Proceeding_CLES_2011 | Survey Methodology | General Contractor

1

PROCEEDINGS OF 1
ST
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
CONDUCIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR SMART SCHOOL
(CLES) 2011




Main Organizer

Conducive Learning Environment for Smart School Research Group, UKM
Building Performance & Diagnostic Research Group, UM


Co-Organizer

Kampus Lestari Research Group, UKM
Low-Energy Architecture Research Group, UKM
Eco-Urbanscape Research Group, UKM
Building Surveying Division, ISM
School Of Housing, Building & Planning, USM
Department Of Building Surveying, UiTM





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Hafsah Othman
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Norliyana Mohd Fadilah
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Nurul Syuhada Spalie
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Published By
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, MALAYSIA
Email: kjsb@vlsi.eng.ukm.my

National Library of Malaysia Catalguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the National Library of Malaysia
1
st
international symposium on conducive learning environment for smart school (CLES) 2011
ISBN 978-967-5878-26-8







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Printed in Malaysia by
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, MALAYSIA


EDITOR

N.Utaberta
N.M.Tawil
A.S.Ali
S.N.Kamaruzzaman

Department of Architecture,
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


SCIENTIFIC COMMITEE

A.I. Che-Ani (UKM)
M.M. Tahir (UKM)
N.A. Goh (UKM)
N. Hamzah (UKM)
N.M. Salleh (UM)
L. Chi-Hin (UM)
L.C.Hsia (UM)
L.P. Wah (UM)
M.Y. Yuzainee (UNITEN)
R. Sulaiman (UM)
S.A.F.Al-Zawawi (UM)









PREFACE

Conducive learning environment is pertinent in generating critical thinking, be it from the early
stages of learning up to tertiary level of education. Developing an institution with a holistic
Conducive Learning Environment in mind is not easy. The development of the learning
environment should be examined in terms of the environment, master planning, space planning
and design elements as well as operating assets and buildings. This will create a school which
takes into account the overall environment and ensure the health interests and excellent well
being of its students. This symposium is organized by the Conducive Learning Environment for
Smart School (CLES) research group of the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering
and Built Environment of UKM. It intends to uphold and generate the development of
knowledge in conducive learning environment for Malaysia and the world.

The conference itself tries to gather and share different view and understanding of studies and
research among academician, architect, consultants, developers, engineers, government officer,
local authorities, manufacturers, politicians, project manager, students, surveyors and all those
interested in one day seminar and conference in order to:

1. To provide formal communication platform and publication to the members of the
international researchers who have aspiration about Smart School.
2. To disseminate knowledge that related with the development of learning environment for
smart school to the local and overseas research community.
3. To empower the research collaboration between members of the group with another
researchers within and outside UKM.
4. Empowering the research network for smart school with the local and overseas
universities.

It is expected that from this ‗conducive‘ platform, the idea, exploration and discussion will
initiate a better paradigm, explore different point of view and open a healthy dialogue towards a
better learning environment of teaching and learning in the future.

Sr. Dr. Adi Irfan Che Ani
Chairman of CLES 2011







CONTENTS
KEYNOTE ADDRESS

Management of Change in Singapore‘s Programme for Rebuilding and Improving
Existing (PRIME) Schools
L.S.Pheng………………………………………………………………………..………………………1

Smart Programme for Smart Students Malaysian Smart School (MSC)
N.Ishak, N.S.Spalie…………………………………………………………………………..……….24

INVITED PAPER

Designing for School: Guidelines and Safety Considerations In Design Development Stages
R.Rahman…………………………………………………………………………………………...………29

Conduciveness of school environment towards learning with Total Building
Performance (TBP) through Integrated Design Process (IDP)
R.K.Khanna, H.B.Gang and L.S.Pheng…………………………………………………………...…….36

Membina Semula Persekitaran Pembelajaran Diluar Kelas yang Mampan dari Pemahaman
Rekabentuk dan Pendekatan-Pendekatan Sekolah Alam di Indonesia.
N. Spalie, N. Utaberta, M.M. Tahir, N.A.G.Abdullah, A.I.Che-Ani………………….………..…….47

Green Building Design Features For A Better Smart School: Lesson Learnt From Geo
And Leo Office Buildings
S.N.Kamaruzzaman, R.Sulaiman, L.Chi-Hin…………………………………………….………..…...57

A Model Of Uncertainty In Refurbishment Design Process
S.A.F. Al-Zawawi, L.P.Wah, A.S.Ali…………………………………………………………….…..…..71

Comparison How Outdoor Learning Enhances Eq Skills Between Australia And Singapore
Education
S. Mirrahmi, N.M.Tawil, N.A .G.Abdullah, A.I.Che-Ani, N.Utaberta…………………..………..…82

Space Management- A Relation Of Workspace In The Office And Schools Environment
S. N.Kamaruzzaman, N.M.Salleh, N.Razali…………………………………………..…………...……89

Pengenalan Penjenisan Rumah Tradisional Orang Asli di Semenanjung Malaysia
M. Surat, A.R.Musa, M.Y.A.Broughton…………………………………………………………...….…99

Scale of Measurement for Benchmarking in Building Maintenance
S.A.F.Al-Zawawi, L.C.Hsia, A.S.Ali………………………………………….…………………..……106

Quality Of Architecture In Use: Users Experience And Expectation To Usability Of
Design In Learning Environment
S.N.Haron, M.Y.Hamid, A.A.A.Ghani…………………………………………………………….……120



Factors Affecting Students‘ Performance In Calculus
B. Faridah, M.Y.Yuzainee, A.R.Fadhilah ……………………………….…………..……….........…128

Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Pelajar Dalam Memilih Universiti: Kajian Kes
M.Y.Yuzainee, A.R.Fadhilah, B.Faridah.....................................................................................134

Pembangunan Kriteria Pemeriksaan Ruang Tandas Bangunan Institusi Pengajian
Berdasarkan Enam Piawaian Pemeriksaan Bangunan
A.R.M. Nasir, A.I. Che-Ani, N.M. Tawil, M.M. Tahir, N.A.G. Abdullah.....................................148

Mendefinisikan Semula Rekabentuk Pembelajaran Di Luar Kelas Di Malaysia:
Pengajaran Dari Pendekatan-Pendekatan Frank Llyod Wright Dalam Penyusunan
Ruang Dan Landskap.
N.Utaberta, N.Spalie, N.A.G.Abdullah, M.M.Tahir ………………………………….………....…..156

Analysis of Lighting Performance During Summer Equinox Between Single Dome
and Pyramid Roof Mosque in Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
A.S. Hassan, Y .Arab…..………………………………………….……………………………………..163

Pengembangan Sebuah Ruang Kelas Belajar Serta Aplikasi Learning by Doing di
Sekolah High Scope Indonesia
A.Setiawan………………………………………………………………………………………….……..176

An Alternative Design for A Smart School
A.H.Abdullah, S.S.Zubir…………………………………………………………...…………………….182

AUTHOR INDEXS




























PROCEEDINGS
1
ST
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CONDUCIVE LEARNING
ENVIRONMENT FOR SMART SCHOOL (CLES) 2011

1

Management of Change in Singapore’s Programme for Rebuilding and
Improving Existing (PRIME) Schools

L.S.Pheng
PhD, FCIOB
Professor, Department of Building
School of Design and Environment
National University of Singapore

Abstract

The rationale behind PRIME to upgrade and improve existing schools in Singapore to keep up with rapid
changes in info-com technology (ICT) and to provide a more conducive learning and work environment
for the stakeholders, namely the students and the teachers, is presented in this paper. The study highlights
the key components of PRIME and underscores the causes of variations that may occur in both the design
and construction stages in the school building projects. The effects of the variations made in the PRIME
school building projects will be presented, together with a checklist of the corresponding controls to
manage these variations that may occur during the: (1) Design stage; (2) Construction stage; and (3)
Design-construction interface. Finally, the paper will present the most important causes, their frequent
effects and effective controls for managing change orders in the PRIME school building projects in
Singapore.

Keywords: School buildings, Singapore, PRIME, Change management

1.0 Introduction

Construction projects are complex because they involve many human and non-human factors and
variables. They usually have long duration, various uncertainties, and complex relationships
among the participants. The need to make changes in a construction project is a matter of
practical reality. Even the most thoughtfully planned project may necessitate changes due to
various factors (O‘Brien, 1998).

The high living standards have generated many manufacturing and building employment
opportunities in global construction industry. The growth of towns has accelerated as a result of
high population growth. Large and complex projects have been built, attracting contractors from
all over the world. Most of these contractors appear to lack a sufficient understanding of the
social, cultural and physical environment (Dulaimi and Hwa, 2001). This situation, coupled with
inexperienced owners, has led to inadequate designs resulting in many changes to plans,
specifications and contract terms.

Changes are inevitable in any construction project (Mokhtar, et al., 2000). Needs of the
owner may change in the course of design or construction, market conditions may impose
changes to the parameters of the project, and technological developments may alter the design
and the choice of the engineer. The engineer‘s review of the design may bring about changes to
improve or optimize the design and hence the operations of the project. Furthermore, errors and
omissions in engineering or construction may force a change. All these factors and many others
necessitate changes that are costly and generally un-welcomed by all parties.
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Consideration must be given from the initial stages (inception) of the project until
commissioning. Contractual provision is required to define the conduct of owner, consultant and
contractor to participate in and manage changes. Systematic and proper procedures must be set in
place to process a change from conceptual development until it materializes in the field. The
reality is that an adverse environment exists among parties in the construction industry. Changes
could be perceived as positive or negative to the preconceived goals of the professionals
involved in a project. Therefore, a major change must be managed and handled professionally in
order to minimize its cost, schedule and consequential impacts that may divert the project away
from its targeted goals.

To identify and analyze potential changes that could happen in a project as early as possible
can enhance the management of projects. Learning from these changes is imperative because the
professionals can improve and apply their experience in the future.

2.0 Thinking School, Learning Nation Through Prime

The only resource which Singapore has its people. Hence, education is an important component
in Singapore‘s economic development plans. The government‘s vision for ―Thinking School,
Learning Nation‖ is to prepare the young citizens of Singapore to face future challenges in an
increasingly globalized world. For this purpose, certain basic fundamentals must first be put in
place. In addition to committed and well trained teachers, the education system must be
supported by excellent school facilities to create a physically conducive environment for the
learning journey.

Many of the primary and secondary schools (both government and aided) in Singapore were
some 20 to 30 years old about the time when this vision was articulated. The government of
Singapore, through the Ministry of Education (MOE), initiated the Programme for Rebuilding
and Improving Existing Schools (PRIME) in 1999 to ensure that the new generation of
Singaporeans would get the best opportunities to equip themselves with the information
technology (IT) available. The new and upgraded facilities will include computer laboratories,
media resource libraries, IT learning resource rooms, IT networking for the entire school,
pastoral care rooms and health and fitness rooms. Teachers and students can also look forward to
bigger classrooms and staff-rooms, and more interaction areas. The emphasis on IT is also in line
with the Master Plan 1 for IT in Education that was formulated by the MOE in the mid-1990s
(Mokhtar, Foo and Majid, 2007).

