jesus, nailed to 3is cross, and leading the Crusaders to victory. his hype encouraged bloodshed. #hat an ironyQ #ith sword in one hand the Crusaders killed Jews while with the other hand they held the 1ible that was written by them.

Digure >. Crusaders worship the Ftrue crossI they claim to have discovered. $ 9:th century illustration by 'ustav ,ore.

9@:

1lech, 9<<.

:>

Digure @. Some Crusader clerics claimed to have seen a vision of Jesus leading them to victory while still nailed to the cross. $ 9: th century illustration by 'ustav ,ore. he Jewish people were said to have been spiritually blind for not recogni"ing Jesus as their 4essiah, while the Crusaders were e&ually blind, if not more so, to every principle of love and kindness dictated in both the 5ld and .ew estaments. he year 9?:A marked a turning point in Jewish history as the horrific trail of blood and tears intensified from Drance and 'ermany to -alestine. In village after village, innocent blood was shed in the .ame of Jesus. In July of 9?::, the Crusaders con&uered Jerusalem, massacring 4uslims, Jews, and Christians, since they could not clearly identify the religious tradition of their victims. 1ut this atrocity was surpassed when the Crusaders captured :A: Jews. hey herded them into the 'reat Synagogue and burned it with their captives inside. #hile the Jewish people were burning and screaming in agony, the Crusaders marched around the building singing, FChrist we adore thee,I after which they went to the Church of the 3oly Sepulcher and gave thanks to 'od for 3is blessing upon them. 9A? hose who survived this holocaust were sold into slavery. his so-called Christian action ended the Jewish community in the 3oly City for many years. 9A9
9A? 9A9

.icholls, /<?. Schwar"fuchs, F he Crusades.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

2#

6nder Crusader control, the 3oly 0and became a popular tourist destination for )uropean pilgrims for the first time since the 4uslim Con&uest of A<A. hose of nobility and the rich and famous came to see where Jesus walked and taughtL to see the commemorative chapels and churches that dotted the countryside. 3owever, since not all of the locations of biblical sites were known to the Crusaders and a few were too inconvenient for travelers to get to, new sites were created for the gullible tourists.9A/ 3ence, many of the incorrectly identified sites are now called FtraditionalI sites for modern tourists. 1188/ Accusation of a e+ish (itual 3urder Dno+n as E$lood ?i&elF In the meantime, back in )urope, the Jewish people were suffering throughout the continent. $ rumor, which originated in an )nglish church, stated that prior to )aster, Fthe Jews of .orwich tortured a kidnapped child with all the tortures wherewith our 0ord was tortured. 5n 'ood Driday they hanged the child on a rod and afterwards buried him.I 9A< #hile there was no evidence of this act, a man by the name of heobold of Cambridge, who had converted from Judaism to Christianity, falsely testified that the Jewish people sacrificed a Christian child every year at -assover. )ven though rumors ran wild, no family ever claimed to be missing a child. 9A> If one was a Jew there simply was no refuge and it is a miracle that so many have survived this horrific era. he 1lood 0ibel myth is believed to have originated with $ntiochus I7 )piphanes of the early second century 1C era. 9A@ he accusations followed the Jewish people throughout )urope and as late as the 9:;?s were spread by *ing Daisal of Saudi $rabia. he irony is that 4uslims have their e&uivalent myth of blood libel. hey are particularly hateful toward the Jewish people for a lie recorded in the 3adith Btraditions and legends of the life of 4ohammadC. It claims that the 4uslim -rophet was poisoned by a Jewess. 118. - 1182/ Second Crusade In 99>: *ing Conrad III of the 3oly !oman )mpire and *ing 0ouis 7II of Drance +oined forces to lead another Crusade to Jerusalem. )n route, many Jewish people who refused baptism were burned alive at the stake,
9A/

5ne such site is 4ount abor claimed to be the site of the ransfiguration. $ccording to most scholars this event occurred on 4ount 3ermon. ypically, FtraditionalI sites as determined by the Crusaders are seldom accurate.
9A< 9A> 9A@

rachtenberg, 9<?. Ibid., 9<@. -rager and elushkin, ::.

:A

such as in 1loise, Drance. he Crusaders committed more murder, rape, theft and persecution of Jewish people in )urope than in the 3oly 0and. hey again spread the blood libel myth. 3owever, when the Crusaders arrived in ,amascus they were soundly defeated by the 4uslimsL their mission had failed. In )urope Jewish people suffered severe economic discrimination. hey were forbidden to enter most trades or own real estate such as farmland. Since the Church forbade the Christians to charge interest on loans, the Jewish people were permitted to enter the banking business. $s a result, within a few centuries the leading bankers of )urope were wealthy Jewish people, yet they accounted only for a very small portion of Jewish people and had limited economic power. .early =?? years later this became a primary concern for a rising political starE $dolf 3itler believed the myth that Jewish bankers were attempting to control the world economic system. 11;./ Crusaders 6efeated &y Saladin In 99=A 'uy of 0usignan was crowned king of Jerusalem. $s appears typical of all the Crusaders, leaders were fre&uently involved in struggles to capture or maintain power, as well as various adulterous affairs. !aymond III of ripoli competed with 'uy for kingship and they nearly battled each other in the hills of the 3oly 0and. Saladin, a brilliant *urdish general, had been uniting various $rab tribes into a formidable army and knew that 'uy and !aymond were competing for Crusader power. In 99=; !aymond permitted Saladin to enter the 'alilee area and 'uy was enticed to challenge the 4uslims with his Crusader army that was stationed in Jerusalem. hey left Jerusalem and, for three days, marched in the July heat to the mountaintop known as the 3orns of 3attin, located west of the Sea of 'alilee. heir heavy armor and ine%perience with 4iddle )ast climate &uickly made them e%hausted, thirsty and nearly faint. .onetheless, they secured the grassy mountaintop that, according to their thinking, was the ideal strategic point for battle. 5nce the Crusader force was in place, Saladin moved in and occupied the forest at the base of the mountain. It was said that his men were nearly shoulder to shoulder and there was no chance for the )uropeans to escape. Saladin, understanding and working with the dry summer heat, had a camel caravan traveling daily to the Sea of 'alilee for fresh water supplies while the Crusaders were dehydrating. #hen he felt the time was right, on July >th Saladin set fire to the dry grassy mountaintop. $s the sun was rising in the east and the smoke was choking and blinding the Crusaders, the 4uslims attacked. housands burned to death or were slaughtered. 1oth !aymond and 'uy surrendered. Saladin beheaded !aymond and 'uy and a few hundred survivors were permitted to leave.
2.

#hen the victorious Saladin arrived at Jerusalem, he ordered his men not to kill any civilians or destroy homes and other buildings. !ather, he converted churches into mos&ues and centers of Islamic study. 9AA In him the Jewish people found a new freedom which, unfortunately, lasted only until his death, after which the Crusaders returned. Saladin recogni"ed the skills and talents of his sub+ects. $mong them was the !abbi 4oses 4aimonides, who became Saladin(s court physician. he rabbi was without &uestion the greatest theologian and philosopher of the 4edieval -eriod and favorably influenced the non-Jewish world. 3is peers affectionately called him F!ambam,I an acronym of his title and name. he historic rule of Saladin demonstrates that Jews and 4uslims can live at peace with each other if the ruler demonstrates wisdom and kindness to his sub+ects. 11;2 - 1120/ Crusaders 1i)ht A)ain he Crusaders led by !ichard of )ngland, also known as F!ichard the 0ionheart,I attempted to capture Jerusalem. 3e scored a number of victories over Saladin and regained some lost territory. 9A; 1ut he never attempted to capture Jerusalem, believing that he would not be able to hold it even if he defeated the 4uslims. 3e had to spend a considerable amount of time and energy holding on to his throne, as the royal house was filled with betrayals, gossips, adulteries, and assassination attempts. 3is life was one that would make an ideal script for a medieval soap opera. 3is endeavors were largely a failure and he survived a shipwreck on the way home in 99:/. 5ther Crusaders would follow, all having the same internal struggles as 'uy and !aymond. 108; - 10#7/ Seventh Crusade he seventh and last Crusade was a huge failure. Jean ,e Joinville and several other Crusaders wrote of their ventures describing the conflicts, the tragedies that fell upon the Jewish people, and the daily events of life. 9A= 0ife was difficult for a soldier, but nearly impossible for anyone else. he attempts to recapture Jerusalem may have been successful had the leaders been focused on the con&uest rather than in greedy and immoral lifestyles. Christian rule in Jerusalem ended in 9/:9 at the hands of the )gyptian 4amelukes, the 4uslim military power class of )gypt. he 4uslims had
9AA 9A; 9A=

-rawer, =>-=@. Clare, /A:, /;/.

Dor accounts recorded by two Crusaders, read Join/ille and 8illeharddoun& -hronicles of the -rusades. 4argaret !. 1. Shaw, trans. -enguin 1ooks. It should be noted that Jewish seminaries and museums have accounts written by rabbis of this era.

:=

great celebrations, giving thanks to $llah for their victory over the Christian infidels.

4ap <. $ Crusader 4ap of Jerusalem depicting the Christian sites that replaced Jewish sites and the emple. .ote the Christian knight, dressed in white and representing purity, is killing a 4uslim who is dressed in black and representing evil. Courtesy of the Jewish .ational and 6niversity 0ibrary of 3ebrew 6niversity.
22

The "ffects of the Crusades he Crusaders created one of the darkest legacies of Church history that still lingers today. Dor e%ample, in biblical times one(s Jewishness was determined by the father as evidenced in the genealogy of Jesus as recorded in 4atthew and 0uke. 0ikewise, in the rabbinical writings, there are fre&uent references to any rabbi who was the son of rabbi so-and-so, who was the son of so-and-so, etc. his is no longer the case. .ow one(s Jewishness is determined by whether hisRher mother is Jewish or part Jewish. 3ow did this change come aboutK he CrusadersQ #hile they were marching throughout )urope, they raped so many Jewish women that the rabbis were forced to change their centuries-old biblical and rabbinic traditional custom of determining the Jewishness by the father. heir pain and suffering would fill volumes. 5n the other hand, the 4uslims remember Crusaders and how they massacred men, women and children. he vicious swords of the Crusaders left a terrible stinging impression of FChristianityI that remains in the 4iddle )ast to this day. )very Crusade was motivated by personal greed under the influence of religious piety that faithfully demonstrated the evil nature of unrepentant man. Seldom have this many worked so hard to bring a great shame upon the .ame of Jesus. So bitter is this part of Church history that nowhere in the 4iddle )ast does one today find a cross as a religious symbol. #hat an incredible shame to the .ame of Jesus that in the land where Jesus lived the symbol of 3is death and resurrection is not displayed for the shame it has created. he actions of the Crusaders were absolutely heinous but not uncommon for the time. Clearly the teachings of the 1ible had little or no affect on the actions of the Crusaders or their leaders. #hile critics and 4uslims today focus on these horrific actions, they overlook the fact that in 99>= 4uslims slaughtered every Christian in $leppo. #hen +ihadists captured Constantinople on 4ay /:, 9>@<, they slaughtered men, women and children in the streets until blood literally flowed in street gutters. he butchery ended only when 4uslims reali"ed Christians could be sold as slaves. #henever +ihadists picked up the sword, death occurred without discrimination. .othing has changed from the seventh century to the twentyfirst century -alestine. 3iddle A)es/ e+s and 3uslims ?ive in 4eace in Islamic Countries In light of the violence in today(s news, it is difficult to imagine that Jews and 4uslims could have lived peacefully together. Met history
9??

demonstrates this to have been true in past centuries. Jews who lived in the 4uslim world faired much better than those who lived in !oman Catholic )urope. 1oth groups had suffered from the sword of the !oman Catholic Crusaders although the sub+ect of the seventh century Islamic Crusaders is not mentioned in today(s news or history books. In Islamic countries Jews were reduced to second class citi"ens considered infidels and were sub+ected to occasional violence and humiliated in various ways. .onetheless, they found a niche in the society wherein they achieved success in every imaginable occupation including commerce, medicine, education, and even government. hose who achieved wealth were highly respected by their $rab peers. ,ocuments discovered in the late 9=:?s in a Cairo 'eni"a9A: indicate that during the 9?-9<th centuries, Jews and $rabs lived and interacted peacefully as neighbors. 9;? -ossibly to the benefit of the Jews, they were not the only minority group. here were also various Christian groups, the Zoroasters, and other religious communities. he !oman Catholic Church, on the other hand, which was the predominant Christian denomination, e%cluded the Jews from society and prevented their participation in commerce, medicine, education, and government. Church leaders, who often directed government leaders, re&uired Jews to live in ghettos, prevented them from land ownership, and restricted them from all occupations that could possibly compete with those of non-Jews. Catholic priests preached that the Jews killed Jesus the 4essiah and, therefore, 'od condemned them forever. Durthermore, in )urope, the Jews were the only minority group and sub+ect to the whims of ma+ority rulership. In the 4uslim world, 4uhammad was a prophet, not a messiah and he died a natural death Balthough some believe he was poisonedC. herefore, the theological hatred in the !oman Catholic world was far more severe than that of the 4uslim world. )ven though the Ou(ran condemns the Jews, when 4uslim leaders reali"ed that the Jews helped them prosper, they e%tended a favorable hand. Turmoil in "urope <172--1021> 1127/ (iots in "n)land
9A:

$ 'eni"a is the section of a synagogue where worn out 1ibles were placed when retired from service.
9;?

Dor a comparative on the Jewish life in the Christian and Islamic worlds during the 4iddle $ges, read 4ark Cohen, $nder -rescent and -ross& The Jews in the #iddle !ges. -rinceton, .JE -rinceton 6niversity, 9::@.

171

#hile )nglish Crusaders were on their way to Jerusalem, riots broke out in )nglish cities. he worst of these was in Mork on 4arch 9A-9; th B-assover was on the 9;thC. Catholics, who were heavily indebted financially to the Jewish people, caused a riot to rid themselves of their debts. 1y the time peace was restored, the register of debts had been destroyed, some 9@? Jews lay dead on the streets, and the few surviving Jewish people who agreed to baptism were later murdered by angry mobs. 9;9 13th Century/ $irth of the 9hetto 6ntil this time Jewish people lived among Christians, but in the 9< th century this changed as Christians no longer desired to have them for neighbors. $s a result, the Jewish ghetto was introduced. It was a walled community with one or two gates, locked at night, in which all the Jewish people lived. his form of segregation eventually spread throughout )urope. Met this segregated lifestyle was not a Christian invention, but was previously introduced by the 4uslims, who forced both Christians and Jewish people to live in their own ghetto communities. .onetheless, the Catholic Church depicted the Jewish people, represented by 4oses and $aron, as being possessed with demonic spirits.

Digure A. $ 'erman woodcut depicts two $shkena"i B)astern )uropeanC Jews B4oses and $aronC as demons. Jewish people were
9;9

Schwar"fuchs, F he Crusades.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

9?/

generally viewed by the !oman Catholic Church as being possessed by demons or engaged in demonic acts. #oodcut by Cornelius $nthonis" dated .ov. >, 9<>; B-rint !oom, 1erlinC. 112; - 101-/ 4ope Innocent III -ope Innocent III was of a noble !oman family and well-educated in theology and law. his enabled him to deal tactfully with the varied religious and secular problems of the empire. In September of 9/?9, he made the following decree concerning the Jewish peopleE 3e who is led to Christianity by violence, by fear and by torture, and who received the sacrament of baptism to avoid harm Beven if he comes falsely to baptismC received indeed the stamp of Christianity ... hey Bconverted JewsC themselves having been anointed with the holy oil and having participated in the body of the 0ord, must be duly constrained to abide by the faith they had accepted by force.9;/ In essence the pope stated that one could become a Christian even if he was forced to do so without a conversion of the heart. his is hardly a biblical principle. In 9/9@, the -ope called for the Dourth 0ateran Council to deal with a number of issues. $mong them, he re&uired that Jewish people wear a special badge in public so that Christians could always identify them. #hile he was kinder in terms of death, persecution, and torture, he did whatever he could to degrade Jewish position and &uality of life. 3e decreed that trade boycotts, social ostracism, and e%pulsion from all offices of authority and trust were the chief economic weapons to use effectively against them.9;< Dor this reason, most Jewish people chose to reside within ghettos, where they did not have to be humiliated and persecuted. 9;> Met of all the popes throughout history, -ope Innocent III is often seen as having been the kindest to the Jewish people. 3e firmly believed all Jews were responsible for the death of Christ Bactually killed by !omansCL and, in an unusual move, he reminded Christians to live within 'od(s commandments. F he Jews, against whom the blood of Jesus Christ calls out, although they ought not to be killed, lest the Christian people forget the ,ivine 0aw, yet as wanderers ought they remain upon the earth until their countenance be filled with shame.I9;@
9;/ 9;< 9;> 9;@

-oliakov, The 3istory of !nti)Semitism& Time of -hrist to the -ourt Jews. >;. 3ay, =A. !osenberg, F-ope Innocent III.I 0erdman4s. /@@. 3ay, ;A, =9.

173

he Council also officially instituted the doctrine of transubstantiation, wherein the bread and wine of the 0ord(s Supper was said to be the actual flesh and blood of Jesus. -reviously, !atramnus of the ninth century had declared that the elements of the )ucharist were Fsymbols,I a common interpretation for centuries. his teaching was opposed by another school that defended the FtransubstantiationI position, meaning that the elements actually changed into the body of Christ when consumed. he Council endorsed the latter position that has been the official !oman Catholic doctrine since 9/9@.9;A 6nfor- tunately, rumors spread that the Jewish people had stolen and eaten communion wafers and, therefore, they were guilty of Feating Christ.I 5ver the ne%t few centuries angry priests and mob leaders instigated anti-Semitic events to punish the Jewish people for desecrating the physical body of Jesus.

Digure ;. $ silver reli&uary in the Sanctuary of St. $ugustine in 5ffida, Italy. he reli&uary supposedly contains a piece of the Ftrue
9;A

1uchanan, F he Sacraments are ,eveloped.I 0erdman4s. /@;.

9?>

crossI plus the communion elements of bread and wine that supposedly became the physical flesh and blood of Jesus during a )ucharist in 9/=?. In 9/:> the Jewish people comprised one-tenth of the population in 1arcelona, but paid one-fourth of the ta%es. Jewish people were also re&uired to wear badges of Shame, identifying them as Jewish people, which they received from Christian +udges. 4edieval woodcuts reveal that Jewish people were re&uired to wear identifying hats, badges and patches to humiliate them, but eventually, the Jews wore them as a matter of pride and self-identity.

Digure =. his 9/:> Spanish woodcut shows 1arcelonian Jews receiving identifying hats, badges and patches as re&uired by Church and government officials. o his credit, during the last days of the Crusaders, -ope Innocent III attempted to abolish the mythical stories of blood libel by demanding evidence of a body or missing person. 9;; 3e decreed that, FChristians charge falsely . . . that Gthe JewsH hold a communion rite . . . with the heart of a murdered childL and should the cadaver of a dead man happen to be found anywhere they maliciously lay it to their charge.I 6nfortunately, his desires
9;;

F1lood 0ibel,I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

17#

went unheeded. he decree did little to stem the tide of panic among the superstitious.9;= 3e is credited for having had good intentions, but he failed administratively to affect the attitudes and beliefs in local congregations. he history of )urope is full of similar stories. 9;: he fact that any )uropean Jewish people survived at all is nothing less than a miracle. $ccounts such as this appeared throughout )urope at one time or another. hroughout the Church $ge, the epithet, -hrist) iller was a synonym for FJew.I 0ittle thought was given to the words of Jesus when 3e said that no man would take 3is life, but that 3e would give it up freely. Church leaders shamefully demonstrated that hatred is blind. hose who targeted Jewish people always did so because the Jewish people were considered the -hrist illers. 138; - 1382/ $u&onic 4la)ue in "urope he bubonic plague, Bcommonly known as 1lack ,eath or the 1lack -lagueC, struck )urope as if the +udgment of 'od had finally arrived in apocalyptic proportions. 5ne-third of the entire population died. he cause is believed to have been unsanitary conditions in cities that were overcrowded and infested with rats whose fleas spread the disease. Since the Jewish people observed kosher regulations Bconcerning the cleanliness of their homes and food preparationC, they suffered little compared to the Christians. hese regulations included washing hands before eating, clean homes and bodies and the avoidance of filthy areas. 3owever, Jewish people were blamed for poisoning wells with a potion made of spiders, li"ards, and human hearts along with elements Bbread and wineC of the 0ord(s Supper.9=? 3enceforth, they were dragged from their homes and burned to death. he persecutors chose not to reali"e that the disease was killing Jewish people as well as Christians. housands of Jewish people were tortured and massacred e%cept for their children who were under the age of seven. In such cases, after their parents were put to death, the children were bapti"ed into the Church and raised in Christian families. 9=9 4ore than /?? Jewish communities were completely wiped out. -ope Clement 7I attempted to halt the carnage, but he was powerless against those who had Jewish blood on their minds. $ccusatory legends followed the Jewish people, charging them with an international conspiracy that centered in oledo, Spain. Supposedly, messengers were sent out to poison the wells of Christians. In 1asle, where
9;= 9;: 9=? 9=9

3ay, 0urope. <99-9/. -rager and elushkin, 9?/-?>. Dlannery, 9?:-99. -rager and elushkin, 9?/.

9?A

many Christians perished from the disease, A?? Jewish people were burned at the stake. Since the Jewish people also were suffering from the deadly 1lack -lague, a few good-minded Christian men reali"ed that the accusers did not have a valid argument. -ope Clement 7I again attempted to restore order by another decree stating that anyone who blamed the Jewish people for the plague was Fseduced by that liar, the devil.I 9=/ 6nfortunately, this policy did not always trickle down to the local parish.9=< In spite of severe persecution, it was the Jew who often demonstrated true Christian love toward the persecutors. here are no records of Jewish attacks upon Christians or any other kind of revenge as might be e%pected.

Digure :. he massacre of 'erman Jews in 9<>= J 9<>:, was caused by !oman Catholic leaders who believed the Jews poisoned wells which caused the 1ubonic -lague B1lack ,eathC throughout )urope. 18#3/ 3essianic Hope for the e+s

9=/ 9=<

uchman, 9?:, 99<. )ckert, FChurch, Catholic.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

17.

,uring times of oppression and death, the Jewish people called upon 'od to send the $nointed 5ne to deliver them from their persecutors. $n e%ample was in 9>@< when Constantinople fell to the urks. he Jews looked to the 4uslims as possibly bringing the $nointed 5ne, who would deliver them from Christian oppression. 9=> $gain, they were disappointed. #hen considering the actions of the Crusaders, the Jews undoubtedly had a better understanding of the true character of the 4essiah than did the Christians. 18.7s/ 4ersecution in 9ermany hroughout the history persecution was sporadic and locali"ed. ,espite the lack of evidence to support the blood libel myth and the decrees of the Church, it remained popular. here was never a missing child, yet the common people and local clerics continued to promote the myth.

Digure 9?. $ 9>;@ 'erman leaflet illustrates the Fblood libelI account of the murder of a boy named Simon, in the city of rent. Supposedly the Jews drained his blood to be used for -assover and the child died. he leaflet spread the lie throughout )urope causing the massacre of thousands of Jews. #oodcut from Schedel(s :eltchroni , 9>:<.
9=>

-rit", =@.

9?=

Dreedom of religion was an unknown concept throughout most of the church age. In many communities the Jewish people were given the ultimatum to convert to FChristianity,I meaning become bapti"ed and +oin the local church, or die. hose who remained faithful to their Jewish faith paid the ultimate price. 0ikewise, in the early days of the -rotestant !eformation, -rotestants such as the $nabaptists were drowned or burned at the stake for their beliefs, sometime by both !oman Catholic and 0utheran clergymen.

Digure 99. his woodcut depicts Christians burning Jewish people in the city of rent in 9>;@. he Jews were assumed to be guilty of the murder of a Christian child Bshown in Digure 9?C. 18;7 - 1;38/ Spanish InCuisition 6ntil now the Jewish people of Spain had en+oyed generations of relative freedom and prosperity, more so here than anywhere else in )urope. 1ut that was about to change. he $lhambra ,ecree, also known as the F)dict of )%pulsion,I forced all non-!oman Catholics to convert to
172

Catholicism or leave Spain. his was part of the Spanish In&uisition that sought to rid Spain of Jews, 4uslims and -rotestants. 3owever, many scholars believe the In&uisition was motivated by the desire to secure political power and profit. he deadline for all non-Catholics to convert or leave was the :th of $v, also known as Tisha B4!/ on the Jewish calendar. his date became a symbol of all the persecutions and misfortunes of the Jewish people, as it is also the day that marks the anniversary of the destruction of the two Jewish temples in Jerusalem. he Spanish In&uisition and its counterparts encompass one of the bloodiest periods in the history of the Church. ,uring the In&uisitionBsC millions of people were slaughtered for the crime of SheresyS by !oman Catholic persecutors. It has been said that -ope Innocent III murdered many more Christians B-rotestantsC in one afternoon than any !oman emperor did in his entire reign. $s if the $lhambra ,ecree of 9>=? was not horrific enough, in 5ctober of 9>=<, omas de or&uemada, a ,ominican priest, was placed in the office of In&uisitor-'eneral in the cities of $ragon and Castile. 3e became famous for his ruthless persecution of anyone suspected of heresy. F3ereticsI included 4uslims, -rotestants and Jews. Scholars debate the number of victims the priest killed. Some say as many as >??,??? Jews were tortured and tried in courts and another <?,??? were sentenced to death during these years. 5n 4arch <9, 9>:/, the Spanish monarchs Derdinand and Isabella issued a royal decree ordering all Jewish people to leave Spain and its territories or convert to the Catholic faith. he deadline was set for $ugust <rd of that year. If any Jewish people were found in Spain after this period they were to be killed. 1efore midnight on $ugust /nd, Christopher Columbus and his crew boarded their ships. $t dawn Columbus Bwhose voyage was financed by wealthy and influential Jewish people, and who himself may have been of Jewish descentC set sail on his now-famous voyage to the .ew #orld. he prophetic words of 4oses were again fulfilled, FI will scatter you among the nations and will draw out my sword and pursue you. Mour land will be laid waste and your cities will lie in ruinsI B0ev. /AE<<C. he biblical words do not mean that 'od directed or approved of these horrible events, but were predictive warnings of coming atrocities. #ith the introduction of the In&uisition, Jewish people who refused to convert to the Christian faith, were tortured, burned at the stake, or deported, often to die in the ocean. Church officials carried a cross BforegroundC as they oversaw the events of the day. $sh #ednesday and 'ood Driday were especially dangerous days for the Jewish people. he Church cooperated with the Spanish government to confiscate properties of Jewish people, -rotestants and 4uslims, all of whom were
99?

considered enemies of the Church and government. Synagogues and mos&ues were either destroyed or turned into churches or pigsties. Cemeteries were obliterated and the wealth of affluent Jewish people was used for funding e%plorations. It was a shameful and brutal time in Spanish history.

who

Digure 9/. housands of Jews were e%pelled from Spain as priests offered them a last opportunity to convert to Catholicism. hose refused to convert or leave were burned at the stake.

Dor those who decided to convert, the Catholic Church held conversion ceremonies. ,ocuments preserved from this era reveal the horrific humiliation they endured. Dor e%ample, when the Church wanted to impose the greatest degree of shame, the FconvertsI were paraded through the streets, men and women alike, bareheaded, barefoot, and naked to the waist. 5ne surviving document states that the parade was led by Church clerics who were followed by the U 3alf-naked penitents GJewsH, cruel physical discomfort being added to their mental torture, for the weather was so raw and cold that it had been considered e%pedient to provide them with sandals, lest
111

they should have found it impossible to walk. hey held unlit candles in their hands indicating that they were yet in spiritual darkness, and they were marched through the city until they arrived at the Cathedral. $ chaplain would make the sign of the cross on the foreheads of these Jews, many of whom had been prominent citi"ens and respected leaders of their city before the Jewish-hate cra"e erupted. hen he would recite these wordsE F!eceive the sign of the cross which you denied, and which, being deluded, you lost.I 9=@ $t this point their Fconversion ritualI was not yet complete. $fter listening to a sermon the punishment was meted out. hey were whipped in the procession on each of the following si% Dridays. $gain being naked to the waist, bareheaded, and barefoot, they were to fast on each of those Dridays and were dis&ualified for the rest of their lives from holding office, benefice, or honorable employment, and were not permitted to wear gold, silver, precious stones, or fine fabrics. 9=A $s they were marched again through the streets, they were pelted with stones, bottles, and every description of filth, while the bystanders mocked and cursed them. .o mercy was granted to those who fell or collapsed from occasional near-fatal stones. hose who condemned the persecutors of Jesus were creating a 7ia ,elarosa for the descendants of their own heritage.

9=@ 9=A

1rown, .ur 3ands. ;:. Ibid.

99/

Digure 9<. orture Chamber of the In&uisition where Jews, -rotestants and 4uslims were encouraged to convert to Catholicism or face a gruesome death. +0ngra/ing from the !tlas /an Stol , Rotterdam, '(BC,. It is beyond comprehension how the Church had become so engrossed in its own self-righteous doctrines and theology that it lost sight of anything truly Christian. )%cept for a few true Christian believers, the love and compassion of Christ were seldom, if ever, afforded to the Jewish people for centuries. 0ittle wonder that today Jewish people have a hard-grained opposition to any mention of Jesus. Jews who accepted Catholicism were forced to denounce their Judaism, Jewish culture, and customs. he e%cerpts below are of four different confessions, any one of which would have been read publicly at the time of Fconversion.I I do here and now renounce every rite and observance of the Jewish religion, detesting all its solemn ceremonies and tenets that in former days I kept and held. In the future I will practice no rite or celebration connected with it, nor any custom of my past error, promising neither to seek it out nor perform it ... I promise that I will never return to the vomit of Jewish superstition. .ever again will I fulfill any offices of Jewish ceremonies to which I was addicted, nor ever more hold them dear. GI willH shun all intercourse with other Jews and have the circle of my friends only among Christians. 9=; #e will not associate with the accursed Jews who remain unbapti"ed ... #e will not practice carnal circumcision, or celebrate the -assover, the Sabbath or the other feast days connected with the Jewish religion ... #ith regard to swine(s flesh we promise to observe this rule, that if through long custom we are hardly able to eat it, we shall not through fasting or errors refuse the things that are cooked with it ... $nd if in all matters touched on above we are found in any way to transgress ... GthenH whoever of us is found to transgress shall either perish by the hands of our fellows, by burning or stoning, or Gif our lives are sparedH, we shall at once lose our liberty and you shall give us along with all our property to whomever you please into perpetual slavery U9==
9=; 9==

-arkes, <:>. Ibid., <:=.

113

ogether with the ancients, I anathemati"e also the Chief !abbis and new evil doctors of the Jews ... $nd I believe and profess the 1lessed 7irgin 4ary, who bore 3im according to the flesh and who remained a virgin, to be truly and actually the 4other of 'od Incarnate, and as the 0ady and mistress of all creation. 9=: If I wander from the straight path in any way and defile the holy faith, and try to observe any rites of the Jewish sect, or if I shall delude you in any way in the swearing of this oath ... then may all the curses of the law fall upon me ... 4ay there fall upon me and upon my house and all my children all the plagues which smote )gypt, and to the horror of others may I suffer in addition the fate of ,athan and $biram, so that the earth shall swallow me alive, and after I am deprived of this life I shall be handed over to the eternal fire, in the company of the ,evil and his angels, sharing with the dwellers in Sodom and with Judas the punishment of burningL and when I arrive before the tribunal of the fearful and glorious Judge, our 0ord Jesus Christ, may I be numbered in that company to whom the glorious and terrible Judge with threatening men will say, F,epart from 4e, evildoers, into the eternal fire that is prepared for the ,evil and his angels.I9:? he horrors of the In&uisition were officially abolished in 9=<> and to the Jew, Christianity was something to shun at all costs. 9:9 3istory has repeatedly demonstrated that those who called themselves Christians were hardly representative of 3is 3oly .ame. 1oth -rotestant and Catholic Churches have a history of violating 'od(s #ord. Bi.e. PIComfort, comfort ye my people,( says the 0ord.I Isaiah DE&'C 4any FconvertedI to escape torture or death. 1y 9>:/, those who refused to convert to the Catholic faith were e%pelled and they fled to other countries that circled the 4editerranean Sea. It is estimated that between 9??,??? and 9@?,??? Jewish people left, with the last ones leaving on $ugust /, the :th of $v in the Jewish calendar. The 4rotestant (eformation $e)ins <1#1.>

9=: 9:? 9:9

-arkes, <:;. Ibid. .icholls, /A>-A;.

99>

he !eformation was an attempt to bring the Church back to the first century teachings of Jesus and the $postles. It was to remove the pagan influences that were introduced by Constantine and, at the same time, a spiritual revival that would bring men and women closer to 'od. It began on 5ctober <9, 9@9; when 4artin 0uther nailed his ;inety)1i/e Theses on the Power of Indulgences on the church door in #ittenberg 'ermany. 3is primary issues were on the corrupt activities of the Church, such as selling indulgences, selling church offices, and the doctrine of purgatory. 3e intended to resolve the issues peacefully through academic debatesL instead a bloody war was started that lasted more than a century, ending in 9A>=. #hen peace finally came several protestant groups had emergedE the 0utherans, the $nabaptists, the $nglicans and the !eformedRCalvinistsR-resbyterians. Dor the Jewish people, it meant that the !oman Catholic Church was focused on a problem seen as a rebellion which was far more important than eliminating Jewish people. Conse&uently, there was a decentrali"ation of leadership and control and that made it more difficult to attack Jewish people. he !eformation led people to think for themselves and, eventually, led to the $ge of )nlightenment. 18;3 - 1#8-/ 3artin ?uther 4artin 0uther was without &uestion one of the most important religious theologians and Church leaders in Christian history. 3e was instrumental in proclaiming that salvation was by faith alone, that the 1ible could be trusted, and the 3oly 1ook should be read by everyone. 3e therefore translated the 3oly #rit into 'erman so the masses could read it for themselves. In 9@/<, he wrote a scathing criticism of how the !oman Catholic Church had treated the Jewish people. 3e hardly blamed the Jewish people for re+ecting the Christian faith because of the horrific treatment they received by those who claimed to be leaders of the Christian religion. 0uther saidE -erhaps I will attract some of the Jews to the Christian faith. Dor our fools J the popes, bishops, sophists, and monks J the course blockheads had until this time so treated the Jews that ... if I had been a Jew and had seen such idiots and blockheads ruling and teaching the Christian religion, I would rather have been a sow than a Christian. Dor they have dealt with the Jews as if they were dogs and not human beings.9:/

9:/

almage, <<.

11#

Dor this and other reforming ideas, he was e%communicated. 9:< 4ost certainly, the Church is deeply indebted to 0uther for his leadership and every believer in the past five centuries owes some gratitude to him for his ideas and influence. In his early years, he was very sympathetic toward the Jewish people, and in his tract titled That Jesus -hrist was a Born Jew B9@/<C, he said, I hope that if the Jews are treated friendly and are instructed kindly through the 1ible, many of them will become real Christians and come back to the ancestral faith of the prophets and patriarchs.... If we wish to make them better, we must deal with them not according to the law of the pope, but to the law of Christian charity. 9:> #hen 0uther reali"ed the Jews would not convert, he became e%tremely anti-Semitic and taught the following seven steps to solve the FJewish problemI Bmeaning, Jews living in a Christian communityCE 0et me give you my honest advice. Dirst, their synagogues or churches should be set on fire, and whatever does not burn up should be covered or spread over with dirt so that no one may ever be able to see a cinder or stone of it. $nd this ought to be done for the honor of 'od and Christianity in order that 'od may see that we are Christians, and that we have not wittingly tolerated or approved of such public lying, cursing and blaspheming of 3is Son and 3is Christians. Second, their homes should likewise be broken down and destroyed, for they perpetrate the same things that they do in their synagogues. Dor this reason they ought to be put under one roof or in a stable, like gypsies, in order that they may reali"e that they are not masters in our land, as they boast, but miserable captives, as they complain of us incessantly before 'od with bitter wailing. hird, they should be deprived of their prayer books and almuds in which such idolatry, lies, cursing and blasphemy are taught.

9:< 9:>

Stupperich, F4artin 0uther.I 0erdman4s. <A/-A>. .icholls, /A:-;?L 4arcus, 9AA-A;.

99A

Dourth, their rabbis must be forbidden, under the threat of death, to teach. Difth, passport and traveling privileges should be absolutely forbidden to the Jews. hey have no business in the rural districts since they are not nobles, officials, merchants, or the like. 0et them stay at home. Si%th, they ought to be stopped from usury. $ll their cash and valuables of silver and gold ought to be taken from them and put aside for safekeeping. Dor this reason, as already stated, everything they possess they stole and robbed from us through their usury, for they have no other means of support. his money should be used in the case - and in no other - where a Jew has sincerely become a Christian, so that temporarily he may get one or two or three hundred florins, as he may re&uire. his is so that he may start a business to support his poor wife and children, and the old and feeble. Such wickedly ac&uired money is accursed, unless, with 'od(s blessing, it is put to some good and necessary use. Seventh, let the young and strong Jews and Jewesses be given the flail, the a%, the hoe, the spade, the distaff and spindle, and let them earn their bread by the sweat of their brow, as $bram(s children are commanded. Dor it is not proper that they should want us 'entiles to work by the sweat of our brow and that they, pious crew, idle away their days at the fireside in la"iness, feasting and display. $nd in addition to this, they boast impiously that they have become masters of the Christians at our e%pense. #e ought to drive the unprincipled la"ybones out of our system. If however, we are afraid that they might harm us personally, or our wives, children, servants, cattle, etc., then they serve us or work for us - since it is surely to be presumed that such noble lords of the world and poisonous bitter worms are not accustomed to any work and would very unwillingly humble themselves to such a degree among the accused 'entiles - let them apply the same cleverness Bi.e., e%pulsionC as the other nations, such as Drance, Spain, 1ohemia, etc. and settle with them for that which they have e%torted through usury from us, and after having divided it up, let us drive them out of the country for all time. Dor, as it has been said, 'od(s rage is so great against them that they only become worse and worse through mild mercy, and not much better through severe mercy. herefore, away with them.

11.

o sum up, dear princes and nobles who have Jews in your domains, if this advice of mine does not suit you, then find better advice so that you and we may all be free of this devilish burden - the Jews. 4artin 0uther, -oncerning the Jews and Their Lies.'*% B-ublished in 9@><C In spite of these scathing remarks, many of his followers who were loyal to him and his teaching, defended the Jews against many medieval defamations and misrepresentations. 3e was opposed by a number of other leading theologians, including $ndreas 5siander, who was a defender of the Jewish people and supporter of their human rights. Met 0uther(s remarks appear to have had the greater influence. 9:A he names of 5siander and others are now known only to 'od and a few historians, but 0uther(s antiSemitic legacy would, centuries later, have a severe negative impact upon the Jewish people.

book,

Digure 9>. 0)D E he title page of 4artin 0uther(s anti-Semitic -oncerning the Jews and their Lies. 0ater, $dolf 3itler would use a &uotation by 0uther, F he Jews are our misfortuneI to +ustify the actions of the 'erman !eich and its 3olocaust. Digure 9@. !I'3 E $n engraving of 4artin 0uther by '. Scott after painting by 0ucas Cranach.

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he imagery of the Church, whether !oman Catholic or the newly formed -rotestant Church was unmistakableE he Church was victorious over the SynagogueL the Christian over the Jew. he message continued to be engraved in the minds of common ignorant and illiterate )uropean peasants in the form of sermons and works of art. 5ne such e%pression was a pair of female images wherein one is a beautiful victorious virgin Bdepicting the ChurchC and the other is a defeated woman Bdepicting the Jewish faithC.

"cclesia and Syna)o)a 18th Century 3anuscript

Digure 9A. )cclesia and Synagoga on a 9> th century manuscript depict replacement theology. 5n the left is the young virgin )cclesia who is the victorious Church and holding the cross. 5n the right is the blindfolded Synagoga who is the defeated Judaism with a broken spear. #hen .a"i military leaders were tried for their war crimes Bpost ##IIC, Julius Streicher was tried for his anti-Semitic publication, 2er Sturmer. In his defense he said that since he was being tried for such publications, so should 4artin 0uther. 9:; his was a difficult statement for
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.icholls, /;9.

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the prosecution since the Catholic and 0utheran Churches are the only two officially recogni"ed churches in 'ermany. In light of 0uther(s writings, "cclesia and Syna)o)a Streicher was absolutely right, yet before 'od $lmighty, he was absolutely 9:= wrong. 4assion Windo+ ! $our)es Cathedral ca. 1037

Digure 9;. he -assion #indow of )cclesia and Synagoga. he vic-torious Church B)cclesiaC is shown wearing a crown and receiving life-blood from Jesus while Judaism BSynagogaC is shown being re+ected by Jesus. #hile this window is in the 1ourges Cathedral, ca. 9/<?, the same theme was also reproduced in many manuscripts and works of art.

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Digure 9=. 4artin 0uther preaches that the true Church listens to him, while the !oman Catholic pope, cardinals and friars are engulfed in the flaming mouth of hell. 3is intolerance was not only against the Jews, but also against $nabaptist and !oman Catholics. Drom a 9Ath century manuscript.

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4artin 0uther, in spite of his shortcoming, was an influential leader who was instrumental to igniting a spiritual revival in the Church. Drom within the -rotestant 4ovement he founded, a Zionistic 4ovement was later birthed. his movement, in various denominations, would view the Jewish people as significant in 'od(s eschatological plan, and hence, the Zionistic -rotestants would become ardent supporters of the Jews, Jewish heritage, and the state of Israel. It developed appro%imately the same time as did the $ge of !eason.

The A)e of (eason $e)ins <1-77> he !eformation was an attempt to return the Church to biblical Christianity. It encouraged people to read the 1ible and think personally about 'od. his era was followed by the 9; th century $ge of !eason, also known as the $ge of )nlightenment. It encouraged critical thinking and rationalism guided by science. 6niversities and seminaries were captured by the popular movement and soon all of )urope was swept by a tide of rationalism.9:: he 9;th and 9=th century professors vehemently attacked the stories of miracles and biblical prophecies as myths. #hile previously the authority of Church leaders was &uestioned, now the authority of the 1ible was &uestioned. hey challenged the deity of Christ, the inspiration and inerrancy of Scripture, all of which eventually penetrated both Christianity and Judaism. $s a result, thousands of Christians left their orthodo% foundations of faith and the Jewish people, likewise, migrated from their orthodo%y into liberalism. 3umanistic reason placed Judaism and Christianity in the category of myths and legends. $theism replaced belief in 'od Bor belief in a godC for the first time in human history and this eventually led to the development of 4ar%ism, communism and deism. 1-th Century 4rotestant 3artyrdom he Jewish people were not the only ones who suffered at the hands of the established Church. $nyone who dared to be different was sub+ect to e%communication, imprisonment, or martyrdom by drowning, or burning at the stake. 3undreds of accounts were recorded in 1o9es Boo of #artyrs that give credence to the horrific evil of the medieval era. In one such case, in 9@;9, #olfgang -inder was apprehended for preaching doctrines Bi.e. infant baptismC contrary to the Catholic Church. Dor this he was tortured on the rack, and when he refused to change his mind, he was decapitated. Such

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he sub+ect is the theme of -aul 3a"ard in, The 0uropean #ind +'FBE)'('%,.

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unmerciful torture fell not only upon men, but also upon women such as 4aria von 4on+on.

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Digure 9:. In 9@@/, 4aria von 4on+on was offered the opportunity re+ect her belief that baptism was only for believers and, therefore, infant baptism was not biblical. 0ike many other $nabaptists, she maintained her faith and for this was drowned.

In )urope, those who held positions against the prevailing Church still found themselves persecuted, tortured and burned at the stake. 3ence, the Jewish people were not the only ones suffering at the hands of the powerful Church establishment. he historical books of the 4ennonites, $mish, and other $nabaptists are filled with the martyrdom of those who stood firm on their faith in Christ Jesus. $n e%ample is 4aria von 4on+on, a loving mother and wife who simply believed in adult baptism, and was martyred for her belief. he concept of religious freedom was birthed, not in )urope, but in Colonial $merica. !eligious leaders such as #illiam -enn established large tracts of land for those who desired to leave )urope and establish a new home where they could practice their faith as they desired. )ventually, Jewish people came to $merica for religious freedom and economic opportunities. $ncient forms of anti-Semitism did not die out with the rise of the open-minded philosophers. his is seen today as liberalism and pacifism
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which strongly favor -alestinian causes at the e%pense of the Jewish people. It is also seen in the denial of the historical 3olocaust and the reconstructed historical legacy of the Jewish people relative to their ancient land. Just as pseudo-scholarly falsification has removed the Christian heritage from $merican school te%tbooks, the true history of the Jewish people in Israel is being removed and already has been removed in $rab te%tbooks. he -alestinian 0iberation 5rgani"ation B-05C has officially sponsored the denial of both the 3olocaust and Jewish legacies to the land.

Digure -inder that tortured on the hacked off,

/?. he beheading of #olfgang -inder. In 9@;9, #olfgang was arrested for preaching doctrines, such as adult baptism, were contrary to the Catholic Church. Dor this he was rack. #hen he refused to change his mind his head was as the e%ecutioner had great difficulty in his assigned task.

#ith Christianity liberali"ed, there was no firm belief in Christ. hey removed grace, miracles and revelation from Scripture leaving only Fnatural religionI and Fnatural law,I the belief of men such as 1en+amin Dranklin./?? 1eginning at a slow pace but eventually hastening, the movement of apostasy accelerated.

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In 'ermany there was a rise of anti-Semitic philosophies and attitudes that originated from both secular and Christian leadership. 0ater, men like Johann 'ottfried 3erder and Johann #olfgang von 'oethe took every opportunity to attack the Jewish people. 0utheran theology formed the classical 'erman philosophy that became a form of progressive seculari"ation. $s if to build upon 0uther(s theology, the new liberal theology &uickly became the new foundation for age-old anti-Jewish propaganda./?9 he seeds and sprouts for 3itler(s 3olocaust were being nurtured by churchmen. he Jewish people were the continuous recipients of discrimination and persecution. hey were prohibited from working in various trades, so they were forced to pursue occupations based upon academic performance. Since they had for centuries memori"ed vast portions of Scripture, they &uickly adapted to the new modern academic culture that was developing. hey e%celled in the arts, medicine, sciences, and economics. hus, the intended curse of previous generations would, with the help of 'od, become a profound blessing within the coming century. Conse&uently, today the Jewish people, who comprise less than one-half of one percent of the world(s population, hold over twenty percent of the .obel -eace -ri"es, far more than any other ethnic group. "arly 1-th Century/ 4ope ?eo G Sympathetic to e+s -ope 0eo N was sympathetic to the oppression of the Jewish people, but he had to deal with a number of theological issues that he considered heresies, including the teachings of 4artin 0uther. he !eformation was beginning to swell forth and the !oman Catholic Church was being challenged like never before. he pope had compassion for Jewish sufferings, but it was not on his list of priorities. In an era when many called for persecution, he was truly a welcome relief. 1ut the Jewish people continued to plead to 'od for help.

The (ise of Christian ,ionism in the 1ace of Church-Sponsored Anti-Semitism <1#0#-1;77> 1-th and 1.th Centuries/ "arly Sta)es of 4ietist 3ovement $s the !eformation began to formulate and change the face of Christianity, there were those who publicly confessed on rare occasions that
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they believed that 'od still had a plan for the Jewish people. )arly voices were often s&uelched, but as time passed, more of them filled the seminaries and pulpits until one missionary movement after another was founded to help establish the Jewish people in their ancient land. he 9Ath and 9;th centuries also witnessed the early stages of the Christian -ietist 4ovement that was outspoken in support of the Jew. Some historians have argued that the reason some preachers supported the Jewish people may not have been for the purpose of promoting good will, but rather, they saw the return of the Jewish people to the 3oly 0and as part of a divine plan to be fulfilled prior to the return of Jesus. 3ence, they helped the Jewish people, not because they wanted to help those who were persecuted, but because they wanted Jesus to return. #hile that may have been true for a few, there were many who not only supported the Jewish people, but did so at great sacrifice in their anti-Jewish home communities. 1#0#/ 6avid (eu&eni and a 3essianic Hope ,avid !eubeni traveled throughout #estern )urope ac&uiring funds to finance an army that would con&uer -alestine as the Crusaders had done centuries earlier. If successful, -alestine would have become a homeland for the wandering Jewish people. 3e appealed to the pope, who in turn recommended he ask *ing Charles 7 of -ortugal and the )mperor of the 3oly !oman )mpire. he )uropean Jews supported him and hoped that his victory would permit them to return to their -romised 0and. Dor centuries they had dreamed of returning and some wondered if !eubeni would become their messiah. #hen he finally met with the king, he was immediately arrested and e%ecuted./?/ heir hopes and dreams of returning to Jerusalem were again crushed. 1#3. - 1#87/ Suleiman the 3a)nificent #hile the Church and )urope were struggling with the problem of what to do with the Jewish peopleL in Jerusalem, the *urdish leader Suleiman the 4agnificent sei"ed control of the 3oly City. 3is legacy is that he reconstructed the 5ld City wall which visitors admire today. 5ne of the biblical mysteries that perple%ed scholars for centuries was the -rophet )"ekiel(s prediction that the closed )astern 'ate would be opened for the 4essiah B>>E9-<C. he difficulty lies in the fact that until this time the )astern 'ate was +ust like any other gateL open during the day and closed at night. #hen Suleiman heard of the e%pectant 4essiah who would enter through the )astern 'ate, he was determined that no Jewish or Christian 4essiah would succeed. 3e sealed it with stones and placed a
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Church, :.

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cemetery along the outer wall. 3e believed that no holy man would ever walk over the graves of dead men and, if he did, the sealed gate would prevent his entry. 3ence, the gate was permanently shut preventing anyone from entering it. Met the prophet said, hen 3e brought me back by the way of the outer gates of the sanctuary, which faces the eastL and it was shut. $nd the 0ord said to me, F his gate shall be shutL it shall not be opened, and no one shall enter it, for the 0ord 'od of Israel has entered by itL therefore it shall be shut.I $s for the prince, he shall sit in it as prince to eat bread before the 0ordL he shall enter by way of the porch of the gate and shall go out by the same way. )"ekiel >>E9-< Suleiman, like his namesake, *ing Solomon, was a wise and caring monarch, although a 4uslim. 3e was respected by )uropean pilgrims and was considered by his fellow countrymen as the ideal ruler. 3is people called him the Ganuni, meaning the Flaw giver.I 3is greatest gift to the Jewish people was permission for them to pray at the #estern B#ailingC #all. 0ife, for both Christians and Jews, under Suleiman was far better than under the 4amluke )gyptians. 1##0/ 4u&lication of The Wandering Jew he centuries-old myth of the wandering Jew is believed to have originated with ertullian B9@?-/<?C, although other scholars believe it originated during the Crusades. 5ne version of the story begins with the 3igh -riest(s officer BJn. 9=E/?-//C, a Jew, who struck Jesus and, therefore, became the mythological figure. $nother version states that a Jewish man struck Jesus as 3e carried the cross to Calvary. $ccording to that story, as a punishment for striking the Son of 'od, the Jew was condemned to wander throughout the world until the Second Coming of Jesus B4t. 9AE/=L Jn. /9E/?C, hence the name, :andering Jew. -romoters of the myth say the Jew has appeared at various sites throughout )urope since the first century. In 9//< he was seen in a monastery in $rmenia and again in 9@>/, when he entered a church in 'ermany. his gave rise to the 9@@/ publication of another Fsighting.I hereafter, the mythical figure was said to have been seen more fre&uently in many ma+or )uropean cities. 3e is known by several names such as $hasuerus, 1outedieu, or )spera en ,ios, depending on the language and nation. he legendary character became the sub+ect of many poems, stories, books, and plays and the moral of the story is always

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the sameE he Jew remains cursed for the death of Christ while the Church is blessed, an interpretation that is the essence of !eplacement heology. /?<

1##8/ "dict to $urn e+ish $oo%s -ersecution continued from the highest level within the !oman Catholic Church with the edict by -ope Julius to burn all Jewish commentaries and other religious writings. o the Jewish people, this was reminiscent of the pagan 'reek *ing $ntiochus I7 )piphanes, who ruled Jerusalem in the early second century 1C. $ntiochus, not only burned all Jewish writings, but e%ecuted Jewish people who owned the Scriptures, destroyed their homes and synagogues.

Digure /9. he cover of the edict issued by -ope Julius on 4ay /:, 9@@>, commanding the burning of all copies of the Jewish Talmud. 1#8# - 1#-3/ The Council of Trent Several Catholic clergymen reali"ed the persecution had to end and, with references to 3ebrews AEA and 9 Corinthians /E=, the catechism of the Council of rent proclaimed the following decreeE
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'likson, F#andering Jew.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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In this guilt Bi.e., the Crucifi%ionC are involved all those who fall fre&uently into sinL for as our sins cosigned Christ the 0ord to the death of the cross, most certainly those who wallow in sin and ini&uities crucify to themselves again the Son of 'od as far as in their lives, and make a mockery of 3im. his guilt seems more enormous in us than in the Jews since according to the testimony of the same apostleL If they had known it, they would never have crucified the 0ord of 'loryL while we, on the contrary, professing to know 3im, yet denying 3im by our actions, seem in some sort to lay violent hand on 3im./?> 6nfortunately, history demonstrates that the new catechism failed to impact the culture. he Council took 9= years to conclude all of its Church affairs, which is indicative of great dispute which e%isted among the clergymen. he decree reflects e%cellence in theology, but it never impacted any lives and, therefore, was all but worthless. he anti-Semitic pressures made true conversion nearly impossible. his was one among several reforms introduced to create a more compassionate environment for the Jewish people. here are various opinions as to whether or not these reforms were in response to 0uther, Zwingli, and Calvin, or if the Church reali"ed the time had come for some changes. !egardless, the e%clusive power of the pope was curbed by introducing assemblies of bishops known as Councils, who re-e%amined the death of Jesus. hey concluded that 3is death was 3is decision and all persons areRwere responsible theologically for 3is death. his doctrine is basic to every Christian and should have ended the persecutions, but unfortunately, it was forgotten and did not surface again until 7atican II in 9:A@. #ith the !eformation came common access to the 1ible and some churchmen reali"ed the return of Jesus was linked with the return of the Jewish people to -alestine Bancient IsraelC. he early promoters of this new teaching often suffered as much as did the Jewish people, yet they preached what they felt 'od said in the 1ible and spoke in their hearts. 1#;2/ 1rances Dett! 1irst Christian ,ionist 3artyred oday it is difficult to imagine that a Christian was once martyred for teaching that 'od still had a plan for the Jewish people. Met a devout man named Drances *ett was burned at the stake for e%pressing that belief and insisting that the 1ible prophesied a return of the Jewish people to their

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ancient promised land. 3e is considered to be the first 'entile martyr to die for proclaiming the future return of the Jews to their -romised 0and. 1#28 - 1-.-/ Isaac de la 4eyrere Isaac de la -eyrere, Drench $mbassador to ,enmark, argued persuasively in his book for a restoration of the Jewish people to Israel without demanding their conversion to the Christian faith. Conse&uently, he too faced severe criticism and threats to his life. 4en such as he understood they were going against the popular tide of theologians and laypeople, yet stood firm on what they believed to be 'od(s prophetic #ord. 1-01/ Sir Henry 1inch Sir 3enry Dinch believed the Jewish people would find salvation, and after their repentance, would return to their land. 3e presented his theological argument in a publication titled The Restoration of the Jews. #hile he no doubt had great hopes for the advancement of his ideas, it is doubtful he or his publisher ever e%pected to spend time in a dungeon prison for promoting such provocative ideas. heir unpopular e%perience discouraged some theologians, yet the idea continued to thrive among the -uritans and a few other groups./?@ The 3yth of 3oney ?enders Dor many centuries the Church enforced the policy of restricting Christians from charging interest on money borrowed by other Christians. 3owever, there was no restriction against borrowing money from, and paying interest to, a non-Christian. Conse&uently Jewish people would lend to their Christian neighbors. Sometimes, they were forced to lend money to Christian rulers who needed funds. 5ften these loans were not repaid. Met for centuries the Jewish people provided the only credit sources throughout )urope. Drom this lending practice arose the myth that Jewish people were e%tremely wealthy and planned to eventually take control of the global economy. #hile the banking powerhouse of the !othschild family was indeed an international lender, their success added support to the myths that all Jewish people were rich. #hile some were wealthy, the Debruary, 9:<A issue of 1ortune revealed that Jewish people had virtually no role in banking or heavy industry in the late 9:th and early /?th centuries./?A he myth of Jewish wealth was also reali"ed when they returned to the land of their ancestors. 3undreds of thousands came with only a suitcase
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Church, :. 'lock and Stark, 9?:-99?.

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and the clothes on their back. hey were so poor that Christian ministries financed their return. Dor centuries they were victims in many ways. 1-72/ Thomas $ri)htman: 3omentum of Christian ,ionism. homas 1rightman published a book in 1asel, Swit"erland, titled Re/elation to Re/elation. 3is thesis was that the biblical prophets confirmed the return of the Jewish people to Jerusalem. 3e posed this &uestionE F#hatQ Shall they return to Jerusalem againKI 3is response was, F$bsolutelyQI 1y this time the emerging Christian Zionist movement was building momentum while anti-Semitism was growing. 1-10/ 9erman Slau)hter of e+s his year was especially devastating for Jewish people who lived in Drankfort-am-4ain, as FChristianI riots killed Jewish people wherever they could be found. Such killing sprees often had the blessing of the clergy.

Digure //. $n illustration of the ruthless slaughter of 'erman Jews at Drankfort-am-4ain in 9A9/. !iots were often caused by fictitious rumors. 1.th Century/ 4uritanism he rise of -uritanism in )ngland led some biblical scholars to become Christian 3ebraists and, as such, they were knowledgeable in the
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3ebrew language and rabbinical writings. his religious movement was essentially interested in making the Church as perfect as possible, re+ecting anything that resembled the ancient !oman-'reco )mpire, culture and religion, and hence their name, the -uritans. hey were the pastors and teachers of )ngland and .ew )ngland who desired to purify the Church of )ngland, a task that to them seemed as ominous as purifying hell itself. In the search for the deep meaning of Scripture, they turned to the Jewish roots of Christianity for study and became &uite compassionate about the plight of the Jewish people. hey firmly believed in the restoration of the state of Israel and the Jewish people before the second coming of Jesus. /?; 1-1- - 1-;3/ ohn *+en and (o&ert ?ei)hton !ev. John 5wen was undoubtedly one of the greatest -uritan theologians of his time, with a well-respected position in the Church. #hile many of his ideas had been preached previously by other pastors, his words carried incredible weight. $s a -uritan he taught that Christians ought to live a pure and holy lifestyle, separated from the evils of this world and the dead traditions of the Church. $s to the eventual return of the Jewish people to -alestine, he said, he Jews shall be gathered from all parts of the earth where they are scattered, and be brought home to their homeland ... here is not any promise anywhere of rising up a kingdom unto the 0ord Jesus Christ in this world but it is either e%pressed, or clearly intimated, that the beginning of it must be with the Jews./?= #ith spiritual eyes, 5wen looked into the future and saw them returning home to their promised land as predicted by )"ekiel, Isaiah, and other prophets. !obert 0eighton, an associate of John 5wens, affirmed the position of the -uritan Church, which influenced other -rotestant churches and leaders such as Charles Spurgeon. 0eighton wroteE hey forget a main point of the Church(s glory, we pray daily for the conversions of the Jews ... 6ndoubtedly, that people of the Jews shall once more be commanded to arise and shine, and their children shall be the riches of the 'entiles B!om. 99E9/C, and that shall be a more glorious time than ever the Church of 'od did yet behold. /?:
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3eilbrun, FColeridge and Judaism.I 99/. John 5wen, &uoted by homas, 9@@-@;. !obert 0eighton, &uoted by homas, 9@@-@;.

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1-8;/ Sha&etai ,vi! the e+ish 3essiah In times of severe persecution, the Jewish people desperately searched for a messiah who would deliver them from their affliction. ,uring the 9;th century they were persecuted in various communities throughout )urope. 3oping to bring relief to fellow people, in 9A>= Shabetai Zvi Bb. 9A/A in SmyrnaC, achieved heroism when he announced that he was that messiah. Zvi was well educated in Jewish mysticism, known as the *abala, and claimed to have divine insights. #hen his Jewish neighbors re+ected his messiahship he refused to give up his messianic illusion. In 9AA@, he sent his friend .athan into Jerusalem pretending to be the F)li+ahI who announced that the messiah was coming. Zvi then made his grand entry into the 3oly City. #ord of the historic event spread like wildfire throughout )urope and northern $frica causing Jewish people to return to -alestine by the thousands, in hopes that Zvi would establish a Jewish kingdom. he urks who ruled -alestine viewed the situation with great skepticism, reali"ing that if he really was the messiah, there would be a serious military conflict. he urks knew that the Jewish people prayed daily for a return to Jerusalem and the coming of their long awaited messiah. o avoid a potential conflict, the urks offered Zvi the opportunity to either convert to Islam or be killed. he self-appointed messiah suddenly received a stroke of reality wisdom and converted. he event brought forth incredible devastation and discouragement among his followers and Jewish people worldwide were again humiliated and seen as mere fools.

Digure /<. he 9AAA Jewish prayer-book with an image of Sabbatai Zvi and his disciples. #hen he was twenty years old, the selfproclaimed Jewish messiah applied Isaiah 9>E9> to himself.
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1-#3 - 1-#;/ e+s (eturn to "n)land In )ngland the Jewish people found life to be more promising than in other areas of )urope. Since they were e%pelled previously from )ngland, !abbi 4anasseh ben Israel addressed the 0ord -rotector of )ngland, 5liver Cromwell, seeking permission for them to return. 1en Israel argued that based on biblical prophecy, when the messiah /9? comes he would first visit those Jewish people who lived the farthest from Jerusalem. he implication was that the messiah would come first to )ngland. Cromwell, a -uritan and 0ord -rotector of )ngland, welcomed the Jewish people, but found considerable opposition from the $nglican Church that controlled the government. #hile there was no official approval, many Jewish people returned and lived unmolested and in peace. /99 Cromwell(s favorable attitude toward them was so highly distinguished from other political figures, that his opponents said some Jews honored him as their messiah.

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Digure />. 0)D . $ petition, dated 4arch />, 9A@@, by 4anasseh Israel addressed to 0ord 5liver Cromwell, re&uesting permission for Jews to return to their homes in )ngland.

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he term FmessiahI has lower case FmI because the Jews have never associated deity with their messiah.
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.icholls, /:@.

9<>

Digure /@. !I'3 . $n Israeli medallion issued in 9:@A honors Cromwell and 4anasseh on the <??th anniversary of the return of Jewish people to )ngland. 1-#8 - 1.78/ ohann Andreas "isenmen)er #hile in $msterdam in 9A=?-=9, -rotestant 1ible Scholar )isenmenger was astonished to learn that three Christians had converted to Judaism. $s a result, for 9: years he studied the almud and 4idrash with Jewish people while hiding his true anti-Semitic feelings. In 9A=A, as an appointed lecturer at 3eidelberg 6niversity he wrote a manuscript promoting Jewish hatred titled 2as 0ntdec te Judentum BJudaism 6nmaskedC. he te%t was filled with mis&uotes, lies and half-truths. In 9A::, when he was about to have it published, some influential Christians, including the archbishop of 4ain", stood up to defend the Jewish people. he hate-filled publication was so controversial that it was stopped by the 'erman )mperor. )isenmenger stated that the Jewish people practiced blood libel Bchild sacrifice at -assoverC and poisoned wells. 3e was e%tremely influential in 'erman seminaries, since theological studies had become philosophical at this time. 3is message of anti-Semitism was preached from hundreds of pulpits throughout 'ermany. 3e would have preached throughout )urope, but he died suddenly in 9;?>. 3is heirs persisted in having the manuscript published, but found great opposition. Dinally, in 9;99, it was published secretly with additional printings as late as 9=:<. he 'erman scholar, who was admired as an educated Christian, authored a work that was to be a ma+or influence in the development of the horrific antiSemitic /?th century )urope./9/ ?ate 1-77s/ Academic 6e&ates on $i&lical Interpretation here have always been discussions of biblical interpretations. Scholars now debated whether to interpret the 1ible literally or allegorically. )ven in the days of Jesus, rabbis were famous for their never-ending debates and arguments and counter-arguments. ,uring the !eformation, 4artin 0uther and his colleagues debated the Catholic clergy. 0ater both debated against leaders of other -rotestant sects. #ith the rise of the $ge of !eason B)nlightenmentC the issues became more diverse and intense. #hile some concentrated on whether the Jews would someday return to Israel, others Bphilosopher-theologiansC &uestioned whether the Jewish people had a right to e%ist at all. Durthermore, key elements of biblical doctrine that had never been previously challenged, such as the deity of Jesus, were now being debated.
/9/

$vneri, F)isenmenger, Johann $ndreas.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

13#

#hile one group held to a literal interpretation, the other became more philosophical and eventually dominated )uropean culture. In the following pages, leading scholars and clergymen of literal interpretation, who supported the Jewish people are presented. Certainly not all who held to this e%egesis were pro-Jewish people or pro-Israel, but some were. 0eading philosopher-theologians are also presented, as their influence is often associated with the Church(s approval of the social-political scene that fostered the 3olocaust. $s will be shown, several went so far as to recommend e%termination of the Jewish people years before the name $dolf 3itler was known to anyone. ?ate 1-77s/ Aetherlands is Dinder to e+s he 3olland ,utch e%tended a kinder hand to the Jewish people than did many of their )uropean counterparts. #hile Jewish people were still often considered second-class foreigners, at least they were given a degree of tolerance. he ,utch re&uired the Jewish people to not engage in trades that would compete with Christian craftsmenL any trade or occupation for which there was a trade guild Bsimilar to a unionC, was prohibited from Jewish enterprise. hese restrictions forced Jewish people to look elsewhere for economic opportunity. #ith the rise of the industrial revolution, Jewish people entered businesses, medicine, and professional careers where many prospered.

9<A

Digure /AE In 9A:@, $msterdam officials issued an official 5ccupation ,ecree which stated that foreign Jews could settle in the city on the condition that they did not perform a trade for which they would have to be a member of a trade guild. hereby Jewish craftsmen could not compete against Christian craftsmen for business. Courtesy of the -ortuguese Israelitic Congregation, $msterdam. 1.77s/ The 6evelopment of 9erman Hi)her Criticism he apostasy Bdefined as a departure from biblical orthodo%yC of Christian theologians was like the proverbial snowball that rolled down the mountain. #hat began on the mountain top as a few snowflakes bonded together and became a massive avalanche when it reached the valley. 0ikewise, with the theological movement of ideas from one generation to the ne%t, the intensity grew e%perientially. Critics first attacked the leadership of the Church Bsome with good cause, by the wayC, then they attacked the 1ible. he ne%t step was to critici"e others who disagreed with them, which was identical to what the Church had done previously. In each progressive generation of )uropean theologians the snowball of apostasy grew bigger and bigger until the 3olocaust. hen everyone wondered how it could have happened. 3igher criticism was formed in the process of building the snowball of apostasy. F3igher criticismI is the analysis of the 1ible as though it was authored by men without any divine influence. It originated with Jean $struc B9A=>-9;AAC, a Drench scientist and physician, but was carried to its fullness by 'erman theologians. 1y the 9=??s higher criticism had liberali"ed a number of -rotestant denominations and was instrumental in the development of the liberal !eformed Judaism. raditional 5rthodo% Jews were horrified at the new hermeneutics and insulted the !eformed Jews by calling them Fgoyim,I meaning F'entiles.I .eedless to say, Jewish antiSemitism was on the rise. 1-28 - 1..;/ Holtaire Drancois-4arie $rouet, more commonly known as 7oltaire, was a Dreemason and harsh critic of Christianity. 3e was, undoubtedly, the greatest contributor to the destruction of traditional family and religious values in )urope prior to the Drench !evolution. ,uring his time racial issues were on the academic menu in )uropean universities and he fully accepted ,arwin(s ideas of evolution. 3e taught that the black $fricans were an intermediate species between the superior white race and the ape. /9< #hile he was a
/9<

-oliakov, F7oltaire.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

13.

devotee of racism, he focused even more criticisms on the 1ible, Jewish people, and the Church. #ith so many others of the $ge of !eason, he provided ample fuel for the /?th century 3olocaust./9> $nti-Semitism was well established by 9= th century philosophers. 7oltaire stated the Jewish religion was filled with ancient pagan attitudes and practices. 3e described them in his Philosophical 2ictionary as, Fa totally ignorant nation who for many years has combined contemptible miserliness and the most revolting superstition with a violent hatred of all those nations that have tolerated them. .evertheless, they should not be burned at the stake.I/9@ 3e agreed with Johann 'ottfried 3erder who said Jewish people were Fa parasitic plant, clinging to almost all )uropean nations and sucking their marrow.I/9A Students of 7oltaire, 3erder, and )isenmenger preached the message of anti-Semitism from hundreds of pulpits throughout 'ermany and )urope. )ven outbreaks of disease, severe weather conditions, war, and civil unrest were blamed on them. 0ittle wonder then, that the Church was influential in fostering the future 3olocaust. $nti-Semitic images were engraved in bridges and public buildings throughout Drance and 'ermany as they had been in churches.

/9> /9@ /9A

Ibid. Cited by )ttinger, F he 4odern -eriod,I in 1en Sasson, ;>@. .icholls, /:A.

9<=

while

Digure /;. $n illustration Bc.9;9>-9;9;C on the bridge tower in Drankfurt, 'ermany. he top image BchildC is one of blood libel, but the main theme is that of Jews drinking urine and milk from a pig another Jew with demonic horns, looks on.

9;9; - 9;:9E Johann ,avid 4ichaelis Johann ,avid 4ichaelis was the first of the 0utheran FrationalistsI who sub+ected the Scriptures to the verification test of reason. In his opinion, there were some sections of the 1ible that were believable, but many others failed the test. $s a professor at the 6niversity of 'ottingen his views were highly respected in the world of academia. 3e sharply critici"ed those who in any manner were favorable to the Jew. $ccording to 4ichaelis, the Jewish people were incorrigible and incapable of regeneration because of their stubbornness to live according to the 4osaic 0aws and because of their religious beliefs, the following four traits e%isted in every JewE 9. Jews were vicious and dishonest. B3e even calculated that they were e%actly /@ times more so than Christians.C /. hey were without honor, and the fact that some of them no longer followed the 4osaic 0aw aggravated this criticismE F... when I see a Jew disgracing his religion by eating pig, how can I believe his promiseKI hey were worthless as soldiers because of their small stature and also because they refused to fight on the SabbathL this concern with military value is already characteristic of 'ermany and, we think, of 'ermany aloneL finally hey did not have a religion in a proper sense, since the 4osaic 0aw stipulated how to act and not what to believe./9;

<.

>.

wo points of his systematic viewpoints are significant in light of the fact that this was written at a time when there was nationalistic fever for 'erman provinces to become a unified 'ermany. Dirst is the impossibility of the Jew to find salvation. 3is last point strongly implies that if there is no belief in an afterlife, then patriotism for the homeland is &uestionable. #hat may be most significant in this Ftheological treatiseI is that it grossly lacks both theological foundation and rational reasoning. /9= wo centuries later these ideas would be used by one of history(s notorious e%ecutioners, $dolf 3itlerE

/9; /9=

-oliakov, 8oltaire to :agner. 9;;. -oliakov, F7oltaire.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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Dor here also everything is borrowed, or rather, stolen J precisely by virtue of his own being, the Jew cannot possess a religious organi"ation for he lacks idealism in any form and thereby the belief in the beyond is &uite alien to him. 1ut from the $ryan standpoint a religion cannot be conceived which lacks conviction in the life after death in one form or another. In truth, the almud is not a book of preparation for the life beyond but only for a practical and tolerable life in this world. $dolf 3itler, #ein Gampf Chapter 99/9: Drom the views propagated by 4ichaelis, a student of his, Johann 'ottlieb Dichte, espoused the idea of an F$ryan Christ,I which became popular throughout )uropean Christianity. Just as the Jewishness of Jesus and the Christian faith were eradicated by the 'entile Church in $, 9<@ and Constantine in the early fourth century, Jesus was now given a complete make-over as to have the image of the ideal 'erman. 3ence, in artwork Jesus was shown to be of fair comple%ion with 'ermanic features. Dichte went on to glorify the 'erman people as a superior human race. his became grounds for Fscientific racismI and a key element of 3itler(s doctrine. //? It is almost unimaginable that such evil ideas came forth from a school of theology in a land that birthed the !eformation. It is no wonder great )uropean artists like !embrandt painted elderly Jewish people dancing naked like apes and Jewish women were shown to be parading around unclothed. Jewish children were illustrated by sadistic professors as sub+ects of moral and physical deformity in the emerging Fracial science.I//9 hey simply reflected the attitudes of the Church culture in which they lived. 1.08 - 1;78 Immanuel Dant Immanuel *ant, another leading 'erman philosopher-theologian, said that true religion is an ethical religion in which the kingdom of 'od is nothing more than an ethical government. 3e believed that of all religions, Christianity was the best hope to achieve this end, because of its emphasis on love and forgiveness and that it was grounded in pure reason. 3is philosophy influenced and directed the rising tide of liberalism in Christianity and Judaism. /// Durthermore, *ant was e%tremely anti-Semitic and stated in his book, The :ar of the 1aculties, that F he euthanasia of
/9: //? //9 ///

Cited by -oliakov, 8oltaire to :agner. @9?. -oliakov, 8oltaire to :agner. 9=9-=/. 6ssher, :=. 7ogel, F*ant, Immanuel.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

9>?

Judaism can only be achieved by means of a pure moral solution and the abandonment of all the old legal regulations Bi.e., JudaismC.I //< 3e essentially suggested that it was necessary to either kill the Jewish people physically or to kill them spiritually and culturally by eliminating the 4osaic 0aw and heritage. $nother philosopher-theologian, d(3olbach, wrote of the Jews in this mannerE he revolting policy of the Jewish legislator B4osesC has erected a stone wall between his people and all other nations. Since they are submissive only to their priests, the Jews have become enemies to the human race... he Jews have always displayed contempt for the clearest dictates of morality and the law of nations... hey were ordered to be cruel, inhuman, intolerant, thieves, traitors and betrayers of trust... In short, the Jews have become a nation of robbersU. hey have become notorious for deception and unfairness in trade, and it may be assumed that if they were stronger, they would, in many cases, revive the tragedies Bnot describedC that occurred so fre&uently in their country. //> hese comments by d(3olbach were obviously not true, but such false accusations filled the pulpits for more than two centuries. .eedless to say, philosophers and theologians such as *ant, 7oltaire, and d(3olbach had no concept of the true Christian faith. 1.0;/ Institutum Judaicum! The 4ietist 3ovement In sharp contrast to the liberal movement in many )uropean seminaries, especially those of 'ermany, was the Institutum Judaicum. It was led by Johann 3einrich Callenberg B9A:>-9;A?C, an outstanding -rotestant theologian who studied rabbinical writings e%tensively. In 9;/=, he established the Institute in 3alle, 'ermany for the training of missionaries. Students studied 3ebrew and rabbinical literature so they would be effective in presenting the gospel to the Jewish people. //@ Callenberg was also uni&ue in teaching that the Jewish people should be treated well for several reasons. Dirst, they gave 'entiles the Scriptures. Second, it was incumbent upon Christians to learn the rabbinical writings and 3ebrew language to encourage the Jewish people to become a part of the faith. hird, Jewish people should maintain their uni&ue religious-cultural
//< //> //@

.icholls, /::. Cited by )ttinger, F he 4odern -eriod.I in 1en Sasson, ;>@. See also 4evorah,

0oewe, FCallenberg, Johann 3einrichI 0ncyclopedia Judaic. F-recursors of the -ietist PInstitutum Judaicum.(I ::-9?>.

181

traditions as believers and fourth, that Christians should defend the Jewish people from false accusations Bi.e. blood libelC. Dinally, he stated that a time would come when all Jewish people would collectively convert to Christianity. o Callenberg and his faculty, any missionary attempt to divert the Jewish people from their traditional ways was to oppose the divine plan of 'od J the plan of salvation was to be made attractive and inviting to them. 5bviously, what the Institutum Judaicum promoted was radical for its time.//A In 9;:9, it was absorbed into a larger educational system, where it lost its vision and mission. 1.-0 - 1;18 ohann 1ichte Dichte, also a leading 'erman philosopher-theologian firmly believed in the superior &ualities of the 'erman people and their spirit, so much so that he denied the Jewishness of Jesus. 3e went so far as to be convinced that there had to be some mystical connection between the gods and the 'erman race. Ironically, Dichte claimed to have a reverence for the 1ible while completely re+ecting the Jewish religion. 3e was the father of 'erman nationalism and years later 3itler would preach his message of a pure 'erman race to the masses. //; $t one time when speaking on the sub+ect of Jewish civil rights Dichte said that, FI see no other way of doing this e%cept to cut off all their heads one night and substitute other heads without a single Jewish thought in them.... I see no alternative but to con&uer their promised land for them and to dispatch them all there.I//= Clearly, the 'erman seminaries were setting the stage for the coming 3olocaust. he theologian(s words were prophetic, for in 9:<= .a"i )ichmann and Irgun Zvai 0eumi organi"ed illegal immigration of Jewish people from 'ermany and $ustria to -alestine. //: In all probability Dichte was the first anti-Semite to recommend Zionism as a solution to the FJewish problemI in )urope. he Jewish people who were sent to -alestine eventually considered themselves blessed for having survived the 'erman reign of terror. Dichte(s philosophical arguments became fuel for theological discussions in 'erman seminaries and by the 9:<?s those seminaries had degraded into theological agreement with $dolf 3itler. 0ittle wonder that modern Jewish people have difficulty distinguishing true Christianity from the so-called Christianity espoused by these philosopher-theologians. 1..7s/ The E9iftF of Haym Salomon
//A //; //= //:

4evorah, F-recursors of the -ietist PInstitutum Judaicum.(I 9?@. 3ugo, FDichte, Johann 'ottlieb.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. Cited by )ttinger, F he 4odern -eriodI in 1en Sasson, ;>@. .icholls, /:=.