Schools that were built before 1997 will either be rebuilt or upgraded. Upgrading works
involve construction of extension blocks and alteration of existing school buildings. Rebuilding
works involve the construction of entirely new buildings. Construction in PRIME is carried out
in phases, and the selection of schools for PRIME is determined by the age and state of the
school physical facilities as well as the availability and suitability of sites for this purpose. In
summary, PRIME is carried out based on: (1) On-site rebuilding and upgrading, (2) Relocation,
and (3) Mergers, as appropriate (Source: Ministry of Education, Singapore at
www.moe.edu.sg/initiative/prime retrieved on 27 April 2010). Over a period of seven years from
1999 to 2005, MOE invested some S$4.46 billion to either rebuild or upgrade some 290 existing
schools. Under PRIME, a new primary school building can expect to house some 2500 pupils
3

studying in a double-session system and some 1300 pupils in a new secondary school in a single-
session system. The costs of rebuilding the schools are S$15 million and S$20 million for each
primary and secondary school respectively. The costs of upgrading works would depend on the
existing conditions of the schools and can range between S$10 million to S$12 million for each
primary school and approximately S$15 million for a secondary school (Ministry of Education,
1999). As of July 2009, some 251 schools have been included in the earlier ten phases of
PRIME, of which 227 schools have completed their upgrading programmes. Beginning in early
2007, all schools will be provided with an indoor sports hall in phases to facilitate flexibility in
co-curricular activities, sports and games without being affected by inclement weather (Ministry
of Education, 2009).

Given the massive capital investments in PRIME projects, important consideration must be
given to budgetary and costs controls. Part of this important consideration relates to how costs
may be better controlled through an effective system for managing change in the design and
construction phases of the PRIME projects.

3.0 Management Of Change

Change orders are an unwanted, but inevitable reality of every construction project (Clough and
Sears, 1994; O‘Brien, 1998; Mokhtar, et al., 2000). Construction projects are bound to encounter
change orders; the goal of the owner, design or construction manager is to limit the number of
such changes (CII, 1994a; Ibbs, 1997). Proper management of change orders is very significant
for all types of construction projects. Changes in drawings and contract documents usually lead
to a change in contract price or contract schedule. Change also increases the possibility of
contractual disputes. Conventionally, changes present problems to all the parties involved in the
construction process.

Mendelsohn (1997) observed that probably 75% of the problems encountered on site were
generated at the design phase. This is not to say that contractors do not create a slew of problems
of their own but that these problems were often compounded by inherent design flaws. If one
were to seriously consider ways to reduce problems on site, an obvious place to begin with is to
focus on what the project team can do to eliminate these problems at the design phase.

There are many reasons for issuing construction change order in the construction process. It
can be a result of the non-availability or slow delivery of required materials or the correction of
contract document errors and omissions (Thomas, 1990). Identifying the causes of change orders
is very important in order to avoid potential changes in future projects or to minimize their
effects.

The construction process is influenced by highly changing variables and unpredictable
factors that could result from different sources (Zipf, 1998). These sources include the
performance of construction parties, resources availability, environmental conditions,
involvement of other parties and contractual relations. As a consequence of these sources, the
construction of projects may face problems which could cause delay in the project completion
time (Clough and Sears, 1994).
4

Kumaraswamy, et al. (1998) studied claims for extension of time due to excusable delays in
Hong Kong‘s civil engineering projects. Their findings suggested that 15-20% time over run was
mainly caused by inclement weather. 50% of the projects surveyed were delayed because of
changes.

Kaming, et al. (1997) studied the factors influencing construction time and cost over runs for
high rise projects in Indonesia where 31 project managers working in high rise buildings were
surveyed. Kaming, et al. (1997) pointed out that the major factors influencing cost overrun were
material cost increase due to inflation, inaccurate material estimating and the degree of project
complexity. In the case of time over run, the most important factors that caused delays were
design changes, poor labor productivity, inadequate planning and resource shortage.

The magnitude of schedule average slippage due to changes was reported as 18% (CII,
1990a; Burati, et al., 1992; Zeitoun and Oberlender, 1993, Kumaraswamy, et al., 1998). The
deviation (change) cost amounted to an average of 14% of the total cost of the project (CII,
1990a; Burati, et al., 1992; Zeitoun and Oberlender, 1993). Although there have been cases
where change cost accounted for as high as 100% of the budgeted funds, the industry norm of
this percentage was about 10%. The impact of changes varies from one project to another.
However, it is generally accepted that the changes affect the construction projects with
unpalatable consequences in time and cost (CII, 1986; CII, 1988; Hester, et al., 1991; Moselhi, et
al., 1991; Barrie and Paulson, 1992; CII, 1994a; Ehrenreich-Hansen, 1994; Ibbs, et al., 1998;
Mokhtar, et al., 1997; Mokhtar, et al., 2000; Ibbs, et al., 2001).

Changes are common in all types of construction projects (CII, 1994a; Fisk, 1997; O‘Brien,
1998; Ibbs, et al., 2001). The nature and frequency of changes occurrence vary from one project
to another depending on various factors (CII, 1986a; Kaming, et al., 1997). Changes in
construction projects can cause substantial adjustment to the contract duration, total direct and
indirect costs, or both (Tiong, 1990; Odell, 1995; Ibbs, 1997a; Ibbs, et al., 1998). Therefore,
project management teams must have the ability to respond to changes effectively in order to
minimize their adverse impact to the project.

Great concerns have been expressed in recent years regarding the impact of changes in
construction projects. As mentioned briefly in the previous section, changes are frequent in
construction projects and can cause considerable adjustments to the project time, cost and
quality. The causes of change orders are greatly varied, thus making the task of change
management difficult for most clients. However, the undesirable situation can be minimized as
long as a mechanism for handling change orders and making more informed decisions based on
the past projects can be understood and built into project management.

The litmus test for successful management should not be whether the project was free of
change orders, but rather, if change orders were resolved in a timely manner to the benefit of all
the parties and the project. A clearer view of the causes and their impacts and controls will
enable the project team to take advantage of beneficial changes when the opportunity arises
without an inordinate fear of negative impacts. Eventually, a clearer and comprehensive view of
causes, their effects and potential controls based on past projects will assist the project team to
learn from past experiences and to make more informed decisions for effective management of
5

change orders. No such studies have been undertaken on the management and control of change
orders on a large scale so far using an IT based decision support system platform. The Project
Change Management System (PCMS) will assist professionals in analyzing changes and
selecting the appropriate controls for minimizing their adverse impacts by providing timely
information. Furthermore, by having a systematic way to manage changes, the efficiency of
project work and the likelihood of project success should increase.

Learning from the changes is very important because the professionals could improve and
apply their experience in the future (Ibbs, et al., 2001; Arain, 2005a). In cases where
professionals leave the organization, the project experience continues to reside within the
individual professionals. In the absence of an established and organized knowledge-base of past
similar projects, the professional teams would face problems in planning effectively before
starting a project, during the design phase as well as during the construction phase to minimize
and control changes and their effects. Hence, a comprehensive system for consolidating
decisions made on past similar projects is highly recommended.

4.0 Knowledge Gap in Change Management

There have been many research studies in the area of change orders. Most researchers have
looked at the classification of changes (Thomas and Napolitan, 1994; Yu, 1996; Fisk, 1997;
Hsieh, et al., 2004), classification of change originators (CII, 1990a; Burati, et al., 1992; Thomas
and Napolitan, 1994), constitutional aspects, for instance, contract change, clause interpretation,
contractual administration of changes and substantiation of change claims (Ashly and Mathews,
1986; Ibbs, et al., 1986; Hester, et al., 1991; Krone, 1991; Diekmann and Kim, 1992; Cox, 1997;
Hsieh, et al., 2004), cost related aspects, for instance, quantitative studies on the productivity
factor in change and its impact and magnitude of the impact (Ibbs, et al., 1986; CII, 1990a;
Hester, et al., 1991; Burati, et al., 1992; Zeitoun and Oberlender, 1993; Thomas and Napolitan,
1994, 1995; Ibbs, et al., 1998) and costing and valuation of changes (Hester, et al., 1991;
Thomas and Napolitan, 1994; CII, 1990a). In the context of Singapore‘s construction industry, a
notable study on the causes and improvement for quality problems in design and build projects
was carried out by Geok (2002).

The issue concerning changes has received much attention in the literature. Despite many
articles and much discussion in practice and academic literature, an in-depth and holistic view of
causes, their effects and controls for changes for making timely and more informed decisions for
effective management of change orders was not well represented in the literature. A clearer view
of the causes and their impacts on the projects will enable the project team to take advantage of
beneficial changes. Eventually, a clearer and comprehensive view of the causes, their effects and
potential controls will result in informed decisions for effective management of change orders.

In view of the transfer and acquisition of construction knowledge and experience, a Decision
Support System (DSS) can help to conserve the knowledge and experience and make these more
widely, easily and quickly available for assisting in the decision making process (Alkass, et al.,
1992; Turban and Aronson, 2000; Arain, 2008). The decision aid can also facilitate the
knowledge acquisition process once it has acquired the necessary construction knowledge and
experience and transferred these into a usable form (McCoy and Levary, 1988). The decision aid
6

also enables the professionals to consider more factors that can affect designs during the decision
making process, conduct more thorough decision processing, and influence their preferred
information (Ling, 1998). A knowledge-base would assist in making more informed decisions
because it provides an excellent opportunity to learn from past projects (Turban, 1990; Arain and
Low, 2005b). A comprehensive knowledge-base of past projects is recommended. However,
there were no significant research studies undertaken on the management and controls of change
orders on a large scale so far using an IT based management system platform.

5.0 Fundamentals of Changes

A change order is a written order to the contractor signed by the owner and issued after
execution of the contract, authorizing a change in the work or an adjustment in the contract sum
or the contract time (Clough and Sears, 1994; Fisk, 1997).

The term ―change‖ shall mean any change in the original contract intention as deduced from
the contract as a whole describing or defining the works to be carried out and shall include but is
not restricted to:

a) An increase or decrease in the quantity of any part of the work.
b) An addition to or omission from the works.
c) A change in the character, quality or nature of any part of the works.
d) A change in the levels, lines, positions and dimensions of any part of the works.
e) The demolition of or removal of any part of the works no longer described by the employer
of the superintending officer.
f) A requirement to complete the works or any phase or part by a date earlier than the relevant
time for completion.

Functionally, a change order accomplishes after execution of the agreement what the
specifications addenda do prior to bid opening (see Figure 1), except that an accompanying price
change may be involved in a change order. A price change would not necessarily always be in
the contractor‘s favor; it could also be in the form of a cash credit to the owner, or it may involve
no price change at all (Fisk, 1997). It is the standard practice in construction contracts to allow
the owner the right to make changes in the work after the contract has been signed and during the
construction period.
7



6.0 Causes, Effects and Controls for Change Orders

The need to make changes in a construction project is a matter of practical reality. Even the most
thoughtfully planned project may necessitate changes due to various reasons (O‘Brien, 1998). To
overcome the problems associated with changes to a project, the project team must be able to
effectively analyze the change and its immediate and downstream effects (CII, 1994a).

Potential Causes of Change Orders

An effective analysis of changes and change orders requires a comprehensive understanding of
the root causes of changes (Hester, et al., 1991). Hence, 53 causes of change orders were
identified. As shown in Figure 2, the causes of changes were grouped under four categories:
Owner related changes, Consultant related changes, Contractor related changes and Other
changes. These groups assisted in developing a comprehensive enumeration of the potential
causes of changes.