9>/

In the 9;;?s the $merican colonies were in the process of fighting for their independence from 'reat 1ritain. he colonists, for the most part, had insufficient funding to carry on a war. 3aym Salomon, a Jewish businessman and broker, purchased and sold financial papers and raised money for !obert 4orris, who was the Superintendent of Dinance for the Colonial Congress. Salomon believed the principles of the founding fathers would bring a future free of persecution for his people. he !evolution was more difficult and e%pensive than anticipated and 4orris returned repeatedly to Salomon for financial assistance. 4any historians doubt that independence would have succeeded were it not for this gracious businessman. 1y the time true independence was achieved and peace was instituted, the new country was in debt to him for an astounding Y=??,???. 3owever, the broker died in poverty at the age of >@. #hen his widow and four young children tried to collect on the debt, no papers could be found. Sadly, all that is known of him today is that he was buried somewhere in the 4ikveh Israel Cemetery in -hiladelphia and most $mericans have never reali"ed their indebtedness to the Salomon family. 1.;0/ The "dict of Toleration he kings of 'ermany, 3ungary, 1ohemia, and the archduke of $ustria, along with the duke of 0orraine and 1urgandy, all of whom were part of the fading !oman )mpire, decreed the Jewish people could have limited freedoms. hey now had access to education and selected occupations but were e%cluded from public office. .onetheless, for the benefit of en+oying these privileged freedoms, they were ta%ed heavily. /<? 1.;2/ Henri $aptiste 9re)oire <1.#7-1;31> In ,ecember 3enri 1aptiste 'regoire encouraged his Drench Jansenist Church Ba small independent !oman Catholic Church in 3ollandC to be friendlier to the Jewish people. $s a scholar he participated in academic debates in which he, in 9;=:, shared first pri"e on an essay titled 0ssay on the Physical, #oral, and Political Reformation of the Jews . 3e argued that the Church(s treatment of the Jews resulted in their refusal to accept the Christian faith and that such a conversion would come about only by kindness, tolerance, and the demonstration of the true love of Jesus. 3e also claimed that the return of Christ would occur only after a full-scale conversion of the Jews. $s the result of his presentation, the Drench .ational $ssembly granted the Jewish people full emancipation in 9;:9. hereafter, 'regoire toured throughout )urope preaching on their behalf, their future in -alestine, and the Second Coming of Christ./<9
/<? /<9

Isaacs and 5lit"ky, <9. 4evorah, F'regoire, 3enri 1aptiste.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

183

1.2#/ ?ondon 3issionary Society he 0ondon 4issionary Society was established and by 9=?9 Joseph Samuel Christian Drederick Drey was its first Jewish missionary. 3owever, the good-hearted 'entile Christians were too difficult for him to work with, so by 9=?: Drey established the 0ondon Jewish -eople Society. $s a Jew, he had a passion to preach the gospel of Jesus to his Jewish brothers and sisters and became known as the FDather of 4odern Jewish 4issions.I /</ Since fundraising was difficult in )urope, he eventually came to the 6nited States where he was well received and obtained greater financial support. 1.2-/ e+ish Citi@enship 6e&ated &y the Holland 6utch he 1atavian B,utchC .ational $ssembly debated granting Jewish people full citi"enship. he debates centered on the issue of whether the Jews were a separate people and, if so, should they be granted citi"enshipK Drenchman 'regoire argued on their behalf, but the opposition cited that the Jewish people still hoped to return to -alestine, the land of their forefathers. If they were considered aliens in every other country, why should 3olland be differentK Still, others argued they were a landless religious group having no state, but deserving of one. /<< he heated verbal conflicts spread from the $ssembly chambers to the pulpits. 3owever, an overwhelming ma+ority of evangelicals, who were members of the $ssembly, used their influence to win social freedoms and human rights for them. 1.2- - 1;-2/ 9eor)e 9a+ler 'awler was an evangelical Christian who believed in the literal interpretation of biblical prophecy as it pertained to the Jews. In 9=>@ he published a pamphlet stating that it was 'od(s plan to have the Jews return to -alestine and replenish the deserted towns and fields. 3e produced numerous publications including one titled, Tran"uili5ation of Syria and the 0ast& .bser/ations and Practical Suggestions in 1urtherance of the 0stablishment of Jewish -olonies in Palestine. 3e was influential within evangelical circles and is generally credited with persuading Sir 4oses 4ontefiore of 0ondon to finance settlements in -alestine, in spite of the fact that some Jewish leaders opposed both men. Mears later his son John Co% 'awler continued the cause of establishing a Jewish homeland. /<>

/</ /<< /<>

1+oraker, A/-A<. .icholls, <??. *ressel, F'awler, 'eorge.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

9>>

1.77 - 1;77s/ Some e+s Holuntarily oin the Church. $n estimated ten percent of )uropean Jewish people +oined the Church, mainly the 0utheran Church, for a number of reasonsE to escape persecution, economic and employment opportunities and others because they reali"ed that Jesus was the Jewish 4essiah. hey came from every stratum of society J from the religious leaders, to the wealthy to the poorest of people. $mong those was Deli% 4endelssohn, grandson of the )urope(s famous rabbi and Jewish philosopher 4oses 4endelssohn. Deli% and his three siblings were bapti"ed in the 0utheran Church in 9=9A by their father, $braham. It was this family who would later give the world the great composer, Deli% 4endelssohn./<@ he strong Christian faith of the 4endelssohn family resulted in Deli% writing the music scores for a number of hymns and Christmas carols, including, F3ark the 3erald $ngels Sing.I

Aineteenth Century - (estoration 3ovement $ growing number of evangelical leaders and Jewish rabbis were preaching that the Jewish people should return to ancient Israel. !abbis saw a homeland as a place where they would be free of persecution and the Christians saw the return as a biblical mandate. 1y the end of the 9:th century the two small movements were growing in momentum, each one unaware of the similar activities of the other. Clearly, the hand of 'od was working in both to bring fulfillment to the prophetic words of Scripture. he political events of )urope in the 9= th century led a number of Christian leaders to conclude that the proverbial prophetic clock was winding downL Christ would soon return. Some preachers taught that .apoleon was the Flittle hornI of ,aniel ; and the !oman Catholic -ope was the FbeastI of !evelation 9<. Interest in biblical prophecy grew. his interest led directly to an appreciation for the Jewish people and the sending of missionaries to -alestine throughout the 9: th and /?th centuries. 3owever, among evangelical theologians there was a wide range of opinions concerning the fulfillment of future events. Dor e%ample, most commentaries written prior to the establishment of the state of Israel in 9:>= predicted that Israel would become a sovereign state during the 4illennial !eign of Christ. #hile history has proven otherwise, many other biblical prophecies concerning the restoration of Israel have been partially or fully fulfilled since the mid-9=??s.

/<@

.icholls, <?A.

18#

1.;2/ Aapoleon $onaparte .apoleon 1onaparte B9;A:-9=/9C and the Drench .ational $ssembly established the F,eclaration of the !ights of 4an and of the Citi"en.I 3e emancipated the Jewish people from )uropean ghettos and became so popular that $ustrian government officials were worried Jewish people would consider him to be their messiah. In the meantime, Christian hopes intensified in )ngland for the prophetic return of the Jewish people to -alestine, which in turn was thought to signal the return of Christ. /<A .apoleon had plans to con&uer the world and, in 9;:=, he invaded )gypt and attempted to do the same in -alestine. he brilliant con&ueror created a military machine that was swift and decisive. 3is incredible victories and atheistic beliefs posed a serious dilemma for the 4uslims. hey pondered how an atheist could defeat 4uslims, who are faithful followers of $llah, and how could an atheist befriend the Jewish peopleK he &uestions would haunt them for years, especially since they believed that $llah commanded them to kill or replace both Jewish people and Christians. .apoleon(s con&uest of )gypt and the influ% of )uropean colonialism that followed established strong anti-)uropeanRanti-#estern feelings that continue to this day. Since his con&uest, there has hardly been a five-year span when 4uslims did not suffer in some manner at the hand of #estern imperialists. herefore, the return of Jewish people from )urope later in the 9:th century caused immediate tension as $rabs and )gyptians felt they would again be victimi"ed. In 9;:: this atheistic world con&ueror called upon the 1ritish Christian !estoration 4ovement to help give the Jewish people their ancient homeland. 3is inspiration and dreams spread throughout )urope. 3is message was slow to grow in popularity, but it gained momentum for a future day. /<; 3e was the first head of state to openly call for a Jewish state and he decreed that -alestine be the home of the rightful heirs J the Jewish people. .apoleon was aware of the centuries-old sufferings of the Jewish people. In 9=?A he held a meeting to discuss the FJewish problem,I that is, what to do with them. 3e invited Jewish leaders, who firmly asserted their loyalty to Drance in every conceivable manner, including defense, even if it meant death. .apoleon then made the radical decision to revive the ancient Jewish court Bthe SanhedrinC, so rabbis could resolve problems within their community. 3is goal was to create a land for peace and safety for FDrenchmen of a 4osaic persuasion.I 3e made this profound statement, FI desire to take every means to ensure that the rights which were restored to
/<A /<;

4evorah, F.apoleon 1onaparte.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. Church, 9?.

9>A

the Jewish people be not illusory ... to find for them a Jerusalem in Drance.I/<= In 9=?; the Sanhedrin met in -aris and was the official representative of the Jewish people in the state of Drance. $s in the days of Christ, the organi"ation had ;? members, a president, and it was to function as its ancient predecessor. #hile .apoleon gave the Jewish people great cause for celebration, he failed miserably to convey the significance of his message to his countrymen. Conse&uently, in the years that followed, antiSemitism in Drance intensified, possibly more so than in neighboring 'ermany. It was so bad that Jewish scholar and researcher #illiam .icholls &uestioned why the 3olocaust did not occur in Drance instead of 'ermany. /<: his situation e%plains why, after the .a"i occupation of Drance, the Drench were very willing to cooperate with .a"is to round up all the Jewish people and send them to concentration camps. he !ussian 'reek 5rthodo% Church, on the other hand, was highly offended by .apoleon(s kindness. In 9=?; the !ussians gathered in $sterlit" to condemn him and passed this edictE o the greater shame of the Church he B.apoleonC assembled in Drance Jewish synagogues, ordered to pay honor to the rabbis, and re-establish the great Jewish Sanhedrin, that same godless congregation that once dared to condemn our 0ord and Savior Jesus Christ to crucifi%ion. 3e now attempts to unite the Jews scattered by divine wrath over the whole world and to lead them to the overthrow of Christ(s Church and to B5 horrible wickedness overstepping all his impudenceC the proclamation of a false 4essiah in the person of .apoleon./>? here have always been those, who, in the name of Jesus, were offended by love and kindness toward the Jewish people. $s to .apoleon, the reforms he instituted soon failed and by the end of the century Drance became as anti-Semitic as 'ermany. Met the atheistic Drench general was a giant for promoting human rights, especially for the Jewish people. 1;18/ (ev. ohn 3c6onald he !ev. John 4c,onald, a -resbyterian preacher in $lbany, .ew Mork published a book titled, ! ;ew Translation of Isaiah -hapter 0ighteen&
/<= /<: />?

)ban, /@:. .icholls, <?<. 5(1rian, </.

18.

! Remar able Prophecy Respecting the Restoration of the Jews, !ided by the !merican ;ation. 3e was yet another who was foundational to the movement that would later be known as FChristian Zionism.I 9=9@E Creation of the 'erman Dederation In 4ay, three do"en 'erman states gathered to create a 'erman Dederation and the problem of what to do with the Jewish people &uickly arose. $ustria and -russia were in favor of full emancipation, while most others voted to deny full status. herefore, the Jewish people did not receive emancipation, but did ac&uire some economic and cultural rights. his was to be short-lived. Soon many anti-Semitic books and pamphlets appeared, including the most enraging The #irror of the Jews by 3artmann von 3undt!adowsky. 3e advocated that Jews be sold as slaves to plantations and mines or that they be castrated or killed. 3e wrote, FI myself do not regard the killing of a Jew as a sin or crime, but as a mere police offense.I />9 his was another stone in the foundation of 3itler(s 3olocaust and the Church supported it. 1;77 - 1;17/ Ten 4ercent of "uropean e+s $apti@ed It would be a delight to report that at this time the Jewish people freely accepted Jesus as their Savior. 1ut this was hardly the case. In order to survive, appro%imately ten percent of )uropean Jewry converted to Christianity. 4any believed in order to be fully accepted into the new emerging )uropean culture, they would need to renounce the Jewish faith by accepting baptism. Conversions were the result of deliberate decisions to survive in a Christian culture where anti-Semitism was a constant threat. 1;0; - 1;;2/ An)lican $ishop ?i)htfoot he bishop was not e%treme in his anti-Semitic opinions, but he was not known to do the Jews any favors. 6nfortunately, many in the clergy esteemed him as one of the greatest evangelical leaders of the century and others preached his anti-Semitic rhetoric as gospel truth. 3is writings influenced many. Dor e%ample, in his commentary on 4ark 9<E/; he statedE #hen Jerusalem shall be reduced to ashes, and that wicked BJewishC nation cut off and re+ected, then shall the Son of 4an send 3is ministers with the trumpet of the 'ospel, and they shall gather 3is elect of the several nations, from the four corners of heavenE so that 'od shall not want Bmeaning Fto lackIC a Church, although that
/>9

Cited by )ttinger, =?>.

9>=

ancient people of 3is be re+ected and cast offL but that ancient Jewish Church being destroyed, a new Church shall be called out of the 'entiles. />/ 0ightfoot stated that the Jewish people were re+ected and cut off by 'od and that they were replaced by the ChurchL the essence of !eplacement heology. 1;0. - 1;;3/ "d+ard Ca@alet )dward Ca"alet was not a theologian or preacher, but a 1ritish industrialist who became aware of the severe persecutions and pogroms in !ussia. Since -alestine was under 1ritish control at this time, he advocated the return of the Jews to -alestine Bthen called SyriaC so they would be under 1ritish protection. 3e published a pamphlet entitled 0ngland4s Policy in the 0ast& .ur Relations with Russia and the 1uture of Syria B9=;:C./>< 3is opinions, like those of other advocates, were hardly popular, yet he contributed to the groundwork for what is today the state of Israel. 1;0; - 1217/ ean Henri 6unant ,unant was a Swiss evangelical philanthropist who is known for being the founder of the 'eneva Convention and the International !ed Cross. 1ut his real passion was to re-establish a Jewish -alestine. 3e promoted the ideas of building a Jaffa-Jerusalem railroad and establishing farming enterprises. 3is suggestions were re+ected by many Christian and Jewish leaders. Some of his critics said that the establishment of a Jewish state was a logistical impossibility, while others said it would be established only after the 4essiah comes. Dew, if any, considered the 'od factorVthat possibly the time had arrived that 'od would begin to fulfill 3is long awaited prophecies. Mears later, in a closing speech at the Dirst Zionist Congress in 9=:;, heodor 3er"l referred to ,unant as a significant Christian Zionist. />> 1;02 - 1;;;/ ?aurence *liphant 0aurence 5liphant was an outspoken evangelical, who is called a FChristian mysticI by the )ncyclopedia Judaic./>@ ,uring his lifetime he was the most influential supporter in 0ondon of returning the Jewish people to
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,avid 1rown, The 1our 7ospels, citing he Jamieson, Dausset and 1rown Commentary on the #hole 1ible. 9=A>.
/><

hroughout history -alestine was under foreign rule with the provisional capitol being in ,amascus, and upon rare occasion in 1eirut, but never in Jerusalem.
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*ressel, F,unant, Jean 3enri.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. *lausner, FCa"alet, )dward.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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-alestine. 3e used his influence as a member of the 1ritish -arliament B9=A@-A;C for legislation in favor of the Jewish people. In the 9==?s, he established a group of influential Christians in 0ondon to aid those Jewish people who desired to return to their homeland. />A he momentum of evangelical support for a Jewish homeland continued to rise. 1;37s - 1;87s ohn Aelson 6ar&y John .elson ,arby B9=??-9==/C was an Irish $nglican who was convinced that, shortly after the death of the apostles, the church leaders incorrectly took the 5ld estament prophecies concerning Israel and applied them to themselves. In essence, he said !eplacement heology was wrong and that a then non-e%istent Israel did have a future. 3e is also credited as being the father of dispensationalism, the theory that 'od divided human history into seven ages, the last of which is the 9,??? year reign of Jesus. ,arby(s teachings became populari"ed in the footnotes of the I.C. Schofield 1ible. 1eginning in the 9=<?s he traveled e%tensively throughout 1ritain and )urope as an itinerant preacher and established the -lymouth 1rethren churches. 3is interpretation remains popular among many evangelicals today. 1;33/ "n)lish Support of e+s he )nglish -arliament abolished all restrictions against the Jewish people, while in Drankfurt, 'ermany they were pressed into the ghettos again. he emancipation originated in Drance was une&ual throughout )urope. $ttitudes toward the Jewish people differed among various communities and depended greatly upon the local government and Church leaders. 1ut wherever legal rights were established, a few decades later silent anti-Semitic resentment returned. 1;32/ T+o Influential 3issionaries from Scotland he Church of Scotland sent two missionaries, $ndrew 1onar and !obert 4urray 4(Cheyne, to -alestine to evaluate the living conditions of the Jewish people and to report their finding. hey reported widespread persecution and discrimination. he Church then sent letters to Church leaders of other denominations throughout )urope calling for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in -alestine. he letter was also printed verbatim in the London Times./>; heir report was also sent to -rotestant 4onarchs throughout )urope, along with a memorandum calling for action
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1egin and 'elber, F5liphant, 0aurence.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. ,olan, Israel. ;:-=?.

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to secure -alestine for the Jews. Since the Times was considered the publication of enlightened 1ritish thinkers, the efforts of 1onar and 4(Cheyne had far reaching effects in the establishment of the future Jewish nation. #hile most would believe that the influence of missionaries is on the foreign field, in this case their influence was greatest on the home front. he following year the Times reported that the 1ritish government was seriously investigating the possibilities of a Jewish restoration in -alestine. />= 1;81 - 123-/ (ev. William ". $lac%stone! 1ather of Christian ,ionism he !everend 1lackstone was an evangelical Christian businessman, who turned evangelist, missionary, and supporter for the return of the Jewish people to Israel. 3e witnessed the early migrations, or Faliya,I of Jewish people to their homeland and related the event to the fulfillment of biblical prophecies which would occur prior to the Second $dvent of Christ. 3e was so passionate in his support for them and their return that he has been called the FDather of Christian Zionism.I In 9=;=, he published his first book on 1ible prophecy, Jesus is -oming. 3e stated, F5ther nations come and go, but Israel remains. She will not pass away. 'od says of her, PDor a small moment have I forsaken theeL but with great mercies will I gather thee(I BIsa. @>E;-=C./>:

Digure /=. #illiam ). 1lackstone B9=>9-9:<@C, was a popular $merican evangelist and the father of modern Christian Zionism. Courtesy of $4) International.
/>= />:

*at", 9?<. 0arson, 9<?.

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3e organi"ed meetings of influential Jewish and Christian leaders and conveyed his vision to them. In 9=:9, he contacted -resident 3arrison with a petition of >9< signatures of these leaders re&uesting a restoration of Jewish -alestine as a solution to the !ussian persecution of Jewish people. $mong those prominent preachers, who actively supported the fulfillment of the Jewish dream, were !obert Speer, J. 3udson aylor and ,wight 0. 4oody. he fact he was able to obtain so many influential signatures is reflective of the growing movement of Zionism in both Christian and Jewish circles. 3e then sent copies to all the )uropean heads of state. In 9:9A, he sent a similar petition to -resident #ilson encouraging the 6nited States to support the now famous 1alfour ,eclaration./@? 1;87/ The 6amascus Affair In 9=>?, both Church-sponsored Bnamely, CatholicismC antiSemitism and 4uslim anti-Semitism converged when two men mysteriously disappeared. It was suspected they were involved in less-than-honest business dealings, which led to their demise. he Jewish people were blamed for blood libel, meaning the men(s blood was used for -assover. he authorities then arrested several Jewish people and tortured them, until a socalled confession was given. In the process, several died of the horrific e%perience and another converted to Islam to be spared. hese atrocities raised concern throughout the Jewish world, because it appeared that medieval anti-Semitism had returned. )uropean Jewish people asked their governments to investigate and, eventually, the tortures were ended. 1ut the Catholics continued to inform tourists of the saint who supposedly was tortured and killed by the Jews./@9 1;87s/ (a&&i udah Al%alai 'erman !abbi Judah $lkalai B9;:=-9=;=C recogni"ed that )uropean nation states were being established and he believed the Jewish people ought to establish their own state as well. 3e also called for 3ebrew to be the national language of the new nation, since the Jewish people had been disbursed worldwide and spoke in do"ens of languages and dialects. 3e was often ridiculed for his ideas, but these would eventually influence others to become Jewish Zionists. he idea of a Jewish homeland became more intense as persecution increased, especially in !ussia, 'ermany and Drance./@/
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4alachy, F1lackstone, #illiam ).I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. 1rawer, F,amascus $ffair.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. 0arson, 9<:.

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1;81/ Charles Henry Churchill In 9=>9 Charles 3enry Churchill, a 1ritish gentleman living in ,amascus, Syria, wrote a letter concerning the possibilities of a Jewish state to a Jewish philanthropist known as 4oses 4ontefiore. Churchill stated, FI consider the ob+ect to be perfectly obtainable. 1ut two things are indispensably necessary. Dirstly, the Jewish people need themselves to take up the matter unanimously. Secondly, the )uropean powers will need to aid them in their views.I 3is comments on )uropean aid had a prophetic ring, as the prophet Isaiah B><E@-;C predicted that the 'entiles would help the Jewish people return to their homeland. 1;88/ 3ordecai 3anuel Aoah <1.;#-1;#1> $ newspaper editor, politician, and playwright, 4ordecai .oah may have been one of the most influential $merican Jewish people of the early 9:th century. In 9=/@ he was instrumental in the purchase of the 'rand Island located in the middle of the .iagara !iver near 1uffalo, .ew Mork. 3e intended to establish a colony where Jewish people could live in peace and harmony without the fear of persecution. Since in $merica Jews lived with considerable more freedom than in )urope, few if any, caught his vision and his venture was an utter failure. $fterwards he authored a book titled 2iscourse of the Restoration of the Jews, which delineated the reasons why Christians ought to aid Jewish people to resettle in -alestine. #hile it was poorly received by $mericans, some influential 1ritish accepted it. .onetheless, the motivation of .oah and his 1ritish friends influenced an increasing number of Jews. $fter countless disappointments and false messiahs, they were able to see their centuries-old -assover prayer, Fne%t year in JerusalemI as a possibility. he work of .oah stirred the hearts and minds of Jewish people and, as such, he was a phenomenal success./@<

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3ershkowit", F.oah, 4ordecai 4anuel.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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Digure /:. $ 9:th century Jewish prayer book with a statement in 3ebrew that reads F4ay our eyes see the 0ord return to Zion in mercy.I 1;88 - 1277/ 1rederic% Wilhelm Aiet@sche .iet"sche was a 'erman philosopher whose writing influenced Dascism, .a"ism, and similar political movements in the late 9: th and early /?th centuries. 3e resented Judaism because he believed it gave birth to Christianity, a religion he considered to be of humility, weakness, and unnatural morality that did great harm to the #estern world. 3e was a prolific contributor to the growing atheistic-humanistic movement and secular anti-Semitism, both of which were e%tremely popular in 9:th century )uropean seminaries./@> 1;#7s/ (a&&i udah "l%all 4romotes e+ish (eturn: Christians (espond In the 9=@?s, )uropean !abbi Judah )lkall made plans for a Jewish e%odus out of )urope and into -alestine. In 9=@/, he published his plan, which became e%tremely popular, especially since Jewish people believed his plan would be an escape from Christian persecution. 0ater several other rabbis followed his lead. #hile he never saw his plans fulfilled, his ideas
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#asserman, F.iet"sche, Driedrich #ilhelm.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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would be foundational to the future success of 3ert"l(s Zionist Conference in 9=:;. In the meantime, an increasing number of evangelical Christians believed the return of the Jewish people was part of a divine prophetic plan which needed to be fulfilled prior to the return of Jesus. $s stated previously, many may have helped them, not so much because they wanted to help those who were persecuted, but because they wanted Jesus to return.

Digure <?. In 9=@/, !abbi Judah )lkall, published plans for the Jews to return to their fatherland. -ublications similar to this were published by both rabbis and some evangelicals, but neither group was aware that the other was doing the same. 1;87s/ 3issionaries Sent to 4alestine In this decade missionary organi"ations in .ew )ngland, e%as, 'ermany, and )ngland began to send missionaries to -alestine. /@@ #ithin a half-century they established a number of hospitals, orphanages, and trade schools, the social infrastructure that would be necessary to handle the ma+or influ% of Jewish people who would be arriving in the 9==?s. /@A hey worked in con+unction with the Jewish $gency, an organi"ation established by
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he name FIsraelI was not applied to -alestine until after its ,eclaration of Independence on 4ay 9>, 9:>=.
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$sher, /;, recommends two books for further studyE )liyahu al, ed. Hou 2on4t ha/e to be Jewish to be a @ionist I ! Re/iew of DEE years of -hristian @ionism. el $vivE International Dorum -ress, /???L and -eter 'rose, Israel in the #ind of !merica. 9:=>. 'rose argues that $merican Christian support for the Zionist idea began as early as 9=9>.

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1ritain after #orld #ar I, to bring aide returning immigrants and build the infrastructure. 1;#7s Anthony Ashley Cooper! Seventh "arl of Shafts&ury $nthony $shley Cooper, also known as the Seventh )arl of Shaftsbury, was &uite possibly the most influential man of the 7ictorian )ra, aside from Charles ,arwin. Cooper functioned outside of any government position, yet was a ma+or influence in social reformation in mid-9: th century )ngland. 3e brought relief to the slum conditions of 0ondon and influenced the $nglican Church in Jerusalem. 3e also had an intense conviction that the Jewish people were destined by 'od to return to their homeland as part of divine fulfillment of biblical prophecy. 3e certainly was not alone in this endeavor, but is mentioned here for his outstanding contributions to the cause of Christ./@; 1;#;/ The *ttoman ?and Code of 1;#; he $rab people did not have a centrali"ed system whereby farmers and other property owners could register the ownership of their lands. he 0and Code re&uired registration of ownership, but many property owners were suspicious of the corrupt 5ttoman officials. -easants feared that registration would cause an increase in the burdensome ta%ation. herefore, many failed to register, which in turn opened the door for dishonest agents to register peasant-owned farms as theirs. hose agents then sold the land to the Jewish $gency that was unaware of the corruption that had taken place. 3ence, the Jews who claimed that they purchased their lands said so honestly and the $rab farmers who claimed their land was stolen were likewise honest. $rmed conflicts were sure to occurred, and did so, especially in the iberius area where 5ttoman troops were brought in to restore order and arrest the $rab peasant farmers. #ith tensions high, a secret Jewish army was established to protect Jewish farmers from peasants who became snipers. 1;-7s/ 3oses Hess !abbi 4oses 3ess was a 'erman scholar and socialists. 3e authored Rome and Jerusalem in which he urged the scattered Jewish people worldwide to return to their ancient land, liberate Jerusalem, and establish a socialistic society. 3is concept of socialism included the idea of a community of people who worked together and held all things in common. 3e established roots to the ibbut5 idea of communal living. 3is ideas were similar to the atheistic communistic ideas promoted by *arl 4ar%. he $ge of )nlightenment brought forth new ideas on resolving social problems, but
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anenbaum, #ilson and !udin, 9</-<<.

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most failed, as did the ibbut5 in Israel. 0ater in 9=A/, 3ess published a second book titled The Re/i/al of Israel. 3is writings contributed to the theoretical foundation for a movement that would eventually become known as Jewish @ionism. 1;-7 - 1;;#/ Sir 3oses 3ontefiore $s a child, 4oses 4ontefiore B9;=>-9==@C, an orthodo% Jew, was an apprentice to a grocer and tea merchant. 3e later established his own business, which became e%tremely prosperous and from which he retired at the early age of forty. ,uring the years 9=<;-<= he was the sheriff of 0ondon and was later knighted by the Oueen. #hile both events reflect his popularity among the Christian 0ondoners, he was best known for his work to relieve suffering among the persecuted Jewish poor in !ussia and elsewhere. 1y 9=A? he was actively engaged in promoting the return of the Jewish people to their land of Israel J 0re5 Israel./@= 3e traveled there seven times to purchase land and establish communities, an astonishing challenge in the days prior to the airplane. In Israel, he is remembered for building 4eir She(arim B9=;<-;@C, the first residential community outside of the 5ld City walls./@: his was a huge success, because until this time people were fearful of living outside the 5ld City. he new suburb was so successful, that by 9==? there were nine Jewish settlements outside the 5ld City. he $rabs likewise noted the success and constructed five communities in the same era. 4ontefiore established farming communities and constructed two windmills B9=:/C outside the walls of Jerusalem for grinding grain into flour. /A? o Israelis he is remembered as the Ffounder of modern JerusalemI because he gave substantial funding to finance the city(s water supply. his would be vital for the future growth and development of the Jewish nation. $ memorial fund was established in his honor to finance construction of entire districts. $nyone who desired to build could ac&uire a loan.

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3ebrewE 0re5 Israel means Fland of Israel.I !at"er, 99=. 0ipman, F4ontefiore, Sir 4oses.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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city

Digure <9. he windmill of Sir 4oses 4ontefiore still stands in the village of Memin 4oshe that has been surrounded by the e%panding of Jerusalem. It is one of two built by the philanthropist in 9=:/. 6nfortunately, on most days there was insufficient wind to make the mills functional.

1;-7s - 1;27s/ Conrad Schic% <1;00-1271> Schick was a 'erman architect who designed numerous buildings in Jerusalem. $mong his credits are 3anson(s 3ospital, the alitha *umi building on *ing 'eorge $venue and the 1ikur 3olim 3ospital. 3e worked closely with Sir 4oses 4ontefiore in the planning and construction of the ultra-orthodo% section of Jerusalem, 4ea She(arim, and the homes that surround 4ontefiore(s windmill. $s a 'erman missionary, he was the agent of the 0ondon Society for the -ropagation of the 'ospel among the Jewish people and its primary focus was to demonstrate the love of Jesus rather than traditional direct evangelism. /A9 1;-#/ HansonIs Hospital: "thnic Tensions 'erman missionaries were so common in the western area of Jerusalem that a 'erman Colony was established. It was there they built 3anson(s 3ospital specifically for Jewish people and $rabs who were suffering from leprosy, now more commonly known as 3anson(s ,isease. It
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$vi-Monah, FSchick, Conrad.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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was in one of the earliest suburbs outside of the 5ld City walls. 3owever, some influential $rab leaders were offended by the fact that Christians, who are condemned in the Ou(ran, were providing aid to 4uslims. he kindness of Christians who operated schools and hospitals, could not overcome the $rab distrust that was established by both their religion and .apoleon. ensions were rising and decades later in the A; th $nnual !eport B9:<:C of 3anson(s 3ospital, is the comment, F#e can, however, say thankfully that no political disturbance has occurred this year among our patients. )ven the tension between Jewish people and 4ohammedans was not unbearable.I /A/ he work of these and other

Digure </. )vangelical Christians from 'ermany constructed 3anson(s 3ospital in the 9=A?s to meet the needs of those who had 3anson(s disease BleprosyC. he 'erman inscription over the door reads, FJesus helps.I 'entile missionaries were a dramatic change from the historic actions of the Church and was the beginning of the prophetic promise of 'entile aid that was to come to the Jewish people B!om. 99E99L Isa. >:E//L A?E9?C.

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Ouotation courtesy of the staff of 3anson(s 3ospital, July /??9.

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$s of this writing, the hospital has been downgraded to an outpatient clinic and is operated by the Israeli government. ,ue to the advancement of modern medicine, leprosy patients are no longer re&uired to be hospitali"ed. 1;--/ Colonists Come from Ae+ "n)land 'eorge Jones $dams led a group of Christians from Springfield, 4assachusetts, to establish a Christian colony in -alestine. 3is 9@< faithful followers brought an abundance of supplies to Jaffa, including prefabricated housesL some of which still stand. 6nfortunately, the group &uickly broke up, and only /: remained./A< hey, along with the many evangelicals who came from )urope and the 6nited States, established most of the social organi"ations such as hospitals, trade schools, and orphanages. 'eorge $dams and his group were followed by another group of 'erman -rotestants who settled near .a"areth. #ithin a year all of them died of malaria. /A> Met other 'erman Christians came and built communities near 3aifa and a 'erman Colony in #est Jerusalem. 0ife was e%tremely difficult for all who came. 1;--/ He&re+ Christian Alliance 1ormed in "n)land )ver since Jesus walked along the shores of the Sea of 'alilee and the narrow streets of Jerusalem, there has always been a remnant of Jewish people who had faith in 3im as their 4essiah. 5n various occasions throughout history, there have been small revivals within the Jewish communities and some have become members of the 4essianic Jewish community BChurchC./A@ 1y the mid-9:th century, 1ritish 4essianic Jews had grown to such a significant number that they formed the 3ebrew Christian $lliance. he group inspired their own members, encouraged other Jewish people to accept Meshua BJesusC as the 4essiah, and had longings to return to their ancient homeland. hey are believed to be the first organi"ed group of 4essianic believers since the days of the apostles. Soon other 4essianic groups were organi"ed in #estern )urope and .orth $merica. /AA In 9=AA, the $lliance published this statement in its maga"ine The Scattered ;ation, J #e cannot and will not forget the land of our fathers and it is our desire of cherished feelings of patriotismL for to this day we sing the song of our noble ancestors, PIf I forget thee, 5 Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.(I/A;
/A< /A> /A@ /AA /A;

!at"er, 99=. 4any costal areas were malaria-infested swamps as were areas north of the Sea of 'alilee. Druchtenbaum, ;>@. Sedaca, 9?;. !ufeisen, ;A citing F3ebrew Christian $lliance.I The Scattered ;ation. June 9, 9=A;. 9/A.

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4essianic Jews were acutely aware of the atrocities committed by the Church, that the Church had lost the understanding of its Jewish heritage, and that it was 'od(s divine plan that Jerusalem, not !ome, be the center of the Church. he $lliance stated that, FIt is high time the Church begins to understand that all errors date from the time that the Church of !ome has put !ome in the place of Jerusalem.I /A= Just as the momentum for Zionism was growing, so was the momentum for Jewish people coming to faith in Meshua. 1;.1/ "mancipation at *Jford and Cam&rid)e Colle)es In the liberated world of academic freedom in 5%ford and Cambridge 6niversities, Jewish people were forbidden to read 3ebrew and the rabbinical writings, as these sub+ects were restricted to Christian 3ebraists. Serious Christian students and professors had to privately employ Jewish people as tutors or assistants. hose who prided themselves in educational e%cellence finally reali"ed the error of their thinking and now admitted Jewish scholars to the faculty. /A: he professors and administrators were blinded by their racist attitudes to the possibility that maybe Jewish people knew more of their own language, writings and culture than they did. 1;.;/ The 3inistry *f 9ood Ae+s 1or Israel "sta&lished 3ans .ilsen 3auge B9=@<-9:<9C, a politician and preacher from .orway, believed the literal interpretation of biblical prophecies pertaining to the Jewish people and their homeland. Seventy years before Israel(s independence, he taught that 'od was going to bring the Jewish people home and one day there would again be a Jewish nation. 3auge founded the 'ood .ews for Israel 4inistries in 4innesota not only to minister to the Jewish people, but also to educate Christians on the Jewish roots of their faith. It is the oldest evangelical ministry of its kind in .orth $merica. 1;.;/ The Halley of Achor In 9=;=, four years before the first ma+or aliya or FwaveI of Jewish immigration began, a group of )uropean Jews established the first agricultural settlement in the 7alley of $chor near Jericho. hey purchased wilderness land and chose the name -etah ikva B .pening of 3opeC from the prophecy of 3osea, herefore, behold, I will allure her, bring her into the wilderness and speak kindly to her. hen I will give her, her vineyards from there,
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!ufeisen, ;; citing F3ebrew Christian $lliance.I The Scattered ;ation. June 9, 9=A;. 9@A@=.
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3eilbrun, FColeridge and Judaism.I 9?;.

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7alley of $chor as a door of hope U 3osea /E9>-9@a 3owever, the sultan of the 5ttoman )mpire cancelled the sale and the group moved north and purchased swamp land along the Markon !iver. his region was more of a wilderness than the 7alley of $chor. hey drained the mos&uito-infested swamps and suffered horribly from malaria. )ventually they turned the region into agricultural land upon which was established the beginning of Israel(s citrus industry. he Fopening of hopeI did not come without pain and suffering. $ sign of future violent times occurred in 9==A when $rabs attacked Jews. In the 9:/9 $rab riots, four Jews were killed in this village. .onetheless the village prospered. 0ikewise, in the years that followed, land in the 7alley of $chor was purchased and it became highly productive with citrus fruits, vineyards, and vegetables. he fact that 'od referred to the 7alley of $chor as the F,oor of 3opeI reflects upon 3is nature to restore 3is people unto 3imself. he name $chor means e%treme trouble and difficulty. he 7alley is where, in the time of Joshua, $chan was e%ecuted for his sin BJosh. ;E/>-/AC. $s such, it carried a stigma of past sins and ,ivine +udgment. 3owever, the heart of 'od was to change that stigma into a door of hope and bright future. oday it is one of Israel(s many breadbaskets. 1;.2/ Wilhelm 3arr Coined the Word EAnti-SemiteF In 9=;:, #ilhelm 4arr, an outspoken Jew-hater coined the word Fanti-Semite.I/;? he word is a euphemistic substitute for FJew-hater,I because in the nineteenth century Fanti-SemiteI was a politically correct phrase. 1y pure definition FantiI means FagainstI and FSemitismI has reference to the Semite people, or the sons of Shem who was the son of .oah of biblical fame. he Jewish people historically were only a single group from the larger body of Semite people. herefore, the word is defined as hatred against the Jewish people but is bathed in 9: th century pseudoscientific language with reference to a larger group that no longer e%ists. /;9 #hile today the phrase Fanti-SemiteI is considered a degrading term, it has been replaced with a politically-correct phrase Fanti-Israel.I he conte%t of use fre&uently reveals the true nature of the author who may be anti-Semitic.

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-rager and elushkin, 9::. .icholls, >>9.

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1;;7s/ ?eo 4ins%er 4u&lished Auto-Emancipation -olish-born 0eo -insker was a Jewish lawyer, but was forbidden to practice law. 3e then wrote the book titled !uto)0mancipation BDreeing 5neselfC wherein he said the only way to be free from anti-Semitism was to have a Jewish homeland. 3e never saw his dream fulfilled, but in 9:<> his remains were reburied on 4ount Scopus in Jerusalem. /;/ he momentum for a sovereign state was building among the Jewish people. 1;#7 - 1200/ 1riedrich 6elit@ch 'erman theologian and professor, Driedrich ,elit"ch, stated that Jesus had no Jewish roots but was of 'entile descent. .ot only was the Jewishness of Jesus denied, but 3is -erson was separated from 3is message. he divine nature of Jesus was eliminated first in the seminary, then the Church, and finally in the culture. Conse&uently, more )uropean seminaries began promoting secular humanism and liberalism which decades later F+ustifiedI .a"ism and the 3olocaust J all in the .ame of Jesus. /;< ?ate 1;;7s/ 4o)roms in (ussia he word FpogromI is defined as the systematic killing of Jewish people in !ussia in the 9==?s and 9=:?s. In 9==9 )mperor $le%ander II of !ussia was assassinated and the Jews were blamed. 3ence, in the following year, the so-called 4ay 0aws were issued that severely restricted Jewish rights. he !ussian 'reek 5rthodo% Church had, for the most part, little love for the Jews. !iots and violence broke out, especially in 5dessa, which resulted in mass killings of Jews Bknown as pogromsC. /;> 4any of the clerics, who participated in the rioting, later considered $dolf 3itler to be a prophet or 4essiah. It has been estimated that between two and three million Jewish peasants were e%ecuted between 9==? and #orld #ar I. he persecutions accelerated the Zionist movement throughout Central and )astern )urope and motivated thousands to emigrate to the 6nited States or -alestine. Since little world press was given to this tragedy, decades later 3itler believed he too could kill Jews and not be found guilty in the eyes of the world. here were, however, a few outstanding men who worked tirelessly against the prevailing tide. 5ne was $rchbishop .ikanor 1rovkovitch of *herson and 5dessa, who made numerous appeals for a common understanding between Jewish people and Christians. #ith him was 7aldimir Soloviev B9=@<-9:??C, one of !ussia(s brightest and most respected
/;/ /;< /;>

Zeligs, 9=@-==. ,oukhan, 9-/.

$gursky, F!ussian 5rthodo% Christians and the 3olocaust.I Immanuel. #inter, 9:=<R=>. 9;E==-:?.

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religious philosophers, who championed the human rights of the Jewish people. 1oth demonstrated the kindness and love at great risk to their lives. 1oth promoted the study of rabbinical writings and prayed for the salvation of the Jewish people. hey believed that at the close of the Church $ge, the Jews would come to the Christian faith. #hen they passed away, many rabbis arranged memorial services in their honor throughout the country. /;@

?ate 12th Century/ 3assive Chan)es $e)in

he 9:th century brought about profound changes. Dirst, the theological liberalism in Judaism and Christianity that had begun in 'ermany more than a century earlier, was spreading, causing Jewish and Christian apostasy en masse. Second, the movement of modern Zionism became organi"ed. hird, in the latter part of the century, Jewish people began to return to their ancient homeland in massive groups, a process commonly known as Faliya.I Dourth, in response to their return and the growing influence of #estern culture, Islamic clerics called for the death of all Jewish people. Dinally, there was a growing movement within the evangelical community that recogni"ed the need for the Jewish people to return to -alestine as a fulfillment of ancient prophecy. 1;;7s/ e+ish Immi)ration to 4alestine $e)ins 4rophetic 1ulfillment he large-scale persecution in !ussia BpogromsC and !omania led to the first large-scale immigration of Jewish people to -alestine. he FwaveI of thousands of Jewish people coming was so significant that each wave became known as an Faliya.I In the following years, they came in repetitive FwavesI from the four corners of the earth from appro%imately 9/? nations. Jewish people who returned referred to themselves as F-alestinians.I 1ut they would change their identity to FIsraelisI in 9:>=. .ote the prophetic passage by the prophet Isaiah. hen it will happen on that day that the 0ord will again recover the second time with 3is hand the remnant of 3is people, who will remain from $ssyria, )gypt, -athros, Cush, )lam, Shinar, 3amath, and from the islands of the sea. $nd he will lift up a standard for the nations, and will assemble the banished ones of Israel, and will gather the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.
/;@

Ibid.