Potential Effects of Change Orders

Effects of changes were observed by many researchers (CII, 1986; CII, 1990; CII, 1994; Thomas
and Napolitan, 1995; Ibbs, et al., 1998, Arain and Low, 2005c). The 16 potential effects
identified from the literature review are shown in Figure 3. These will also form the basis for the
survey of the professionals described later.

Controls for Change Orders

Controls for changes and change orders have been suggested by many researchers (Mokhtar, et
al., 2000; Ibbs, et al., 2001; Arain and Low, 2003). 30 controls have been identified from the
literature review. These will also form the basis for the survey of the professionals later. The
controls were grouped under three categories: Design stage, Construction stage and Design-
Construction interface stage as shown in Figure 4. These groups assisted in developing a
comprehensive enumeration of potential controls for change orders.

Advertising
Date
Sign
Agreement
2 1 3 4
Changes by Addenda No Changes Changes by VO
Figure 1 Changes through project phases (Fisk, 1997)
Bid
Opening
Award
Date
8








































B.1 Change in design by
consultants
B.2 Errors and
omissions in design
B.3 Conflicts between
contract documents
B.4 Inadequate scope of
work for contractor
C.1 Lack of contractor’s
involvement in design
C.2 Unavailability of
equipment
C.3 Unavailability of
skills
C.4 Contractor’s
financial difficulties
D.1 Weather
condition
D.2 Safety
considerations
D.3 Change in govt.
regulations
D.4 Change in economic
conditions
D.6 Unforeseen
problems
D.5 Socio-cultural factors
B.5 Technology change
B.6 Value engineering
B.7 Lack of coordination
B.8 Design complexity
B.9 Inadequate working
drawing details
C.5 Contractor’s
desired profitability
C.6 Differing site
conditions
C.7 Defective
workmanship
C.8 Unfamiliarity with
local conditions
C.9 Lack of specialized
construction manager
Causes of variation orders
A. Owner related
variations
B. Consultant
related variations
C. Contractor
related variations
A.1 Change of plans or
scope by owner
A.2 Change of schedule
by owner
A.3 Owner’s financial
problems
A.4 Inadequate
project objectives
D. Other variations
A.8 Change in
specifications by owner
B.20 Change in specifications by
consultant
C.19 Contractor’s
obstinate nature
A.5 Replacement of
materials/procedures
A.6 Impediment in
prompt decision making
process
A.7 Obstinate
nature of owner
B.10 Inadequate shop
drawing details
B.11 Consultant’s lack of
judgment and experience
B.12 Lack of consultant’s
knowledge of available materials
and equipment
B.13 Honest wrong belief of
consultant
B.14 Consultant’s lack of
required data
B.15 Obstinate nature of
consultant
B.16 Ambiguous design details
B.17 Design discrepancies
(inadequate design)
B.18 Non-compliance design
with govt. regulations
B.19 Non-compliance design
with owner’s requirement
C.10 Fast track
construction
C.11 Poor procurement
process
C.12 Lack of
communication
C.13 Contractor’s lack of
judgment & experience
C.14 Long lead
procurement
C.15 Honest wrong belief of
contractor
C.16 Complex design and
technology
C.17 Lack of strategic
planning
C.18 Contractor’s lack of
required data
Figure 2 Causes of variation orders grouped under four categories
9










Effects of variation orders
Progress is affected but
without any delay
Increase in project cost
Hiring new professionals

Increase in overhead expenses

Delay in payment
Quality degradation
Productivity degradation
Poor safety conditions
Completion schedule delay
Procurement delay
Rework and demolition
Logistic delay
Tarnish firm’s reputation
Poor professional relations
Additional payment for contractor
Dispute among professionals
Figure 3 Potential effects of variation orders
10




































C.1 Prompt approval procedures
C.2 Ability to negotiate variation
C.3 Valuation of indirect effects
C.4 Team effort by owner, consultant and contractor to control
variation orders
C.5 Utilize work breakdown structure
C.6 Continuous coordination and direct communication
C.7 Control the potential for variation orders to arise through
contractual clauses
C.8 Comprehensive site investigation
C.9 Use of collected and organized project data compiled by owner,
consultant and contractor (share database)
B.1 Clarity of variation order procedures
B.2 Written approvals
B.3 Variation order scope
B.4 Variation logic and justification
B.5 Project manager from an independent firm to manage the project
B.6 Restricted pre-qualification system for awarding projects
B.7 Owner’s involvement during construction phase
B.8 Avoid the use of open tendering
B.9 Use of project scheduling techniques
B.10 Comprehensive documentation of VO



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A.1 Review of contract documents
A.2 Freezing design
A.3 Value engineering at conceptual phase
A.4 Involvement of professionals at initial stages of project
A.5 Owner involvement at planning and design phases
A.6 Involvement of contractor at planning and scheduling process
A.7 Thorough detailing of design
A.8 Clear and thorough project brief
A.9 Reducing contingency sum

Figure 4 Controls for variation orders
11


7.0 Data Collection

A major survey of the professionals, preceded by a pilot study, was undertaken to ascertain
which of the 53 causes, 16 effects and 30 controls were important, and their level of importance.
The survey results identify the most important causes, their frequent effects and effective
controls. The survey results also assists in developing a checklist for implementing the most
effective controls for change orders for school building projects. Like any other construction
project, school building projects are also subjected to similar risks.

The analysis of data collected from the source documents assisted in identifying the nature
and frequency of occurrence of changes in school building projects. The data collected from the
source documents was analyzed.

The objective of this study was to develop an exhaustive list of important causes, their effects
and controls for change orders for school building projects in Singapore. To achieve the study
objectives, a questionnaire survey was carried out to collect the relevant information. The
questionnaires were divided into two main types based on the targeted population i.e., the
developer, consultants and contractors. One type of questionnaires was developed for collecting
data from the developers and the other type was for collecting data from the consultants and the
contractors who were involved in the school building projects under the Programme for
Rebuilding and Improving Existing Schools (PRIME).

The questionnaire survey was restricted to the professionals who were involved in the school
building projects under PRIME. The selection process for the respondents was carried out using
the following parameters:

a. Restricted to the school building projects carried out under PRIME in Singapore.
b. Restricted to professionals from the developers‘ side who were involved in school building
projects under PRIME in Singapore.
c. Restricted to professionals i.e., project architects, senior architects, principal architects and
directors, from the consultants‘ side who were involved in school building projects under
PRIME in Singapore.
d. Restricted to professionals i.e., project managers, construction managers, senior project
managers and directors, from the contractors‘ side who were involved in school building
projects under PRIME in Singapore.

The survey packages i.e., the final questionnaire along with a covering letter stating the main
objectives of the questionnaire, and a self addressed and stamped envelope, were prepared. The
survey packages were sent to the 178 professionals. They included 35 developers, 82 consultants
and 61 contractors who carried out the school projects under PRIME. Of the 178 professionals,
98 professionals responded to the survey. 29 (82.86%), 36 (43.90%), and 33 (54.10%) responses
were received from developers, consultants and contractors respectively.

After checking though the completed questionnaires, 92 questionnaires were found to be
suitable for data analysis. This yielded a response rate of about 51.69%. The respondents
12

included 28 developers, 33 consultants and 31 contractors. Table 1 shows the details of the
responses.

Table 1 Survey response rates
Respondents
Questionnaires
sent
Responses
received
Percentage
Valid
responses
Percentage
Developers 35 29 82.86% 28 80.00%
Consultants 82 36 43.90% 33 40.24%
Contractors 61 33 54.10% 31 50.82%
Total 178 98 55.06% 92 51.69%

Major causes of changes

The major causes of changes in school building projects were categorized into the most
important ones as shown in Table 2. The results suggested that the errors and omissions in
design, change in specifications by owner, unforeseen problems, change of plans or scope by
owner, and design discrepancies were considered to be the most important causes of change
orders for school building projects in Singapore. It was revealed that of the top five most
important causes of changes, four causes were from both owner related changes and the
consultant related changes groups.

Table 2 Most important causes of changes in school building projects
S
No.
Causes Mean
Std.
Dev.
Rank
10 Errors and omissions in design 3.53 1.14 1
8 Change in specifications by owner 3.49 1.19 2
53 Unforeseen problems 3.41 1.07 3
1 Change of plans or scope by owner 3.40 1.12 4
25
Design discrepancies (Inadequate
Design)
3.36 1.21 5

Additional causes of changes in school building projects

The respondents were also asked to add other causes considered to be important to their type of
work that were not included in the questionnaire. Other causes which the respondents reported
include readily available contingency sum, lack of coordination between end-user and the
designer, and user‘s lack of judgment and experience (non-technical user), low profit margin for
contractors, unclear hierarchy of authorities for initiating changes, time constraint for design
process, and shop drawing preparation and approval.

Most Frequent Effects

The 16 potential effects of changes in school building projects were categorized into the most
frequent ones as shown in Table 3. The results presented that project cost increase, progress is
affected but without any delay, additional payment for contractor, increase in overhead expenses
13

and rework and demolition were considered to be the most frequent effects of change orders for
school buildings in Singapore.

Table 3 Most frequent effects of change orders for school building projects
S No. Effects Mean
Std.
Dev.
Rank
2 Increase in project cost 3.89 1.00 1
1
Progress is affected but without any
delay
3.39 1.03 2
14 Additional payment for contractor 3.35 1.10 3
4 Increase in overhead expenses 3.29 1.36 4
9 Rework and demolition 3.26 1.18 5

Most Effective Controls

The controls for change orders were also categorized according to their effectiveness as shown in
Table 4. The top five most effective controls were owner‘s involvement at the planning and
design phases, clear and thorough project brief, thorough detailings of design, continuous
coordination and direct communication, and team effort by owner, consultant and contractor to
control change orders. The results indicated that the design stage and design and construction
interface stages were considered as the most potential phases for implementing controls for
minimizing the adverse impact of changes in school building projects.

As shown in Table 4, the top five most effective controls were revealed based on the
responses from all the professional respondents. Interestingly, all these controls were related to
the design stage and the design-and-construction interface stage, which clearly identified the
potential project phases for implementing controls for reducing changes.

Table 4 Most effective controls for changes in school building projects
S No. Controls Mean
Std.
Dev.
Rank
5
Owner‘s involvement at planning and design
phases
4.29 0.86 1
8 Clear and thorough project brief 4.20 0.76 2
7 Thorough detailings of design 4.17 0.75 3
25
Continuous coordination and direct
communication
4.13 0.70 4
23
Team effort by owner, consultant and contractor
to control change orders
4.09 0.82 5

8.0 Analysis Of Data From Source Documents

This section presents the analysis of the data collected from source documents of school building
projects completed. The source documents included the contract documents, change orders
documents, contract drawings and as-built drawings. The information collected from the source
documents was pertinent to the school projects and changes in projects, specifically, project
14

profile information (e.g. name of the project, project type, work scope, programme, contract
duration, date of commencement, date of completion, and contingency sum) and project changes
information (change description, reason for originating change, type of change, and approving
authority).

The profile of the projects investigated in this study is given in Table 5. The 79 school
projects were constructed between July 1999 and December 2003 (Note: the 79 schools included
only primary and secondary schools. One junior college project was not included for analysis).
There were two types of school projects, namely, primary school and secondary school. Primary
schools were built for children between 6 and 12 years of age. Secondary schools were for
students between 13 and 16 years of age. Both these school project types possessed similar
facilities, but the covered area for primary schools was 17,500m
2
and for secondary schools was
21,500m
2
. As shown in Table 5, of the 79 school projects investigated, 43% were new building
projects and 56.96% were upgrading projects. 73.52% of the new building projects were primary
schools and 26.47% were secondary schools. 93.33% of the upgrading projects were primary
schools and 6.66% were secondary schools.

Table 5 Statistics of the school projects investigated from source documents
S/No.
Project
types
Covered
area
Work
scope
No. of
projects
Program
phases
Total
projects
Grand
total
P1 P2 P3
1
Primary
schools
17,500m
2
Upgrading 42 24 16 2
67
79
New 25 23 2 0
2
Secondary
schools
21,500m
2
Upgrading 3 2 1 0
12
New 9 7 2 0

70.88% of the 79 school projects were completed during phase 1 (P1), 26.58% were
completed in phase 2 (P2) and only 2.53% were built during phase 3 (P3) of the PRIME. As a
majority of the projects were completed during the initial phases of the programme, large
numbers of changes were expected. This was because during the initial phases of the programme,
the user requirements and specifications were not well defined.

The average number of change orders for the new school projects was 61.11, and 73.82 for
the upgrading school projects. Average number of changes in the new school projects was 70.58,
and 91.46 for the upgrading school projects. Thus, changes were more evident in upgrading
projects than in new projects (Arain and Low, 2005d).

The analysis also highlighted that new projects tended to have less frequent changes because
the architects started with a clean slate unlike those in upgrading projects (Arain and Low,
2005d).

To examine the nature of changes in school building projects and to identify the potential
areas on which to focus to reduce changes, the number of changes related to four major
categories of work types in both upgrading and new school projects were computed and
tabulated as shown in Table 6.
15

The results indicated that the highest number of changes for both types of projects related to
the architectural works, the second highest number to the mechanical and electrical works, and a
significant numbers of changes were related to civil and structural works.

As mentioned above, the total number of changes in the upgrading school projects was
almost double the number of changes that occurred in new school projects. The average number
of changes in upgrading school projects was almost 21% more than in new school projects. This
occurred because of the constraint posed by an existing structure leading to discrepancies
between the as-built drawings and the real situation on the ground.

The total number of change orders, changes and omissions in both upgrading and new school
projects were computed and shown in Table 7.

Table 6 Statistics of changes in school building projects from source documents



Table 7 Statistics of change orders, changes and omissions in all school building projects from
source documents















S/No.
School
project
type
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1
New
Projects
34 2078 2400 1567 284 489 18 11 31
2
Upgrading
Projects
45 3322 4116 2437 484 1037 76 19 63
S/No Group name
Total number of
change orders
Total changes Total omissions
1 Owner related changes (ORV)
2129 2553 172
39.42% 39.18% 49.71%
2 Consultant related changes (CRV)
2945 3590 141
54.53% 55.09% 40.75%
3
Contractor related changes
(CTRV)
178 208 28
3.29% 3.19% 8.09%
4 Other changes (OV)
42 51 5
0.78% 0.78% 1.44%
5 Combination of causes (CC)
106 114 0
1.96% 1.75% 0
16

The results indicated that of the 5,400 change orders for school projects, 39.42% were related
to the ORV group, while a majority (54.53%) of change orders was from the CRV group. Only
3.29% were related to the CTRV group. Very few change orders were from the OV and CC
groups. Of the 6,516 changes that occurred in both new and upgrading school projects, 39.18%
were related to the ORV group, and 55.09% of the changes were from the CRV group. The
changes related to the CTRV group were only 3.19%. Very few changes were related to the OV
and CC groups as shown in Table 7. Of the 346 omissions that occurred in both types of school
projects, 49.71% were from the ORV group and 40.75% were from the CRV group. Omissions
related to the CTRV and OV groups were 8.09% and 1.44% respectively. It was also revealed
through in-depth interviews with the professionals that the omissions were mainly carried out for
reducing the project costs and not exceeding the contingency sum allocated for the project
(Arain, 2005b). The results suggested that the more number of changes encountered during the
projects were also due to the timing of the project implementation, as a majority of the projects
were carried out during the early phases of the PRIME in Singapore. As discussed earlier, the
objectives and specifications provided by the developers were not fully developed during the
early phases of the programme. The time allocated for design development was not sufficient
and the specifications and requirements were frequently revised by the developers, thus leading
to numerous changes during the construction phase of the projects (Arain and Low, 2005a). As a
majority of the school projects were completed during the initial phases of the PRIME, large
numbers of changes were expected. The overall analysis suggests that the highest number of
change orders, changes and omissions that occurred in the upgrading and new projects were
contributed from the ORV and CRV groups as shown in Table 7. Hence, both these groups were
further analyzed to determine the most important root causes of changes in both new and
upgrading school projects.

Of the 28 causes of changes, 8 causes were related to the ORV group and 20 were related to
the CRV group as shown earlier in Figure 2. The results indicated that a majority of the frequent
root causes were related to the CRV group. Nonetheless, the numbers of causes were not exactly
the same for each group. Furthermore, the causes of change orders were extracted and
categorized into the most important ones as shown in Table 8.

Table 8 Most important root causes of changes in school building projects from source
documents

S No. Causes Group TVO TV TO
1 Change of plans or scope by owner ORV 984 1184 97
2 Change in specifications by owner ORV 950 1145 65
3 Noncompliance design with govt. regulations CRV 754 940 14
4 Design discrepancies (Inadequate Design) CRV 580 697 1
5 Change in design by consultant CRV 476 563 38
6 Errors and omissions in design CRV 384 451 8
7 Change in specifications by consultant CRV 296 363 34
8 Inadequate scope of work for contractor CRV 137 187 0
9 Inadequate project objectives ORV 140 167 8
10 Consultant‘s lack of judgment and experience CRV 94 115 22
(Note: TVO= Total change orders, TV= Total changes, TO= Total omissions)

17

As shown in Table 8, the results of these two groups revealed that change of plans or scope
by owner, change in specifications by owner, and inadequate project objectives from the ORV
group and noncompliance design with government regulations, design discrepancies, change in
design by consultant, errors and omissions in design, change in specifications by consultant,
inadequate scope of work for contractor, and consultant‘s lack of judgment and experience from
the CRV group were considered as the most important and common root causes of changes in
school building projects (Arain, 2005b). Furthermore, the results concurred with the results of
the questionnaire survey, as the most important causes of changes that were revealed earlier were
also considered as the most important causes of changes in this analysis as shown in Table 8.

The analysis results suggested that the professionals should concentrate more on defining the
scope of project, allocating sufficient time for design development and improving design
detailings and compliance with government regulations that would assist in reducing changes
related to the ORV and CRV groups. Furthermore, as discussed earlier, a majority of the most
important root causes of changes were related to the CRV group as shown in Table 8. Hence, it is
highly recommended that changes can be reduced with due diligence during the design stages.

Figure 5 presents the most frequent effects and effective controls for the most important
causes of changes that were identified earlier. This would benefit the professionals involved with
school projects. The professionals would learn about the root causes of change orders and their
downstream effects that would assist in the proactive evaluation of change orders.






















18

1) Errors and omissions in
design

Increase in project
costs
Progress is affected but
without any delay
Increase in overhead
expenses

Delay in payment
Additional payment for
contractor
Rework and demolition
2) Change in specifications
by owner
3) Unforeseen problems

4) Change of plans or
scope by owner

5) Design discrepancies
(inadequate design)
M
O
S
T

F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
S

Progress is affected but
without any delay
Increase in project
costs
Increase in overhead
expenses

Delay in payment
Rework and demolition
Additional payment for
contractor
Thorough detailing of design
Clear and thorough project
brief
Team effort by owner,
consultant and contractor to
control variation orders
Owner involvement at
planning and design process
Knowledge-base of previous
similar projects
M
O
S
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
I
V
E

C
O
N
T
R
O
L
S

M
O
S
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
I
V
E

C
O
N
T
R
O
L
S

Thorough detailing of design
Clear and thorough project
brief
Owner involvement at
planning and design process
Knowledge-base of previous
similar projects
Team effort by owner,
consultant and contractor to
control variation orders
Clear and thorough
project brief
Avoid the use of open
tendering
Comprehensive analysis and
prompt decision making through
computerized knowledge-based
decision support system
Restricted pre-qualification
system for awarding projects
Owner’s involvement
during construction phase
M
O
S
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
I
V
E

C
O
N
T
R
O
L
S

Freezing design (i.e., no
changes after final design)
Thorough detailing of design
Clear and thorough project
brief
Team effort by owner,
consultant and contractor to
control variation orders
Involvement of contractor at
planning and scheduling process
Owner involvement at
planning and design process
Knowledge-base of previous
similar projects
M
O
S
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
I
V
E

C
O
N
T
R
O
L
S

Prompt approval
procedures

Thorough detailing of design
Clear and thorough project
brief
Team effort by owner,
consultant and contractor to
control variation orders
Involvement of professionals
at initial stages of project
Owner involvement at
planning and design process
Knowledge-base of previous
similar projects M
O
S
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
I
V
E

C
O
N
T
R
O
L
S

Completion schedule
delay
Increase in project
costs
Increase in overhead
expenses

Delay in payment
Rework and demolition
M
O
S
T

F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
S

Progress is affected but
without any delay
Increase in project
costs
Increase in overhead
expenses

Delay in payment
Rework and demolition
M
O
S
T

F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
S

Progress is affected but
without any delay
Increase in project
costs
Increase in overhead
expenses

Delay in payment
Rework and demolition
M
O
S
T

F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
S

M
O
S
T

F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
T

E
F
F
E
C
T
S

Figure 5 Most important causes, their frequent effects and effective controls for change order for school building projects
19

9.0 Conclusion

In construction project management, the issue of changes has long been acknowledged as a
major contributor to conflict and disputes (CII, 1994a; Sutrisna, et al., 2003; Arain, et al., 2004;
Arain and Low, 2005a). One of the most common reasons for conflicts and disputes were bad
management decisions due to lack of decision support (Arain and Low, 2005b). Changes are
inevitable in construction projects. However, timely management decisions may assist in
reducing the adverse impact of changes to building projects.

This study presented an extensive investigation of issues related to change management.
Initially the study concentrated on the causes, their effects and controls for changes in building
projects. In-depth and rigorous analyses were carried out for identifying the root causes of
changes, their effects and controls. Overall analyses indicated that the majority of changes were
related to the design stages of building projects. This eventually pointed toward the consultants
for major contributions to changes in projects. Nevertheless, the in-depth analyses also presented
some very interesting and realistic issues pertinent to the building projects and their timing of
implementations. It was revealed that the nature and frequency of occurrence of changes varied
from one project to another.

The major findings of the study include:

1. The study identified, through survey analyses and in-depth interviews with the professionals
who were involved with school building projects under the PRIME, the most important
causes, effects and controls for changes in school building projects. Errors and omissions in
design, change in specifications by owner, unforeseen problems, change of plans or scope by
owner, and design discrepancies were considered to be the most important causes of change
orders for school building projects in Singapore. Furthermore, it was also revealed that of the
top five most important causes of changes, four causes were from both owner related changes
and the consultant related changes groups. This showed that the owner and the consultant had
almost equal contributions to initiate changes in building projects.