9A>

Isaiah 99E99-9/ he most significant two words of this passage are second time. Scholars believe Isaiah wrote this book shortly after the ;?/R?9 $ssyrian invasion. Drom his point in history, the first return was a future event that was yet to happen around @<? 1C when the Jewish people returned from 1abylon. Since then there have been several attempts to return en masse to their promised land, but none were successful until the 9==?s. 1;;0 - 1273/ 1irst 3aKor Aliya Drom time to time throughout the centuries there has been a rabbi or group of rabbis who attempted to gather a number of Jewish people and move to -alestine. ime and time again such attempts failed, but now a new era had begun that would bring success. hen, as if by divine appointment, from 9==/ to 9:?< more than /@,??? came from !ussian and !omania. In 9==/ Jews from *harkov, !ussia founded the village of !ishon le-Zion B he Dirst in ZionC. hey purchased land from absentee owners at inflated prices Bsee Jer. </E>>C. he momentum of Jewish Zionism had begun. It should be noted that, unlike the first $mericans or first $ustralians, the returning Jews did not displace local residents, but rather, purchased properties from absentee landowners. 3owever, the first aliya was not the beginning of Jews returning, but the first mass transfer of Jewish population. $s previously stated, there was a continuous Jewish population in -alestine from the time of Joshua. #hile the !omans evicted thousands in $, ;? and again in 9<@, many were permitted to live throughout the countryside. hroughout the centuries a few Jewish people came to live in the barren land of -alestine, often to escape persecution. In 9@?? there were an estimated 9?,??? living in the Sefed region of northern -alestine BIsraelC. In 9@A< the first printing press on the $sian continent was established in Sefed, obviously a sign of a significant Jewish population that was both literate and industrious. 1y the year 9==? Jews were once again the ma+ority population of Jerusalem. he ama"ing point that is worth repeating is thisE $mong the Jewish people there were rabbis who said 'od wanted them back in their ancient land. $t the same time, in various Christian communities in the 6nited States and )urope, there were preachers who were saying that the church needed to help the Jewish people return to their ancient land. .either group was aware of what the other was doing.

1-#

Digure <<. .ew homes built by the )uropean !othschild family in !osh -ina, in what is now northern Israel. Jewish people were returning so &uickly that homes could not be built fast enough. 3ence, many lived in tents while $rabs who recently arrived were employed in the home construction business. -hoto by !.).4. 1ain, 4ay 9?, 9=:>. 1;;7 - 1207s/ The Ae+ 4romised ?and/ The Bnited States #hile great attention has been given to the persecuted Jewish people leaving their lands and returning to their ancient home, little has been said about their mass migrations to the 6nited States. he 6.S. offered them life, liberty and pursuit of happiness, three &ualities of life seldom found elsewhere in the world for more than a few generations. #hether religious or secular, thousands of Jewish people crossed the $tlantic rather than going to the eastern end of the 4editerranean Sea. Dor them, -alestine was still an uncultivated wilderness that offered no promise of a better life. In $merica, however, those who had already settled here testified to the opportunities. ,iscrimination did e%ist, but not to the e%tent it did in )urope. .onetheless, with a huge influ% of Jews, by the time #orld #ar II was on the hori"on, some political figures were concerned about their large numbers. 1etween the years 9=:: and 9:9> 9,/><,??? Jews came from !ussia, 9?<,??? from !umania, @;,??? from Canada and a &uarter of a million from $ustro-3ungary. #ith such a massive influ% in a relatively short period of time, some scholars have proposed that it may be a reason
9AA

why the 6S failed to help Jewish people escape the concentration camps in the 9:<?s and P>?s./;A

their

Digure <>. $ poster of $merican Jews with open arms welcoming )astern )uropean brethren. he banner reads F3ide me under the shadow of thy wingsI B-s. 9;E=C. .aive painting, early /?th century.

1;27s/ ,ionism Seen as a Btopia Zionism, the return of the Jewish people to their homeland, was viewed as a utopia and an illusion by Jewish liberals, who concluded there were too many insurmountable obstacles. 5n the other hand, many conservative Jewish people were either skeptical or hostile to the Zionist 4ovement, believing that only the messiah would establish their nation. !emembering the Crusaders, there was also a common belief among Jewish people that Christians would never tolerate Jewish control over the 3oly City and, therefore, Christians would never allow them to return.
/;A

1arnavi, /?@.

1-.

It was totally inconceivable that their persecutors of centuries past would actually be influential in the development of their sovereign state. $t no time in history has there been a nation that came into creation in the manner of Israel./;; o insure that peace would remain with their $rab neighbors, Jewish people paid inflated prices for the land they purchased. his was possible because of the 5ttoman land reforms of 9=<: and 9=@A which permitted non-5ttoman citi"ens to own land. )uropeans &uickly took advantage of the concession to foster religious and cultural foundations, increasing the e%isting religious rivalries. In 9:?9 the Jewish .ational Dund was established to buy land near the ancient city of Jaffa. 6pon this land the modern city of el $viv was established. 3ence, they began to fulfill the prophecy spoken by Jeremiah, who said, 4en shall buy fields for money, sign and seal deeds, and call in witnesses in the land of 1en+amin, in the environs of Jerusalem, in the cities of Judah, in the cities of the hill country, in the cities of the lowland, and in the cities of the .egevL for I will restore their fortunes, declares the 0ord. Jeremiah </E>> he early years of agriculture were e%tremely difficult. Since Jews were not permitted to be farmers in )urope they did not know how to farm the land. 3owever, since they were scientists, they approached agriculture from a scientific perspective. he results were outstanding and in a few years their crop yields surpassed that of most other nations, bringing fulfillment to the words of numerous prophets such as Isaiah. F he desert and the parched land will be gladL the wilderness will re+oice and blossom. 0ike the crocus, it will burst into bloomL it will re+oice greatly and shout for +oy.I Isaiah <@E9-/a 1;28/ The 6reyfus Trial and Theodor Her@l ,uring the 9=:?s anti-Semitic attitudes were again rising in Drance. In 9=:> a young Jewish newspaper reporter, heodor 3er"l, became a ma+or figure in the Zionistic movement. he failed reforms instituted by .apoleon permitted hatred to blossom that eventually led to the infamous ,reyfus
/;;

$gursky, FSome !ussian 5rthodo% !eactions to )arly ZionismE 9:??-9:9>.I Immanuel. Spring, 9:=?. 9?E=>.

9A=

rialL a trial that was revealing and symbolic of Drench attitudes. he account is remarkable. Captain $lfred ,reyfus was falsely charged with giving military secrets to 'ermany, simply because he was a Jew. ,uring the trial, it was said that, FJust as Judas had sold the 'od of pity and love, so Captain ,reyfus has sold to 'ermany the plans for mobili"ation.I /;= ,uring the trial, it was discovered that the primary evidence was a forged document and the author had committed suicide in prison J a suicide that would be the sub+ect of much controversy. he publication La Libre Parole reported he was killed by other Jewish people, while another press report said it was the Fwhole race whose shame was being e%posed.I he reporter continued to say, F,reyfus was a traitor . . . or that he was capable of treachery. I know that from his race.I/;: ,uring the trial, prosecutors insinuated that no Jewish person could be trusted because they were not FChristian,I and therefore, alien to Drance. o add fuel to the fire of in+ustice, government officials and clergymen encouraged mob violence and mass hysteria to rid the country of Jewish people. #hile no proof e%isted, ,reyfus was found guilty and sent to prison on a remote island. $ll this in a country praised for its enlightenment, liberalism, and tolerance for religious differences. /=? he trial was covered by the young $ustrian 3er"l who had assimilated into the prevailing )uropean culture and was as secular as could be e%pected. $t the trial he was horrified at the public(s attitude toward his people. 6ntil this time, he felt that all Jewish people could be &uietly assimilated into whatever country they were living, even though he was aware of .apoleon(s work for FDrenchmen of the 4osaic persuasionI and its utter failure. he chilling words of secular and viciously atheistic philosophers underscored his conclusion that the Jewish people needed their own homeland. 3e took it upon himself to send out the call that the Jews were, in fact, a stateless people and all other attempts to secure peace and safety throughout the )nlightenment had failed. ,reyfus was pronounced guilty of treason and e%iled. 3is family persisted for a new trial. Success came in January of 9=:= when novelist )mile Zola, who had no great love for the Jews, but did have a sense of +ustice, published a front page article in the newspaper 0($urore accusing the state and critics of ,reyfus of malicious libel. he article stunned the nation as nearly a &uarter million copies were sold and it was instrumental in seeing a second trial. .onetheless, he was again found guilty and his military attorneys, who supported him, found themselves demoted and assigned new positions. Ironically, Zola was found guilty of libel. )ventually the Drench
/;= /;: /=?

3ay, 9:>. Ibid., 9:@-:A. -oliakov, 9/:.

1-2

-resident ac&uitted him and ,reyfus was restored to his former position. 1ut the entire event demonstrated the powerful anti-Semitic attitudes of the Drench people and impressed upon the Jews the necessity to hear the message of 3er"l. $fter the first ,reyfus rial, 3er"l immediately went to work to formulate his ideas and in 9=:A, he published a booklet titled 2er Juden Staat +The Jewish StateC,/=9 in which he declared the right of the Jewish people to have their own nationhood. 1ut he never mentioned that the nation should be in -alestine. !ather it was at the first Zionist Congress that delegates argued the Jewish homeland should be in the 3oly 0and. In spite of the conflicts within the Zionist organi"ation, 3er"l took charge and led the Jewish people into a new era and for this he is honored as the FDather of modern Zionism.I 3e probably looked across the !hine !iver and in his spirit saw a -romised 0and for the Jewish people, much as 4oses once looked across the Jordan !iver. .either entered the 0and.

Digure <@. heodor 3er"l in 9=:;, on the balcony of the hree *ings 3otel along the !hine in 1asel, Swit"erland on the eve of the Dirst Zionist Congress. ,id he, in his spirit, look across the waters and see a -romised 0and for his people as did 4oses centuries earlierK
/=9

5", AA.

9;?

In spite of the ,reyfus affair, not all rabbis were in favor of 3er"l and his Zionistic ideas. 3e sent a copy of 2er Juden Staat to the !abbinate at 7ienna on June 99, 9=:@, but these scholars condemned it and said it was the product of a lunatic. 3e also sent a copy to -ope -ius N with a the re&uest for assistance to help relocate Jews to Jerusalem. he -ope responded in a stern and unsympathetic manner with the following wordsE #e are unable to favor this movement. #e cannot prevent the Jews from going to Jerusalem, but we could never sanction it. he ground of Jerusalem, if it were not always sacred, has been sanctified by the life of Jesus Christ. I cannot answer you otherwise. he Jews have not recogni"ed our 0ordL therefore we cannot recogni"e the Jewish people./=/ he negative response 3er"l received from the !abbinate and !ome convinced him that a sovereign state for the Jewish people was the only solution for their centuries-long problem of wandering stateless around the world. Dor generations it appeared 'od had forgotten them while the Church persecuted them. 3owever, biblical prophecies of the restoration of the -romised 0and were beginning to become reality. 3er"l was instrumental in the fulfillment of Isaiah AAEA-= J the re-establishment of the state of Israel, although he would not live long enough to see its birth. 3e lived only to the age of >>, yet in his brief life he awakened the Jewish consciousness to the need of becoming unified for the establishment of an independent Jewish state in -alestine. 1;2-/ (ev. William H. Hec%ler! Advisor to Theodor Her@l he !everend 3eckler was the chaplain for the 1ritish )mbassy in 7ienna when he met heodor 3er"l. 3eckler recogni"ed the rise of Zionism as a prophetic fulfillment and advised 3er"l in planning a homeland in -alestine. 3eckler also saw the homeland as a solution to the terrible persecutions of Jewish people worldwide. 3e provided 3er"l with immeasurable counsel about the proper ways of approaching Christian clergy, statesmen and )uropean heads of state. herefore, all of )urope knew about the rise and dream of Zionism long before 3itler ever came to power. In later years 3er"l wrote these words concerning his good friend, 3e counsels me superbly and with unmistakably genuine good will. 3e is at once shrewd and mystical, cunning and naive. So far, with respect to myself, he has backed me up in &uite a wonderful way ... I
/=/

,arms, /A.

1.1

would wish the Jewish people to show him a full measure of gratitude.I/=< Met 3er"l was confronted with opposition from religious Jews who were convinced that Israel would not become a political entity until after 'od sends the messiah. 4any ultra-orthodo% Jews still hold to that viewpoint. 0ikewise, in Christian circles many books written prior to Israel(s independence stated the same opinion. 1;2./ 1irst ,ionist Con)ress 1y $ugust 9=:;, heodor 3er"l had gathered influential Jewish leaders in 1asel, Swit"erland at the Dirst Zionist Congress on re-establishing the Jewish state. his was to provide an answer to the two problems Jewish people faced, anti-Semitism and assimilation. 3e declared, F oday, we have birthed the nation of Israel. he world may not know it now, but in fifty years everybody will know it.I he program of the Congress was as followsE he aim of Zionism is to create for the Jewish people a legally assured home in -alestine. B he phrase was subse&uently altered to read Fa publicly, legally assured home.IC In order to attain this ob+ect, the Congress adopts the following meansE 9. o promote the settlement in -alestine of Jewish agriculturalists, handicraftsmen, industrialists, and men of professions. /. he centrali"ation of the entire Jewish people by means of general institutions agreeable to the laws of the land. <. o strengthen Jewish settlements and national self-conscience. >. o obtain the sanction of governments to the carrying out of the ob+ects of Zionism. /=> 3er"l(s words carried the truth of a biblical prophet and the political wheels were in motion. Difty years later the 6nited .ations, by a << to 9< vote, decided to partition -alestine to permit the creation of a Jewish state. he following year, on 4ay 9>, 9:>=, the state of Israel was established. 3e officially gave birth to modern Zionism, which 'od had already placed in the

/=<

Johnson, 4att. F)arly Christian Zionists.I -hristians and Israel& 0ssays on Biblical @ionism and Islamic 1undamentals. 4att Johnson and .icola 'oodenough, eds., JerusalemE International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem, 9::A. <9.
/=>

Isaacs and 5lit"ky, <@.

9;/

hearts of many Jewish people and 'entiles, mostly Christians, for more than a century. #hat worried 3er"l was not whether a Jewish Israel would be established, but whether a massive wave of anti-Semitism would sweep across )urope. 3e recogni"ed the signs of the coming 3olocaust and knew that Jews were more interested in their affluent lifestyle than preparing for the future. he irony of 3er"l is that he never claimed to have any religious motivation behind his plan. 3e once told two rabbis that he was not obeying any religious impulse commands, but he respected the faith of his fathers as much as he respected the faith of any other religious person. /=@ Met 3er"l may have been a prophet to the Jewish people. 3e called upon them to leave their )uropean cities, where anti-Zionism was e%ploding and re-establish their ancient biblical homeland. #hile a few listened and caught his vision, most ignored the call. $ generation later, those who went to -alestine lived, while two-thirds of those who remained perished in the ovens of the 3olocaust.

Digure <A. he meeting of influential Jewish leaders at the Dirst Zionist Congress in 1asel, Swit"erland was in $ugust, 9=:;. here was only one topic of discussionE o establish a homeland in -alestine. !ev. #illiam 3eckler had become a trusted friend and advisor to 3er"l. In fact, 3eckler had become so important that 3er"l invited him to speak at the Congress, even though he knew 3eckler was a converted Jew
/=@

'uenter Strothotte. F he !elation 1etween !eligion and .ationalism in early Zionist hought.I 6npublished thesis. Simon Draser 6niversity, 9:;9. A:.

1.3

affiliated with the )piscopalian Church of )ngland. hat was sure to offend some attendees, but the message of 3eckler strengthened 3er"l(s cause. So when the decision was made to hold a Second Zionist Congress in 0ondon, 3eckler, as chaplain for the 1ritish )mbassy in 7ienna, had the necessary contacts to make the arrangements. 1ritish officials in 0ondon greatly supported the Zionist cause, much more so than their staff officials in -alestine. ?ate 1;77s/ The 9reat 6e&ate/ Israel in 4alestine or Africa5 In his eagerness, 3er"l negotiated with the urkish government for land to establish -alestine(s autonomy. #hile his efforts failed, he found more success with the 1ritish, who offered him A,??? s&uare miles of uninhabited highlands in 6ganda, $frica. he offer split the organi"ation as some desired to accept it while others aspired for their biblical homeland. he main obstacle that stood in the way of establishing a Jewish state in -alestine was the 5ttoman )mpire, but #orld #ar I would resolve that problem. 3er"l died at the age of >> and the 6ganda offer was never accepted. 3ad he read his 3ebrew 1ible, he may have recogni"ed a different plan for the Jewish people. he Congress, however, represented only a small fraction of the Jewish people as most would not or could not identify themselves with the possibility of returning to their homeland. Met, the most influential accomplishment of the Congress was building a much-needed Jewish identity. It adopted a national flag, a national anthem, and encouraged Jewish people to dream of a homeland that had escaped them for centuries -- a homeland promised to their forefathers, even though they had given up hope of ever seeing the promise become a reality. he Congress received worldwide attention. Dor e%ample, shortly thereafter interesting comments were published by the !ussian Saint -etersburg )cclesiastical $cademy, the -hurch 3eraldE It would be strange if the nation that no one doubts is one of the most remarkable in history, the nation which has had an e%traordinary impact on all of humanity and has always considered itself as the Chosen -eople would ever be satisfied by the present situation. In spite of all the vicissitudes in its historical e%istence, in spite of the humiliations which it has suffered from other nations, it never stopped looking at itself as the Chosen -eople, dedicated to lofty historical ob+ectives. hat is why the dream never faded, that the day would come when the dry bones of the nation dispersed throughout the world would come together again in a single organism which would demand a separate state, a separate territory where it could revive its historical and national life. $nd now the
9;>

time may have come to reali"e this dream, which found remarkable e%pression in the movement, which calls itself FZionism.I /=A he editorial continued to note that the author believed that the future road of Judaism was in lock step with the path of the Christian faith. he nation chosen for a great historical mission, the dissemination of the true faith, which to a large e%tent has already been accomplished by preparing the 'entiles to accept Christianity, could not &uit the historical scene for good even after the great and terrible crime committed on 'olgotha ... even from the highest providential point of view, what might be loftier than the sight of a nation arisen from many centuries of somnolence, shaking off the burden of slavery J political or moral J and regaining freedom on its own soilK Is it not a uni&ue sight in history when Israel, this nation of 'od, will sense again its own historical ob+ective after ,iaspora and captivity by aliensK $nd being inspired by this idea will sense itself as a nation united from all corners of the earth, and returning to the place which belongs to it according to the eternal CovenantK/=; Christians whose forefathers were persecutors of Jewish people were now recogni"ing the fulfillment of the plan of 'od. hose who firmly believed Israel is the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people cannot avoid having an interest in the land and its people. he fact that nearly all Jewish Zionists were non-religious elevates events to the level of miracles. ?ate 127#/ The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. 6ndoubtedly the most influential book ever published promoting anti-Semitism was The Protocols of the Learned 0lders of @ion. It was authored by 4atvei 'olovinski of the !ussian 5rthodo% Church, who plagiari"ed it from a Drench book titled The 2ialogue in 3ell between 3achia/elli and #ontes"uieu./== Its publication was financed by the !ussian C"ar .icholas II. In /> chapters this mythical writing presented details of a satanic plot by Jewish leaders to enslave the entire world. 'olovinski described them as subversive infiltrators, who will stop at nothing to attain their goalVincluding the spreading of diseases, instigation of riots, assassinations and initiation of wars. he Jews are said to be the
/=A

4ikhail. FSome !ussian 5rthodo% !eactions to )arly ZionismE 9:??-9:9>.I =@, citing FSionism v +ego sushchnosti i stremleni+akh.I BZionismE Its )ssence and $spirationsC, T5er o/niA 8estni , 9:?/. .o. <;, <:.
/=; /==

Ibid.

he first scholarly research concerning the origins of the forgery was published by 1. Segel in 9:/>, followed by a second research document published by 3erman 1ernstein in 9:<@.

1.#

manipulators of the secret international order of Dreemasons, who successfully masterminded the Drench !evolution in 9;=:. Mears later 3enry Dord financed its publication and distribution under the title The International Jew, until he reali"ed it was a falsification. 3itler cared little as to its authenticity, but used it in his propaganda. )ventually Dord reali"ed he had been duped and apologi"ed to the Jewish community. 3itler used Dord(s credibility to promote it. /=: oday it is a popular anti-Israel tool in the hands of the $rabs. Dor e%ample, an edition reprinted by *uwait included a map showing the central area of the Islamic world encompassed by the snake Bsee figure belowC. /:? The Protocols is re&uired reading in most Islamic countries.

of 4ecca.

Digure <;. he F,ream of ZionismI according to a *uwait edition of The Protocols of @ion, begins world con&uest by subduing the heart Islamic areas. his area encompasses a land mass from the )uphrates to the .ile and includes the Islamic holy city of 4edina, but not

1270-121./ 9ustav Hermann 6alman
/=: /:?

.icholls, <>9L -rager and elushkin, /?/. 0arsson, >;.

9;A

'ustav ,alman was an evangelical 'erman missionary, professor, archaeologist and linguist who in the years 9:?/-9:9; decided to create a biblical garden consisting of plants mentioned in the 1ible. 3e made his garden at the lepers( colony of 3anson 3ospital. 3e served as the director of the 'erman )vangelical Institute for $nti&uity B9:?/-9;C and was a prolific writer on various biblical sub+ects. 3e was knowledgeable of Jewish writings and viewed Scripture with a reflection of the Jewish roots of Christianity, a profound perspective for his time. /:9 1278-1218/ Second Aliya he centuries-old -assover dream of Fne%t year in JerusalemI was becoming closer to reality as more than <@,??? Jews emigrated from !ussia, -oland and )astern )urope. 1y 9:9>, there were >< Jewish agricultural settlements with 9<,??? settlers, most of whom were supported by 1aron !othschild of -aris. $nother A;,??? settlers elsewhere tried to scratch out a living in the land they believed would one day flow with milk and honey. /:/ 0ife was e%tremely harsh for the returning Jews. 4any died of malaria, lost all their resources, and many survivors either returned to )urope or managed to immigrate to the 6nited States. 5f the thousands who returned in fulfillment of biblical prophecy, only a few remained to see their grandchildren inherit the fruit of their labors. 5ne missionary organi"ation in 9:9; described living conditions as followsE he deplorable conditions are shocking. $mericans cannot conceive, even by trying to imagine, what the reality is. wo years ago B9:9@C when distributing money from the FChristian 3erald,I and last year B9:9AC, when conducting the Industrial !elief work, we thought that conditions could not get much worse. #e have learned differently. It would be impossible to carry on the industrial relief work now. he people are not in a condition to work. It is simply keeping body and soul together. In some cases, our assistance helpsL in other cases, it is too late./:< 1y this time, Jews came from so many different nations, that the 9:99 edition of the 0ncyclopedia Britannica stated the diversity of nationalities in -alestine created no less than fifty languages. /:> he new
/:9 /:/ /:<

'arbell, F,alman, 'ustaf 3ermann.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. -rittie, 9>@. Spafford, /@;. 1ennett, 9><.

/:>

1..

immigrants accepted the philosophic writings of 4oses 3ess, who promoted the socialistic concept of the ibbut5. he ibbut5 was an agricultural collective farm in which all houses, animals, tools, farm e&uipment and vehicles belonged to the group. #hile families lived together, all families lived in a closely-knit community where decisions concerning +obs and personal responsibilities were made democratically. 4any ibbut5im were established and eventually failed Bfor economic reasonsC, but they were key components in the establishment of the nation-state. #orkers toiled long hours to convert waste land into what would become the world(s highest productive agricultural land. 127#/ 4rophetic Insi)ht &y Ae)i& A@oury! an Ara& Aationalist $ prophetic and insightful comment was made by .egib $"oury, an early $rab nationalist. 3e carefully and honestly admitted the historical hostilities between the $rab and Jewish people and predicted its conse&uence. 3e stated, wo important phenomena manifest themselves at this timeE they are the awakening of the $rab nation and the latent efforts of the Jews to reconstitute the ancient monarchy of Israel on a very large scale. hese two movements are destined to fight each other continually, until one of them prevails over the other. 6pon the final outcome of the battle between these two peoples, representing two opposed principles, the fate of the entire world depends./:@ 127;/ "sta&lishment of EThe 1riends of IsraelF in 1inland Dor nearly a century, there was a small but growing movement in some -rotestant churches throughout )urope for the support of the Jewish people. Dinally, it happened. Some dedicated Christians in Dinland established an organi"ation known as F he Driends of Israel.I he significance lies in the fact that they were dedicated to helping the Jewish people to immigrate to Israel, when there was no state of Israel. hey did, however, believe that a time was coming when a biblical prophecy would be fulfilled and a nation for the Jewish people would arise. In 9:9;, they sent their first missionaries to -alestine. $fter the Soviet 6nion fell, many Jewish people left to immigrate to Israel via Dinland, because the Soviets would not permit them to fly directly to Israel. ,uring their +ourney, !ussian Jewish people had the opportunity to stay in the homes of Dinnish Christians who cared for them. he sole purpose of the organi"ation was, and still is, to
/:@

Ouoted by 0arson, 9@<, in .egib $"oury. FIshmael and 3is 1rother.I Jerusalem Post, $pril, //, 9::@. 99.

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demonstrate the love of Jesus to a persecuted people, to gather, and to bring them to their ancient homeland. hey were among a growing host of 'entile believers who recogni"ed what the 0ord was doing and sei"ed the opportunity to perform 3is will to help bring home the lost sheep of Israel in a physical sense BIsa. >:E//C and spiritually B!om. 99E99L Isa. A/E99C. 1272/ Cyrus In)erson Scofield Dew people have influenced Christianity in the past century as much as did C. I. Scofield B9=><-9:/9C when he published his Scofield Reference Bible. $mong the many notes in his study 1ible were comments on the restoration of a future Israel and the Christian pro-Zionist ideals to help the Jewish people. It became widely popular and undoubtedly the single most important publication to promote John .elson ,arby(s premillennial rapture doctrine. Scofield(s work became foundational in numerous fundamental and evangelical 1ible colleges and seminaries worldwide. 121./ World War I 1rees 4alestine from Tur%ish Control #orld #ar I pitted the nations of the world against 'ermany and her ally, the 5ttoman )mpire. #hen 'ermany surrendered, likewise did the urkish 5ttomans, who had ruled -alestine since 9@9;. It was the first time the 3oly 0and was under Christian control since the Crusader -eriod. In 9:9; 'reat 1ritain was the first nation to recogni"e the rights of the Jewish people to their historical homeland when it issued the 1alfour ,eclaration. 0ater, in 9:9: the 6nited States hosted other nations at the -aris -eace Conference and the 0eague of .ations was formed. he 0eague decided that 'reat 1ritain and Drance would carve up the 4iddle )ast and the name F-alestineI was officially given to the land of the 1ible. In the meantime, the conflicts between the returning Jewish people and $rabs, who were also entering -alestine, became increasingly violent throughout the 9:/?s and 9:<?s. he so-called FJewish problemI simply would not go away. 121./ $ritish 1avor a e+ish State: The $alfour 6eclaration -alestine and a large tract of land around it was a war pri"e for the 1ritish as the victor of #orld #ar I. hey essentially owned this massive piece of real estate from 9:9; until 9:>=. 3owever, the 0eague of .ations that was founded in 9://, gave a mandate for a Jewish nation to be established. he 1ritish )mpire viewed with favor the establishment of a Jewish national home in -alestine for several reasons. Dirst, there was a rising tide of support in 0ondon from influential Jews and evangelicals. Second, e%cept for a few lingering Jews and $rabs, the land was essentially void of human occupation. he 1ritish reali"ed that the Jewish people had been returning in mass migrations since the early 9==?s and were preparing
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the land for a future nation. Conse&uently, $rabs from neighboring countries were also migrating to -alestine for better employment opportunities. $ -alestine filled with )uropean Jews would better serve the 1ritish )mpire than a -alestine filled with $rabs. hird, some 1ritish leaders, such as 3erbert Samuel encouraged the government to control -alestine after the war to protect Christian holy sites. 3e cared little for the Jewish people, but was fearful that, if the Fagnostic atheistic DrenchI would control the land, the holy sites would all be destroyed. he Zionistic efforts of 3er"l and others influenced positive results on an international scale. 1ecause of favorable 1ritish rule, Zionism grew more popular and an increasing number of Jews worldwide desired to return to their homeland. Dor months, Sir $rthur 1alfour, 1ritish foreign secretary, pledged that *ing 'eorge 7(s government would secure the entire area of -alestine for the benefit of the Jewish people. 1alfour, a member of the -lymouth 1rethren, wrote a short letter to 0ord !othschild that would produce significant conse&uences. It readsE

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the

Digure <=. he 1alfour ,eclaration affirmed the official position of 1ritish government to establish a home in -alestine for the Jews.

here were two significant factors inherent in the 1alfour ,eclaration. Dirst, it was instrumental in the eventual establishment of the state of Israel. Second, it reaffirmed the rights of Jews to return to 9?? percent of the land area of ancient -alestine. It does have one very significant phrase concerning the $rabsE F... nothing shall be done which may pre+udice the civil and religious rights to e%isting non-Jewish communities in -alestine.I he Jewish people were not only the ma+ority population at this time, but they also established and controlled commerce, while the $rab -alestinians were a minority agricultural people. /:A Met so insignificant was -alestine in relation to other world events of the time, that it was not
/:A

Some scholars claim that the -alestinian $rabs were the ma+ority population.

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mentioned in various negotiations and the resulting documents. #hen the 1alfour ,eclaration was announced, there was no voice of opposition by any 4uslim or $rab leaders. -alestine was, for the most part, still a desert wilderness that no one wanted e%cept for some Jewish people. /:; o the Jews living in the ,iaspora Bdisbursed in various countriesC, it was incredible news that one day soon they could live in their beloved Jerusalem. In light of the recent Zionist Congresses, the horrors of #orld #ar I, and !ussian pogroms, the ,eclaration escalated the desire of Jews to return to their ancient homeland. 1218 - 121;/ World War I and the Third Aliya Immigration to -alestine dropped off during the war. 3owever, with the 1ritish 1alfour ,eclaration of 9:9;, immigration spiked. In this five year period more than >?,??? immigrated from !ussia, -oland, 0ithuania, !omania and 'ermany. 1208 - 1202/ 1ourth Aliya $nother FwaveI of Jewish people, this time more than A;,??? returned to their homeland, as persecution continued in !ussia and Soviet bloc nations. #hen $dolf 3itler was proclaiming his anti-Semitic ideals, the $rab nations +oined him. Conse&uently, Jews in $rab countries who once lived in peace with their neighbors suddenly found themselves in harm(s way. 3ence, Jewish people from Ira& and Memen also began to make aliya in the late 9:/?s. In the meantime, $rabs in -alestine witnessed the massive influ% and became increasingly upset. Ironically, the $rabs also immigrated to -alestine to find employment and a better life. /:= !iots, snipers, and terrorists soon became a part of the social landscape. he influ% came not only from )urope, but an increasing number of Jewish people came from $rab countries where there was a rise in anti-Jewish persecutions and discrimination. hroughout the 9:/?s and 9:<?s, there were acts of terrorism against Jewish people in nearly all $rab countries, but especially in -alestine. he prophetic words of the 1ible were in the process of becoming fulfilled. 120#/ International He&re+ Christian Alliance #hile tensions between $rabs and returning Jewish people were increasing in -alestine, an increasing number of Jewish people left their
/:;
/:=

van -aassen, ;>.

Dor more information on $rab-Israeli history and issues, see 1ill 3einrich, R0!LITH 20;I02& The Incon/enient Truth about the #iddle 0ast -onflict.

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traditional and secular forms of Judaism and became believers in Jesus. he first 3ebrew Christian $lliance was formed in )ngland in 9=A;, and some twenty alliances e%isted by 9:/@. hey banned together to form the International 3ebrew Christian $lliance. 4essianic Judaism was becoming a controversial sub+ect of greater magnitude than in the past. .ot since the first century had so many Jewish people come to faith in Meshua. /:: he Spirit of 'od was clearly moving among the descendants of $braham, Isaac, and Jacob. 1230 - 123;/ 1ifth Aliya: Social 6ifficulties ,uring these years nearly a &uarter of a million Jewish people poured in from )urope and $rab countries, as 3itler was beating the drums of war. he $rabs responded with terrorism, which became part of daily life in -alestine. 3owever, because life in -alestine was far more difficulty, than in )urope, an estimated ten percent of )uropean Jewry immigrated to either South $merica or to the 6nited States. In the meantime, Christian charities e%perienced severe financial difficulties due to the economic depression in the 6S and )urope. hey survived primarily because the schools, orphanages, and hospitals which they had built in -alestine were by this time well established. "arly 1277s/ "van)elical 3ilitary 4rofessionals $s the time for Israel(s birth was approaching, several evangelical military professionals in Israel organi"ed the Jewish freedom fighters into effective military units. $mong them was Colonel John 3enry -atterson. 3e established the first Jewish military unit since the !omans destroyed Jerusalem in $, 9<@. ,uring ##I, he commanded the Zion 4ule Corps and Jewish 0egion in battles to remove the 5ttoman urks. $fter the war, he authored two books about his military campaigns and was instrumental in the political arena that helped create the state of Israel. 3is contributions gave the Jewish people the sense that they could become an effective military unit.<?? $nother was Colonel 5dre #ingate. 3e was born in India to missionary parents, and his grandfather was a Scottish missionary to the Jewish people in 3ungary. hroughout his entire life he kept his 1ible close by his side. 3e served as a 1ritish $rmy officer in the 9:<A-<: $rab riots in Jerusalem, during which time he became an avid Christian Zionist. he official 1ritish policy was that the 1ritish were the peacekeepers and the Jewish people were not permitted to retaliate against $rab terrorists. B oday
/:: <??

Sedaca, 9?@-@@. Slutsky, F-atterson, John 3enry.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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a similar policy appears to have been enacted by the 6...C In the 9:<?s, he recogni"ed that 1ritish troops would shortly be removed to serve in )urope fighting the .a"is. he Jewish people would then be left alone to struggle against the $rabs. herefore, he risked his career and trained about fifty Jewish men in military science. hey eventually became an elite force, the Special .ight S&uads, later known as the Israeli ,efense Dorces BI,DC. hese men became the officers in the first Israeli army and political figures in the early years of the new country. <?9 3ence, this evangelical Christian, Colonel 5dre #ingate, is honored today in Israel as the FDather of the Israeli $rmy.I 1237/ The 4assfield White 4aper $mid all of the errors the 1ritish had made until this time, the 1ritish Colonial Secretary 0ord -assfield took it upon himself to finali"e 1ritain(s position on -alestine. $fter an in&uiry, the -assfield #hite -aper placed all the blame for the turmoil and riots on the Jews. )vidently -assfield either was unaware of or ignored the accounts of riots that were instigated by the 1ritish after the war. he -aper declared the official 1ritish policy would give priority to $rabs concerning land ownership. he $rabs were ecstatic with +oy, but the Zionists nagged the 1rits relentlessly to honor past promises. $s a result, the 1ritish rescinded the -assfield #hite -aper in 9:<9 and the -alestinian $rabs were convinced they could never trust the 1ritish or any other )uropeans. $rab sentiment was that they simply had to eliminate the Jewish problem anyway they could. So when 3itler came to power in 9:<<, it did not take much for the 'rand 4ufti of Jerusalem to convince them to +oin the 'erman ranks to e%terminate Jews. The (ise of Adolf Hitler and 9erman Anti-Semitism <1270-1288> "arly 07th Century Aa@i 9ermany Dollowing #orld #ar I 'ermany was in shambles, inflation was rampant, and the desperate 'erman people were ready to follow anyone who offered a glimmer of hope. Drom this social and political caldron arose a young and persuasive leader with great charisma, who moved the emotions of thousands. 3is charm and rhetoric captivated everyone J e%cept the Jewish people. $dolf 3itler promised to create, not only a 'erman )mpire, but also a purified 'erman race. 3e created a political party known as the -hristian)Social party. he name -hristian referred to the religious grounds for anti-Semitism and Social referred to anti-Semitism for racial reasons. he name also referred to
<?9

,ayan, F#ingate, Charles 5rde.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.

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the financial dominance the Jewish people had supposedly developed, since 3itler had blamed the Jewish people for all of the economic woes of )urope. 3e chose to forget the devastating conse&uences of the war and the collapse of the $merican stock market. Since many )uropeans had mythical perceptions of all Jewish people being e%tremely wealthy and powerful, the word Social also included the connotation of implied Jewish influence upon )urope(s economy. $s the anti-Semitic speeches filled the air, churches, for the most part, remained silent. Dor decades 'erman seminaries had been teaching two influential but damaging doctrines. he first was !udolph 1ultmann(s theory that all the miracles of the 1ible were myths and the second was that 'od works through the governments to accomplish 3is will. hese teachings silenced many pulpits when pastors should have stood up and challenged the murder of innocent Jewish people. $mong the influential pre-war 'erman philosophers, who significantly deadened the hearts and minds of the population and clergy, was Driedrich .iet"sche. 3e not only opposed Christianity and Judaism, but also promoted the idea of 'erman supremacy as the true $ryan race. 3e read the .ew estament and concluded that -ontius -ilate was the only one who had any degree of dignity and respect. $s to the death of Christ by -ilate, in his book The !ntichrist, .iet"sche said, F5ne Jew more or less, what does it matterKI 3e then continued, F he Jews have made mankind so thoroughly false that even today the Christian can feel anti-Jewish without reali"ing that he is himself the ultimate Jewish conse&uence.I <?/ In essence he claimed the Jews had corrupted 'entile society to the point that 'ermans were unaware of its demise. #ith theories as this being popular in leading 'erman seminaries, there is little &uestion how the Church deadened itself to the atrocities of $dolf 3itler. 1237s/ The (ise of Adolf Hitler he economic aftermath of #orld #ar I left 'ermany in shambles and the people were willing to follow anyone who made persuasive promises. 5n January <?, 9:<< 3itler became the 'erman Chancellor and blamed the problems of 'ermany s&uarely upon the Jewish people. !ather than dealing with the real causes of the economic chaos, within three months, he established the first concentration camp at ,achau. he results of his demonic leadership are legendary, resulting in millions of deaths and his suicide twelve years later. Met even in this, when he prepared his last will and testament, he blamed the #orld #ar on the Jews. <?< 3is actions against them were founded by this statement, FI believe that I am acting in
<?/ <?<

)ugen ,uhring, Cited by 5(1rian, @;-@=. !ausch, <.

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accordance with the will of the $lmighty CreatorE by defending myself against the Jew. I am fighting for the work of the 0ord.I <?> $s such, he like many others before him and the 4uslims of today, fulfilled the prophetic words of Jesus recorded in John 9AE/. F$ time is coming when anyone who kills you will think he is offering a service to 'od.I

Digure <:. -ope -ius NII meets .a"i soldiers. 3is political position concerning the .a"i !egime was never clear, as he refused to critici"e $dolf 3itler, 'erman policies, or the genocide of 'ypsies, Christians and Jews. In large part 3itler was successful because both -rotestant and !oman Catholic leaders failed to make a concerted protest against him. .ot only did leaders fail to stand up for basic human rights for the Jewish people, but they also failed to stand up for biblical standards and values. #hile a few notable individuals protested, nowhere was there a massive moral protest against the .a"i regime or refusal to cooperate. $ few leaders of both

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'lock and Stark, %v.

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Churches aided Jews to escape the secret service troops and many of those paid with their lives.