2. The study also revealed that project cost increase, progress is affected but without any delay,
additional payment for contractor, increase in overhead expenses and rework and demolition
were considered to be the most frequent effects of change orders for school buildings in
Singapore. Interestingly, most of these effects were experienced by the contractors and
developers. However, the root causes of the most frequent effects were mostly consultant
related causes.

3. Furthermore, the in-depth analysis revealed that the top five most effective controls were
owner‘s involvement at the planning and design phase, clear and thorough project brief,
thorough detailings of design, continuous coordination and direct communication, and team
effort by owner, consultant and contractor to control change orders. It was clearly identified
that the design stage and design and construction interface stages were considered as the
most potential phases for implementing controls for minimizing the adverse impact of
changes. The study suggested that the owner and the consultant should provide careful
considerations for implementing controls for reducing changes in building projects.
20

4. The study confirmed that the nature and frequency of occurrence of changes varied from one
type of project to another; for instance, the nature and frequency of occurrence of changes
varied in upgrading and new school building projects. This hypothesis was proven through
in-depth analysis of the information collected from the source documents of school building
projects completed under the PRIME.

5. To complement the survey findings, the study presented the in-depth analysis of the
information collected from source documents of the school building projects. Interestingly, it
was confirmed that the majority of changes were related to the owner related changes and
consultant related changes groups. As mentioned above about the most important causes,
change of plans or scope by owner, and change in specifications by owner from the owner
related changes group and noncompliance design with government regulations, design
discrepancies, change in design by consultant, and errors and omissions in design from the
consultant related changes group were again ranked as the most important and common root
causes of changes in school building projects.

The most important recommendations based on the findings of the interview sessions with
the professionals were the allocation of sufficient time for design activities, team efforts by
owner, consultant and contractor for effective management of building projects, utilization of
other graphical means for making the user understand the design details of the building projects,
and thorough detailings of design, for effective management of changes in building projects.
Furthermore, the study also revealed additional causes, effects and controls that were suggested
by the professionals.

Learning from the changes is imperative because the professionals can improve and apply
their experience in the future. In cases where professionals left the organization, the project
experience would remain within the individual professionals. Therefore, a comprehensive system
for consolidating decisions made on past similar projects was highly recommended. In the
absence of an established and organized knowledge-base of past similar projects, the
professional teams would face problems in planning effectively before starting a project, during
the design phase as well as during the construction phase to minimize and control changes and
their effects.

Acknowledgements

This study would not have been possible without the kind assistance of Dr Faisal Manzoor Arain
as well as collaborators from the Project Development and Management Branch, Ministry of
Education, Singapore. Their inputs and contributions are gratefully acknowledged. Financial
support for this research project came from the Academic Research Fund (R-296-000-078-112).

References

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phase. In M.P. Nicholson (ed.), Architectural Management. E &F N Spon, London, pp. 104-
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21

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th
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24

Smart Programme for Smart Students
Malaysian Smart School (MSC)

N. I shak
1
, N.S. Spalie
Phd (W. Michigan)
1

Director Permata Pintar-Smart School Education and Important of Learning
Environment
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

1.0 Introduction

The Smart School educational program was one of the seven flagships of the MSC Malaysia
launched by former Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad in 1997. Earlier in 1996, the
Ministry of Education began to develop the blueprint for ―Smart Schools‖ concept with the aim
to transform the Malaysian education system via ICT mediation.

―Smart School‖ can be defined as a learning institution that has been systematically
reinvented in terms of teaching and learning; and improvement of the school management
processes to help students cope and build leverage on the Information Age (The Smart School
Road Map 2005-2020). The Smart School applications convey the benefit of technology to the
educators and administrators. These also allow the young to get familiar with the ICT world –
using tools such as personal computers, scanners, printers, multimedia products, TV/videos, etc.
– at a much earlier stage in life. They get to appreciate the power of the Internet and multimedia
applications, which can make learning more attractive, self-directed, collaborative, individually-
paced, continuous, reflective and enriching. These collectively enable them becoming more
technology savvy in educational pursuits. Educational materials not only limited to printed
books, but also include electronic books, multimedia software, courseware catalogues and
databases (Umat, 2000).

In line with the launch of the seven MSC flagship applications, the smart school initiative
began with 88 schools selected for the programme. The 88 Smart Schools were initially
identified to be the incubator and nucleus for Smart School concepts, materials, skills, and
technologies developed by the MoE. These schools were integrated with Information
Communication Technology (ICT), which exposed students, teachers, administrators and parents
to IT in every aspect of education at the administrative and classroom levels. Information
technology is to be used in every aspect of teaching-learning in smart school (Curriculum
Development Center, 2002). This was to help students to develop self-learning skills in order to
prepare themselves for success beyond primary school. They were aimed to be self-direct, self-
access, and self-pace in learning. An assessment of the program such as the Impact Study (2005)
indicated that the infrastructure set up by the MoE, including the provision of computers,
applications and ICT coordinator to the various schools, were in need to be optimally managed
and used.

Several studies have been conducted on the impact of the Smart School programme. This
was fundamentally essential to systematically shift the education system from rote learning and
examination-oriented culture to a thinking and creative knowledge culture (Foong-Mae, 2002).
25

Foong-Mae also noted that the idea planned by Ministry of Education was a move toward more
critical and creative teaching and learning culture. There has been an increase in various
technology-enablers in the school classrooms such as individual desktop personal computers,
multimedia computer laboratories, video conferencing systems and high-speed Internet
connections. The finding of several studies indicated that the technology could motivate students
in learning. Furthermore, computers have become the most sought- after electronic devices in
both homes and schools (Ng & Gunstone, 2002, Nugent, Soh, & Samal, 2006; Shyu, 2000).
Other researches acknowledged that self-regulated learning became one of the most essential
skills that students should possess, particularly in this information age (Chen, 2002; Veenman,
Beems, Gerrits & Weegh, 1999; Schraw, 1998; Henderson, 1986; Wang & Peverly, 1986).
Efficient learners were found to have the skills to design and control their own learning
processes and were able to evaluate and reflect on the entire process. They were self regulated
learners, learners who Meta cognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally manage and promote
their own academic learning (Zimmerman & Schunk, 1989). Owing to the tremendous explosion
of information, it was no longer adequate to continually utilize knowledge acquired in a limited
time compared to with the help of others for a long time (Hoe, 2003). Students must become
self-regulated learners for in the future they have to proactively and assertively thrive in an
information-rich and technology-driven society (Lapan, 2002).

One of recent major developments of Smart Schools was in 2007, whereby a broad target
was set to transform 47 out of 88 smart schools into five star smart schools. As of the year 2008,
however only 32 schools achieved above 75% target 5 star rating in ICT.
(www.msc.com.my/smartschool/whatis/rating/full_rating.pdf)

Thus it can be seen that the conceptual aim of the smart schools is to shift the paradigm
of teaching-learning to enable optimal fulfillment of students` needs; capabilities and individual
development. The main component of the Smart School is thus its teaching-learning processes
which can be regarded as the "heart" of the Smart School. These processes are enhanced through
the utility of ICT and judicious integration of curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teaching-
learning materials. It is mode of learning reinvented in order to enable students to be more self-
directing, efficient, and competent in gaining knowledge. The ICT mediated learning also shifts
the focus from teacher-centred teaching to student-centred learning.

The ICT used in every aspect of teaching-learning enable students to practice self-
accessed and self-directed learning at their own learning pace. The facility for virtual component
of the curriculum as in online learning creates new environment for use and organization of
space in classroom, daily schedule and routines, and the social and emotional atmosphere. The
integration of classroom and online learning environment could richly meet children‘s
developmental needs. Thus, it makes all children, including those with special needs feel secure
and comfortable with their learning pace. Complementary online learning helps overcome some
of the learning processes hampered by classroom constraints. As a result, ICT- mediated learning
aids them to become independent and confident learners.

Other vital components of the Smart School are its management and administration
which represent the drivers or the "brain" of their operation. Smart School principals and
headmasters must be efficient and effective in organizing the resources and processes of
26

teaching-learning through competent management of the ICT infrastructure. They also must be
competent in optimizing their human resources; manage relationship with the Smart School
stakeholders such as parents, community and the private sector. The principals and headmasters
must play dynamic roles in improving the performance of the school, in addition to maintaining
professional growth relating to school organization and various aspects of the Smart School.

Thus the principals and headmasters are not only administrators with the required
knowledge on their schools` ICT-driven system, but also must be effective manager of teaching-
learning and communication with external constituencies. Broadly their duties call successful for
implementation of the Smart School through their adaptiveness to changes in Smart School
policies and regulations.

2.0 PERMATA Pintar Programme

About 5% of children population in Malaysia is considered gifted and talented. ‗Gifted‘ refers to
natural abilities and ‗talented‘ to the high abilities that develop through the nurturing of natural
abilities. Parents with gifted and talented children are facing problems to raise them properly.
Raising a gifted and talented child is challenging, as they do things differently compared to other
children of their age. This may have caused some misconception which may result in these
children being ignored and humiliated. Gifted child often suppressed their extraordinary abilities
in order for him or her to be accepted in normal children peer group. Malaysia will lose these
great human capital assets if the adverse situation continues. A special programme to actualise
the full potential of the gifted and talented children should therefore be considered by the
authority.

Datin Seri Rosmah Mansor, the wife of the Prime Minister, who was acutely aware of the
problem and its implications, had the `Permata Pintar` Programme for the gifted and talented
children launched in March 2009. The purpose of Permata Pintar Programme is to nurture the
talents of children with one or more abilities who have a level of intellectual ability and
creativity ahead of their year or above biological age. The objectives of this programme are to
further develop students‘ existing capacity of talents, abilities and skills; actualize students‘
potential holistically, and inculcate the value of lifelong learning. The abilities and creativity
include abilities in sports, music, design, performing arts, make decision and leadership skills.
See (http://www.permatapintar.com.my).

The programme is focused on meaningful learning processes inspired by the National
Philosophy of Education. It emphasizes on the development of the potential of individuals in a
holistic and integrated manner. The programme concentrates on activities that aims to produce an
individual who is intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and
harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God.

The Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia proposed a three-component programme namely
the pilot PERMATApintar National School Holidays Camp 2010; Upper Secondary School
PERMATApintar Programme; and ASASIpintar Programme to provide the extra educational
support for the gifted and talented children. Upon approval by Prime Minister Department, UKM
began construction of Pusat PERMATApintar Negara, in January 2010; and initiated the search
27

for the gifted and talented children through a process of screening using three online tests – see
www.permatapintar.com.my. Qualified students underwent a two-level three-week programme
conducted during school holiday (November-December). The programme camps were designed
for the students to meaningfully interact with each other. They were put to pace in challenging
outdoor games with the intention of developing their leadership skills. On top of that, they were
also challenged in Mathematics, Science and creative writing.

With the end of PERMATApintar National School Holidays Camp 2010, the programme
shall be continued with the Upper Secondary School PERMATApintar Programme in the middle
of January 2011. The first intake shall begin in 17 January 2011 with 139 16-year old students.
They have gone through the three screening tests i.e PERMATApintar UKM1 Test,
PERMATApintar UKM2 Test dan Mathematics and Sciences Competent Test in camp
programme in November 2010.