Digure >?. 4any -rotestant and Catholic clergymen openly supported $dolf 3itler and his policies of ethnic cleansing. he Church(s vast )uropean network J bishops, diplomats, couriers, priests, and parishioners J kept the pope and 7atican informed of 3itler(s activities. Concerning the reports of the mass killings in 9:>9 and 9:>/, 7atican Secretary of State Cardinal 0uigi 4aglione regarded the news as unverified or e%aggerated. In fact, some scholars have suggested that the pope gave his blessing on 3itler(s e%termination plans. 3ow unfortunate it is that so seldom have Jewish people e%perienced true love from a Christian. Jewish Scholar #illiam .icholls believed that -ope -ius NII could have made a significant contribution among the national leaders by permitting the Jewish people to immigrate to Israel, the 6nited States or elsewhere. $nother scholar, John Cornwell in his book, 3itler4s Pope& The Secret 3istory of Pope Pius KII, presents a chilling account of the

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3itler--ope -ius union.<?@ Such evil actions in the name of Christianity are beyond human comprehension. ,ecisions and actions of the 7atican reflect centuries-old positions and attitudes. Dor e%ample, in 9:>< the 7atican bestowed its highest distinction upon Ion $ntonescu, the murderer of <??,??? poor and defenseless !omanian Jewish people, thousands of Christians, and a half million !ussian and 'erman soldiers. he silence of the -ope, the leader of the most influential church, most assuredly added to the 3olocaust atrocities.<?A In another case, in 5ctober 9:><, 3itler(s SS troops marched into !ome(s Jewish ghetto and rounded up Jewish men, women and children. hey were held captive for two days in a large building, until their number e%ceeded one thousand. he pope was among the first to be informed of their capture and that they were being held in a building less than a half mile from the 7atican. 3e did absolutely nothing to prevent them from being stuffed into cattle cars and sent to $uschwit". 3is intentional blindness was surpassed by his direct involvement in helping the .a"i criminals. $fter the war was over, he personally helped .a"i criminals go FundergroundI to escape the punishment for crimes against humanity. o add insult to in+ury, in /??:, -ope 1enedict issued a decree declaring the historic virtues of -ius. It was the first step in the process of beatification to have -ope -ius NII declared a saint. $ newspaper correspondent once asked the -ope why he did not protest the e%termination. 3is reply was, F,ear friend, do not forget that millions of Catholics served in the 'erman armies. Shall I bring them in conflicts of conscienceKI<?; #hile later there was an e%planation that he was working secretly through diplomatic channels, the e%planations his apologists made after the war reflected nothing less than a moral and spiritual failure. 3owever, to the credit of the Catholic Church, -ope John NNIII in the 9:A?s did work to mend relations between the Church and the Jewish people in what has become known as 7atican II. <?= Catholic scholar and priest John 4orley studied documents in the 7atican archives and made this analysisE It must be concluded that 7atican diplomacy failed the Jews during the 3olocaust by not doing all that was possible for it to do on their
<?@

John Cornwell, 3itler4s Pope& the Secret 3istory of Pope Pius KII, .ew MorkE 7iking, 9:::.
<?A <?; <?=

.icholls, <A?. Cited by 0ewy in 1entley, Storm. /9A. .icholls, <@<-@@.

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behalf. It also failed because, in neglecting the needs of the Jews and pursuing a goal of reserve rather than humanitarian concern, it betrayed the ideals it had set for itself. he nuncios, the Secretary of State, and, most of all, the -ope share the responsibility for this dual failure.<?: Since the beginning of the war the $mericans, 1ritish and other $llies were aware of death camps and 3itler(s plans for the Jews. $ simple act of bombing railroad bridges and concentration camps in the early days of the war would have saved millions of lives, but, shamefully, they refused to act. Durthermore, with the common use of radio, they could have warned the Jewish people in 'ermany of the danger they were in, but they failed miserably in this as well. 5bviously the Church is not the only one with blood on its hands. -leadings from Jewish leaders to government leaders of the 6nited States, )ngland, and other allied nations to bomb concentration camps, as well as the railroad tracks leading to those camps, fell on deaf ears. #hile thousands of bombs fell upon 'erman military installations, cities, factories and bridges, none fell upon concentration camps or the railroads that took Jewish people to their agoni"ing deaths.

Digure >9. $n aerial photograph of the 1ergen-1elson Concentration Camp taken by $llied reconnaissance in $pril, 9:>@. Courtesy of the 1ergen-1elson 4emorial 4useum.

<?:

4orley, /?:.

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in

Digure >/. F#ill we live to see the liberationKI he &uestion, written 3ebrew, on a drawing found at the 1ergen-1elson Concentration Camp reveals that Jewish captives saw $llied planes during the war.

he haunting &uestion remains, F#hy did the $llies not bomb concentration camps or the railroad tracks leading to the campsKI $merican and )nglish war planes could have saved thousands of lives. $gain to the credit of the !oman Catholic Church, it should be noted that in the 9:<?s, when the .a"is attempted to institute euthanasia to eliminate the mentally ill from 'ermany, Church protests saved the lives of innocent people. hat may be why 9:?? !oman Catholic priests lost their lives in the concentration camps. $gain, when the .a"i regime was about to re&uire divorce of mi%ed marriages, the Church protested and stopped the action. his was not for the benefit of the Jew, but for the permanency of the institution of a Christian marriage, even if it was mi%ed. <9? his is obvious evidence that the Church could have influenced or prevented the 'erman 3olocaust, but chose not to. .evertheless, some faithful Christians throughout )urope secretly opposed 3itler and helped Jews, as visible opposition resulted in immediate imprisonment and often death. <99

<9? <99

.icholls, <@:. !ausch, @.

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Digure ><. Jesus was depicted as carrying a Swastika instead of a cross in .a"i art with the blessing of some Church leaders. he &uestion remains as to why there were no voices against it. 1237s/ 9entile An)els of 3ercy $ccording to records in the Jerusalem 3olocaust 4useum, there were hundreds of 'entiles who risked their lives saving the lives of Jewish people during this reign of horrors. Since 3itler(s killing machine was so massive, their effect was relatively small although still very significant. 5ne of the outstanding 'erman 0utheran FangelsI of this era was ,ietrich 1onhoeffer B9:?A-9:>@C. In 9:<< he co-authored the Bethel -onfession and later became head of the seminary for the Confessing Church. 3e proclaimed the errors of .a"ism in light of the biblical commandments. $s a result, he was told to stop preaching, then to stop teaching, and eventually was arrested and hung for his anti-.a"i position. 1onhoeffer understood the horrors of persecution and death that the
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institutionali"ed church had inflicted upon the Jewish people. 3e knew that centuries of Church policies and doctrines had culminated in the current events of 'ermany. Dor this reason he publicly declared that the 'erman leader could not be faulted from the perspective of the Christian faith. 3e said that, F he Church of Christ has never lost sight of the thought that the Fchosen people,I who nailed the !edeemer of the world to the cross, must bear the curse for their action through a long history of sufferingU.I <9/ In essence he said that 3itler was a product of Church history. Met 1onhoeffer boldly preached for the humanitarian rights of the Jewish people and the Christian responsibilities that should be afforded to them. Dor the e%pression of these ideas, he died in a concentration camp. $nother FangelI was the outspoken Catholic priest and theologian, 1ernhard 0ichtenberg B9=;@-9:><C who confronted the .a"is. In 9:<@, he protested the cruelty in the concentration camps and the euthanasia program. $fter the burning of Jewish synagogues in 9:<=, he closed his evening services with a prayer for the persecuted Jewish people, which ultimately led to his arrest and sentence to the ,achau concentration camp. 3e died en route.<9< 6ndoubtedly some FangelsI are known only to 'od. hose who rescued Jewish people from going to the concentration camps had to keep their mission a secret. hose who were discovered by the .a"is paid with their lives. If another 3olocaust were to occur, do you know anyone who would be willing to risk hisRher life to save a JewK 5r would silence be preferredK Contrary to the 'reek 5rthodo% Church in !ussia that supported the pogroms Bmass killing of Jewish peopleC in the 9==?s, the 5rthodo% Church in 1ulgaria took the unusual position of defending the Jewish people. he 4etropolitan Stephan of Sofia declared publicly that 'od was the +udge of the Jewish people, not men. 3e not only took measures on their behalf against the re&uired wearing of the Star of ,avid, but he also introduced Fmercy baptismsI of Jewish people, knowing that later these would be renounced. Durthermore, he personally hid the chief rabbi in his home. #hen the war was over, all the Jewish people in his district had been saved.<9> If only more Christians would have done such a great work as he didQ In .ovember of 9:<=, Christians in Scotland were troubled by the reports they received concerning the Jewish people in 'ermany. In sharp contrast to the established churches in 'ermany, these Christians determined
<9/

Skoog, :/, citing ,. 1onhoeffer, F,ie *irche vor der Judenfrage,I Girchen amph und 1in enwalde. 'esammelte Schriften, 1d. II. 4unchen, 9:@:. @:.
<9< <9>

!eshef, F0ichtenberg, 1ernhard.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. .icholls, <A/.

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to do whatever was necessary to provide aid for the Jewish people and made this announcementE he Dree Church, mindful of what the world owes to the race divinely chosen to be vehicles of revelation of 'od(s moral law and the immeasurably higher destiny awaiting Israel when the veil shall be lifted, compassionates, with special poignancy, the lot of so many innocent sufferers. he church calls on her faithful people to be diligent in prayer for the redemption of Israel, and to +oin with prompt generosity in all practical forms of aid. <9@

If there was ever a time when the Jews needed true Christian love and compassion, it was then. Shamefully, all too many caved in to the .a"i dogma, leaving only a few to step forward in the .ame of Jesus.
1237s/ Seventh 6ay Adventists Surrender e+ish Converts to Aa@is he Seventh ,ay prophet )llen '. #hite claimed she was told by 'od that because the Jewish people killed Jesus, Israel would never become a nation and all of 'od(s promises were reserved for the $dventists. Durthermore, the $dventists were 'od(s only chosen people. Dor reasons said to be in 0eviticus /A, the )uropean congregations turned all of their Jewish converts over to 3itler to be sent to the gas chambers. he Jewish people, not recogni"ing the differences between $dventism and the Church, relegate them to be one and the same. 123;/ $ishop Con)ratulates Adolf Hitler he F.ight of 1roken 'lass,I .ovember :, 9:<=, was a night of terror throughout 'ermany as .a"i soldiers broke into Jewish shops, burned religious books, and murdered and imprisoned Jewish people. It was a night that translated hateful rhetoric into state-sponsored persecution and murder. Shortly thereafter, on .ovember /=, the state bishop sent this telegram to $dolf 3itlerE 5E he Duhrer and !eich Chancellor $dolph 3itler. he three churches of gratitude in 1remen have been inaugurated. hey bear your name, 4ein Duhrer, in gratitude to 'od for the miraculous redemption of our nation at your hands from the abyss of Jewish-materialistic 1olshevism. I thank you for having enabled us
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0arson, 99?.

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to e%press in these new churches what is a deep confession for us who are fully conscious Christian national socialists. 3eil, 4ein DuhrerQ<9A 1232/ 4rotestant Theolo)ians Conspire +ith Hitler 5n $ugust :, /??A the 'erman newspaper Bild reported .a"i booklets indicate that Fin 4ay 9:<: G3itlerH set up a group of -rotestant theologians loyal to the !eich Gas anH Pinstitution for the purification of Christianity from Judaism.(I 5ne of the group(s publications was named The Boo of 7erman 1aith, and contained a revision of the en Commandments Bwith the addition of another twoC in line with F.a"i ethicsIE 3onor 'od and rely on him absolutelyL *eep silent before 'odL ,o not practice any hypocrisyL Sanctify your body and your lifeL Sanctify the good and honorL Sanctify the truth and loyaltyL 3onor your father and mother - help your children and be an e%ample to themL 'uard the purity of blood and the sanctity of marriageL 'ain much knowledgeL $lways be ready to help and to forgiveL 3onor the Duehrer and the 0ord Gha-$donHL Serve the people cheerfully in work and sacrifice J his is what 'od wishes from us. $nother .a"i publication was a prayer book from which all 3ebrew words Bsuch as F3alleluyahIC were removed. he word FJerusalemI was referred to as F)ternity - the city of ,ivine 0ight.I Jesus was portrayed without 3is Jewish character or ethnic heritage. 3is family was said to have originated from the Caucus 4ountains making 3im $ryan and not Jewish. <9;
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4elt"er, @;.

4edia !eview online atE www.caspari.comRmediareviewR/??AR?A-?:-?>.html. !etrieved September @, /??A.

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3itler conscripted clergy from many churches to work toward his goals. hose who resisted paid with their lives, those who were willing to compromise their doctrinal values, or may never have had them, were blessed by the 'erman establishment. Clearly it was time when a number of pastors crossed the line from Christianity into a world of heresy. 1232-128#/ HitlerIs Idealism and World War II he #ar placed international attention to Zionism on hold. he 1ritish were forced to relocate their troops from -alestine to )urope. hey saw this as a way of escape the 4iddle )ast and leave the Jews to fend for themselves. he 1ritish did not prepare the Jews to defend themselves, nor give them any military e&uipment. In essence, the 1ritish created a set up for them to be slaughtered by the $rabs. If the Jews were going to survive, it would be a miracle, because Jerusalem(s 'rand 4ufti 3usseini had organi"ed an $rab brigade to Fliberate JerusalemI after the anticipated 1ritish departure. 3e was determined to place it once again under Islamic control. #ithout Church-sponsored anti-Semitism for /,??? years, the 3olocaust would not have been possible. 3itler based legislation on medieval Catholic anti-Semitic legislation, enhanced by defaming comments of 4artin 0uther. he list of Canonical and .a"i 0aws below was researched by Jewish scholar !aul 3ilberg and reveals he used Church doctrines for his e%termination work. <9= A Comparative ?ist of Canonical and Aa@i ?a+s Canonical ?a+ -rohibition of Intermarriage and of se%ual Intercourse between Christians and Jews Synod of )lvira, <?A Jews and Christians not permitted to eat together Synod of )lvira, <?A Aa@i ?a+ 0aw for the -rotection of 'erman 1lood and 3onor September 9@, 9:<@ B!'1 9 I, 99>AC Jews barred from railroad dining cars B ransport 4inister to Interior 4inisterC ,ecember <?, 9:<: ,5C. .'<::@ 0aw for the !e-)stablishment of the -rofessional Civil Service $pril ;, 9:<< B!'4 9 I, 9;@C 0aw for the -rotection of 'erman
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Jews not allowed to hold public office Synod of Clement, @<@ Jews not allowed to employ
<9=

3ilberg, @-=.

Christian servants or possess Christian slaves < Synod of 5rleans, @<=
rd

1lood and 3onor September 9@, 9:<@ B!'1 9 I, 99>AC

Jews not permitted to show themselves in the streets during -assion #eek <rd Synod of 5rleans, @<=

,ecree authori"ing local authorities to bar Jews from the streets on certain .a"i holidays ,ecember <, 9:<= B!'1 9 I, 9A;AC

Christians not permitted to see Jewish doctors Synod of rulanic, A:/ Christians not permitted to live in Jewish homes Synod of .arbonne, 9?@?

'ermans not permitted to see Jewish doctors ,ecree of July /@, 9:<=<9: ,irective by 'oring providing for concentration of Jews in houses ,ecember /=, 9:<= B1orgmann to !osenberg, Jan. 9;, 9:<:E -SA:C.

Jews obligated to pay ta%es or support of the Church to the same e%tent as the Christians Synod of 'erona, 9?;=

he FSo"ialaugleichsabgabeI which provided that Jews pay a special income ta% in lieu of donations for .a"i -arty purposes ,ecember />, 9:>? B!'19 I, 9AAAC

Jews not permitted to be plaintiffs, or witnesses in the courts BCanon /AC <rd 0ateran Council, 99;: Jews not permitted to withhold
<9:

-roposal by the -arty Chancellery that Jews not be permitted to institute civil suits September :, 9:>/ B1ormann to Justice 4inistry, Sept. :, 9:>/, .C-9@9C ,ecree empowering the Justice

his decree and its church counterpart were reported in FDocus on $nti-SemitismI in 3ope ;ews. Zurich, Swit"erland. Debruary, /??<, A.

9:A

inheritance from descendants who accepted Christianity BCanon /AC <rd 0ateran Council, 99;: he marking of Jewish clothes with a badge BCopied legislation of Caliph 5mar II who decreed Christians wear blue belts and Jews wear yellow beltsC BCanon A=C >th 0ateran Council, 9/9@ Construction of synagogues prohibited Council of 5%ford, 9///

4inistry to void wills offending the FSound +udgment of the peopleI July <9, 9:<= B!'1 9 I, :<;C he marking of Jewish clothes with a yellow badge September 9, 9:>9 B!'19 I, @>;C

,estruction of all synagogues in the entire !eich .ovember 9?, 9:<= B3eydrich to 'oring, .ov. 99, 9:<=, -S-<?@=C Driendly relations with Jews prohibited 5ctober />, 9:>9 B'estapo directive 0-9@C Jews re&uired to live in ghettos 5rder by 3eydrich September/9, 9:<: B-S-<<A<C ,ecree providing for compulsory sale of Jewish real estate ,ecember <, 9:<: B!'1 9 I, 9;?:C $doption by a Christian of the Jewish religion places him in +eopardy of being treated as a Jew ,ecision by 5berlandesgericht *onigsberg >th Zilvilsenat, June /A, 9:>/ B.ovember 9, 9:>/, pp =/-=<C

Christians not permitted to attend Jewish ceremonies Synod of 7ienna, 9/A; Jews !e&uired to live in ghettos Synod of 1reslau, 9/A; Christians not permitted to sell or rent real estate to Jews Synod of 5fen, 9/;: $doption by a Christian of the Jewish religion or return by a bapti"ed Jew to the Jewish religion defined as a heresy Synod of 4ain", 9<9?

Jews not permitted to act as agents in the conclusion of contracts between Christians, especially marriage contracts

,ecree providing for li&uidation of Jewish real estate agencies, brokerage agencies, and marriage agencies catering to non-Jews
12.

Sessio NIN, Council of 1asel, 9><> Jews not permitted academic degrees to

July A, 9:<= B!'1 9 I, =/<C

obtain 0aws against overcrowding of 'erman schools and universities $pril /@, 9:<< B!'1 9 I, //@C

Sessio NIN, Council of 1asel, 9><>

Digure >>. Canon 0aws compared with .a"i 0aws reflect the influence of historical Church decrees with 3itler(s philosophy to eradicate the Jews. 3itler firmly believed that the 'erman people were the purest human race on the face of the earth. 5bviously, there could not be two Chosen -eople and, therefore, he determined to kill those who held that title for nearly >,??? years. 3is creed did not rise out of Christianity, but out of racial theories of the 9=th-century )nlightenment that espoused ,arwin(s theory on survival of the fittest. 3itler simply used the Church as a vehicle to attain his goals. 3e loved selected teachings of 4artin 0uther and invaded -oland on his birthday to honor the theologian. Some academics believed, as did 3itler, that by eliminating the FimpureI humans from the gene pool, a super race of humans would emerge. )ugenics is applied ,arwinism without any moral boundaries. #hile 3itler was purifying the 'erman race in )urope, in the 6nited States 4argaret Sanger established abortion centers in ma+or cities to eliminate 1lacks and Jews. 1y 9:<: 3itler had established si% killing centers for Jews, !ussians, outspoken )vangelical Christians and 'ypsies. It should be noted that some of the restrictions placed upon the Jews by the Church were originated by 4uslims. 6pon the death of 4uhammad in A</ Caliph 5mar took hold of the reigns of Islam and authori"ed the 5mar Charter. he Charter permitted Jewish people to live in 4uslim communities as a protected people but with restrictions. 1237s/ $ritish Transport Ara&s he escape of Jews out of .a"i 'ermany was effectively cut off by the 6nited States, 1ritain, and $rab countries, all of whom carry the guilt of Jewish blood. he 1ritish did whatever they could to encourage and transport $rabs into -alestine, while at the same time restricting Jews from entering. Durthermore, the 1ritish disarmed the Jews while arming the $rabs. #hile many $rabs did enter during the previous century, the #est 1ank today could not have had an $rab ma+ority without the help of the 1ritish. In effect, the 1ritish were doing whatever possible to reverse the 1alfour ,eclaration.
9:=

1287s (aoul Wallen&er)! Hero "Jtraordinaire 4ost 'ermans publicly supported the .a"i political machine out of fear. 3owever, !aoul #allenberg B9:9/-KC was one who bravely used his influence to save the lives of thousands of Jews. 3e was a descendant of a wealthy and prestigious Christian family in Sweden. 3e came to the 6nited States to study architecture, then returned to )urope to work for a trading company whose president was a 3ungarian Jew. 3is position with the company, coupled with his family(s prestige in Sweden, enabled him to have personal contacts and friendships within the Swedish government. </? In 4arch of 9:>>, 3itler sent SS units into 3ungary, and #allenberg knew the lives of thousands of Jews were at risk. herefore he persuaded the Swedish Doreign 4inister to send him to 1udapest on a diplomatic passport. 3e worked tirelessly to save as many as possible from the concentration camps, deportations and death marches. his was accomplished by the issuance of Swedish citi"enship to tens of thousands of Jews, but some estimates are as high as one hundred thousand. $ year later the Soviet $rmy entered 1udapest and #allenberg disappeared. It has been suggested that he was e%ecuted by the *'1 in 4oscow(s 0ubyanka prison in 9:>;. In 9:=9 he received honorary 6S citi"enship and in 9:=A he was honored by Israel(s Mad 7ashem 3olocaust 4emorial as a F!ighteous 'entile.I 3e was honored as a humanitarian by the 6S -ostal Service when his portrait was featured on a </-cent postage stamp. In 9::; the late 6S Congressman homas 0antos said of him, FIn this age devoid of heroes, #allenberg is the archetype of a heroVone who risked his own life day in and day out, to save the lives of tens of thousands of people he did not know BandC whose religion he did not share.I 0antos had good reason for his comment, as he was among the thousands #allenberg saved from certain death. 1287s/ The Holocaust $ 1erlin radio announcer was heard to say, FIt is our aim to e%terminate the Jewish people. #hether we win Bthe warC or are defeated, we must and will reach this aim. Should the 'erman armies be forced to retreat, they shall on their way wipe the last Jew off the earth.I </9 0ooking at the changing attitude of the Church throughout history an alarming trend is to be noted. Dirst, in the early second century the Jewish roots of Christianity were removed and in the early fourth century some pagan practices, doctrines, and symbols were added. !eplacement heology at the time
</? </9

:ord from Jerusalem, 6S$ )dition. ,ecember /??:. =. 6ssher, 9?9.

122

meant synagogues needed to be destroyed and replaced with churches, and anything pagan in the church was superior to anything Jewish. .otice the progression of hateE In the second century and thereafter Jews were accused of the death of Jesus, but they lived among the Christians. 1y the thirteenth century ghettos were established and the message was simply thisE he Jewish people had no right to live among Christians. Dinally, by the late 9:<?s, 3itler claimed that his hatred of the Jewish people was well secured in FChristianI practice and doctrine. 3is message was simply thisE he Jewish people had no right to live. he trend originated with thoughts of the Jewish people killed Jesus, followed by Jewish people living outside of Christian communities, to Jewish people not being permitted to live. 6nfortunately, all too many Christians are unaware of this historical trend.

Digure >@. $ child surrenders to .a"is during the 'hetto 6prising in #arsaw on $pril /@, 9:><. B!ssociated Press.C 3itler reali"ed that there were simply too many Jewish people in 'ermany for a simple e%ecution method, so he decided to design a production line for death. #hile fatalities by a bullet would have been economically feasible, he reali"ed married soldiers with children might dislike killing women and children, and therefore, he decided upon the gas chamber to e%pedite the killing process.
/??

3ow could this happen in a so-called Christian nationK It would appear that a primary difference between $dolf 3itler and Church history is two thousand years compressed into a stereotyped mold that reflects Flittle 3itlers.I Dor many Jewish people today, this is how they view Fchristianity,I and note that is with a small Fc.I he challenge of the true Christian is to overcome this incredible negative bias and paint a picture of what the true Jesus was like. Christianity did not create the horrors of #orld #ar II.

Digure >A. Jews were re&uired to wear the identifying Star of ,avid. Initially they were re&uired to wear it in the community where they lived, then in the labor camps, then in the concentration camps where they were e%terminated. B!ssociated Press.C he horrors were caused by those who used the Church for their own evil ends. #ithout centuries of Christian anti-Semitism firmly rooted in )uropean culture, the 3olocaust would have been inconceivable. Met it seems that the prophet Jeremiah had a glimpse of it when he looked into the future. 4y eyes fail from weeping, I am in torment, my heart is poured out the ground because my people are destroyed, because children and infants faint in the streets of the city. $ll your enemies open their mouths wide against youL they scoff and gnash their teeth and say,
071

on

F#e

have swallowed her up. his is the day we have waited forL we have lived to see it.I 0amentations /E99, 9A

Digure >;. Jewish bodies, victims of .a"i idealism, were heaped on piles after the uprising in a #arsaw ghetto in 9:>9. hese bodies were either cremated or dumped in a mass grave. his reveals only the tip of the proverbial iceberg in describing how difficult it is to show the love of Christ to the Jew. $ complete study would fill volumes. housands of Jewish people and Christians have asked the &uestion, FIf 'od is good and omnipotent, and we are 3is people, how could such an evil happenKI #hile the &uestion is difficult, the presence of evil and Satan in this world was evident. 3is plan to steal, kill and destroy BJn. 9?E9?C continues in the 4iddle )ast and elsewhere today. Met knowing that the Church was a part of this tragedy, how can any Christian stand before a Jew and not ask for forgivenessK 4any Christians, throughout history, were martyred for their faith, yet those accounts pale in light of what was done to the Jewish people. his time of Church history is either neglected, or at best, given minimal attention in seminaries. $s a result the Church, including the clergy, is painfully ignorant of any effective means to communicate Christ to the Jewish people.
/?/

he Church today is challenged with separating itself from two thousand years of so-called FChristianI $nti-Semitism and finding ways to win the hearts of those to whom so much is owed J our faith and our 1ible. 6nfortunately, it took the 3olocaust and the re-creation of the state of Israel to force many theologians to rethink their position. Met some still remain unchanged. Drom these terrible acts against humanity, there emerged a rabbi whose words undoubtedly are more FChristianI than he reali"ed. $ certain !abbi )lchanan #asserman was considered one of the greatest intellectuals of his day. 3e was studying the almud with several other scholars on the evening of July A, 9:>9, in *ovno, 0ithuania, when suddenly .a"i storm troopers entered. hey accused the scholars of planning a revolt, and marched them off to be e%ecuted. $s they went !abbi #asserman stopped and gave an ama"ing prophetic word. 3e saidE It appears that in 3eaven they view us as Ft"addikimI Brighteous menC worthy to atone with our lives for the people of Israel. #e must, therefore, immediately repent here and now, for the time is short and the .inth Dort Bplace of e%ecutionC is near. #e must remember that we will in truth be those who sanctify 'od(s .ame. 0et us therefore go with heads erect, let us, 'od forbid, have no unworthy thought which like unfit intention, in the case of a sacrifice rendered it invalid. #e are now about to fulfill the greatest commandment that of sanctifying the .ame. he fire which will destroy us is the flame out of which the Jewish people will be rebuilt.<// .ot all may agree with the entire &uotation, yet the final statement was true. 5ut of the ashes of si% million Jewish people the state of Israel was established. 4ore important is the fact that for centuries the Jewish people repeatedly demonstrated a Christ-like attitude toward their persecutors, who supposedly claimed to be FChristians.I hose who did not place their faith in Christ Jesus honored 3is .ame, while those who called themselves FChristianI or Fthe ChurchI repeatedly brought shame upon that 3oly .ame. he 3olocaust 4useum in Jerusalem has the $venue of the 'entiles lined with hundreds of trees of remembrance of 'entiles Busually ChristiansC, who paid the ultimate price to aid Jewish people. 6nfortunately, the fact is, all too often Christians failed the biblical commandment to love them. Dor e%ample, !abbi )phraim 5shry, a 0ithuanian survivor said in a shocking announcement that there was not one Christian in Slobodka who openly
<//

!osenbaum, 9AA, n >.

073

defended the Jews at a time when Slobodka(s ten thousand Jewish people were threatened with the most horrible pogrom imaginable. </< 5ne might conclude that once the nation and the world comprehended this great travesty upon human life, it would never happen again. Met history repeats itself. In /?9?, a 'erman federal court decision in one case ultimately legali"ed euthanasia in that country. </> So, likewise, the techni&ues and message of 3itler against the Jews have not only been endorsed and perfected by the $rab world, but the $rabs have gained the favor of most nations of the world, including the 6nited States and 1ritain. </@ 1280/ Church of Scotland he desperate situation in )urope led the Church of Scotland to issue a decree on behalf of the Jewish people. It is &uestionable how much the Church knew of what was happening to them in 'ermany, as the media gave minimal details at best. he full magnitude of the 3olocaust was yet to come, but with limited information at hand, the Church boldly issued this decree, his conferenceUdeplores any denial to persons of Jewish descent the right of e&ual treatment before the law and of other rights due to their status as ordinary citi"ens and urges that all governments shall take immediate steps to restore to the full status of human dignity such Jewish people as have been deprived of it, and, in particular, that all legislation un+ustly diminishing the rights of the Jews, as such, shall be repealed at an early dateU. he Conference urges 3is 4a+esty(s 'overnment in con+unction with other $llied and friendly nations to provide for some scheme of emigration for Jews who cannot find a home in )urope. $ll too often the prevailing opinion of the Church flows in the same current as prevailing cultural thought and mores. Dor e%ample, during the 7iet .am era some denominations viewed Jesus as a radical and in the 9:=?s the gospels were viewed in light of feminist theology. 0ikewise, during #orld #ar II a vast ma+ority of Catholic and -rotestant churches followed the whims of $dolf 3itler. 1288/ Arch&ishop Temple 4leads for e+ish ?ives
</< </> </@

5shry, %i%-%%. httpERRwww.onenewsnow.comR0egalR,efault.asp%KidT9?;<=</. !etrieved July /, /?9?.

Dor more information, see #illiam 3. 3einrich R0!LITH 20;I02& The Incon/enient Truth about the #iddle 0ast -onflict. /?9?.

/?>

he $rchbishop emple informed -rime 4inister #inston Churchill of his concern for the plight of the Jewish people in 3ungary and re&uested government assistance to save their lives. 3e was one of a few true Christians who came to the aid of Jewish people who were sentenced to die in the .a"i concentration camps.

4ost World War II <128#-128;> 128#/ ?ea)ue of Aations (eplaced &y the Bnited Aations #hile #orld #ar I prepared the land for the Jewish people, #orld #ar II prepared the Jewish people for the land. hey understood that if they were to survive, they would need to have a country of their own. he Second #orld #ar also prepared the nations of the world to bring forth the state of Israel. he news of the 3olocaust shocked the world. .ations re+oiced in the ending of the #ar, but were ridden with guilt concerning the loss of millions of innocent lives. Since the 0eague of .ations had failed in its mission of securing international peace, it was replaced by the 6nited .ations B6.C. he 6. found itself with the same problems the 1ritish had when they occupied Jerusalem and -alestine. Clearly, the 3oly 0and and the Jews had become an international problem, fulfilling the prophetic words of Zechariah. 1ehold I am going to make Jerusalem a cup that causes reeling to all the peoples aroundL and when the siege is against Jerusalem, it will also be against Judah. $nd it will come about in that day that I will make Jerusalem a heavy stone for all the peoplesL all who lift it will be severely in+ured. $nd all the nations of the earth will be gathered against it. Zechariah 9/E/-< 128-/ $lood ?i&el in 4oland he ancient rumor surfaced that Jewish people used the blood of Christian children for -assover. 5n July >, 9:>A, forty-three Jewish people lost their lives because a large number of Christians believed the myth to be

07#

true.</A )ven though the #ar was over, hatred for the Jewish people continued in various parts of )urope. 128.-12#0/ 6ead Sea Scrolls 6iscovered $ 1edouin shepherd boy playing near a cave along the ,ead Sea made a remarkable discovery of ancient writings which became known as the ,ead Sea Scrolls. #ritten between the years /?? 1C to $, ;?, these ancient documents contained 5ld estament books, commentaries, and first century rules of life of the )ssenes.</; 4ost significant among the thousands of fragments and numerous scrolls were two complete copies of the book of Isaiah. .egotiations for the sale of the scrolls began between the officials of the soon-to-be Israeli government and the $rab anti&uities dealer who had ac&uired the scrolls. hese are significant for two reasonsE Dirst, when compared to modern translations of the 1ible, they illustrate the faithful and accurate transcription of Scriptures throughout the centuries. Second, the book of Isaiah also predicts the reestablishment of the state of Israel BIsa. AAE=-:C. he irony is, that on the day of Israel(s independence the new Israeli government purchased the two Isaiah Scrolls. $ silent act of 'od loudly declared the fulfillment of 3is #ord. 4ore scrolls were discovered periodically until the year 9:@/. It is significant that the Isaiah scroll that predicted the birth of Israel in a single day was purchased by Israel on its day of birth. 128;/ World Council of Churches he first assembly of the #orld Council of Churches was held in $msterdam and claimed to represent all -rotestant and )astern 5rthodo% Churches. he Council made this statement of confession concerning past Church policies, F he Church in the past has helped to foster an image of the Jewish people as the sole enemies of Christ, which has contributed to antiSemitism in the secular worldI... </= he Council initially supported actions to eliminate anti-Semitism and aided the emergence of the Jewish state. ,uring the 9:>?s, P@?s and early PA?s, the ma+or Christian supporters of Israel were the mainline denominations, often referred to as FliberalI. 3owever, many have argued that the main reason for their support was not theological, but they were sympathetic for what the Jews suffered in the
</A

.icholls, //; cited #illie Cooper who was an eyewitness of the account that was published in the Jewish :estern Bulletin. 7ol. /?. July /?, 9:=:.
</;

he )ssenes were a conservative Jewish sect who separated themselves in several communes, one of which was located in Oumran along the northern edge of the ,ead Sea.
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Croner, ;?.

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3olocaust. ,uring this same time, most evangelicals were somewhat reserved in their support. 128;/ (eplacement Theolo)y Affirmation &y the "van)elical Church in 9ermany 5n $pril =, the !eichbruderrat der )vangelischen *irche in ,eutschland affirmed its doctrinal position of !eplacement heology, even though it had previously led to the 3olocaust. It statedE 9. Since the Son of 'od was born a Jew, the election and the calling of Israel has found its fulfillment. /. Since Israel crucified the 4essiah, it has re+ected its election and calling. <. he election of Israel, since Christ and through Christ, has been transferred to the Church of all peopleL the Church of Jews and 'entiles.

>. 'od(s faithfulness does not forsake Israel, even in its re+ection. hat the +udgment of 'od follows Israel in its re+ection until this day is a sign of 'od(s patience. @. Israel, under the +udgment, is the constant confirmation of the truth, of the reality of the divine #ord, and a continual warning to 3is congregation. he Jewish destiny is a silent sermon that 'od is not mocked and it is an appeal to the Jews that they should be converted to the 5ne who is the only 5ne in whom they also will find salvation.</: his declaration permits individual salvation of the Jew, but in 'od(s eschatological plan, as a nation there is only +udgment.

3odern Israel is $orn <128;> 3ay 18! 128;/ The State of Israel is $orn 5n this date, ,avid 1en 'urion declared the birth of the State of Israel, a proclamation of prophetic fulfillment and significance Bcf. Isaiah AAE=-:C. he brief ,eclaration is as follows,
</:

Skoog, :/-:< citing F$ #ord on the Jewish Ouestion,I !uschwit5. 3eidleberg, 9:=?. />9.

07.

$CC5!,I.'0M #), 4)41)!S 5D 3) -)5-0)WS C56.CI0, !)-!)S). $ I7)S 5D 3) J)#IS3 C5446.I M 5D )!) Z-IS!$)0, $., 5D 3) ZI5.IS 457)4). , $!) 3)!) $SS)410), 5. 3) ,$M 5D 3) )!4I.$ I5. 5D 3) 1!I IS3 4$.,$ ) 57)! )!) Z-IS!$)0 $.,, 1M 7I! 6) 5D 56! .$ 6!$0 $., 3IS 5!IC !I'3 $., 5. 3) S !).' 3 5D 3) !)S506 I5. 5D 3) 6.I ), .$ I5.S ').)!$0 $SS)410M, 3)!)1M ,)C0$!) 3) )S $10IS34). 5D $ J)#IS3 S $ ) I. )!) Z-IS!$)0 5 1) *.5#. $S 3) S $ ) 5D IS!$)0. #) ,)C0$!) that, with effect from the moment of the termination of the 4andate being tonight, the eve of Sabbath, the Ath Iyar, @;?= B9@th 4ay, 9:>=C, until the establishment of the elected, regular authorities of the State in accordance with the Constitution which shall be $dopted by the )lected Constituent $ssembly not later than the 9st 5ctober 9:>=, the -eopleWs Council shall act as a -rovisional Council of State, and its e%ecutive organ, the -eopleWs $dministration, shall be the -rovisional 'overnment of the Jewish State, to be called FIsrael.I 3) S $ ) 5D IS!$)0 will be open for Jewish immigration and for the Ingathering of the )%ilesL it will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitantsL it will be based on freedom, +ustice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of IS!$)0L it will ensure complete e&uality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or se%L it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and cultureL it will safeguard the 3oly -laces of all religionsL and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the 6nited .ations. 3) S $ ) 5D IS!$)0 is prepared to cooperate with the agencies and representatives of the 6nited .ations in implementing the resolution of the 'eneral $ssembly of the /:th .ovember, 9:>;, and will take steps to bring about the economic union of the whole of )ret"-Israel. #) $--)$0 to the 6nited .ations to assist the Jewish people in the building-up of its State and to receive the State of Israel into the community of nations. #) $--)$0 - in the very midst of the onslaught launched against us now for months - to the $rab inhabitants of the State of Israel to
/?=

preserve peace and participate in the upbuilding of the State on the basis of full and e&ual citi"enship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent institutions. #) )N )., our hand to all neighboring states and their peoples in an offer of peace and good neighborliness, and appeal to them to establish bonds of cooperation and mutual help with the sovereign Jewish people settled in its own land. he State of Israel is prepared to do its share in a common effort for the advancement of the entire 4iddle )ast. #) $--)$0 to the Jewish people throughout the ,iaspora to rally round the Jewish people of )ret"-Israel in the tasks of immigration and upbuilding and to stand by them in the great struggle for the reali"ation of the age-old dream - the redemption of Israel. -0$CI.' 56! !6S I. 3) $04I'3 M, #) $DDIN 56! SI'.$ 6!)S 5 3IS -!5C0$4$ I5. $ 3IS S)SSI5. 5D 3) -!57ISI5.$0 C56.CI0 5D S $ ), 5. 3) S5I0 5D 3) 354)0$.,, I. 3) CI M 5D )0-$7I7, 5. 3IS S$11$ 3 )7), 3) @ 3 ,$M 5D IM$!, @;?= B9> 3 4$M, 9:>=C. ,avid 1en-'urion, et.al. he 6nited States and Soviet 6nion immediately recogni"ed Israel as a sovereign state while the surrounding $rab nations declared war on it. he Jewish people finally had a free and independent nation after more than /,??? years, but they would have to fight for it. he words of the biblical prophet came trueE #ho has heard such a thingK #ho has seen such thingsK Can a land born in one dayK Can a nation be brought forth all at onceK $s soon Zion travailed she also brought forth her sons. FShall I bring to the point of birth and not give deliveryKI says the 0ord. F5r shall I who gives delivery shut the wombKI says your 'od. Isaiah AAE=-:

be as

072

Digure >=. ,avid 1en 'urion in el $viv on 4ay 9>, 9:>=, stands before dignitaries and the international press to announce the birth of the state of Israel. -hoto courtesy of the 'overnment -ress 5ffice, Jerusalem. 4any believe that the death camps of the 3olocaust led to the birth of Israel because it stirred great empathy among world leaders. Durthermore, many Jews who survived the death camps with bodies of skin and bones immigrated to -alestine to build their nation. his is a sobering reflection upon the words of )"ekielE hen 3e said to me, PSon of man, these bones are the whole house of IsraelL behold, they say, 5ur bones are dried up and our hope has perished. #e are completely cut off. herefore prophesy and say to them, hus says the 0ord '5,, 1ehold, I will open your graves and cause you to come up out of your graves, 4y peopleL and I will bring you into the land of Israel. hen you will know that I am the 05!,, when I have opened your graves and caused you to come up out of your graves, 4y people. I will put 4y Spirit within you and you will come to life, and I will place you on your own land. hen you will know that I, the 05!,, have spoken and done it,( declares the 05!,. )"ekiel <;E99-9>
/9?

5ne cannot imagine that the prophet Zechariah would predict the coming of a democratic government, when such an organi"ation did not e%ist in ancient times. 3e carefully described the government as having a multitude of Fgovernors of JudahI or Fclans of JudahI in leadership. his was unheard of in his day when all peoples were ruled by a single monarch, or on rare occasions, there would be a co-monarch. $s if the land of Israel is not interesting enough, the Gnesset, formally known as the Gnesset 3agedolah, B'reat $ssemblyC and its 9/? members were originally established in Jerusalem by )"ra and .ehemiah in the fifth century 1C. he -rophet Zechariah referenced that the Fclans of JudahI would have a single voice. Met the various people of Israel today are represented by a Gnesset member, a concept of government unknown to the prophet. .ote his words, hen the clans of Judah will say in their hearts, F$ strong support for us are the inhabitants of Jerusalem through the 0ord of 3osts, their 'od. In that day I will make the clans of Judah like a firepot among pieces of wood and a flaming torch among sheaves, so they will consume on the right hand and on the left all the surrounding peoples, while the inhabitants of Jerusalem again dwell on their own sites in Jerusalem.I Zechariah 9/E@-A he irony of ironies is that modern Israel, whose very e%istence is the result of multiple visible miracles from the 3and of 'od, was established by atheists and agnosticsL Jews who denied 3is divine intervention on their behalf. !ather, they credit their successes to their own intelligence and ingenuity. 3iracles and Conflicts in 3odern Israel <128;-4resent> he revival of the ancient Jewish nation has been nothing less than one miracle after another, especially when viewed in the conte%t of neighboring $rab nations that continuously attempt to destroy her. 4iracles include the conversion of some desert areas into productive croplandL the return of thousands of Jewish people to their ancient homelandL victorious military conflicts when all odds were against herL and the list continues to today. 1282-12-;/ e+s Continue to (eturn: *peration 3a)ic Carpet
011

In 9:>=, 5peration 4agic Carpet demonstrated the passion of the new Israeli government to bring home persecuted Jewish people. $s if orchestrated by divine appointment, an entire Memenite Jewish community of >:,??? men, women and children Fmade $liya.I hey were airlifted to Israel, thus fulfilling the prophecy by 4oses that one day they would return on Feagles( wingsI B)%odus 9:E>C. In 9:@? and 9:@9, 5peration )"ra and .ehemiah rescued more than 9/@,??? Jewish people from $rab e%termination. .early /,A?? years after *ing .ebuchadne""ar took Jewish captives out of Jerusalem, they returned home. hey had little choice in the matter. $s the result of Israeli(s independence, they were persecuted in every Islamic country. hey often had their property confiscated, were evicted, andRor killed. his was part of yet another fulfillment of ancient prophecies found in Isaiah 99E99-9/ and )"ekiel <AE/>. Drom 9:@> until 9:A= there were two aliyas from 4orocco. Jewish people had lived there in peace as long as the country was under Drench rule. hat all changed when 4orocco received its independence in 9:@A and Islamic law was instituted. Suddenly the Jewish people were confronted by angry riotous $rabs. $s a result of government negotiations, in 9:@> and 9:@@ some <@,??? Jewish people were permitted to immigrate to Israel. he remaining Jewish people were trapped. )migration was forbidden and they were the sub+ect of persecution. Met the Israeli 'overnment did not forget them and more than 99?,??? secretly escaped between 9:@A and 9:A= J a phenomenal task when considering the huge population shift. $fter #orld #ar II the Jewish 3olocaust became the sub+ect of global publicity and compassion for them mounted. 1ut it was short lived. )ven in -oland they were persecuted by the Communists. 3ence, it was a miracle, when in 9:@A and 9:@;, -olish -resident #ladislaw 'omolka permitted more than <@,??? of them to leave. he return of so many from so many foreign nations has given credibility to the ancient biblical prophets, who predicted that such events would some day occur. 9:A?sE !evival of $nti-!eplacement heology In the 9:A?s, an increasing number of clergy and academics voiced their opinion that the Jewish people are not to blame for the death of Jesus, stating that historically it was -ilate who nailed Jesus to the cross, not Caiaphas or any other Jew. #hile previously this was the position of only a few liberal and evangelical clerics, the liberal churches now had taken the lead in promoting this teaching to their congregations. he increasingly popular interpretation of Scripture relative to the relationship of the Church to the synagogue was turning. his was against the centuries-old doctrine of !eplacement heology.
/9/

hose who resisted fre&uently responded with a statement such as, F his is not my responsibility,I or FI had nothing to do with the antiSemitism of past centuries.I #hile Christians are not personally responsible for the sins of their forefathers, it is incumbent upon us to recogni"e their errors and demonstrate the true love of Christ. In doing so, the curse and pain of the proverbial sins Fthat are carried to the third and fourth generationI are broken. 12-1/ 6eclaration of the World Council of Churches he Council meeting in .ew ,elhi moved to announce that, F he historic events which led to the crucifi%ion should not be so presented as to impose upon the Jewish people of today the responsibilities which must fall on all humanity, not on one race or community. he Jewish people were the first to accept Jesus and Jewish people are not the only ones who do not yet recogni"e 3im.I<<? 12-0/ (evival of $lood ?i&el In 9:A/, an 5"ark 4ountain folk song was published in 1irmingham, $labama, giving credibility to the historic lie of blood libel. <<9 he pre-Christian<</ curse of lies continues to live on, even in a nation that claims to be relatively free of such bigotry. $ recent accusation of blood libel was published in June /??/ by the Saudi government that carefully described the gruesome myth. hese are the same Saudis who launched the Fpeace initiativeI in which Israel was offered full recognition for the e%change of pre-9:A; territorial boundaries.<<< 12-#/ Hatican Council II 5n 5ctober /=, 9:A@, the !oman Catholic Church rendered an incredible decision in the Second 7atican Council. 6ntil this date, any theory that the church had FreplacedI or FsupersededI the Jews was doctrine. 5n this date, -ope -aul 7I and a host of bishops signed the ;ostra !etate BIn .ur TimeC, a document that stated, F he Jewish people must not be presented as repudiated or cursed by 'od, as if such views followed from Sacred Scripture.I<<> 3owever, the 7atican Council did not end there. It was more descriptive in stating that the status of the Jewish people today with 'od is
<<? <<9 <</ <<<

Croner, ;/. 1rown, 4. 9?, A<, citing Dlannery, 9A. See F ertullianL 1lood 0ibelI of this te%t. 4ordechai, F4oslem $nti-Semitism.I :. ;ostra !etate, .o. >.

<<>

013

no different than it was before the birth of Christ. his opinion was clarified in 9::? with the following statementE he Church, as 'od(s people of the new election and covenant, did not disinherit 'od(s people of the first election and covenant of the gifts received from 'od. $s St. -aul teaches, the Jews, because of their forebears, are the sub+ect of love B!omans. 99E/=C and therefore, the gift of grace and the calling of 'od are irrevocable B!omans 99E/:C. o them belongs also Fthe Sonship, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship and the promisesI B!omans :E>C. 'od thus has not revoked his selection of the Jewish people as the chosen people, but continues to bestow his love. 3e and only 3e, the almighty and merciful 'od, knows the day when all people will call on 'od with one voice and serve him shoulder to shoulder.<<@ his decision was a radical change from its historic and recent past. Catholic leaders today are aware that most Christians are completely ignorant of the long history of persecution of the Jewish people by the Church. 4ost 1ible colleges have no courses in post-biblical literature and even fewer on FChristianI anti-Semitism. o determine if this opinion was true, one scholar, 'eoffrey #igoder, studied Catholic te%tbooks in the 6nited States shortly before the Second 7atican Council and discovered, among other findings, thatE Christians are all but ignorant of the history of anti-Semitism, which is not in their history books. 3istories of the 4iddle $ges and even the Crusades can be found in which the word FJewI does not appear. here are Catholic dictionaries and encyclopedias in which the term Fanti-SemitismI is not listed. he pages the Jews have memori"ed have been torn from our history of the Christian era. <<A

<<@

-astoral 0etter on the /@th $nniversary of ;ostra !etate, -olish 1ishop(s Conference. .ovember <?, 9::?.
<<A

#igoder, 'eoffrey BImmanuel. Spring, 9:=A. /?E;:-=/C citing John . -awlikowski, -atechetics and PreAudice. >>. $ Jewish reaction to the 7atican II Council of 9:A@ and the paper titled simply as F.otes,I that was written to clarify the document known as ;ostra !etate.

/9>

In 9:=@ Cardinal #illebrands, at a lecture in 5%ford 6nion, stated, FChristianity and anti-Semitism are intrinsically incompatible. $ntiSemitism is anti-Christian.I <<; he cardinal later said that, Jewish sensibilities should be respected and cared for, although they may not enter into our normal perspectives. I shall name only twoE the recent history of Jewish suffering under .a"i persecution and the Jews( commitment to and concern for the land of IsraelL this concern is political or secular but also, for many, religious. It belongs, I believe, to an e%ercise of Christian charity towards one(s own brother, with whom we are seeking reconciliation for offences, which are very real, not to gloss over this dimension. o carry the memory of many millions deaths is a terrible burdenL to have a place under the sun where to live in peace and security, with due respect for the rights of others, is a form of hope. 3ere we have two important points of reference in the Catholics( day-to-day relation to the Jew.<<= hese words would no doubt be horrific to 'erman theologians 'erhard *ittel, )manuel 3irsch, and others of like mind. Clearly, the Church was in the process of turning 9=? degrees from its historical tradition. his is not to say that all controversial theological issues about the Jews were resolved, or that the Jewish people felt that Catholics had repented and confessed their sins. It does indicate the Church is slowly becoming more Christ-like. $ll who bare the name of FChristianI need to do likewise. 6nfortunately, by /??; there was a move within the Catholic Church to renounce some of the decisions of the 7atican II Council. Dinally, it should be noted that this issue was one of a theological perspective concerning replacement theology. $s of this date the 7atican had not recogni"ed Israel as a sovereign state, much less any possibility of it being associated with the fulfillment of biblical prophecy. Met it embraced the -alestinian 0iberation 5rgani"ation and its leader Masser $rafat, the arch enemy of Israel. It was not until 9::< that the 7atican established diplomatic ties with Israel. 5bviously the &uestion remains whether the Crusader spirit is still alive and well within the !oman Catholic Church. 4ost 12-./ Aational Council of Churches: Interest (ises in $i&le 4rophecy
<<; <<=

#igoder, F$ Jewish !eaction to the .otes.I ;:. Ibid., /?, =?.

01#

$fter the 9:A; #ar, the .ational Council of Churches( B.CCC support for Israel began to wane, as the Council(s support shifted to the -alestinians. he .CC became increasingly critical of Israel and more pro-alestinian. #hile member mainline churches had supported the establishment of the state of Israel, only two decades later anti-Semitism was again evident in a number of member denominations. Dor centuries the Jewish people had been the painful recipients of Christian policies. .ow they were pleasantly surprised to receive support from evangelical Christians, who increasingly recogni"ed the events of the 4iddle )ast as being prophetic fulfillment. 0ittle wonder then that in the 9:;?s and P=?s 3al 0indsay(s popular The Late, 7reat Planet 0arth, sold twenty-five million copies. )ven non-believers curiously investigated the book in the possibility that there might be a 'od. <<: )vangelical support for the Jewish people and the state of Israel was in synchronous with evangelical interest in biblical prophecy. 3owever, one must &uestion whether evangelical Christians helped the Jewish people because they had a true heart of compassion for a persecuted people or if they helped them for eschatological reasonsVmeaning that their help would hasten the return of their 4essiah Jesus. .ot all evangelicals agreed on Fend-timeI events of eschatology. 0ittle wonder then, that for the past century this group of believers has had various opinions about the state of Israel and the Jewish people. Some supported the Jews and others did not. here were two ma+or doctrinal shifts in some of these denominations after the Si%-,ay #ar of 9:A;. $ number of mainline denominations became pro--alestinian and there was a massive increase in support by evangelicals. oday the mainline denominations appear to be supportive of -alestinian Christians, and are supportive of a -alestinian state Bwhich is not supported biblicallyC. )vangelicals need to understand that their prayers and financial support for -alestinian believers are also desperately needed, as they are the forgotten believers in a world of persecution, terror and chaos. Dirst, in the 9:=?s, a number of denominations endorsed liberation theology which is a blend of atheistic 4ar%ism and Christian theology. hese denominations &uickly became activists for the so-called liberation of the -alestinians and, in so doing, they became Fanti-ZionisticI Ba politically correct word meaning Fanti-SemiticIC. 0eading the liberation momentum in Israel was a number of $rab clergymen, who had replaced the )uropean clergy that founded various churches in the past century. <>?

<<: <>?

Sidney, >;. .icholls, <;<.

/9A

he second doctrinal shift alleged salvation is possible for the Jew without Christ.<>9 his may have begun as a post-war feeling of guilt, but they concluded that the 4osaic 0aws remain sufficient for Jewish people to find salvation. he roots of this position lie in the reali"ation that the historic actions of the Church fostered the development of the 3olocaust. In order to appear to be less offensive to Jewish people, this position was proposed and accepted.

12.1/ Hatican (eproduces Ara& 4ropa)anda hroughout the 9:A?s $rab propaganda in 1eirut stated that Israelis desecrated Christian cemeteries in Jerusalem. In July of 9:;9, this lie was published as fact in the prestigious 7atican +ournal .sser/ator della 2omenica. he report, written by 7atican official -rofessor Dederico $lessandrini, failed to state the two cemeteries in &uestion had been damaged previously, most likely by crossfire or 4uslim vandals. <>/ #hile this account is relatively insignificant in the overall scheme of things, it does reflect, however, that academic officials in the Church all too often accepted and still accept $rab propaganda as truth, without critical investigation. 5ne must &uestion why. $re centuries-old anti-Semitic feelings still influencing decisions in the highest level of the !oman Catholic ChurchK 5r have they become fearful of 4uslim violenceK -ossibly so, since in /?9? the 7atican again underscored its replacement theology position that 'od has no future plans for a national Israel. he shame of Jesus continues in spite of the fact that 'od is fulfilling 3is plan for Israel as a witness to the world. #ith open eyes they see, but with closed minds they are blind. 12.#-12;7s/ 4reparation for "Jodus II 1eginning in the mid-9:;?s, a number of Christians in )urope claimed to have visions from 'od telling them they needed to prepare for a coming )%odus J a migration of Jewish people from !ussia going to their homeland. $mong the Church leaders who recogni"ed the unusual vision events was Steve 0ightle,who eventually wrote a book entitled 09odus II&

<>9

!eidar 3valvik, F$ PSeparate #ay( for IsraelK $ Critical )%amination of a Current Interpretation of !omans 99E/@-/;.I #ish an. Jan. 9::/. 9AE9/-/:.
<>/

Cited by Samuel *at" in Battleground& 1act L 1antasy in Palestine. .ew MorkE aylor -roductions, /??/, /9/. his account was published on July 9>, 9:;9 in the .sser/ator della 2omenica. he Israeli response appeared on July /?, 9:;9 in the Jerusalem Post.

01.

Let #y People 7o.<>< o properly prepare for the task at hand, he and others called for an )sther Dast to prepare the hearts and minds of 'od(s people for what was about to happen. 0ightle recorded numerous visions people had in Dinland, Sweden, ,enmark, the .etherlands and in 'ermany that caused them to make various arrangements for their e%pectant transient guests. -reparations included the establishment of half-way houses, where Jewish people from !ussia would stay for a few days, while arrangements were made for them to continue their +ourney to Israel. his was important, since 4oscow did not permit )l $0, Israel(s national airline, to fly into Soviet air space. Dor many, this would be the first time they e%perienced true love from someone who called himself a Christian. 5nce the arrangements were made, people prayed and waited. #hile some Jews managed to leave early, it wasn(t until the Soviet leader 4ikhail 'orbachev introduced 7lasnost in 9:== that the true )%odus II began.

<><

5riginally published in 'erman by 7erlag Schulte 2 'erth, )mmelusstr. <9 A<<> $sslar, #est 'ermany, and later by 3unter 1ooks, *ingwood, N, 9:=<.

/9=

Digure >:. $nnouncement of the )sther Dast. In $pril of 9:=<, Christians in many parts of )urope were called to pray and fast for the e%pected e%odus of Jews out of the Soviet 6nion. In the mid 9:=?s 4ikhail 'orbachev, 'eneral Secretary of the Soviet 6nion, introduced 7lasnost, the policy of openness and transparency Bas much as can be e%pected in the Communist stateC. In the process, the country(s economy collapsed, but he was instrumental in ending the Cold #ar and opening the doors for !ussian Jews to immigrate to Israel. In the years that followed, more than 9./ million Jews left. 3ence, the 3and of 'od prepared their Second )%odus through a number of events, one of which was the preparations made by Christians in )urope. 12.;/ immy Carter and the Camp 6avid Accords In an attempt to negotiate a peace agreement with Israel(s neighboring $rab states, the 6nited States hosted the Camp ,avid -eace $ccords. he conference was led by 6S -resident Jimmy Carter at Camp ,avid in 4aryland with )gyptian -resident $nwar Sadat and the Israeli -rime 4inister Mit"hak !abin. he $ccords were two separate documents. 5ne entitled, F$ Drame-work for -eace in the 4iddle )astI focused on future negotiations of the #est 1ank and 'a"a so that the -alestinians could have their own-self government in the #est 1ank and 'a"a Strip as directed in the 6. !esolution />/. he second, entitled, F$ Dramework for the Conclusion of a -eace reaty between Israel and )gypt,I dealt with the future of the Sinai and the Israeli withdrawal within three months. 5n September 9;, 9:;=, the $ccords were signed and Israel not only surrendered the Sinai ,esert, but also the desert oil reserves that could have made her independent of foreign oil. Carter, who captured a ma+ority of evangelical votes when running for office, promoted dividing Israel in order to secure peace with the -alestinians. In essence, while he claimed to support Israel, in fact he was anti-Israel and pro--alestinian. In the 9::?s his actions and rhetoric became profoundly pro--alestinian and accused the Israelis of being e&ual or worse than the former South $frican apartheid government. Seldom has anyone, who claimed to be Fevangelical,I done more to undermine the safety and security of the nation of Israel, while at the same time promoting Fpeace.I 3is anti-Israel rhetoric became so strong, that eventually Israel asked him not to visit the 3oly 0and. #hile that re&uest was eventually lifted, his accusations against the Jewish state have continued unabated.
012

12;7s/ "van)elical Support for Israel 9ro+s .early a century after 3ans .ilsen 3auge established the small but influential 'ood .ews for Israel 4inistries, Christian Zionism was ready to e%plode. -at !obertson and Jerry Dalwell were prominent supporters of Israel and the Jewish people. ogether, their outspoken voices, more than any other televangelist, awakened Christians to support the Jewish people and the state of Israel. Christians began to ask what they could do to help Israel. 4any evangelical Christians now viewed the birth of the state of Israel, and the military victories that followed, as part of 'od(s redemptive plan for the Jewish people and the fulfillment of biblical prophecies. $s world support for Israel decreased, evangelical support increased. 4inistries such as 1ridges for -eace, Christian Driends of Israel and the International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem were established to demonstrate the love of Jesus to both Jews and -alestinians. In addition to affirming support for the Jewish nation, various Christian ministries in Israel proclaimed biblical principles to the Israeli government and the media. It should be noted that these ministries cannot become politically involved, as they are foreign organi"ations and guests in the land. .onetheless, biblical commandments, such as pro-life positions, +ustice for the poor Bwhoever they areC, and rights to the land, are made known to Israelis on every level of society. $nother e%ample of evangelical aide was when, between 9:=: and 9::/, some >??,??? Soviet Jewish people immigrated to Israel. he Christian )mbassy sponsored the first @9 flights at Y=?,??? per flight.

//?

Digure @?. Jewish refugees in flight from the former Soviet 6nion to Israel, funded by the International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem. Photo by the I-0J. Soon other ministries, such as 1ridges for -eace and Christian Driends of Israel, also began sponsoring flights in con+unction with the Jewish $gency in Jerusalem. hey funded a variety of pro+ects, such as boat trips for returning Jewish people, prefabricated housing, medical supplies, food and clothing. hey provided +ob training, education, and all the necessary elements for assimilating a mass of people &uickly into a new country and culture.<>>

<>>

Sidney, >;->=.

001

Digure @9. 0)D E he memorial flame burns at Israel(s 3olocaust 4useum in memory of the Jews who died in the 3olocaust. Digure @/. !I'3 E $ thin vapor of smoke rises from a hospital chimney where aborted Jewish babies e%perience their own FJewish 3olocaust.I ,ue to their history with the Church, the Jewish people obviously have good reason to hold great suspicion of any Christian ministry. Since the recent rise of -alestinian terrorism and evangelical concern for Israel(s survival, many Jewish people have reali"ed some true Christians do e%ist.
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he irony is that many mainline denominations, which supported the creation of the state of Israel in the 9:>?s, now have become pro--alestinian, demanding legislation and unreasonable restrictions upon Israel, which would lead to her destruction. 12;8-21/ Secret "vacuations hroughout the 9:=?s )thiopian Jewish people were being persecuted and killed. In a covert operation known as 5peration 4oses, one night in 9:=>, Israeli transport +ets successfully flew into )thiopia and evacuated =,??? Jewish people. .ever before were $fricans taken out of their land and given freedom instead of slavery. Secret rescues have occurred numerous times to rescue fellow Jews from death, usually from the hands of 4uslims.

Digure @<. Si% )thiopian teenagers meet with -aivi )skeli B3einrichC, a volunteer who spent ten years helping the needy in Jerusalem. 7arious ministries have long and short term programs for volunteers. he return of the )thiopian Jewish people is part of the prophetic fulfillment of 'od(s plan to bring the Jewish people back to their -romised 0and. In the years 9::?-:9, 5peration Solomon evacuated thousands more and they were airlifted to safety. he Communist government of )thiopia in 9::? stated
003

that it would permit the )thiopian Jewish people return to Israel, but the promise was not fulfilled until 9::9. #ith the assistance of 6S -resident 'eorge 3. 1ush, Israel sent some three do"en planes to )thiopia in F5peration Solomon.I In a single day, some 9@,??? )thiopian Jewish people were airlifted into Israel. Isaiah(s words were partially fulfilled in reference to the FnationsI Bmeaning 'entilesC bringing home the Jewish people BIsa. >:C. Ironically, the Ou(ran also has a prediction of the Jewish people returning to their ancient home land. Scholars believe this is because portions of the Ou(ran were taken from the 1ible, especially from the books of ,aniel and !evelation. herefore it is not surprising that the 4uslim holy book would agree on this matter. he Ou(ran has the following passage, F1efore the 0ast ,ay, 'od will bring the Children of Israel to retake possession of their land, gathering themI BSura. 9;E9?>C. 0ittle wonder that many 4uslim fundamentalists believe the return of the Jewish people to their ancient land is a sign of the Fend times.I 1227s/ Immi)ration of Soviet e+s It was not until the introduction of the new glasnost policies by Soviet 0eader 4ikhail 'orbachev in 9:==, and more so after the collapse of the Soviet 6nion in 9::9, that 9./ million !ussian Jewish people immigrated to Israel. his was in partial fulfillment of several prophecies, including Isaiah 99E99-9/L ><E@-AL A?E=-: and many more. $s of this writing, appro%imately ==?,??? remain in !ussia. 3ence, the estimated number of 3ebrews who left )gypt during the )%odus had to be under two million. heir presence in northern Israel became so profound that products in store shelves are fre&uently labeled in 3ebrew, !ussian and $rabic. 3ebrew is Israel(s national language, !ussian is the language of the single largest immigration bloc, and $rabic is the language of Jewish people from $rab nations and more than a million Israeli $rabs. 1221/ Bnited Aations "Cuates ,ionism +ith (acism he 6nited .ations passed a resolution presented by 4oscow and $rab nations to declare, FZionism is racism.I he #orld Council of Churches, likewise, promoted the resolution. <>@ 1oth organi"ations have a long history of critici"ing Israel and its right to e%ist, while at the same time praising -alestinian efforts to establish a political state. Jewish scholar #illiam .icholls made this interesting comment, F5nce the supernatural elements of revelation and redemption have been removed from the structure of Christian thought, there is nothing difficult in remodeling it ad libitum to
<>@

.icholls, <;<.

//>

meet any of the supposed demands of modernity.I <>A In other words, liberalism can mold itself to anyone(s desires. Clearly, the world opinion of nations and mainline churches was going against the interests of Israel. hey have since established a legacy of continuing the same agenda J to support the -alestinians, who have no historical claim to the land, and oppose the Jewish people, who have a well-documented >,???-year history as revealed by archaeological evidence and ancient non-biblical writings. $ll great powers that fought against the Jewish people or Israel lost. In #orld #ar I the $rabRIslamic 5ttoman )mpire +oined the 'ermans and lost their empire. In #orld #ar II the $rabs again +oined the 'ermans and lost. ,uring the Cold #ar they +oined the Soviet 6nion and they lost every war and the Soviet 6nion collapsed. .ow, with greater intensity, the !ussians are conspiring with the Islamic states to rid the world of Jews. he words of the prophet still ring true today. F.o weapon that is formed against you shall prosperL and every tongue that accuses you in +udgment will I condemn. $nd their vindication is from me,I declares the 0ord. Isaiah @>E9; 122-/ Church-Sponsored Anti-,ionism and Anti-Semitism Continues 5n ,ecember /9, a number of church leaders and heads of denominations placed an advertisement in the ;ew Hor Times that called for -resident 1ill Clinton to pressure Israel to share sovereignty with the -alestinians. In recent years they have continued to promote anti-Israel campaigns with no regard to the biblical passages concerning Israel. In response to the Times advertisement, several other ministries placed an advertisement in the Jerusalem Post, ,ecember <?, 9::A. It stated that, F ogether with millions of Christians around the world, we want to say to your re-gathered nation, P,o not lose heart.( I he two opposing advertisements delineated the theological differences between two ma+or groups of churchesE those who support the Jewish people and the state of Israel and believe 'od still is faithful to 3is covenant, and those who do not, but are politically and socially active in unison with the norms of this world. Clearly within the framework of FevangelicalismI there are strong voices for each side. he irony is, that as the result of the 3olocaust and the civil rights movement of the 9:A?s, most $mericans recogni"e anti-Semitism as a form of discrimination. 3owever, hatred for the Jewish people continues in the form of socially and politically acceptable phrases such as Fanti-IsraelI or
<>A

Ibid., <;:.

00#

Fpro--alestinian.I 7arious hate groups are growing worldwide. In the 6nited States, some are the neo-.a"i .ational $lliance, *lu *lu% *lan, #hite !evolution, #hite $ryan !esistance, and ,avid ,uke(s )uropean$merican 6nity and !ights 5rgani"ation B)6!5C. Durthermore, a number of mainline churches, while taking a stance against violence and hatred, are also becoming anti-Israel and supportive of the -alestinians, who advocate destruction of $merica. $nti-Semitism is also a growing concern in $merican and )uropean schools, as evidence by the increased number of swastikas and other forms of anti-Jewish graffiti written on schools walls. Drom observing the current international trend, it could be said the Fwriting is on the wallI for Zechariah 9>E/ to be fulfilled within this ne%t few decades, if that long. 0777/ Camp 6avid In July, Israeli -rime 4inister )hud 1arak met with -alestinian $uthority Chairman $rafat in a meeting hosted by 6S -resident 1ill Clinton. $t the presidential retreat, Camp ,avid, 1arak offered $rafat :; percent of all the land $rafat wanted. $rafat insisted on the transfer BsurrenderC of the entire city of Jerusalem and the right of every -alestinian to reclaim so-called ancient ancestral homes and lands throughout Israel. his would have been license to evict all Jewish people from Israel. .ever had Israel offered so much land for peaceL never had the -alestinians lost such a great opportunity for peace. his was another clear indication that peace with the Jewish people is not in the $rab mindset. 0777/ Second Intifada Supposedly, the Second Intifada was started when Israeli opposition leader $riel Sharon went to the emple 4ount, the site of the $l-$&sa 4os&ue on September /=. $ctually, when $rafat and 1arak were at Camp ,avid, $rafat(s associates were planning the uprising. #hen $rafat heard that Sharon was going to the emple 4ount, the long awaited uprising was initiated. $rafat, known as the F eflon terrorist,I cleverly orchestrated the violence and successfully diverted all blame to Sharon. he media demoni"ed Sharon worldwide. In the three-year period that followed, more than :?? Israeli men, women and children were murdered in restaurants, shopping malls, buses and in their homes. #hile international law condemns the murder of innocent civilians during war, to the -alestinian terrorist, the murder of any Jew is +ustified -- civilian or not. Durthermore, by /??/, -alestinian Christians were ta%ed ten percent to support the continuing Islamic Intifada, a higher ta% than -alestinian 4uslims were re&uired to pay. 0771/ Sa&eel "sta&lished
//A

-alestinian $nglican !ev. .aim $teek founded Sabeel, an organi"ation based in Jerusalem. It claims to be an ecumenical grassroots liberation theology movement among -alestinian Christians. It actively promotes the idea that Israel is an apartheid state and that evangelicals are doing a great harm to the -alestinians by supporting Israel. In $rabic the name means, Fthe way,I to liberate -alestinian Christians from the Israelis and Christian Zionists. In his book, -hallenging -hristian @ionism& Theology, Politics and the Israel)Palestinian -onflict,<>; $teek critici"es evangelicals for their firm support for Israel, while not critici"ing the Jewish state for violating Judeo moral values. 3owever, this writer B3einrichC is personally aware that three ma+or ministries in Jerusalem, the International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem, 1ridges for -eace and Christian Driends of Israel, have all critici"ed Israel for various biblical and moral infractions, such as the Israeli withdrawal from 'a"a and the proposal to make el $viv the gay capital of the world. 5ther evangelical ministries, undoubtedly have done the same. )very year since /??9, $teek has held an annual international conference. 3is first was an International Conference on Challenging Christian Zionism. <>= Seldom does he mention terrorism or suicide bombers and, when he does, these violent acts are not condemned. 3e sees little or no connection between biblical prophecies and the emergence of the state of Israel and restoration of the land and its Jewish people. !ather, $teek, and his host of supporting liberal clergymen, have challenged ma+or corporations and liberal denominations to divest themselves from Israel. heir divestment campaign is directed toward any organi"ation that may obtain a profit from doing business with Israel, especially as related to the -alestinians. he heart of the issue, according to $teek, is that Israel, as a biblical nation, has lost its biblical meaningL 'od is no longer interested in the Jewish people, because they have been replaced by the Church. $nd as the result of their re+ection of Jesus, 'od has abandoned, forgotten, and cursed the Jewish people. It is !eplacement heology at its finest. Met the following verses are +ust a few that profoundly announce the error of this anti-Zionist and antiSemitic doctrineE

<>;

his book was published in )urope and as of this writing it is not available in the 6nited States.
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6ntil /??= there have been si% conferences according to the Sabeel website. 3owever, limited information could be obtained from the Sabeel website since most links were terminated.

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FDor I will take you out of the nationsL I will gather you from all the countries and bring you back into your own 0and.I )"ekiel <AE/> F hen they will know that I am the 0ord their 'od. Dor though I them into e%ile among the nations, I will gather them into their own land.I )"ekiel <:E/= FSee, I will bring them from the land of the north and gather them from the ends of the earth.I Jeremiah <9E= F his is what the 0ord $lmighty saysE PI will save my people from countries of the east and the west, I will bring them back to live in Jerusalem.(I Zechariah =E;-= Clearly, neither $teek nor his associates recogni"e these biblical promises. 3e advocates -alestinian $rab causes, including violence, in the .ame of Jesus. 3e is promoting a Fspiritual holocaust,I that will replicate a physical one as well. 0770/ 4resident $ush 4romotes a ET+o-State SolutionF In June -resident 'eorge #. 1ush promoted a two-state solution, an e%tension of the 4adrid, 5slo and #ye -eace $ccords. he accords failed miserably, simply because 4uslim leaders did not want peace with IsraelL they want to destroy Israel. 1ush considered himself to be a man of Christian faith with a fundamental belief in the 1ible. Met, throughout his presidency he pressured Israel to negotiate with the -alestinians, even though most of the -alestinian leaders were on the list of terrorists established by the State ,epartment. he State ,epartment is largely pro--alestinian, because appro%imately one-third of high-level officials at one time were diplomats in $rab and 4iddle )astern nations and, conse&uently, have a pro--alestinian bias. 0773/ B.S. A)ain 4ressures Israel

send

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In 4arch -resident 1ush referred to Judea, Samaria, and 'a"a as Foccupied territories.I Met those were captured by Israel in the 9:A; Si%,ay #ar and have been integrated into Israel proper. 3e pressured Israel to withdraw from these areas in order to facilitate the co-called F!oadmap to -eaceI process. Clearly he failed to understand the basic motivation of the 4uslims to destroy Israel one piece at a time. Durthermore, 1ush gave little thought to the fact Israel is land given by 'od to the descendants of $braham, Isaac, and Jacob and to violate that command will institute divine +udgment. 3e also failed to recogni"e surrendering land to the -05 would entail the surrender of sites sacred to Judaism and Christianity to a people who have repeatedly desecrated such sites. Zechariah warned that nations would not only oppose Israel, but would also oppose the will of 'od. 1ased upon comments 1ush said concerning Israel and the 4iddle )ast, and his pressure upon Israel to comply with his F!oadmap to -eace,I it appears that he, who claims to be a Christian president, is leading $merica into divine +udgment. Durthermore, the current roadmap will insure a ma+or conflict in the 4iddle )ast. Some have said it will become the F!oadmap to $rmageddonI when the nations conclude that peace is impossible and the only resolution is the completion of 3itler(s Ffinal solution.I 6nfortunately, most world leaders, including recent $merican presidents, have failed to recogni"e the significance of a few prophetic wordsE FI will make an everlasting covenant with themL I will never stop doing good to them, and I will inspire them to fear BrespectC me. I will re+oice in doing them good and I will most assuredly plant them in this land with all my heart and soul.I Jeremiah </E>?->9 F(I will plant Israel in their own land, never again to be uprooted from the land I have given them,( says the 0ord your 'od.I $mos :E9@ 0778/ Christian Allies Caucus 1ormed in the Dnesset In January, after a wave of -alestinian suicide bombings, several evangelical ministries, which have been operating in Israel, formally organi"ed the *nesset(s Christian $llies Caucus. he *nesset is Israel(s 3ouse of -arliament, and center of national government. 3ence, the Caucus is held in high value by a ma+ority of Israeli leaders. he purpose of the
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Caucus is to support the Jewish people and their state of Israel in a world that is growing e%ponentially anti-Semitic and anti-Israel. Dor many years these groups were viewed with great skepticism, especially in light of Church history. #hile skepticism is still held by the ultra-orthodo% groups, most Israelis have come to accept and appreciate the help and support of evangelicals. his is a radical change from recent history when distrust of all Christians was commonplace. Met Israelis have also recogni"ed, that within Christianity, there are many who remain anti-Semitic andRor are pro--alestinian. 077-/ immy CarterIs Continued Crusade a)ainst Israel -resident Jimmy Carter, a former 1aptist Sunday school teacher, was voted into office in 9:;; with the help of the evangelical community who believed that he shared their values. It did not take long for him to demonstrate his true agenda when he began to actively promote -alestinian statehood at Israel(s sacrifice. In /??A he supported the 3amas terrorist group and accused Israel of being an apartheid state, even though Israel permits 4uslims to worship as they choose and -alestinians actively persecute Christians and Jewish people. In response to many of his antiIsrael comments the !epublican Jewish Coalition B!JCC sent a letter signed by si% former 6S ambassadors to ,emocratic .ational Chairman 3oward ,ean, asking him to remove former -resident Jimmy Carter from his position as 3onorary Chairman of ,emocrats $broad, the official ,emocratic -arty organi"ation for $mericans living outside the 6nited States. Carter has critici"ed Israel(s right to defend herself, while regularly giving credibility to 3amas and 3e"bollah, who not only re+ect Israel(s right to e%ist, but also assassinate Jewish men, women and children. 3ence, in 4arch of /??=, Israel formally asked him not to be involved in any mediation team. 4any Israelis consider him to be one of the world(s leading anti-Semites.<>: Shamefully, while he claims to live by biblical directives and values, he fails to apply them in the world of international politics. 077./ "van)elical Support Splits )vangelical Christians who, until recently have been unified in support of Israel, publicly split into two significant evangelical factions. ,ue to the professional propaganda and misinformation machine built by the $rabs, one group lobbied -resident 1ush to support a two state peace plan, while the other upheld full support of an undivided Jewish state. $ number of ministries in Jerusalem have a long tradition of supporting a united Israel
<>:

See also ,avid 3orowit%, Jimmy -arter4s :ar against the Jews. 3ouston NE ,efense of Israel -ro+ect, /??=, and www.frontpagemag.com .

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for several reasons including the biblical promises of +udgment against dividing the land BJoel <E/b-<C. hey continue to hold this position, even thought they are increasingly the minority view from the global perspective, and have lobbied -resident 1ush against the two-state peace plan. 5f the second group, some thirty evangelicals not only applauded the -resident(s two-state policy, but also encouraged him to increase pressure on Israel to make the two-state peace plan a reality. hey claimed that both Israelis and -alestinians have committed violence and in+ustice against each other, even though no Jewish terrorist has ever been found in an $rab community. .otably absent from their petition was the fact that all -alestinian leaders have been involved with terrorist activities calling for the utter destruction of Israel. Supporting the two-state division is, in fact, advocating the rights of terrorist groups to e%ist. his is hardly a peace plan by any stretch of the imagination. It is in fact, an endorsement of the radical plan to eliminate the Jewish state. It is nothing more than the old Crusader anti-Semitic attitude in the guise of political correctness. $nd these evangelicals have the audacity to claim they are Christians representing the .ame of Jesus. #hat a shameQ 077;/ 6ivide erusalem: Surrender e+ish Identity he division of Jerusalem, including most of the 5ld City, became the sub+ect of evening news programs. Sub+ected to the pressure of the #hite 3ouse, Israeli leaders publicly stated that the 3oly City needs to be divided to obtain peace. 0ittle thought was given to the fact that 4uslim terrorists have never retracted their statements concerning the destruction of Israel. !ather, they have increased the rhetoric. -oliticians have failed to note several obstacles of this horrendous idea. .ote the following &uestionsE 9. #hat historical or legal right do the -alestinians have to JerusalemK /. In light of increased terrorism after past treaties and agreements, why should the Israelis believe dividing Jerusalem would be any differentK <. Separating the physical infrastructure of the utilities is impossible. >. Drom a military point of view, a division would be impossible to defend, and that could be the primary reason for the -alestinian demand. Durthermore, the 7atican(s chief cleric in the 3oly City called for Israel to give up its national identity as a Jewish state, telling media outlets that the land was not e%clusive to anyone. o underscore the basis of his
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statement he referred to the -alestinians( chief negotiator at the $nnapolis -eace Summit as saying that Israel would never be accepted as a Jewish state.<@? his indicates that the !oman Catholic Church has not changed its historic attitude. Today and $eyond In recent years, anti-Semitism has taken on new colors. #hile the word Fanti-SemitismI is taboo, it is much stronger within the new secular religion of Fhuman rights.I hroughout )urope human rights are a concern, but only for those who have selective vision. #hile they may be concerned about the so-called human rights violations caused by the Israelis, )uropeans have e%pressed little interest in the persecution of Christians by the Sudanese or Chinese. hey have not e%pressed the anticipated outcry against Israelis killed by terrorists, but have done so about Fhuman rightsI of the -alestinians. 0ittle is said by )uropean governments and civic leaders when Jewish cemeteries are vandali"ed and defaced with .a"i graffiti. here is a lethal and global wave of hatred of the Jewish people rising. $ new reign of terrorism fell upon the Israelis in September of /??9. In the first /@ years of Israel(s e%istence, the $rabs lost five ma+or wars. Since then they have attempted to remove the Jewish people from their land by suicide bombers and other forms of intense terrorism. 4ainline churches that supported the Jewish people after #orld #ar II until 9:A;, now support -alestinian causes. $lthough they do not necessarily endorse terrorism, they are remarkably silent about it. In response to both the position of these churches and terrorism, a number of evangelicals have increased their support for the Jewish people and the state of Israel. he Jewish people still e%perience hostile anti-Semitism today in the form of anti-Israeli sentiment from some church leaders. Dor e%ample, on $ugust //, /??A, four leading Jerusalem church leaders published an antiChristian Zionist declaration entitled, FJerusalem ,eclaration on Christian Zionism.I he document was signed by the outgoing 0atin -atriarch 4ichel Sabbah, $rchbishop Swerios 4alki 4ourad of the Syrian 5rthodo% -atriarchate, 1ishop !iah $bu )l-$ssal of the )piscopal Church, and 1ishop 4unib Mounan of the 0utheran Church. he document was highly critical of evangelical support of the Jewish people and the state of Israel and attacked the literal interpretation of prophetic Scriptures as a Ffalse teachingI that FcondemnGsH the world to the doom of $rmageddon.I It continued, FChristian Zionism is a modern theological and political movement that embraces the most e%treme ideological positions of Zionism, thereby becoming detrimental to a +ust peace within -alestine and Israel.I he
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.ewsletter from the Simon #iesenthal Center, 9<:: South !o%bury ,r. 0os $ngeles, C$. 4arch, /??=. 9.