The students shall undergo the two-level programme in two years‘ time. The programme
to be conducted is similar to the boarding school mode with full autonomy under UKM. The
programme will emphasize on differentiated learning whereby the students shall learn according
to their level of achievement. The students shall be exposed to Higher Thinking Order (HOT) to
develop creative, critical and innovative thinking in their studies. The instructions are to be
student-centred in tandem with other methods including cooperative and collaborative learning,
lecture, group discussion, laboratory-based and field study, research project with UKM
researchers, writing research report, folio-keeping, exchange students, problem-based learning
(PBL) and activities to develop self-identity.

The third programme is the ASASIpintar, a one year programme to complete the trilogy
of Pusat PERMATApintar Negara programmes. The programme is to start in June 2011, with an
intake of 250 students sponsored by Public Services Department (JPA). The programme will
focus on Sciences, Technology and Mathematics. After completing the courses in ASASIpintar,
the students later will be admitted to the various UKM faculties.

3.0 Conclusion

The children are tomorrow‘s leaders, scientists, managers, directors, musicians and artists; their
potential is national asset we cannot waste. Malaysian government has take action to ensure that
these national assets are identified and developed. The Smart School programme and
PERMATApintar programme are the programme implemented by government to serve as a
public advocate for the needs of genius, gifted and talented children. The Smart School program
will be remodelled and its implementation fast tracked to enable more schools to benefit in
enhancing ICT utilization in schools, advance teaching and learning materials. The practice
developed through the Smart School program will be utilised for excellent practice in teaching
and learning. In addition, the Smart School Management System will be used as a model to
improve administration processes in other school. The PERMATApintar programme will be
assisting by all possible means children with outstanding gifts and talents to fulfil their potential.
The programme also gives support to parents, teachers and others professionally concerned with
the development of gifted and talented children. Hopefully, these programmes will provide
opportunities for parents of gifted children to meet, share and discuss their problems and to
28

consult specialists on education and other matters related to gifted and talented children.
Furthermore, the programmes are expected to support the organisations to nourish the education
of gifted children.

4.0 Reference

Chen, C. S. (2002). Self-regulated learning strategies and achievement in anintroduction to
information systems course. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal,
20 (1), 11-25.
Curriculum Development Center. (2002). Smart schools approaches. Retrieved November 3,
2002 from http://www.smartegy@ppk.kpm.my//
Hoe, H. (2003).Theoretical understanding for structuring the classroom as self
regulatedlearningenvironment.RetrievedJanuary4,2003
Lapan, R. T., Kardash, C. A., & Turner, S. (2002). Empowering students to become self-
regulated learners. Professional School Counseling, 5 (4), 257-266.
Ng, W. & Gunstone, R. (2002). Students' perceptions of the effectiveness of the World Wide
Web as a research and teaching tool in science learning. Research in Science Education, 32,
489-510.
Nugent, G., Soh, L., & Samal, A. (2006). Design, development, and validation of learning
ohjecxs. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 34(3), 271—281
Shyu, H. Y. (2000). Using video-based anchored instruction to enhance learning: Taiwan's
experience. British Journal of Educational Technology, 3/(1), 57-69.
Schunk, D.H., & Zimmerman, B.J. (Eds.) (1994). Self-regulation of learning and performance:
Issues and educational implications. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Umat J. (2000) Web-Based Dissemination and Utilization of Learning Resources: TiGERWeb
project. Paper presented at the Asia and Pacific Seminar/Workshop on Educational
Technology, Tokyo, Japan, September.
Zimmerman, B. 1. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal
of EducationalPsychology,81(3),329-339.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (1989). Self-regulated learning and academic
achievement: Theory, research and practice. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Wang, M.C., Peverly, S.T., & Randolph, R.F. (1984). An investigation of the implementation and effects
of a full-time mainstreaming program. Journal of Special and Remedial Education, 5, 21-32.









29

Designing for School: Guidelines and Safety Considerations
In Design Development Stages

R.Rahman
1

Faculty of Design and Architecture,
Universiti Putera Malaysia

Abstract

School is very important institution to many countries in the world. It is a place where most of the people
get their first formal education, as well as to get to know the outside world, after their home and parents.
Many studies have been done on how to improve campuses of higher learning institutions but little study
have been done focussing on specific school, especially in developing a novel products contributing to
safety and better environment. The main aim of this research is to identify critical areas and equipments
in school, which can be potential for designers in proposing new product development. This paper will
describe case studies conducted at two primary schools in West Surrey, United Kingdom, which
identified critical areas equipments in schools. Findings from this research have been generated into a
guideline, which could assist and can be beneficial to designers and product planners who‘s interested in
improving products in schools.

Keyword : School Environment, Product Design, Safety.

1.0 Introduction

A learning institution especially primary school has been the most important place to shape a student
perception and mind at an early age. As young as 4 years old, children will spend a quarter of their life
time in school itself. From the hypothesis above, it is understood that the environment including facilities,
equipments and educational products must be developed and designed and well kept to give some sense
of safe learning environment for those who study, visit and work. A place where people can experience
something that can stimulate a sensational feeling to think and later to remain in their cognitive mindset.

Education Aim in the United Kingdom has stated that there are certain important elements that
need to be considered during the development of any school or learning institution for student. These
includes to contribute towards the spiritual, mental, moral and physical development of the community;
and to provide education, materials and environment suitable to the requirement of junior or senior pupils
(UK Education Act 1994).

Many studies has also emphasized that environmental factors play important element contributing
to child development, emotionally and physically (Senda et al. 1992, Graves 1993, Handy et al. 1998). In
consequence, Provence et al. (1977, p.83) has mentioned that a child acting upon his environment is one
of the processes through which physical, intellectual, and psycho-social development occurred. In further,
they stressed that the significance of the activity in the development of motor competence, react as the
active repetition of the passive experience one could gained in school environment. These emphasized
that a child environment including things or products they observed or experienced would have an impact
on their development and abilities in total. In similar, Marcus (1990, p.216) claimed that a well designed
and organised of space and equipments were found not only to support cooperation and productive as
opposed to disruptive behaviour, but also can motivate to reduce disciplines problems and prevent
vandalism in their learning environment.

30

From these reviews, it is understood that good surrounding which includes everything children
experienced have the ability to contribute to develop a positive behaviour among the children. Indirectly,
any products or facilities children experienced gives impact to their manners or attitudes in the future.
However, there are also a growing number of accidents involving with equipments within school
environment (especially play ground equipments) in the United Kingdom. Small scale studies in United
Kingdom and abroad suggested 150,000 accidents in schools requiring medical treatment yearly. Figures
from the Department of Trade and Industry UK indicated that there are 40,000 accident cases resulted in a
hospital visit annually.

Fig. 1 – Accidents type and Percentage

Falls to Surface 58%
Falls and Hit same equipment 14%
Falls struck with other equipment 2%
Impact with moving equipment 13.1%
Impact with stationary equipment 5.4%
Contact with protrusions, pinch points, sharp edges and sharp points 6.9%
Total 100%
(Sources: National Safe kids campaign and ROSPA.gov.uk)

In relation to these, many studies have been also been done to analysed products and safety in
schools, which has been conducted by UK Royal Society of Preventing Accidents
(www.ROSPA.com). In current situation, not many designers have the opportunity and exposure
to experience a ‗real world‘ situation. In many cases, designers are still predicting the users
interactions with products based on their previous knowledge and experience.

Popovic (1999) argues that in most product development processes, designers still find
difficulties in predicting theories about users‘ needs with products they used and according to
Jones (1992) designers should take part and engage more in the social life of the users by
experiencing users‘ lifestyles. Norman (1988) points that there are numbers of cases of products
that were produced without proper research into users needs and limitations which have led to
problems involving users‘ interactions with products. In relation to that, this research adopted a
‗practice-led design research‘ method which allowed designer to employed their design skills
and thinking together into their social engagement with the stakeholders. In this work, designer
are being expose and experience the real situation in school and also taking part in social
engagement with the stakeholders (especially children, teachers and parents). This enabled them
to observe the environment, before any final design decision or proposal can take place.

Hopefully, results from this work and designer experience conducting social research can be
beneficially to other designers or product planners interested in designing or developing products
in schools.

2.0 Selecting the Samplings

In general, each school have different needs and facilities. Considering all the children in the schools are
the end users, the study are designed to captured different perspectives and inspirations from the
stakeholders using designs assisting to provide new ideas for the designers.

31

In order to arrange the placements needed to conduct a primary research, suitable primary schools
have been identified, the head teachers contacted and appointments are being made. The selections of
children involved as samplings have also need to be approved by their guardians and parents.
Requirements and procedures are discussed and permissions obtained from local authorities before the
field work.

The two selected schools were Manorcroft Primary School in Egham and St.Judes Primary
School in Bagshot. The rationale of choosing these two institutions is due to their size and areas
differences. Although each of this school adapt similar system to manage safety and to control the
children during school‘s hours similar, the equipments and their environment are basically not the same.
This is an advantage for the researcher to observed different equipments and environment and also to
analyse different needs from the stakeholders.

3.0 Research Framework

Designing and doing research formed the main components of the methodology for this investigation. In
general, methods and techniques of integrating design into the research process or designing research
have commonly generated a great debate amongst the academic community and design thinkers
(Glanville 1999, Burdick 2003, Sanders 2006), however, in current design research situation, it has
proven to become a useful and effective research tools among the design researchers (Bowen 2009,
Marchand and Walker 2009, Evans 2009). Framework for this investigation is generally built up into two
(2) main components, which are continuously interrelated and contributed to each other. The first (1) part
focussed more to an account of how equipments interact with stakeholders in school environment.

The second part will be focussing on the process of developing a specific design of equipments in
school, which can be used to analyse and evaluate the understanding that has been gained from stage 1.
The social inquiry works (involved with stakeholders from schools) will directly inform the design
development process of this research, which in return assisted in the continuous social inquiry works.

This research work introduced element from "practice-led" design research approach to provide
an arena for investigating how stakeholders respond to the concepts of migrating product designs and
explore techniques that designers might use to work in this area.

The design work will be a continuous process alongside the social inquiry and responding to
insights emerging from it. In turn, set of conceptual design developed in the practical design work being
used as provocative objects bridging users‘ needs and inspiration to products as the programme of
interviews and group work (design workshop and discussions) proceeds. This conceptual design work has
continued to be a continuous process alongside the social inquiry and responding to insights emerging
from it. In turn, speculative conceptual design has been used as instrumental in this research as the
programme of interviews proceeds.










32


Fig. 2 - Research Work and Design Scheme


Both processes, designing and doing social inquiry is more likely to provide good results
for this investigation. Thus, in designing process, the output could only reflect to the possibilities
but with no absolute guarantee, this design work is validated by the social inquiry work and its
output.
(* the reasons for NOT showing the conceptual design work is because it is leading to the
refinement of final design proposal and it‘s in the process of Intellectual Property registration)

4.0 Analysis

The analysis process has been developed based on social science qualitative data analysis
techniques in generating themes, coding, together with reflective process that fed tacitly in to the
designing activities, as well as informing explicit analysis. In practical, both, designing and
analytical action, are contributing to inform each other and assisted to progress the analysis
process.