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Jerusalem G-atriarchWsH declaration also called Christian Zionism Fa false doctrine that corrupts the biblical message of love, +ustice, and reconciliation.I hese stinging words remind Jewish people of the centuries old tradition of hate and bitterness. 3owever, the three leading evangelical ministries in Israel, the International Christian )mbassy in Jerusalem, 1ridges for -eace, and Christian Driends of Israel responded with their own declaration. It included these comments, It is with concern that we note the negative opinions about Christian Zionism voiced by certain church clerics in Jerusalem .... G1yH using inflammatory language, they have e%pressed views that are far from truth.

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#e find the paper unbalanced and notably one-sided. It totally ignores the +ihadist(s goals of the 3amas government and turns a blind eye to terrorism perpetrated by this regime. $ Christian Zionist believes in a literal interpretation of the 1ible and re+ects !eplacement heology Gthat the Church replaced IsraelH, which played a pivotal role in the persecution of Jews through the centuries and under girded the 3olocaust U Christian Zionism is not hereticalL in fact, Christians from all traditional backgrounds have held such a view for two thousand years. #e pray for peace, but we note, with sadness, that the present -alestinian government is totally dedicated to the destruction of Israel. he assault on Christian Zionism, which also included an attack on their alliance with Israeli groups, was the clearest sign to date that the ever growing friendship between the two sides is increasingly worrying to non-evangelical Christian groups.<@9 Dortunately, today many Israelis reali"e that a deep division e%ists within the Christian community concerning support for the Jewish state. $s the result of dedicated hard work by evangelical ministries in Jerusalem and
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)tgar 0efkovits, The Jerusalem Post. September @, /??A.

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worldwide, Israeli politicians, media and thousands of Jewish people have e%perienced love and support seldom known in centuries past. Summary In the 9=th century *ing Drederick the 'reat, *ing of -russia, who was either an atheist or agnostic, challenged his personal physician to prove the e%istence of 'od. he doctor(s response was simple and to the pointE he said, F he Jews, your 4a+estyQ he JewsQI he history of the Jewish people is both a testimony to the 'od who preserved them and shame upon those who used the name of 'od as an e%cuse to kill them. Dor nearly /,??? years they were persecuted, e%pelled, raped and murdered. Met they maintained their racial purity, culture and traditions without being absorbed into the various cultures where they lived. .o other people group has accomplished this fete for two millenniums. he greatest difficulty in writing this book has been setting aside the mi% of emotions that could impede ob+ective reasoning and research. o those readers who may believe that this writer has a personal vendetta against the 4uslims, the Church, or a particular denomination, rest assured that is not the case. If there are any hard feelings, it is that the author is repulsed at what has been done in the sacred .ame of Jesus. Mou, too, may have a mi% of emotions at this point. $lmost from the beginning of Christianity, 'entile Church leaders drifted from the Jewish-'entile GChristianH unity spoken of by the $postle -aul and, in fact, often worked feverishly to enhance the division. Met incredibly in the past few centuries, and more pronounced in recent decades, there has been growing Christian support for the Jewish people and the state of Israel. $ growing number of 'entile Christians are becoming aware of their history as related to the Jewish people, as well as the loss of the Jewish roots of Christianity. In the first century, there was great antagonism against the $postle -aul and other Christians. 3owever, beginning in the early second century that hostility was turned around and it was the Jewish people who were persecuted. Since that time, there is almost no record of anti-Christian hostilities at the hands of Jewish people. he rise of seventh century Islam brought a new dimension to the social-cultural mi%. Some 4uslims clerics permitted Jewish people and Christians to live in their communities, but only as second class residents who also had to pay higher ta%es. 5thers attempted to eradicate both Jewish people and Christians from their towns and villages. Met the Jewish people
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often suffered so horribly that they looked to 4uslim armies as possible messianic armies, who would save them from Christian domination. he Crusader period was a disaster for all involved. 5ne of the most shameful eras in the history of the Church was when there was theft, rape, and murder of Jewish people and 4uslims by those who called themselves followers of Christ. he goal of the Crusades was to win back the land con&uered by the 4uslims in A<A. he attempt was worse than failure. Drom the streets of Seville, of oledo, of Cordova and 4adrid, of 0isbon and -aris, of Mork, of !ome, of #orms and 7ienna, of ,achau and 1elsen, of #arsaw, to the 3oly Jerusalem itself, the Crusaders burned every living Jew as a symbol of liberationVall these and a thousand more are overwhelming evidence of what Christianity is like in action. he horrific actions of the !oman Catholic Crusaders are without &uestion, one of the greatest sins against the Jewish people. 6nfortunately, it is not the only one. hroughout the 4iddle $ges superstition appeared to have a greater influence upon the Church than did the 1ible. here were numerous eradications of Jewish communities and anti-Semitic legislations. he Spanish In&uisition brought untold misery to Jewish people, 4uslims and followers of the new -rotestant !eformation. he -rotestant !eformation was a purifying movement in response to the theologically and morally corrupt Catholic hierarchy. he movement that was originated by 4artin 0uther and other reformers, brought with it persecution of Christians who did not agree with either 0utheranism or Catholicism. Met, by-in-large, it failed to purge out anti-Semitism. 3owever, from within the movement originated the early stages of the Christian -ietist 4ovement that would later become outspoken in support of the Jew. #hile the !eformation had produced a new perspective on how the 1ible should be understood and applied to daily life, it also produced persecutions for those who held views different from traditional thinkers. !eligious liberty, as we know it today, was a relatively new concept. 3istorically, those who publicly e%pressed an opinion that was different from those who held religious or political power were often sub+ected to persecution or punishment. #ith the rise of the !eformation came a variety of groups who held differing viewpoints concerning some Church doctrines and, for this, some were persecuted. he Jewish people were persecuted historically, not only because they were blamed for the death of Jesus, but also because they were a minority within a larger Christian community. Some Christian sects were also persecuted. he $nabaptists, the forefathers of the 4ennonites, 3utterites, and several other denominations, were persecuted and martyred by the hundreds throughout )urope for believing in adult baptism over infant baptism and for being pacifistic. 1y the mid-9; th century, religious conflicts had become a serious social problem.
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Dortunately, far to the west was the new land known as $merica. here colonial governors such as #illiam -enn promised religious freedom for all who would come and begin a new life. hose who felt persecuted came by the thousands. herefore, )uropean Church-sponsored persecution was not solely reserved for the Jewish peopleL it was available to anyone who failed to agree with the governing religious and political power brokers. 1y the 9:th century, among a few Jewish and Christian leaders, there was a growing call to their constituency for the Jewish people to return to their homeland. $s if by divine appointment, neither group was aware that within the other the same call was being made. Churches from )urope and $merica sent missionaries to -alestine Bas it was known thenC to establish schools, hospitals and other elements of a social infrastructure. 1y the 9==?s Jewish people began to return en masse to rebuild the land and in 9=:;, heodor 3er"l had gathered influential Jewish leaders in 1asel, Swit"erland, for the Dirst Zionist Congress calling for the re-establishment of the Jewish state. Jewish people began to return from all corners of the world. he Gaifeng Jewish people came from China, the !bayudaya Jewish people came from 6ganda, the 0thiopian Jews are the largest non-Caucasian Jewish people to have come home, the Sephardic Jews came from the Spanish speaking countries, and 0astern 0uropean Jewish people came from -oland, !ussia, !umania, 3ungary and 0ithuania. Drom more than a hundred nations Jewish people have been returning to make Israel the most interesting melting pot of humanity on the face of the earth. $nd they are still coming, +ust as predicted. he /?th century opened with #orld #ar I. he epic event prepared the land for the people, and in 9:9; 1ritish 'eneral $llenby took control of Jerusalem. It was the first time the 3oly City was in Christian hands for nearly a thousand years. hen came $dolf 3itler in 'ermany and $rab riots in -alestine. 3itler initiated #orld #ar II and the 3olocaust, which prepared the Jewish people for their land with limited support of the global community. In 9:>= Israel became a nation, thus fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah AAEA-=. $t the time, mainline churches were in support of the Jewish state, while many evangelicals looked upon it with skepticism, wondering if this event really was a move of 'od. 6nfortunately, after the 9:A; Si%-,ay #ar and into the 9:;?s mainline churches were becoming increasingly pro-alestinian, while evangelicals took on full support of the Jewish right to own all of Israel. here is an interesting progression of attitudes from the second century to today. In the second century the Church stated that Jews could not believe like Christians. In the 4iddle $ges the Church said Jews could not live near Christians and the Jewish people were placed in ghettos. hen 3itler, with the support of some clerics said that the Jewish people could not live. $fter the establishment of the state of Israel and a few decades of
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remorse, a growing number of Christians are +oining the -alestinian chorus and singing 3itler(s tune. #hat a shame upon the name of JesusQ #hile in centuries past the Church persecuted the Jewish people, in the /? th century the FChristiani"edI #est stood silent and permitted others to persecute the Jewish people. #estern civili"ation has historically carried the name FChristian,I yet in the past century the #est has re+ected basic Christian characteristics as love, mercy and +ustice as if these were evils to be avoided. $s prosperity increased, so has the desire for materialism with the result being a decline of Judeo-Christian values as well as family and social relationships. If we say that we have 'od(s #ord in us and do not apply it to our lives and culture, then we are liars and hypocrites. Churches in 'ermany hardly protested, and for the most part did not care about the Jewish people. Dor as evil as 3itler was, he was neither a liar nor a hypocrite. 1y the first decade of the new millennium, a growing number of evangelicals recogni"ed Israel as being the key to biblical prophecy. #hile the growth for Israeli support grew, so did the desire to preach the gospel to 4uslims in all parts of the world. errorism that a century ago was only in the 4iddle )ast now became global. he potential to destroy millions of lives with a single bomb at any moment became a daily reality. he word of the 0ord is truth and it will fulfill what it was called to perform. $t no other time in history has so much evidence of biblical truth been discovered. 4ore than three do"en biblical prophecies that pertain to the Jewish people and the state of Israel have been fully or partially fulfilled. $rchaeological evidence of various biblical events and places has been discovered to support the truthfulness of the 3oly #rit. oday(s enemies of Israel are fully described in -salm =>E9-= and other passages. Dinally, in )phesians /E9>-9= the $postle -aul stated that Jesus is our peace, Fwho has made the two BJews and 'entilesC one and has destroyed the barrier,I that divided them. F3is purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the twoI that Fthrough him we both BJews and 'entilesC have access to the Dather by one Spirit.I 6nfortunately, for nearly /,??? years the Church has reinforced the barrier, but today we see )phesians /E9>-9= being fulfilled on a daily basis. he Church is finally coming into alignment with the plan of 'od. In the early 9:A?s, -ope -aul 7I said, F he love that Christ brought into the world is not yet in the hearts of men.I <@/ 3ow sad. $ truer statement has never been spoken. .ow there are some interesting &uestions that need to be addressed. Dirst, FIf Christianity is a Preligion of love,( Bactually, it is a relationshipC how did it become filled with so much hateKI here are several parts to this answer. Dirst, there was the divorce of Christianity from its
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!unes, ;:.

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3ebraic roots following the $, 9</-9<@ Jewish !evolt when Church leadership went from the Jewish people to 'entiles. Second, with 'entile leadership came the doctrine of !eplacement heology that fostered Churchsponsored anti-Semitism. Clergymen pointed to the 1ible as their authority to persecute the Jewish people, when in fact, they were in direct disobedience to the 3oly #rit. hird was the introduction of pagan principles and practices by Constantine in the early fourth century when the Church leadership became a ruling class. Dinally, by the fifth and si%th centuries, 1ible reading was removed from the common people and reserved for the clergy, who then used it to control and manipulate their people. his paved the way for the corruption in the Church, which continued for centuries. Centuries later the -rotestant !eformation was a spiritual revival that challenged the centuriesold theology and corruption of the established !oman Catholic Church. .onetheless, anti-Semitism was hardly filtered out, and the cleansing was a long and slow process that is only now becoming a recogni"able and significant force. he Church has traditionally been anti-Jewish. he evangelical support for the Jewish people in recent times is a phenomenal departure from church tradition. Since the early second century, most of Christianity has been characteri"ed by Judaeophobia, anti-Judaism and anti-Semitism. he few Church leaders who voiced compassion for the sons and daughters of $braham were degraded and ostraci"ed. !arely has one echoed the $postle -aul(s message of 'od(s desire that Jews and 'entile come together B!om. 99E99, 9=C. oday the world can see the miracle of Israel J and it is a miracle. he prophets said the modern return of the Jewish people would eclipse the )gyptian )%odus BIsa. >EAL 99E99-9>L Jer. /<E;-=C. Met many within the Church refuse to confirm this obvious observation. 5ne must ask if latent anti-Semitic feelings filter theological interpretations. 5ther &uestions are as followsE $fter two thousand years of persecution, what proof can the Church offer the Jewish people that Christianity is truly of the 'od of $braham, Isaac, and JacobK It has spent two millennia proving otherwise. he time has come to demonstrate the love of Christ, yet all too many Christians are too busy en+oying life in a materialistic culture. 3ow can such apathy escape +udgment when Jesus and the gospel should be preached first to the Jew, then to the Samaritans who have Jewish roots, and then to the 'entiles in the far reaches of the world B$cts 9E=CK Consider the incredible sorrow in the heart of 'od, who has seen the descendants of $braham suffer so immensely at the hands of those who claim to live by the .ew Covenant. In light of 'enesis 9/E<, what would the world look like today if the Church had never persecuted them, but rather, supported them throughout historyK #hat blessings would have been bestowed upon the Church in the past two thousand yearsK In today(s volatile
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anti-Israel world we may very well have the last opportunity to demonstrate true Christian love and compassion to the Jewish people. 5nly love and forgiveness can in some way demonstrate remorse for centuries of horrific wrongs and bring honor to the .ame of Jesus. he Shame of Jesus is upon us and we need to change it.

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F(Comfort, comfort my people,( says your 'od.I Isaiah >?E9
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Chapter 3 A ChristianIs (esponse/ Closin) Thou)hts and a Call to Action What 3i)ht The ?ord $e Callin) 3e To 6o5 he fact that anti-Semitism has e%isted throughout all ages, long before the Christian era, does not redeem the church from its history, but rather the Church should mourn its history, call for forgiveness and repentance. $s previously mentioned, the $postle -aul stated in )phesians /E9>9= that Jesus is our peace Fwho has made the two Bborn-again Jewish people and born-again 'entilesC into one and has destroyed the barrierI that divided them. he action of the Church throughout history has not only reinforced that barrier, but also killed Jews in the process. hose who continue to promote !eplacement heology are likewise reinforcing that same barrier of division, although some are unaware of the conse&uences. Mour awareness of the truth and its conse&uences &ualifies you to speak the truth whenever possible. he initial awareness of the Jewish e%perience will make one(s heart sink. )ven after learning about !eplacement heology and its impact, lingering &uestions remain such as F3ow could this have happenedKI and F#here were the true ChristiansKI 4ore important than these answers is your response. .ow that you know, you are no longer innocent of not knowing. 3ence, the all important &uestion is, F :hat is 7od calling me to do>M he answer will be revealed when biblical directives are incorporated with prayers re&uesting divine direction and guidance. $ll Christians are called to follow the biblical imperatives. It is time we answer the call. 3ere are some suggestions for you to prayerfully considerE 1irst! when meeting someone who is Jewish, and whenever an appropriate opportunity presents itself apologi"e to himRher for what the Church has done to their forefathers. he response will almost always be warm, friendly, and one of surprise. $n apology is nearly unknown to them. It will give you the opportunity to e%plain why you feel the way you do. he Jewish person may not immediately accept your apology because the world continues to cause them pain. 3owever, planting the seed of forgiveness is important. $t one time -ope -aul II asked the Jewish people for forgiveness for the many sins committed against them by the !oman Catholic Church in the
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.ame of Jesus. It is true that Jesus broke down the wall of hostility between the two groups. !econciliation is a re&uirement. Second! be involved in your church. -rovide leadership, motivation and compassion as you help the people in your congregation recogni"e that the Church needs to repent. 4any congregations have already recogni"ed and admitted the sins of their forefathers. Church statements, however, have mostly been at the theological and moral level and not with a need for a heartfelt sorrowful repentance at the personal level. Third, allow the 3oly Spirit to demonstrate the love of Jesus to everyone through you. In today(s volatile 4iddle )ast setting, that means to love the -alestinian as well as the Jew. Jesus died for everyone. 1ourth, pray for the peace of Jerusalem B-s. 9//EAC. -rayer has become all too trivial to many #esterners, but is the lifeline to survival. -rayer should not only be for the Jewish people, but for people of all ethnic, cultural and religious persuasions. -ray for the softening of the hearts of world leaders and for those who have been taught to hate and bring harm to Jewish people, Christians, 4uslims and other groups. -ray for 'odless leaders that they might see the light and have changed hearts. 4ake a list of other things and people you could pray for. )ngage your family, your Sunday school class, your 1ible study, your small groups, fellow employees at work and others to +oin you in this prayer. #e should be looking for a mighty word from 'od to bring peace and reconciliation for and with the Jewish people. 1ifth, in your prayers, also ask for 'od(s guidance as to where you can send financial support andRor volunteer. 'od honors our prayers, but 3e is also calling us to action. 3e wants your heart and wants us to use our hands. 'et involved today. #here 3e guides, 3e provides. SiJth! ponder the words of the $postle -aul in !omans :-99. 3e spoke of the 'entile believers being grafted into the Jewish covenant. 4ost Christians look upon the 5ld estament as having been replaced by the .ew estament, rather than thinking of the .ew estament being the fulfillment of the 5ld one. 5nce a new paradigm of thinking is established, it is natural to want to study the Jewish roots of Christianity. <@< $t no time in the history of the Church has there been as much interest in the Jewish roots as there is today. $ number of ministries and publications have arisen in recent years and are educating laymen and pastors. $fter two thousand
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!ecommended resources are Israel Today BhttpERRwww.israeltoday.co.ilRC, a monthly maga"ine published in Israel, and Restore, published three times per year BhttpERRwww.restorationfoundation.orgC. In addition, $llon 4inistries has produced a television program focused on Jewish roots www.hebraic.tv. See also Jewish $wareness 4inistries BhttpERRwww.+ewishawareness.orgRC.

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years, this movement may be the Fgrafting inI that the apostle was writing about. Seventh! understand that a second 3olocaust is in the near future. .ations of the world are coming into alignment in accordance with )"ekiel <; and <=. he global anti-Israel opinions, fueled by Islamic hatred and the #estern willingness to be deceived in the name of FtoleranceI and Fcultural sensitivity,I will not only be suicidal to the #est, but will also eventually destroy Christians, Jews and the Jewish state. It is at that time J known as the time of Jacob(s rouble, but also known as the 'reat ribulation -- the 4essiah will come to save Israel. 1ut prior to 3is coming, there will be massive death and destruction. 6nfortunately, many evangelical Christians have already e%pressed their support for pro--alestinian causes, deliberately setting aside all biblical references to this predicted significant event. .onetheless, today(s media reports can be laid beside the 1ible prophecies with ama"ing correlation which has never before occurred in history. ruly this is a time to think, pray and act biblically so we can become like the sons of Issachar Fwho had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do UI B9 Chron. 9/E</C. 1inally! note the words of Sister -ista and 4other 1asilea Shlink. 4other Shlink was a Catholic nun, a prolific author and founder of a convent in ,armstadt, 'ermany. She was to address the #orld -rayer Congress sponsored by the $merican Christian rust on the 4ount of 5lives on 4ay //-/A, 9::A. 1ut her health and advanced age prohibited her from attending, so she sent Sister -ista in her place. he sister gave the following words, a true confession of repentance concerning the treatment of Jewish people by so-called ChristiansE F$s a spiritual sister of 4other 1asilea for almost @? years, I feel privileged to share with you what is on her heart. Mou see, we are 'erman. #e can only confess that as a nation we did not love 'od(s Chosen -eople. #e sinned grievously against them, especially in the 3itler era from 9:<< to 9:>@. $ll of us 'ermans must share the blame for the death of millions of Jews. )ven if we were not actively involved, we did little or nothing to prevent it. #e failed the Jews in the hour of their greatest need. $nd so there is blood on our hands too, and we cannot pray for 'od(s chosen people unless 3e forgives us for our sin. In a prayer GwrittenH by 4other 1asilea, we confessE F he blood on our hands cries out to heavenE the serious crime against Israel. #e repent deeply and humble ourselves in the dust before those whom we have cruelly driven to their deaths. 5h, that we would now seek to make amends for the evil we have done,
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showing kindness to the people of 'od. Jesus, the 0amb of 'od, by whose wounds we are healed, is the 5ne we have afflicted. 5h listen to 3is lament, PMour blows against 4y people have fallen on 4e.( $s )uropean Christians, we have something else to repent of two thousand years of Christianity that has been marked by hatred for the Jewish people. #e showed the Jews a distorted image of Jesus. 1y our actions, we discredited 3im. #e made 3is precious name offensive to them, because in the name of Jesus we )uropean Christians persecuted and killed them. Can we as 'ermans and )uropean Christians really +oin in the celebration of Jesus( birthdayK ,oes 3e really want us to be 3is guestsK F3ere at the place where Jesus prayed with bitter tears in 'ethsemane, ascended to heaven and will come again in glory, 3e wants to open our eyes. 3e wants us to see what we and our ancestors have done to 3im during the past /,??? years. 3e wants to give us a contrite and broken heart for not loving 3is chosen people. F#e have grieved Jesus by not seeing Israel as our elder brother, through whom we have received the Scriptures, the law, the prophets, and Jesus 3imself. #e have ignored !omans 99, which says the Jews are the root of the tree. hey bear us, not we them, for we are only grafted in. F5ur tears of repentance would be a comfort to our beloved 0ord on 3is birthday. $nd they would help soothe the deep wounds in the hearts of 3is chosen people here in Israel and around the world. #hen we see the abyss of our guilt, the day can come when Israel(s eyes will be opened to see their !edeemer. 'od(s gifts and 3is call are irrevocableE 3e will never go back on 3is promises to 3is chosen people.I Sister -ista, 4ay 9::A It would be wise to apply these words to our lives, but it is also wise to know the reason for Israel(s continuing source of persecution. his will certainly influence how one prays.

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(easons Why Lou Aeed To Act Ao+ he writer of 9 Chronicles stated that Satan is the arch enemy of Israel B/9E=C. In the past two millennia he used the Church to target the Jews. hroughout history, many have attempted to destroy the Jewish people and failed. )%amine a few events in their long history of survivalE )%odus 9>E9<-<9 he )gyptians tried to drown them, but the !ed did not swallow them, but it drowned the )gyptians. Sea

)sther @E9>L ;E:-9?. 3aman and the -ersian gallows could not hang them, but rather it was 3aman who was hung on the gallows. ,aniel <E9A-/= he 1abylonian fiery furnaces could not burn them. ,aniel AE<-/= he 1abylonian lions would not eat them. Jonah 9E9;L /E9? $ big fish got sick from one of them. *ing .ebuchadne""ar tried to burn and enslave them, but they survived. )mperor 3adrian tried to eradicate and evict the Jews, but they survived and came back. he Crusaders wanted to remove them from the 3oly 0and, but today they own it. So-called FChristiansI tried to eradicate them, but they spread throughout the world. 3itler tried to kill them, but in the end, he committed suicide and some of his weapons helped form the modern state of Israel. .ow the -alestinians and other $rabs want to try at what others failed. <@> he !oman centurion Cornelius treated the Jewish people so well that 'od sent -eter to his house to preach the good news of salvation. Isn(t it time Christians demonstrate love and compassion as did this !omanK he fact that no other people group that has been persecuted for thousands of years, not only survived, but has also established one of the world(s most powerful countries, is indicative that there must be an $lmighty
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$uthor 6nknown.

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'od whose plan is being fulfilled as prophetically written. Since 9:>=, Israel has won all the wars but not a single peaceL Israel has a historical and religious connection to the land as evidenced in archaeology and ancient writings Bbiblical and non-biblicalC, yet it must defend itself against a people who have no such connection. 5ne must ask why they miraculously survived so often if 'od has not further plans for them. he answer is obvious, especially in light of the biblical covenant. herefore the ne%t &uestion is, F#hat should I U what must I doKI 0ittle wonder then, they are highly resistant to hearing anything about Jesus, 3is love, or the Christian faith. oday the 0ord is calling us to repentance, to pray for the peace of Jerusalem B-s. 9//EAC, to heal their wounds and comfort them BIsaiah >?E9C, and to participate in 3is plan to bless them B'en. 9/E<C. In essence, 'od is calling us to flow in 3is divine plan. Imagine, if you will, the verse that reads, FIf you give a cup of water in 4y .ame ... Mou have done it unto 4e.I If giving a cup of water would have been such a blessing, then imagine what a curse is upon those who tortured, raped, and murdered in the name of JesusK Mour involvement is absolutely critical at this time to demonstrate the true love, compassion and mercy of Jesus. he Jewish people have no clue of who the real Jesus is, but have only a true image of demented tyrants and Church leaders, who called themselves FChristians.I In the meantime, there is a dramatic rise of anti-Semitism globally, especially in )urope. .eo-.a"i groups are gaining popularity, which was once thought to have been impossible. Islamic nations are publishing translated editions of the Protocols of the 0lders of @ion and other anti-Israeli literature. $rab maps never identify Israel as a nation. It appears that the nations of the world are becoming united against the only land with which 'od has a covenant. he 6nited .ations has developed a reputation for voting against Israel due to $rab pressure. 5nly a few nations have on occasion remained neutral and this, too, is due to $rab pressures not to vote pro-Israel. #hile today the nations of the world are turning against Israel, evangelical Christians have been becoming united in their support for Jewish people and the Jewish state. Since the early 9:=?s, and especially since late /??9, many Israelis have appreciated the growing support demonstrated by evangelical Christians from around the world. his has been fre&uently e%pressed by Israelis. Dor e%ample, when the e%panded Mad 7eshem, Israel(s 3olocaust 4useum, opened in /??@, Solly *aplinski, director of the )nglish desk at the 4useum, said this of )vangelical support, F3ad there been a )uropean Coalition Gfor IsraelH, <@@ a Christian )mbassy, 1ridges for
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Clarification by the author.

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-eace, Christians for Israel or Christian Driends of Israel, how different the situation might have been A? or ;? years ago.I <@A In this statement, *aplinski not only acknowledged the graciousness e%tended by Christians, but also implied that, if that same graciousness had e%isted decades ago, there might not have been a 3olocaust. 5n the other hand, ultra-orthodo% Jews have increased persecution against Jewish believers, especially in the southern city of $rad. hey attempts to ac&uire additional governmental authority to remove Christians of any kind from the land is an on-going struggle. Met there has never been a time in history when support for Israel was more important than it is at this moment. $s of this writing, the 6nited States, 'reat 1ritain, and urkey have been generally supportive of Israel, while most other nations are at best neutral, but are generally anti-Israel R pro--alestinian. In fact, the term Fanti-SemitismI has been replaced with the politically correct phrases of Fanti-ZionismI and Fanti-Israelism.I he ministries cited by *aplinski not only minister to the various needs within Israel, but also have various branch offices throughout the world that lobby parliaments for fighting anti-Semitic legislation. 5n occasion, these ministries will work together for a common pro+ect, such as locating and transporting Jewish people out of the former Soviet 6nion. his is not a time to be silent. Christians must not only take a vocal stand, but must also be engaged prayerfully and financially. #hile these ministries are indeed global, most of their support comes from the 6nited States. )vangelicals in other nations, who have the financial resources, tend to be too few in number to make a significant financial impact. herefore, Christians everywhere need to take the initiative to get involved in this issue. Dinally, the reason you and I need to act now is that Jerusalem remains the city of 'od -- the 'od of $braham, Isaac, Jacob and all true Christians. Jerusalem as the City of ,avid Bnot $rafatC is mentioned some =?? times in the 1ible. 3ow can one not see the significanceK hat is not to say all others are forgotten. 3ardlyQ Jesus died for all people. 3e died for the terrorists +ust as much as for you and me. Met Jerusalem will always be a special city to the heart of 'od. here are three significant points concerning Israel. DirstE he e%istence, safety, and prosperity of Israel are of critical interest to the 6nited States. his small nation is an asset politically, strategically, and philosophically. It is a manifestation of the $merican ideal. 6nfortunately, the 6S and )urope are pressuring Israel to surrender 'od-given lands to their enemies.
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.icole Schiavi. F)uropean Coalition for Israel 4arks )urope ,ay at IC)J.I International -hristian 0mbassy Jerusalem ;ewsletter. June 9@, /??@.

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SecondE #ithout unfailing 6S support, Israel simply cannot survive. 5ne wrong vote in the 6nited .ations could have a devastating effect on the land of divine promise. hirdE .ot everyone in the 6S feels that Israel is an asset or that it is of any political value. $s the oil-rich $rab nations pressure and buy political clout, the support for Israel by all nations is weakening. he world is hastily moving toward the fulfillment of Zechariah 9>E/ and only the true Christians will be their allies. $t no other time in history have all nations gone against the Jewish people or Israel and at no other time have all true Christians defended them. herefore, it is of utmost importance for evangelical Christians not only support Israel through prayer and humanitarian aid, but also through persuasive political action. In essence, we should first change our heart and mind, and then become involved in a ministry that demonstrates the love of Jesus to the lost, wherever they are. he primary responsibility for any true believer is to understand hisRher responsibility in light of biblical teaching. he $postle -aul said 'entile-believers are not to be proud or boastful B!om. 99E9=C, arrogant B!om. 99E/?C, or conceited B!om. 99E/@C. 3e also encouraged the Church to study the #ord and not be ignorant B!om. 99E/@C. here is the issue of the confession of sin and repentance. #hile many believers do not have a conscious negative attitude toward Jewish people, it is a shame that so many are incredibly ignorant of Church-Jewish history. It is a primary responsibility of every believer not only to repent before 'od, but also to ask for forgiveness. Since Jewish anti-Christian feelings run deep, such repentance needs to be a lifelong attitude, not simply a one-time event. $ huge wave of anti-Semitism is now spreading across $merican and )uropean college campuses, while in )astern )urope synagogues are painted with .a"i graffiti and sometimes firebombed. Dor the most part, these anti-Semites are 4uslim, mainline clergy, and individuals without any religious affiliation. It appears that professors in the world of academia are over- whelmingly anti-Israel R pro--alestinian yet they never raise opposition to the persecution of homose%uals in )gypt, slavery in the Sudan, or torture in the -hilippines. he obvious bias against Jewish people and Israel is accelerating to its worst level in history. It is time for true Christians to understand their historic past, repent, and embrace $cts 9E=, the Jew, and Israel like never before in history. It is time to recogni"e the move of 'od, as evidenced by the biblical prophecies recently fulfilled, and align ourselves with what 'od is doing. $nd what might 'od be doingK he $postle -aul spoke of the Fnew manI in Christ, as well as unity within the Church. hroughout history it has always been a religious tension of Christian vs. the Jew, or at best, the Christians barely tolerating Jews.
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Christians who have helped the Jewish people in the past two centuries, and especially in the past <? or >? years, are a radical change from the past. his writer believes that as time progresses, true Jews and true believers will e%perience both increased hostilities from third parties Bother Christians, media, global opinions, and governmentsC while also finding a unity in faith. here is a growing momentum developing for 'entile and Jewish believers to worship the 0ord together. It may finally be the fulfillment of the $postle -aul(s desire for the Jew and 'entile to come together in faith. 3owever, this is not to forget or ignore the 4uslims, as Jesus died for them as well. 5ur prayers and ministries should be on their behalf as well. A 1inal Thou)ht !eplacement heology would never have obtained a foothold if there were not some degree of truth in it that was e%ploited. )ven though some early Christian leaders cursed the Jewish people, there never was an edict or proclamation by the Jewish people, apostles, or early Church fathers that caused the separation of Judaism and Christianity. Satan takes truth and distorts it to create his false concepts. he truth is that 'entile believers are a part of Israel because we have been grafted into the promises of $braham. Satan distorted this truth to make 'entiles believe they are all of Israel to the e%clusion of the Jewish people. In a similar manner, there are those BJews and 'entilesC who believe that all Jews are saved, when there is abundant Scripture that clearly states that Jesus is the only way to salvation. he correct interpretation is that all 'entiles and all Jewish people, who have their faith in Christ Jesus, are the true Israel. Consider this confession written by the 'erman )vangelical Sisterhood of 4aryE <@; In deep shame and contrition, we come before the almighty and merciful 'od to confess the crimes and in+ustices perpetrated against the Jewish people down through the centuries, for which the Christian Church bears heavy responsibility. #e confess that our Christian forefathers and we often showed pre+udice and antagonism towards our elder brother Israel, instead of loving 'od(s chosen people. hroughout the centuries, the Jewish people have been defamed by Christians as murderers of 'odL and to this day, the teaching persists that 'od has finished with 3is covenant people Israel, despite the evidence of Scripture to the contrary.

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FConfession.I ,armstadt, 'ermanyE )vangelical Sisterhood of 4ary, /??9.

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'od(s people have been accused of well poisoning and ritual murder, well as being humiliated, deprived of their rights, held in contempt, and persecuted. he horrific murder of si% million Jewish people in 3olocaust, the clima% of a long history of flagrant in+ustice, hangs us like a dark cloud to this day.

#e, therefore, repent and plead with $lmighty 'od that 3e might have mercy upon us and forgive us for what our forefathers and we have done to 3is chosen people. #e pledge ourselves to work tirelessly against anti-Semitism in all its forms and make every effort to ensure that respect and consideration be shown on the part of the Church of Jesus Christ towards the people in the light of 'od(s everlasting covenant with them.

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#e seek 'od(s blessing upon 3is covenant people in Israel and worldwide, above all in the countries from which we come. $men.

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AppendiJ 1 1reCuently as%ed 'uestions Concernin) Israel and the e+ish 4eople<@= 4any ponder the &uestions as to FwhyKI here are so many &uestions raised by concerned and caring Christians who look for answers. 3ere are +ust a few of such &uestions and a brief response that may lead you to a greater understanding of the issues. 1e certain to read the biblical references given for the answers to many of the &uestions. . What is the root cause of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict! In spite of what the media reports, the issue is not about land or cultural differences, but about two &uestionsE F#hose holy book is inspiredKI and, F#ho is 'odKI Is the true 'od the 'od of Jewish people and Christians or $llah, the god of the 4uslimsK #hile there are those who believe that the 'od of the 1ible is the same as $llah of the Our(an, a study of the personalities of 'od and $llah, as well as Jesus and 4uhammad, will e%pose polari"ing opposite characteristics. Clearly they are not one and the same. hose who claim they are either have not studied the sub+ect or are appeasing the 4uslims. 1efore the dawn of time, while in 3eaven, Satan desired to be on 'od(s throne BIsa.9>E9/-9>C. Dor causing a rebellion he was thrown out and, ever since has been fighting 'od and man. who was created in the image of 'od. Since Jesus will rule and reign upon the earth from Jerusalem for 9,??? years B!ev. /?E>cC, Satan is determined to do whatever is necessary to prevent that from happening. 3e desires to rule from Jerusalem. oday, on the ,ome of the !ock, which is situated on the emple 4ount in Jerusalem, where once stood the Jewish emples, is the inscription, F here is no 'od but $llah and 4uhammad is his prophet.I his is in absolute defiance of the plan of 'od and is nothing less than Satan(s claim to the 3oly City. 0ittle
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$dapted from 6uestions and -oncerns, by -eter 3ubert, ,irector of -astor and Church !elationsL Christians for Israel, 6S$. B6ndatedC.