33

5.0 Findings

Priority Areas

A large number of school society would assumed that a playground is the best place for children
to have fun, and adults pay less attention to their children at playground and less conscious on
play safety aspects. Similar in school as most teachers and head teachers assumed that school
play areas and its environment have little to do with teachers or teaching. However, from this
research, it is found that percentage of accidents happened at Manorcroft School indicated that
84% of accidents happened in school are at the field and play areas, (Manorcroft Accidents
Statistic Report 2008), while another 16% of accidents happened at entrances and toilet‘s door in
the school. Similar results produced by St. Judes School as more than 80% of accidents in their
school occurred at play areas and only 20% took place in the classrooms and entrances (St,Judes
School accident statistic 2008).

Human Factors

There are many ergonomic factors involved in preparing to design any equipment for school
environment. Ergonomic applies scientific information about human to product development. In
this case, playground equipments should be designed for different age group and technical
specifications including relevant dimensions and sizes should be consider during the final design
stage. The designer needs to know the range of ‗acceptable‘ sizes and constructional dimensions
in order to fit with the users. The measurement of the designed equipments and material should
occupy with the Standard and Consumer Act proposed by the authority. Studies on human scale
also included specifically on child sizing and abilities must be made accordingly to match with
the size of product and design specifications.

Areas of Supervisions

Supervision is another major factor which could ensure a greater safe environment. Prevention of
accidents in school could be done in various way but the aspect of ‗accessible‘ supervision areas
which developed better consciousness could make a big impact to improve safety aspects in
school environment. Accidents could happen anywhere during playtime, however, strategic
locations and layout of playground design for supervisions can improve safety and create
enhanced play environment.

Designs

Most playground structures all over the world are similar in most cases. Fear of liability and
customisation production cost have turned most of the school (or public) play equipments filled
with standardize metals, high density plastic and cheap rubber parts. Although, generally useful
and enjoyable, these type of play areas seems lack of personality and creativity that comes with
site specific design. However, there are some schools and parks around the world customised
their equipments and environment. Such playgrounds and equipments are often whimsical and
inspiring in many ways. Although the children have not much to say in words, but ideas and
thoughts reflect much in their response at design concepts shown to them. Several ideas have
been discovered from stakeholders during the interview and focus groups session which
34

contributed to influence the conceptual designs and leading to proposed novel play equipments
for schools. Apart from being unique and different than others, the design of the play equipments
in school also need to incorporated with safe, long last material, colour, low maintenance and
friendly to its environment.

6.0 Conclusion

It is almost impossible to create a 100% safe system or equipments for children to play in school.
Any play experience has potentials for accidents to happen in school environment. Improving
just the design and human factors aspects would not guarantee the existence of a safer play
environment. Many other factors including policy, cost factors, materials, poor maintenance or
even supervision system have to be taken into consideration before even starting to re-design the
existing equipments in schools. Identifying possible critical areas or equipments and factors
potentially led to accidents should be done collectively by experts before any design proposals
can take place. Design ideas projected from this research is just one example demonstrated how
designer can play active role as an social investigator, to have better understanding on users and
environment before any design activities can be operated. Identifying key factors from social
engagement activities has enabled the designer to value users‘ needs in their design operation
and product development, which can be valueable for other designers to work within this similar
area of study.

References

Bowen, S. (2009). A Critical Artefact Methodology: Using provocative conceptual designs to
foster human-centered innovation. PhD. Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
Burdick, A. (2003). Design (as) Research. In: Laurel B. (ed.). Design research: Methods and
Perspectives. MIT Press.
Evans, M. (2009). Integrating practice within a PhD: A generic model for researcher-designer.
Malins J. (ed.). Proceedings of Eight International Conference of the European Academy of
Design, 1-3 April 2009. Gray‘s School of Art, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen,
Scotland, 155-165.
Glanville R. (Summer 1999). Researching design and designing research. Design Issues, MIT
Press,15 (2), 80-91
Graves, School Ways, McGraw Hills. 1993.
Handy, Charles, Aitken. 1998. Understanding Schools as organisations , Penguin.
Jones, J.C. (1992). Design Methods. 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Marchand, A., Walker, S. (2009). Designing in Design Research: From solving problems to
exploring issues. In: Malins J. (ed.). Proceedings of Eight International Conference of the
European Academy of Design, 1-3 April 2009. Gray's School of Art, Robert Gordon
University, Aberdeen, Scotland, 300-303
Marcus, C., Francis. 1990. People Places, Van Nostrand Reinhold,
Manorcroft School Accidents Report Book 2008
Norman Donald. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York, Doubleday
Graves. 1993. School Ways, McGraw Hills,
35

Popovic. (1999). Product evaluation methods and their importance in designing interactive
artifacts. In: Green and Jordan (eds.). Human factors in product design. London, Taylor and
Francis, 26-35.
Provence. 1977. The Challenge of Day Care, Yale Univ Press.
Sanders, E. (2006). Design research in 2006, DRS, 1.
Senda, Ben, Mitsuru. 1992. Designing of Children‘s Play Equipment, McGraw Hill.
St. Judes School Accidents Report Book 2008.
www.Britishstandard.co.uk
www. child accident prevention trust.co.uk
www. Department of Trade and Indsurty.gov.uk
www.nationalsafekidcampaign.com
www. Rospa.gov.uk
www. UK Education Act 1994






















36

Conduciveness of School Environment Towards Learning With Total
Building Performance (TBP) through Integrated Design Process (IDP)

R.K.Khanna, H.B.Gang and L.S.Pheng
Department of Building, National University of Singapore
rajkhanna@nus.edu.sg
raj_kkhanna@rediffmail.com

Abstract

In past decades, the concept of total building performance and its application to commercial and
residential buildings have invoked great interests among researchers in this field. The evaluation of
academic institutions using this concept may further provide a platform to better understand critical issues
related to the learning environment in schools. In an attempt to understand the conduciveness of the
classroom environment towards learning, qualitative assessments are proposed in this paper to investigate
the performance of classrooms in schools. Performance is indicated by the measurement and evaluation of
six Total Building Performance (TBP) mandates, namely thermal, spatial, visual, acoustic, indoor air
quality, and building integrity. The adoption and assessment using these six mandates may give rise to
interesting results with regards to the performance of classrooms. The paper also highlights the
importance of Integrated Design Process (IDP) in delivering total building performance with sustainable
results proposed by the design and building team members. The paper suggests that sustainability and
conduciveness in the classroom and school environment can go hand in hand with TBP that is
appropriately underpinned by IDP.

Keywords: Total building performance; Schools; Integrated design process, Evaluation

1.0 Introduction

In past decade there has been international emphasis on resource management, in particular
energy and economic resources leading to new requirements in addition to the previous demands
of health, safety, and welfare in a building. This over emphasis of a single building requirement
has in turn triggered a series of measurable building failure (1999). Building failures are owing
to lack of trans-disciplinary coordination among each building performance mandate .The
importance of understanding the total performance of a building in a holistic sense cannot be
denied . Furthermore, building evaluation is and should be a first priority so as to effectively
predict future building performance.

The concept of total building performance and their evaluation has been expounded by
researchers over last decade (1999; Hartkopf V 1983, 1993). However, much of the focus has
been on commercial buildings, in particular the issue of sick office buildings and intelligent
buildings rather than academic institutions (Atkin 1988; BC 1994; HM 1993; K. 1992; Shaw
1990; WFE 1989; Wood 1989). In present scenario where emphasis is increasingly placed on
academic qualification, schools have become part and parcel of every person‘s life. This directs
the attention towards the conduciveness of classroom environment for learning. Total Building
Performance (TBP) is a framework that serves to understand the critical balance needed to
simultaneously ensure all building performance mandates (Wong 2003). The definition of the
mandates can be divided into two areas. First, there is the fundamental mandate for building
enclosure integrity—protection of the building‘s visual, mechanical, and physical properties
37

from environmental degradation. Second, there is the series of mandates relating to interior
occupancy requirements and the elemental parameters of comfort—thermal, acoustic, visual, air
and spatial comfort—dependent on physiological, psychological, sociological and economic
values. Such a concept when applied to academic institutions helps to facilitate the provision of a
healthy studying environment and facilities that are better customized to the needs of students
and teachers in new schools (Wong 2003).

Objectives of the study are:

a) Qualitatively understand the performance of classrooms towards a conducive environment
for learning.
b) Further the study makes an attempt to use integration of design and project management
through IDP elaborating a proposed system that may be followed during a school design and
construction till occupancy.

The study undertakes the following methodology:
a) Paper performs a literature review on the building performance and integration for a school.
Developments in various countries such as Malaysia, US, UK etc have been studied to
understand the suitability/conduciveness of physical environment in a school for learning.
b) Further, a review of Singapore guidelines on the standards and criteria for the planning of
schools is done elaborately.
c) IDP integrating the design parameters with project management is reviewed subjectively in
the paper as a proposed solution for achieving total building performance, sustainability and
conduciveness in the learning environment.

2.0 Background

As a strategy to turn all the schools smart and further reduce the digital divide between the
schools and improving access and equity to Information Communications and Technology (ICT),
the Malaysian Government is leveraging and synergizing on the various ICT initiatives into one
effort. In response to the same- computer laboratories, SchoolNet and EduWeb TV has been
introduced in Malaysian schools. It has therefore become mandatory for the new facilities to be
adequately integrated with the functioning of the school activities to provide the children with a
conducive environment for learning. Rapidly ICT is becoming a mediator of learning in the multi
components learning environments and is shown to support students and teachers in improving
learning outcomes. In respect of providing an appropriate environment for the child to learn and
grow in school, an insight of child‘s physical environment becomes necessary to be investigated.
Early Childhood Physical Environment Rating Scale (ECPERS) (Moore 1994) which has been
successfully tested in Australia, United Kingdom, and United States of America to assess the
quality of the physical environment of pre-schools may be used to ascertain physical
environment aspects of pre-schools and classrooms.

Code 905 and Code 908 described in Table 1 below could be formulated as a survey tool
to quantify the physical environment aspects of their pre-schools and classrooms, respectively.

Table 1: Code 905 and 908
38


S.No. Code 905 : Ratings of the physical
environment of pre-schools
Code 908 : Ratings for the perception on the
physical environment of classrooms
1 Availability of spatial exposure Exposure and definition level of the activities
2 Availability of spatial separation Visual non obstruction level
3 Availability of visual relationship Appropriateness of size of space for activity
centre
4 Availability of spatial wideness Appropriateness of size of space for storage
5 Availability of circulation zone Focus level of teaching and learning materials
6 Separation of teachers‘ working area Softness level of spatial surface
7 Availability of isolation/private space Level of spatial flexibility
8 Variety of seating space Variety level of seating/working areas
9 Appropriateness of the surfaces Quantity of teaching and learning resources
10 Outdoor/indoor visual connectivity Separation level of activity areas from
circulation
11 Flexibility of the learning spaces
12 Appropriateness of the scale
13 Appropriateness of the storage
14 Appropriateness of the children‘s‘ eye-
level

15 Visibility of the entrance to the activity
centre


The findings of a pilot study (Ariffin & Ghazilla 2010) illustrated various integration
issues in terms of anthropometrics of students of primary school and furniture provided. It also
suggested customization of furniture that can accommodate with the variability across age and
gender.

Children Physical Environment Rating Scale (CPERS) dealt with 14 subscales. These
subscales could also be an effective measurement tool to understand child physical environment
which can lead to better design (Moore 2007). 14 subscales have been further categorized in 4
broad areas such as planning, building as a whole, Indoor activity spaces and outdoor spaces as
mentioned in Table 2 below.