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wonder then that Jerusalem is the key to 1ible prophecy. -ossibly what is most important in this conflict is the fact that it is a microcosm of conflicts worldwide. If Jesus is your 0ord, then how will you respondK ". Should Israel agree to di#ide Jerusalem! Drom today(s political point of view, this &uestion is for the Israelis to determine. 3owever, from the biblical point of view, the name Jerusalem appears in the 5ld estament AA; times, and 9>> times in the .ew estament. Durthermore, there are more than ;? descriptive names for the 3oly City. 5f the hundreds of references to the 3oly City, consider the followingE ,avid purchased the threshing floor Bwhich is now under the ,ome of the !ockC BII Sam. />C. ,avid placed the $rk of the Covenant on this site B9 Chron. 9@C. Solomon built a temple on the threshing floor BII Chron. <E9C. Isaiah said that the law will go out from Zion, the #ord of the 0ord from Jerusalem B/E<C and ,avid wrote, F4ay the 0ord bless you from Zion all the days of your lifeL may you see the prosperity of JerusalemI B-s. 9/=E@C. he Second emple was built on the site of the first temple. Jesus worshipped there and was crucified outside the 5ld City. here are many references to Jerusalem as being 'od(s City. It is called, F4y cityI BIsa. >@E9<C, F4y 3oly 4ountainI BIsa. 99E:L @AE;L @;E9<L )"ek. /?E>?L Joel /E9L <E9;C, and F3oly CityI B.eh. 99E9, 9=L Isa. >=E/L @/E9L 4t. >E@L /;E@<L !ev. 99E/C, +ust to mention a few. 'od loves the 3oly City, F3e has set 3is foundation on the holy mountainL the 0ord loves the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of JacobI B-s. =;E9-/C. Durthermore, FDor the 0ord has chosen ZionE 3e has desired it for 3is habitation.I F his is 4y resting place forever and everE here I will sit enthronedL for I have desired it J I will bless her with abundant provisionsI B-s. 9</E9<-9@aC. In 3ebrew FJerusalemI is FMerushaliimI BJosh. 9?E9C. he name ends with Fshalom,I meaning Fpeace.I 3owever, it is in a plural form meaning that it is a city of double peace. Met few cities, if any, have e%perienced more conflicts and military sieges than the City of -eace. he name of Jerusalem is to be found nowhere in the Our(an J nowhere. In light of 'od(s #ord, how can one not support IsraelK $. Is there a %uslim claim to Jerusalem! $ccording to 4uslim tradition, 4ohammad took a ride on a winged horse named 1arak, which took him to the Ffarthest mos&ue.I 4uslim clerics say that this mos&ue is in Jerusalem. 3owever, 4ohammad died in A</, si% years before the 4uslims con&uered Jerusalem. 5bviously, there was no mos&ue in Jerusalem at that time, or anywhere else for that matter.
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In early Islamic history, 4ohammad told his followers to pray facing Jerusalem. hroughout religious and secular history, Jerusalem was known as the city of the prophets. Since 4ohammad took elements from Judaism and Christianity to form Islam, some key figures such as Jesus and John the 1aptist became Islamic prophets. 3ence, the Fcity of the prophetsI became important in early Islam. 1ut when the Jewish people refused 4ohammad(s religion, he was not only determined to kill all of them, but also re&uired his followers to pray toward 4ecca. $ series of early Islamic books, known as the 3adiths, honored the cities of 4ecca, ,amascus, 1aghdad and 4edina but not Jerusalem. 5nly when the 3adiths were compiled in 9?9: did the city of Jerusalem receive sacred status. Jerusalem has long held the reputation as being the Fcity of the biblical prophets.I Since Islam is a convolution of Judaism and Christianity, some of the biblical figures have been honored as Islamic prophets. .either 4uhammad nor any of his followers were prophetic, but they were all staunch military dictators. Jerusalem(s special status came nearly four centuries after 4uhammad. #hile there were times when Jerusalem was not a capital city, it has never been a non-Jewish capital. hroughout the centuries, whenever the city was under the +urisdiction of a foreign power, the seat of power was generally ,amascus. he Jewish lands were considered a province of ,amascus. 4uslim reign was collectively nearly a thousand years. ,uring this time the $rabs, 4amelukes, urks, and Sel+uks ruled from !amle, a city they built on the coastal plains near the 4editerranean Sea. here is no written, archaeological or historical indicator that Jerusalem was ever a capital for any people group e%cept the Jews. &. 'id the church replace Israel! .oQ !om. 99E9L Jer. <9E<9-<>L Jn. 9:E<A-<;L Zech. 9/ (. Wh) does *od continue +is plans and purposes for Israel! Israel is still the firstborn of 'od, )%. >E//. Israel is still the apple of 'od(s eye. Zech. /E=-:. ,. 'oes *od ha#e plans to -ring the Jewish people -ac. to Israel! Mes, and 3e has been doing so for more than a century. Jer. 9AE9>L Is. ><E@-=L -s. 9?@E=-99L $mos :E9>-9@ /. Should we -e cooperating with *od in -ringing the Jewish people home to Israel! Mes. Isaiah >:E/9-//L 'od is passionate about this sub+ect according to Jeremiah </E>9.
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0. Is it important that we -less Israel! Mes, see 'en. 9/E<. 1. 'o we need to change our church music and em-race Jewish dance to -less Israel! .o. hat has to do with culture, but 'od looks into the heart. 2. 'o we need to use +e-rew #oca-ular) in our sermons and teachings! .o, this is a matter of choice. Some knowledge of 'reek and 3ebrew is good for any 1ible teacher or pastor. . 'o we need to cele-rate the Jewish feasts! his is a matter of preference. $ll the festivals 'od commanded the Israelites to observe in some way, shape or form pointed to Jesus. he early Church, however, observed -assover as directed by the $postle -aul in 9 Corinthians @E=, until the reign of Constantine B$, <9<C. ". +ow can we -e sure we are not distracted from the *reat 3ommission! #e need to embrace the full counsel of 'od. Supporting Israel should in no way decrease interest in other missions and ministries. Jesus died for everyone. 3e desires to minister to others through us. .onetheless, !omans 9E9A and $cts 9E= indicate that the gospel is to go to the Jew first. $. 3ould supporting Israel create an im-alance of teaching! he continuous ob+ective in ministry is to be balanced on the entire Scripture. If this teaching is new to you or your congregation, then in all probability you may have been somewhat imbalanced in the past. &. 3ould an introduction of this nature -e di#isi#e in the church! If the matter is approached in the spirit of being attentive to the #ord, there should be no divisiveness. !emember that Jesus died for everyone, Jewish people and -alestinians alike. 1eing supportive of the Jewish people and Israel never means being anti--alestinian. It does mean that you support the Jewish people in their biblical right to have authority over their land. (. Is it politicall) correct to stand with the Jews and the State of Israel! 1eing politically correct has seldom, if ever, been the same as being biblically and prophetically correct. Is it not more important to obey 'od, rather than the news media and the ever-changing cultural gurusK he
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Church must guard against the world intimidating it into silence on the grounds of being Fpolitically correct.I ,. Some pastors and churches ma) fear change -) including this emphasis. 'entleness in teaching is the answer. 4any wonderful believers have been dedicated for decades and a teaching of this nature will be new for them. he focus should be on F#hat is the will of 'odKI /. Wh) hasn4t support for Jews and Israel -een taught pre#iousl)! 6nfortunately for centuries the Church fre&uently taught !eplacement heology, which developed into church-sponsored antiSemitism. )ven among believers who did not adopt this theology, there has often been a less than positive attitude toward the Jewish people. his teaching started slowly in the second century, was endorsed in the fourth century, and is now e%panding throughout the evangelical world. Support of the Jews as 'od returns them to their ancient home is clearly a divine move B)"ek. /?E<<-<=L //E9;-//L <AE//-/>L <;E9-9>L Isa.99E99-9/L Zeph. /E9-/L etcC and we cannot afford to miss 3is timings and purposes. 0. Wh) are 3hristian ministries in Israel not prosel)ti5ing nor doing e#angelistic wor.! In Israel it is illegal to proselyti"e because the Jewish people have been despised, tortured, and killed by those who claimed to be FChristians.I 5n the other hand, Israel is a democratic nation and is open for the e%change of ideas, even on religious issues. herefore, when Christian volunteers are asked by Israelis as to why they are helping them, the door is open to tactfully give a heart-felt answer. #hile it is illegal to confront someone about their religious faith, it is not illegal to answer &uestions about his or her own religious faith. his often opens interesting opportunities to share the gospel of the true Jesus, a radically different version of historic e%periences. 4any ministries have been successful in this endeavor J simply telling the Jewish people why they love them. 1. +ow can I -e sure that this is of the Lord! $ccept the challenge to study 1ible prophecy and recent 4iddle )ast news and be pleasantly surprised about what has been unfolding. -ermit the 3oly Spirit to lead you as you and your friends dedicate prayer to this matter. "2. +ow relia-le are the news media on %iddle East issues! 6nfortunately, there is a strong bias against Israel. 1oth governments and reporters for the most part favor the -alestinians due to Islamic
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intimidation and the international need for oil. 3owever, there are several reliable news sources such as the Jerusalem -ost and C1. .ews. Some ministries such as 1ridges for -eace, Christian Driends for Israel, 'ood .ews for Israel and the International Christian )mbassy are reliable sources. $s always, readers must discern and +udge any news source. " . Wh) do some 3hristians6 who lo#e the Jewish roots of their faith6 call themsel#es 7%essianic!8 hat is a good &uestion. Its roots come from those who have good hearts but are a little poor in word definitions. he word FChristianI is simply a translation F4essianic,I although there are numerous social definitions of what a Christian is like Bto the Jewish mind, most have negative connotationsC. he original name of 4essiah Bin 3ebrewE #ashiachC means the !nointed .ne, which in 'reek, is -hristos, which is the root word for FChristian.I 3ence, to be 4essianic is to be Christian. here is a point to be rememberedE 'entile believers are not Jews, and while they may deeply appreciate their spiritual heritage in Judaism, they have taken their enthusiasm too far by pretending to be Jewish. "". Who owns the land of Israel! 'on4t the Palestinians ha#e a right to it! 'od said, F he land, moreover, shall not be sold permanently, for the land is 4ineL for you are but aliens and so+ourners with 4eI B0ev. /@E/<C. 3owever, critics cite -salm />E9 as +ustification for a -alestinian state. he verse reads, F he earth is the 05!,(s and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it.I 3owever, the conte%t is about 'od(s creations. -salm @?E9/ also states that the earth belongs to the 0ord and there the conte%t is, FIf I B'odC were hungry.UI 5bviously these are general statements and cannot be used to oppose a specific covenant 'od made with $braham and his descendants. Durthermore, there has been a continuous Jewish occupation from the time of Joshua(s con&uest Bcirca 9>@? 1CC. )ven after the destructions of Jerusalem in $, ;? and 9<@, there remained a small Jewish presence in the countryside. he $rab 4uslim con&uest did not occur until A<A. 4ost of the historical -alestinians did not arrive until the mid 9=th century. Critics of the new F)vangelical 0eft,I who are anti-Israel R pro-alestinian, e&uate 0eviticus /@E/< and other passages wherein 'od said the land was 3is, with -salm />E9, F he earth is the 05!,(s, and everything in it, the world and all who live in it.I -salm />E9 is a general statement of the earth belonging to the 0ord +ust as all the people belongs to the 0ord. he conte%t of the 0eviticus passage is a covenant bond with the descendants of $braham, Isaac and Jacob. o e&uate the covenant passage with a generali"ed statement is to negate 'od(s promises.

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9odIs call to prayer and action … F(Comfort, comfort my people,( says your 'od.I Isaiah >?E9 AppendiJ 0 3odern 3issions to the e+ish 4eople<@: 9=?: 0ondon Society for the -romotion of Christianity $mongst the Jews was established and is known today as the Church(s 4inistry among the Jews. he 1ritish Society for the -ropagation of the 'ospel among the Jews and is known today as the Christian #itness to Israel 4ildmay 4ission to the Jews Chicago 3ebrew 4ission operates today as the 0ife in 4essiah International. $merican 1oard of 4issions to the Jews is known today as the Chosen -eople 4inistries. .athan 1irbaum introduced the term FZionismI to designate the movement for the restoration of an independent Jewish state in the area of -alestine. he term was used publically for the first time at a meeting in 7ienna with heodor 3er"l in 9=:/. 1ridges for -eace was established International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem BIC)JC established Mechiel )ckstein, an orthodo% rabbi established the International Dellowship of Christians and Jews. In /??= contributions to IDCJ

9=>/ 9=;A 9==; 9=:> 9==@

9:;A 9:=? 9:=<

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!eprinted from J)#IS3 4ISSI5.S by Jewish $wareness 4inistries Spring /?9?. Dor a current listing of ministries worthy of your prayers, support, and possible service, see www.)vidence5f ruth4inistries.org

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was over Y=> million. 4ost of those funds came from evangelical Christians. !abbi )ckstein strongly opposes any kind of missionary activity toward the Jewish people. 9::9 /??A 6nity Coalition for Israel established by an unsaved Jewess )sther 0evens. Christians 6nited for Israel established by -astor John 3agee.

.5 )E 1y 9:9? there were :: missions to the Jews worldwide with :9> missionaries. <A?

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#illiam 1+oraker F he 1eginning of 4odern Jewish 4issions in the )nglish Speaking #orld.I #ish an. 7ol. 9A. January. 9::/. A/.

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Wor%s Cited $oo%s $lbright, #. D. F he #ar in )urope and the Duture of 1iblical Studies.I The Study of the Bible Today and Tomorrow. 3.!. #illoughby, ed. ChicagoE 6niversity of Chicago, 9:>;. $ugustine. F7itrau% -eints.I The !postolic 1athers. 7ol. 9. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. F he )pistle of 1arnabas,I The !postolic 1athers. 7ol. 9. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. 1entley, 'uenter. ed. The Storms o/er the 2eputy. .ew MorkE 'rove -ress, 9:A>. 1erstein, 3erman. The Truth about JThe Protocols of @ionM& ! -omplete 09posure. .ew MorkE *tav -ublishing. B9:<@C reprint 9:;9. 1lech, 1en+amin. 0yewitness to Jewish 3istory. 3oboken, .JE John #iley 2 Sons, /??>. 1onar, $ndrew, ed. #emoir and Remains of Robert #urray #4-heyne. Carlisle, -$E 1anner of ruth, 9:AA. 1onhoeffer, ,. F,ie *irche vor der Judenfrage,I Girchen amph und 1in enwalde. 'esammelte Schriften, 1d. II. 4unchen, 'ermany, 9:@:. 1oring, 4. )ugene. F4atthew.I The ;ew Interpreter4s Bible. 7ol. =. 0eander ). *eck. ed. .ashvilleE $bingdon, 9::@. 1oudet, J., ed. Jerusalem ! 3istory. .ew MorkE '.-. -utman(s Sons, 9:A;. 1ottomore, . 1. 0arly :ritings. *arl 4ar%, rans. and ed. .ew MorkE 4c'raw-3ill, 9:A<. 1rown, ,avid. The 1our 7ospels. Carlisle, -$E 1anner of ruth -ub. 9:A:. 1rown, 4ichael 0. .ur 3ands are Stained with Blood. Shippensburg, -$E ,estiny Image, 9::/. 1uchanan, Colin 5. F he Sacraments are ,eveloped.I 0erdman4s 3andboo to the 3istory of -hristianity. im ,owley, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;;. 1ullinger, ).#. 1igures of Speech used in the Bible. B5riginally published by )yre and Spottiswoode, 0ondon, 9=:=C 'rand !apidsE 1aker, 9::@ reprint. 1urg, 'ary 4. :ho are 7od4s People in the #iddle 0ast> 'rand !apidsE Zondervan, 9::<.
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Carroll, James. -onstantine4s Sword. 1ostonR.ew MorkE 3oughton 4ifflin, /??9. Carson, ,. $. F4atthew.I 09positor4s Bible -ommentary. 7ol.=. Drank ). 'aebelein, ed. 'rand !apidsE Zondervan, 9:=>. Cattan, 3. Palestine, the !rabs and Israel. The Search for Justice. 0ondonE 0ongman, 9:A:. Chapman, Colin. :hose Promised Land> The -ontinuing -risis o/er Israel and Palestine. 'rand !apidsE 1aker, /??/. Clare, John. F he Crusades.I 0erdman4s 3andboo to the 3istory of -hristianity. im ,owley, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;;. Clinton, ,avid. Paradise Restored& ! Biblical Theology of 2ominion. Dort #orth, NE ,ominion -ress, 9:=@. Cohen, .aomi #. !merican Jews and the @ionist Idea. .ME *tav -ublishing, 9:;@. Cragg, 'erald !. F)%position.I The Interpreter4s Bible. 7ol. :. .olan 1. 3armon, ed. .ew Mork R .ashvilleE $bingdon-Cokesbury, 9:@>. Cranfield, C.).1. F he )pistle to the !omans.I The International -ritical -ommentary. J. $. )merton and C. ). 1. Cranfield, eds. )dinburg, )nglandE 2 Clark 0imited, 9:;:. Croner, 3. Stepping Stones to 1urther Jewish)-hristian Relations. 0ondon and .ew Mork, n. d. Crossan, John ,onminic, and Jonathan 0. !eed. 09ca/ating Jesus Beneath the Stones, Behind the Te9ts. San DranciscoE 3arper-San Drancisco, /??9. ,ake, Dinis Jennings. 2a e4s !nnotated Reference Bible. 0awrence, '$E ,ake 1ible Sales, 9::9. reprint. ,arms, $nton. The Jew Returns to Israel. 'rand rapidsE Zondervan, 9:A@. ,eCaro, 0ouis $. Israel Today& 1ulfillment of Prophecy> -hillipsburg, .JE -resbyterian and !eformed -ub., 9:;>. ,e4ar, 'ary and -eter 0eithart, The Reduction of -hristianity. Dort #orth, NE ,ominion -ress, 9:==. ,emarest, 1ruce $. FJerome.I 0erdman4s 3andboo of the 3istory of -hristianity. im ,owley, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;;. ,olan, ,avid. Israel at the -rossroads. 'rand !apidsE Dleming 3. !evell, 9::=.
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ZZZZZZZZZZ. 3oly :ar for the Promised Land. .ashvilleE 1roadman 2 3ollman, /??<. ,oukhan, Jac&ues 1. Israel and the -hurch. -eabody, 4$E 3endrickson, /??/. ,unn, James ,.'. F!omans :-9A.I :ord Biblical -ommentary. 7ol. <=1. ,avid $. 3ubbard and 'lenn #. 1arker, eds. ,allas, NE #ord 1ooks, 9:==. )ban, $bba. #y People. !evised. ed. .ew MorkE 1ehrman 3ouseR!andom 3ouse, 9:=>. )dersheim, $lfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the #essiah. -eabody, 4$E 3endrickson, 9==<R9::<. )froymson, ,avid -. F he -atristic Connection,I !nti)Semitism and the 1oundations of -hristianity. $lan . ,avid, ed. .ew MorkE -aulist -ress, 9:;:. F he )pistle of 1arnabas.I The !postolic 1athers. 7ol. 9. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. )rickson, 4illard J. -hristian Theology. 'rand !apidsE 1aker, 9:=<. )usebius. Proof. 7ol. <. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. Darrar, Drederick #. The Life of -hrist. 4inneapolisE *lock and *lock, 9:=/. Derguson, )verett. F5rigen.I 0erdman4s 3andboo to the 3istory of -hristianity. im ,owley, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;;. Derguson, )verett. FJohn Chrysostom.I 0erdman4s 3andboo to the 3istory of -hristianity. im ,owley, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;;. Discher, )dward. 1aith :ithout PreAudice& Rebuilding -hristian !ttitudes Towards Judaism. .ew MorkE 4acmillian, 9:;;. Dlannery, )dward. The !nguish of the Jews& Twenty)Three -enturies of !nti) Semitism. .ew MorkE -aulist -ress, 9:=@. Drend, #. 3. C. The Rise of -hristianity. -hiladelphiaE Dortress, 9:=>. homas 0. Driedman, 1rom Beirut to Jerusalem. .ew MorkE $nchor 1ooks R ,ouble,ay, 9::?. Druchtenbaum, $rnold '. FIsrael and the Church.I Issues in 2ispensationalism. #esley !. #illis and John !. 4aster, eds. ChicagoE 4oody, 9::>. 'annon, !aymond 0. F$ugustine(s heology of Israel.I Israel and Heshua. orleif )lgvin, ed. Jerusalem, IsraelE Caspari Center for 1iblical and Jewish Studies, 9::<.
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'ans, 4o"es 3eiman. #emorboo . 1aarn, .etherlandsE 1osch 2 *euning, 9:;;. 'arr, John ,. Restoring .ur -hristian Legacy. $tlantaE 'olden *ey 1ooksR !estoration Doundation, 9:=:. 'entry, *enneth 0. 3e shall 3a/e 2ominion& ! Post)millennial 0schatology. yler, NE Institute for Christian )conomics, 9::/. 'ibbon, )dward. The 2ecline and 1all of the Roman 0mpire. 7ol. 9. ChicagoE 'reat 1ooks, 9:@/. 'idal, .achum . Jews in 7ermany from Roman Times to the :eimar Republic. *onemannE Cologne, 'ermany, 9:==. 'ilbert, 4artin. Jerusalem& Illustrated 3istory !tlas. .ew MorkE 4acmillian, 9:;;. 'lock, Charles M. and !odney Stark. -hristian Beliefs and !nti)Semitism. .ew Mork and 0ondonE 3arper and !ow, 9:AA. 'on"ale", Justo 0. The Story of -hristianity. -eabody, 4$E -rinceR3enderson, /??>. 'raet" 3. 3istory of the Jews. -hiladelphiaE he Jewish -ublication Society of $merica, 9=:@. 'rant, 'eorge. The Blood of the #oon. 1rentwood, .E #olgemuth 2 3yatt, 9::9. 'rayston, *. FSermon on the 4ount.I The Interpreter4s 2ictionary of the Bible. 7ol. >. 'eorge $rthur 1uttrick, ed. .ew Mork and .ashville, $bingdon -ress, 9:A/. 'reen, Jay -. Interlinear 7ree )0nglish ;ew Testament. 'rand !apidsE 1aker, 9::A. 'rudem, #ayne. Systematic Theology. 'rand !apidsE Zondervan, 9::>. 'uinnes, $lma ). ed., #ysteries of the Bible. -leasantville, .ME !eader(s ,igest, 9::=. 3agner, ,onald $. F4atthew 9-9<.I :ord Biblical -ommentary. 7ol. <<$. #ord 1ooks, ,allas, 9::<. 3all, S.'. #elito of Sardis J.n PaschaM and 1ragments. 5%fordE Clarendon, 9:;/. 3ay, 4alcolm. The Roots of -hristian !nti)Semitism. .ew MorkE 0iberty -ress, 9:=9. 3art, $lan. !rafat& Terrorist or Peacema er> 0ondonE Sidwick 2 Jackson, 9:=>.
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3ebert, 'abriel. 1undamentalism and the -hurch. -hiladelphiaE #estminister -ress, 9:@;. 3enry, 4atthew. #atthew 3enry4s -ommentary on the :hole Bible. 5ld appen, .JE Dleming 3. !evell Co. 5riginal published in 9;9?, reprint n.d. 3ert", Joseph 3. ed. The !uthori5ed 2aily Prayer Boo . !ev. ed. .ew MorkE 1loch, 9:;9. 3illberg, !aul. The 2estruction of the 0uropean Jews. .ew MorkE 3olmes 2 4eier, 9:=@. 3orsley, '. 3. !. F,ivine Constantine.I ;ew 2ocuments Illustrating 0arly -hristianity. 7ol. /. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, /??9. 3orton, Stanley 4. Systematic Theology. !ev. ed. Springfield, 45. 0ogion, 9::@. 3oward, 'eorge. Paul& -rises in 7alatia. Cambridge, 4$E Cambridge 6niversity, 9::?. Isaacs, !onald 3. and *erry 4. 5lit"ky, eds. -ritical 2ocuments of Jewish 3istory& ! Source Boo . .orthvale, .JE Jason $ronson, 9::@. Ignatius. F-hilippians.I The !nte);icene 1athers. 7ol. 9. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. ZZZZZZZZZ. F)pistles to the 4agnesians.I The !nte);icene 1athers. 7ol. 9. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. Johnson, Sherman ). F he 'ospel to St. 4atthewI The Interpreter4s Bible. 7ol. ;. 'eorge $rthur 1uttrick, ed. .ew Mork R .ashvilleE $bingdon-Cokesbury -ress, 9:@9. Johnson, 4att. F)arly Christian Zionists.I -hristians and Israel& 0ssays on Biblical @ionism and Islamic 1undamentals. 4att Johnson and .icola 'oodenough, eds. JerusalemE International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem, 9::A. Josephus, Dlavius. F he $nti&uities of the Jews.I The :or s of Josephus. #illiam #histon, trans. -eabody, 4$E 3endrickson, 9:=;. . F he #ars of the Jews.I The :or s of Josephus. #illiam #histon, trans. -eabody, 4$E 3endrickson, 9:=;. *at", Samuel. Battleground& 1act L 1antasy in Palestine. .ew MorkE aylor -roductions, /??/.
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*no%, John. F)%egesis.I The Interpreter4s Bible. 7ol. :. .olan 1. 3armon, ed. .ew Mork R .ashville, $bingdon-Cokesbury. 9:@>. 0arson, ,aniel 0. Jews 7entiles and the -hurch. 'rand !apidsE ,iscovery 3ouse, 9::@. 0arsson, 'oran. 1act or 1raud> The Protocols of the 0lders of @ion. JerusalemE Jerusalem Center for 1iblical Studies and !esearch, 9::>. 4ac-herson, -auline '. -an the 0lect be 2ecei/ed> ,enver, C5E 1old ruth -ress, 9:=A. 4aier, -aul 0. 1irst 0aster. .ew MorkE 3arper 2 !ow, 9:;<. 4arcus, Jacob !. The Jew in the #edie/al :orld& ! Source Boo & C'%)'(*'. .ew MorkE $theneum, 9:;@. 4artyr, Justin. F,ialogue with rypho.I The !nte);icene 1athers. 7ol. 9. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. . FDirst $pology of Justin to $ntoninus -ius.I The !nte);icene 1athers. 7ol. 9. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. 4cCall, homas S. FIsraelE he Center of ,ivine 3istory.I Bro en Branches& 3as the -hurch Replaced Israel> Zola 0evitt, ed. ,allas, NE Zola 0evitt 4inistries, Inc., 9::@. 4c4anners, John, ed. The .9ford Illustrated 3istory of -hristianity. 5%ford 6niversity -ressE 5%ford and .ew Mork, 9::?. 4elt"er, 4. ;e/er to 1orget& The Jews of the 3olocaust. .ew MorkE 3arper 2 !ow, 9:;A. 4endes-Dlohr, -aul !. and Jehuda !einhar", eds. The Jew in the #odern :orld. .ew MorkE 5%ford 6niversity -ress, 9:=?. 4eyer, 0ouis. F)minent 3ebrew Christians of the .ineteenth Century.I Tests and Studies in Religion. 7ol. 9;. ,avid $. !ausch, ed. 0ewiston, .M and orontoE )dwin -ress, 9:=<. 4indel, Charles 3., !obert #. 3abenstein and !oosevelt #right, Jr. 0thnic 1amilies in !merica& Patterns and 8ariations. >th ed. 6pper Saddle !iver, .JE -rentice 3all, 9::=. 4inucius Deli%. F5ctavius.IThe !nte);icene 1athers. 7ol. >. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson. eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. 4orley, John D. 8atican 2iplomacy and the Jews 2uring the 3olocaust '*C*)'*DC. .ew MorkE *tav, 9:=?.
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4oseley, !on. Heshua& ! 7uide to the Real Jesus and the .riginal -hurch. 1altimore, 4,E 4essianic Jewish -ublishers, 9::A. 4owry, 0. F$llegory.I The Interpreter4s 2ictionary of the Bible. 'eorge $rthur 1uttrick, ed. .ew MorkE $bington, 9:A/. 4ounce, !.3. FSermon on the 4ount.I International Standard Bible 0ncyclopedia. 7ol. >. 'eoffrey #. 1romiley ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:==. .euser, Jacob. The :ay of Torah& !n Introduction to Judaism. /nd ed. )ncino, C$E ,ickenson -ub. Co., 9:;>. .icholls, #illiam. -hristian !nti)Semitism& ! 3istory of 3ate. .orthvale, .JE Jason $ronson, Inc., 9::<. 5berman, 3eiko. $. Roots of !nti)Semitism in the !ge of Renaissance and Reformation. James I. -orter, trans. -hiladelphiaE Dortress, 9:=>. 5(1rian, Conor Cruise. The Siege& The Saga of Israel and @ionism. .ew MorkE Simon and Schuster, 9:=A. 5nne, )yal. Photographic 3eritage of the 3oly Land& 'BC*)'*'D. 4anchester, )nglandE Institute of $dvanced Studies, 4anchester -olytechnic, 9:=?. 5rigen. F$gainst Celsus.I The !nte);icene 1athers. 7ol. >. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9. 5shry, )phraim. Response from the 3olocaust. .ew MorkE Judaica -ress, 9:=:. 5", $mos. In the Land of Israel. .ew MorkE 3arcourt, 1race 2 Jovanivch, 9:=<. -arkes, James. The -onflict of the -hurch and the Synagogue. -hiladelphiaE Jewish -ublication Society of $merica, 9:A9. -aulk, )arl. The 7reat 0scape Theory. ,ecatur, '$E Chapel 3ill 3arvest Church, n.d. -lummer. $lfred. !n 09egetical -ommentary on the 7ospel !ccording to St. #atthew. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:A<. -oliakov, 0eon. The 3istory of !nti)Semitism& Time of -hrist to the -ourt Jews. .ew MorkE Schocken 1ooks, 9:;>. . The 3istory of !nti)Semitism& 1rom 8oltaire to :agner. .ew MorkE 7anguard, 9:A=. -rager, ,ennis and Joseph elushkin. :hy the Jews> .ew MorkE ouchstone, 9:=<.
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-rice, !andal. $nholy :ar& !merica, Israel and Radical Islam. Irvine, C$E 3arvest 3ouse, /??/. -rittie, errence. Israel& #iracle in the 2esert. .ew MorkE -raeger, 9:A;. -rit", !ay. F5n Calculating the ime of the 4essiah(s $ppearance.I The 2eath of #essiah. *ai *+aer-3ansen, ed., JerusalemE Caspari Center, 9::>. !ausch, ,avid $. ! Legacy of 3atred. ChicagoE 4oody, 9:=>. ZZZZZZZZZZ. @ionism within 0arly !merican 1undamentalism, 'B(B)'*'B. .ew MorkE )dwin 4ellen -ress, 9:;:. !eeves, 4ar+orie. Joachim of 1liore and the Prophetic 1uture. .ew MorkE 3arper, 9:;A. !iggenbach, 1ernhard. F-ietism.I Schaff)3er5og 0ncyclopedia of Religious Gnowledge. 7ol. <. -hilip Schaff, ed. .ew MorkE Dunk and #agnalls, 9=:9. !osenbaum, Irving J. The 3olocaust and 3ala hah. .ew MorkE *tav, 9:;A. !unes, ,agobert. The Jews and the -ross. .ew MorkE -hilosophical 0ibrary, 9:A@. !ussell, Jeffrey 1urton. ! 3istory of #edie/al -hristianity Prophecy and .rder. .ew MorkE homas M. Crowell, Co., 9:A=. !obinson, !ichard. F#ho #as a JewKI Jewish Identity and 1aith in Jesus. *ai *+aer-3ansen, ed., JerusalemE Caspari Center, 9::A. !obinson, $. . and #. 3ersey ,avis. ! ;ew Short 7rammar of the 7ree Testament. 9?th ed. 'rand !apidsE 1aker, 9:;:. !osenbaum, Irving J. The 3olocaust and 3ala hah. .ew MorkE *tav, 9:;A. !osenberg, 3arry. F-ope Innocent IIII 0erdman4s 3andboo to the 3istory of -hristianity. im ,owley, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;;. !uether, !osemary. 1aith and 1ratricide. San Drancisco R .ew MorkE Seabury -ress, 9:;>. !ufeisen, 5swald. 2ieter -orbach. *oln, 'ermanyE Scriba 7eriag, 9:=:. !ussell, Jeffrey 1urton. ! 3istory of #edie/al -hristianity Prophecy and .rder. .ew MorkE homas M. Cromwell, 9:A=. !yken, 0e0and, James C. #ilhoit and remper 0ongman III, eds. 2ictionary of Biblical Imagery. ,owners 'rove, I0 R 0eicester, )nglandE Inter7arsity -ress, 9::=. Sabatini, !afael. Tor"uemada I The Spanish In"uisition. .ew MorkE 3oughton4ifflin, 9:/>.
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Santala, !isto. The #essiah in the ;ew Testament in the Light of Rabbinical :ritings. #illiam *innaird, trans. JerusalemE *eren $hvah 4eshihit, 9::/. Schaff, -hilip. 3istory of the -hristian -hurch. 'rand !apidsE Zondervan, 9:=/. Schurer, ). The 3istory of the Jewish People in the !ge of Jesus -hrist. +'(% B- I 'C%,, '. 7ermes, D. 4illar, and 4. 'oodman, eds. )dinburgh, )nglandE 2 Clark, 9:;:. Sedaca, ,avid. F!ebirth of 4essianic Judaism.I The 2eath of #essiah. *ao *+aer-3ansen, ed. JerusalemE Caspari Center, 9::>. Sefton, !. F1uilding for #orship.I 0erdmans4s 3andboo . !. Sefton, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@?. Segel, 1. ,ie Proto olle der :eisen /on @ion ritisch beleuchtet , 1erlinE -hilo 7erlag, 9:/>. Shaw, 4argart !. 1., rans. Join/ille and 8illeharddoun& -hronicles of the -rusades. -enguin 1ooks, n.d. Spafford, 7ester 1. .ur Jerusalem. Jerusalem, IsraelE $riel -ublishing, 9:==. Steinke, -eter 0. 3ow your -hurch 1amily :or s& $nderstanding -ongregations as 0motional Systems. 1ethesda, 4,E he $lban Institute, 9::<R/???. Stendahl, *rister. Paul among the Jews and 7entiles. -hiladelphiaE Dortress -ress, 9:;A. Strong, James. The -omprehensi/e -oncordance of the Bible. Iowa Dalls, I$E !iverside 1ook and 1ible 3ouse. n.d. Stupperich, !. F4artin 0utherI 0erdman4s 3andboo to the 3istory of -hristianity. im ,owley, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;;. al, )liyahu. Hou 2on4t 3a/e to be Jewish to be a @ionist I ! Re/iew of DEE years of-hristian @ionism. el $vivE International Dorum -ress, /???. almage, Drank )., ed. 2isputation and 2ialogue& Readings in the Jewish) -hristian 0ncounter. .ew MorkE *tavR$nti-,efamation 0eague of 1(nai 1(nith, 9:;@. anenbaum, 4arc. 3., 4arvin !. #ilson, and $. James !udin. 0/angelicals and Jews in -on/ersation on Scripture, Theology, and 3istory. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;=. ertullian, F$pology.I The !nte);icene 1athers. 7ol. 9. $le%ander !oberts and James ,onaldson, eds. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:@9.
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homas, I. ,. )., ed. ! Puritan 7olden Treasury. Carlisle, -$E 1anner of ruth -ub. 9:;;. odd, !ichard $. FConstantine and the Christian )mpire.I 0erdman4s 3andboo to the 3istory of -hristianity. im ,owley, ed. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:;;. rachtenberg, Joshua. The 2e/il and the Jews& The #edie/al -onception of the Jew and its Relation to #odern !nti)Semitism. Cleveland R .ew MorkE 4eridian 1ooks, 9:A9. 6ssher, $rland. The #agic People. 0ondonE 7ictor 'ollanc", 0td., 9:@?. #ien, 1erel. 3erald of 2estiny. 1rooklyn, .ME Shaar -ress, 9::<. #hite, ,erek C. Replacement Theology& Its .rigin, 3istory, and Theology. JerusalemE Christian Driends of Israel, 9::;. #idlanski, 4. -an Israel Sur/i/e a Palestinian State> JerusalemE Institute for $dvanced Strategic and -olitical Studies, 9::?. #igoder, 'eoffrey. Illustrated 2ictionary L -oncordance of the Bible. JerusalemE Jerusalem -ublishing 3ouse, 9:=A. #ilson, 4arvin !. .ur 1ather !braham. 'rand !apidsE )erdmans, 9:=:. #ilson, Stephen '. F4arcion and the Jews.I Separation and Polemic, Stephen '. #ilson, ed. #aterloo, 5.E Canadian Corporation for Studies in !eligion, 9:=A. Moung, 1rad 3. Jesus and 3is Jewish Parables. ulsa, 5*E 'ospel !esearch Doundation, 9:=:. ZZZZZZZ, Jesus the Jewish Theologian. -eabody, 4$E 3endrickson, 9::@. ZZZZZZZ, Paul, the Jewish Theologian. -eabody, 4$E 3endrickson, 9::;. Zeligs, ,orothy D. The Story of #odern Israel. .ew MorkE .ew Mork -ublishing 3ouse, 9:@;. Zophiates, Spiros. The -omplete :ord Study ;ew Testament. Chattanooga, .E $4' -ublishers, 9::9. 4eriodicals $braham, Charles 1ryant. F5live 1ranch heology.I Restore #aga5ine. /??9. 7ol. A, .o. 9. /;-<9. $gursky, 4ikhail. F!ussian 5rthodo% Christians and the 3olocaust.I Immanuel. #inter 9:=<R=>. 7ol. 9;. ==-:?.
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$gursky, 4ikhail. FSome !ussian 5rthodo% !eactions to )arly ZionismE 9:??- 9:9>.I Immanuel Spring, 9:=?. 7ol. 9?. =/-=@. $mir, Mehoshua F he !eaction of the 3ellenistic #orld to Judaism.I Immanuel. Summer, 9:;@. 7ol. @. /:->@. $"oury, .egib. FIshmael and 3is 1rotherI Jerusalem Post, $pril //, 9::@. >. 1li""ard FJudaism - -art 9S Ha/o 2igest. 7ol. 9. .o. @. 1rodd, Jeffrey. FJulian the $postate and 3is -lan to !ebuild the Jerusalem emple.I Bible Re/iew. 5ctober 9::@. 7ol. 99. </->=. Church, J. !. FOuest for the -romised 0and.I Prophecy in the ;ews. 4arch 9::=. =-99. Dinstone, #illiam 3. Letter to the 0ditor in the Jerusalem -ost, ,ecember />, 9:=A. Dluesser, ,avid. F he Jewish-Christian SchismI B-art IIC. Immanuel. #inter 9:=<R=>. 7ol. 9;. /:-</. 'entry, *enneth 0. Jr. FSupersessional 5rthodo%yE Zionistic Sadism.I 2ispensationalism in Tradition. Debruary 9::<. 7ol. A. .o. /. 9-/. 'lick, Caroline. F he 1eginning of the !eckoning.I Israel #y 7lory. 4archR$pril, /??A. 9>-9A. 'uenter 0ewy, F-ius NII, the Jews, and the 'erman Catholic Church,I -ommentary. Debruary, 9:A>. /<-<@. 3eilbrun, Chana. FColeridge and JudaismI Immanuel. Summer 9:=;. 7ol. /9. 999-9>. 3valvik, !eidar. F$ PSeparate #ay( for IsraelKE $ Critical )%amination of Current Interpretation of !omans 99E/@-/;.I #ish an. January 9::/. 7ol. 9A. /9-/@. Jager, )lliot. F$ 3istory that 'rapples with P#hy.(I Jerusalem Post. $pril 9:, /??/. <9. Juster, ,aniel C. F3ebrew ChristianityE Its heological, 3istory, and -hilosophy.I Journal of 0/angelical Theological Society. Spring, 9:;A. 7ol. 9:. 99@-9=. *aiser, #alter C. Jr. F$n $ssessment of !eplacement heology.I #ish an. Debruary 9::>. Issue /9. 9?-9/.
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*hoo, Jeffrey. F,ispensational -remillennialism in !eformed heologyE he Contribution of J. 5. 1uswell to the 4illennial ,ebate.I Journal of the 0/angelical Theological Society. ,ecember /??9. 7ol. >>, .o. >. ;?=-99. 4evorah, 1arouh. F-recursors of the -ietist PInstitutum Judaicum.(I Immanuel. Summer, 9:=;. 7ol. /9. ::-9?>. -rawer, Joshua. F.otes on the 3istory of the Jews in the 0atin *ingdom of Jerusalem.I Immanuel. #inter, 9:;:. 7ol. :. =>-=@. !okeah, ,avid. F$nti-Semitism in )arly Christianity.I Immanuel Summer, 9:=<. .o. 9A. @/-A>. !ushton, Carol, FChristian $ntiZSemitism.I Prophetic .bser/er. .ovember /??A. 7ol. 9<, .o. 99. 9->. The Scattered ;ation. -ublication of the 3ebrew Christian $lliance. June 9, 9=A;. .o. /<9. 9/A. Skoog 4. Immanuel. Summer, 9:=;. 7ol. /9. :/-:<. Citing F$ #ord on the Jewish Ouestion,I !uschwit5 3eidleberg, 9:=?. />9. Sutton, !ay. F,oes Israel have a Duture.I -o/enant Renewal ;ewsletter. ,ecember 9:==. 7ol. 99, .o. 9/. #ilch, John !. F he 0and and State of Israel in -rophecy and Dulfillment.I -oncordia Theological Journal Spring, 9:=/. 7ol. =. 9/-<:. #igoder, 'eoffrey. F$ Jewish !eaction to the .otes.I Immanuel. Spring 9:=A. 7ol. /?, ;:-=/. Moung, 1rad 3. F he Son or the 7ineyardKI Ha/o 2igest 7ol. @, .o./. ;, 9@. FDocus on $nti-SemitismI in 3ope ;ews. BZurich, Swit"erlandC Debruary, /??<, A. F#orld Jewish CongressI ;ews L 8iews 7ol. N7, .o. <. Deb.-$pril 9::9.

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$vi-Monah, 4ichael FSchick, Conrad.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. $vneri, Zvi F)isenmenger, Johann $ndreasI 0ncyclopedia Judaica.M C, !54 9:;;. 1egin, $le%ander and .athan 4ichael 'elber. F5liphant, 0aurenceI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9::;. F1lood 0ibelI 0ncyclopedia Judaica C, !54 9:;;. 1lumenkran", 1ernhard FChurch DathersI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. 1rawer, $braham J. F,amascus $ffair.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. ZZZZZZZZZZ. F.apoleon 1onaparteE he -alestinian CampaignI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. ,ayan, 4oshe F#ingate, Charles.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. )d staff. F4ar%, *arlI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. )ckert, #illehad -aul. FChurch, Catholic.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. )hrenshaft, !ay B!euvenC. $nderstanding of #atthew httpERRwww.kehilatdvarhashem.orgRmattitya.htm as retrieved on 4ay /?, /??@, 9>E@:E<> '4 . 'arbell, Irene. F,alman, 'ustaf 3ermann.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. 'likson, Mvonne. F#andering Jew.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica C, !54. 9:;;. 3ershkowit", 0eo. F.oah, 4ordecai 4anuel.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. 3ugo, 1ergman Samuel. FDichte, Johann 'ottlieb.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. *lausner, Israel. FCa"alet, )dward.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. *ressel, 'et"el. F,unant, Jean 3enri.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. ZZZZZZZZZZ. F'awler, 'eorge.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;.
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0ipman, 7ivian ,avid F4ontefiore, Sir 4osesI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. 0oewe, !aphael. FCallenberg, Johann 3einrichI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. 4alachy, Mona. F1lackstone, #illiam ).I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9::;. 4evorah, 1aruch. F'regoire, 3enri 1aptisteI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. ZZZZZZZZZZ. F.apoleon 1onaparteI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. -arsons, ,avid. FIsrael in the .ew estamentI June 9:, /??@. ZZZZZZZZZZ. F he 3idden $genda behind a P3udna(I I-0J ;0:S I SP0-I!LN meid[ice+.org.il $n electronic news report by the International Christian )mbassy Jerusalem. June /@, /??<. -oliakov, 0eon F7oltaireI 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;; !eshef, Mehuda F0ichtenberg, 1ernhard.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. !osenau, 3elen.F)cclesia et Synagoga.I 0ncyclopedia Judaica.M C, !54 9:;;. !oth, Cecil. FCromwell, 5liverI )ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. Samuel, )dwin. F$llenby, )dmund 3enry 3ynman, 7iscount.I )ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54, 9:;;. Schwar"fuchs, Simon !. F he Crusades.I )ncyclopedia Judaica C, !54 9:;;. Slutsky, Mehuda F-atterson, John 3enry.I )ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. 7ogel, 4anfred 3. F*ant, ImmanuelI )ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. #asserman, 3enry. F.iet"sche, Driedrich #ilhelmI )ncyclopedia Judaica. C, !54 9:;;. Bnpu&lished 6issertations )froymson, ,avid -. F ertullian(s $nti-Judaism and its !ole in 3is heology.I ,octor of -hilosophy thesis at emple 6niversity. $nn $rbor, 4IE 6niversity 4icrofilms, 9:;;. 'uenter Strothotte F he !elation 1etween !eligion and .ationalism in early Zionist hought.I 6npublished thesis. Simon Draser 6niversity, 9:;9.
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Colin Jacob Shaffer. F he Common !eligious 3eritage of Jews and ChristiansE $ Course of Study.I ,octor of 4inistry thesis at #esley heological Seminary. 9::9.

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