Table 2: 14 subscales of CPERS

Part A. Planning

1. Center size and modules

Part B. Building as a whole

2. Image and scale
3. Circulation
4. Common core of shared facilities
5. Indoor environmental quality
6. Safety and security

Part C. Indoor activity
spaces
7. Modified open-plan space
8. Home bases
39

9. Quiet activity areas
10. Physical activity areas
11. Messy activity areas

Part D. Outdoor spaces

12. Play yards: functional needs
13. Play yards: developmental needs
14. Location and site


As suggested, the above scale along with Code 905 and Code 908 can be used for a
variety of purposes, including post-occupancy evaluation, research, policy guidance, and a
shorthand design guide for new early childhood educational facilities or the modification of
existing centers (Moore 2007).

Code 905 and Code 908 deal with physical environment aspects of pre-school and
classrooms. However the above mentioned CPERS (14 subscales) is very appropriately
categorized in planning, building as a whole, Indoor activity spaces and outdoor spaces. Strength
of these measurement tools is its ability to pinpoint faults in post-construction or post-occupancy
situations.

The scale can be used as a powerful tool for the Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) of
early childhood development and education centers. Such POEs could lead to programs or briefs
for minor design interventions or major renovations. CPERS, therefore, can be a supplementary
tool proving much-needed information on the quality of a building and its various spaces and
including outdoor play areas, all vis-à-vis child developmental and educational principles (Moore
2007).

The CPERS scale, which explicitly includes a large number of descriptors of good
environmental design for children, can be used by architects as a type of thumbnail design guide.
For example, if POEs were done on existing centers in an area using CPERS, and a summary
obtained, the relative positive and negative results would indicate some of the most important
design issues on which to focus in a newly designed center. However, even if a POE were not
conducted, a parent group or the board of directors of a new center could use the scale to identify
which physical environmental considerations they wanted the architect to include in the program
or brief for the new building, and thus in the design of the building (Moore 2007).

3.0 School Design In Singapore

Singapore is one of the developed countries which have been embracing the concept of TBP in a
holistic way. Therefore a review of its guidelines on the standards and criteria for the planning of
schools is done in terms of their relation with building performance mandates such as thermal,
acoustic, visual, air, spatial comfort and building integrity.Guidelines on the standards and
criteria for the planning of schools in Singapore are provided in design handbooks for both
primary and secondary schools (Liew KPM 1981).


40

General Requirements

With regards to the orientation of school building, the best orientation is with the longitudinal
axis in the east–west direction to provide optimum sun shading for the building. Windows are
best located facing north or south. Alternatively, when the building is oriented with the windows
facing east or west, specially designed sun shading devices are provided (Wong 2003). If natural
ventilation from prevailing breezes proves inadequate, ceiling fans are provided.

Thermal performance requirements

The thermal performance refers to the temperature, relative humidity and air movement within
the rooms. The classrooms are non- air conditioned. The acceptable limits are as follows (1996):
• Temperature (24–28◦C)
• Relative humidity (20–70%)
• Average air movement (¡0:8 m=s)

Lighting performance requirements

In school, visual tasks are performed in both horizontal and vertical planes. The recommended
design values for lighting in the classrooms, where the activities carried out within are
considered to be ‗tasks with simple visual requirements‘, are 500 lux for both horizontal and
vertical planes (1987).

Spatial performance requirements

Standards of accommodation for the instructional areas in a school have to be established with
due consideration of the teaching methodology adopted. As teaching methods of the
conventional or traditional style (i.e. the teacher-centric approach) are prevalent in Singapore
schools and as the progressive or non-formal styles or teaching have yet to prove their
superiority, the design of classrooms closely follows the traditional model. The educational
specification(1972) of a standard secondary school sets out a space norm for 40-seat classrooms
of 64 m2, that is, an area per seat of 1:6 m2. According to the Design Handbook(1990), the
requirements for spatial quality in a classroom are as follows:
(a) Distance between vertical rows of tables—750 mm minimum.
(b) Distance between horizontal rows of tables—600 mm minimum.
(c) Distance between the 1st row of tables and the chalkboard—3000 mm.
(d) Distance between the last row and the back of room— 1700 mm.
(e) Distance of the last row from the chalkboard— 7900 mm.
(f) Size of tables—480 by 600 mm2.

Acoustic performance requirements

A poor acoustics environment in schools leads to communication problems, annoyance, stress
and development of poor conversational habits. A survey, concluded in early 1990 in Singapore,
recommended a noise criterion of 55 dB(A) for local schools (Lee 1989a). This level is higher
than that recommended by schools in western countries of 25–40 dB(A) (Lee 1989b) because it
41

is tailored to the needs of the local school based on objective measurements as well as subjective
rating of noise levels in the local schools by teachers.

Indoor air quality performance requirements

There are many reasons that indoor air quality should be considered to be an important priority in
the school environment. One is that the sole purpose of a school facility is to foster the learning
process, which is impacted directly by the quality of the indoor environment. Another is that
children are still developing physically and are more likely to suffer the consequences of indoor
pollutants. The level of carbon dioxide is used to assess the efficiency of ventilation. The
acceptable concentration of carbon dioxide for indoors is 1000 ppm according to ENV
Guidelines (ENV).One of the most common health complaints from air quality contamination is
allergic asthma (Bayer CW 1999). Suspended particulate matter, particularly in the form of chalk
dust in classrooms is one of the contributors to asthma occurrence. The recommended maximum
concentration for respirable suspended particles is 150 mg=m3 (ENV)

Building integrity performance requirements

Building integrity is based on the knowledge of loads, moisture conditions, temperature shifts,
air movement, radiation conditions, biological attack, man-made and natural disasters. A
building‘s integrity has three properties(1985):
(a) Mechanical=structural properties—compression, tension, shear, abuse.
(b) Physical=chemical properties—water tightness, air tightness, transmission, reflection,
absorption of heat, light and sound energy, fire safety.
(c) Visible properties—color, texture, finish, form, durability, maintainability.
This performance cannot be measured objectively, but evaluated by means of subjective
measurements. In general, in order to satisfy this mandate, a building has to be structurally
stable, weather tight, durable, be of good quality construction and meet fire safety requirements

4.0 Subjective Findings And Integrated Design Process (IDP)

From the literature review , it is evident that the study of the learning environment should never
be focused on singular area performance. Rather, the impact of a decision made for one mandate
on the other mandates should also be investigated in totality. It is evident through the studies
done so far that there is a gap in achieving total building performance leading to non-conducive
learning environment. Building Integration with new upcoming technologies such as ICT in
Malaysia and emerging trend of smart schools need to catered in the design philosphy of new
schools. The design guidelines in Singapore are very comprehensive in nature but they also do
not put much required stress on the integration of various building performance mandates .
Physical environment of the child whose conduciveness is one of the major factor for child‘s
learning and development in school environment is also not appropriately taken into account.
Dealing with so many parametes in a building is not an easy task which pronounceates the need
of extensive integrated project management. Integration of design and project management at the
onset of project which comes under the umbrella of IDP may provide a suitable solution for the
evident gap. IDP may be an alternative process that can be adopted to achieve a perfect balance
between requirements of owner , guidelines and TBP along with achieving sustainable targets.
42








Figure 1: Design Team Involvement
Image Source: Busby Perkins + Will and Suntec

IDP and its process
IDP is a method of realizing high performance building that contributes to sustainable
communities. It is a collaborative process that focuses on the design, construction, operation and
occupancy of a building over its complete life- cycle. IDP is designed to allow the client and
other stakeholders to develop and realize clearly defined and challenging functional,
environmental and economic goals and objectives.
Generally IDP is:
- An iterative process; not a linear approach;
- A flexible method – not a formula;

An IDP is the most cost effective way to achieve a high performing building. It addresses issues
early on avoiding missed opportunities for performance and economy. Integrated design
incorporates multi-disciplinary analysis as well as accountability. Ideally, it includes the
following steps:
43

- Design workshop(s) (known as an eco-charrette) where all design disciplines are represented as
well as other stakeholders;
- Analyses that allow iterations of improvement in the design. Examples would include computer
simulations or modeling that would test design concepts (example, energy models);
- Periodic benchmarking against the goals and objectives throughout the design and construction
process;
- Commissioning to ensure the building has been built to the design intent and thus has true
potential for achieving green building and high performance benefits.

5.0 Can Idp Be A Solution? : A Proposed I DP for A Typical School Design

In accordance with the literature review done it may be suggested to follow IDP in a primary/
secondary school to bridge the gaps in implementation and achievement of total building
performance.Following steps may be followed in a school under IDP for achieving total building
performance as well as energy savings towards sustainability.

Leading the Integrated Design Process

It is essential to have a champion from within the school district (i.e. on the ―owner‘s‖ side) to
drive the IDP throughout project delivery (i.e. planning, budgeting, design, construction,
commissioning and startup).The champion/project manager is usually a high-level construction
manager or facility director within the school district, or an owner‘s representative. The architect
serves as leader and coordinator.

The following steps describe key points of involvement for the champion of integrated design.
The steps are organized as a checklist for each of the traditional phases of design.

Pre-design phase
- Commit to an IDP.
- Hold a meeting with planning consultants to identify high performance goals, such as ―use
25% less energy use than required by code‖ or ―provide a healthy learning environment.‖
- Following CPERS scale to charter a design brief.
- Hire design professionals with integrated design experience and high performance project
examples.
- Assess adequacy of the school budget and schedule, allow for additional time during
schematic design for integrated design.
- Identify roles and responsibilities for team members, including a champion for the IDP
process.
- Hold a full design charrette with all design team members and school district project
manager, as well as building user representatives from the following: facilities maintenance,
teaching staff, parent group, and, if age-appropriate, student body.
- Use existing framework(s) to brainstorm strategies you can use to achieve those goals.
existing frameworks include the Singapore school guidelines,LEED/Green Mark for schools,
collaborative for high performance schools and ASHRAE‘s advanced energy design
guidelines.
44

- Coordinate this process with the school educational specifications. Ensure no conflicts with
high performance goals. (Example,solid walls for classrooms provide space for hanging
student projects, but may reduce potential for daylighting.)
- Identify the person who will serve as the commissioning authority for the project.
- Determine financial criteria and priorities for school design decisions.
- Talk to local utilities, non-profits agencies about available incentives and tax credits.
- Ask the design team to gather climate and utility cost data.

Schematic design phase
- Refine the school building program and space functions.
- Schedule periodic team meetings and support brainstorming and collaborative problem-
solving.
- Encourage the designers and engineers to develop design options to reduce loads on building.
- Support simplified energy modeling and Life-Cycle cost analysis for school design
alternatives in order to make objective choices between options.
- Remind the design team to compare results of this phase to the high performance goals.
- Ensure that the commissioning authority works with the owner to document design intent and
owner program requirements.
- Complete a preliminary rating/scorecard using the framework applicable to the project. This
can be used as a benchmark throughout the project.

Design development phase
- Hold regular team meetings to ensure communication among team members. Ensure high
performance design is a regular meeting topic.
- Evaluate various school building systems for their possible integrated benefits.
- Request whole-building energy modeling to confirm the preferred design meets the energy
performance goals, and to confirm eligibility for rating systems, incentives and tax credits.
- Update rating document/scorecard as part of benchmarking.
- Verify that the school design documents at this stage contain strategies to meet the
performance goals.
- Request more detailed cost information from team members to update the schematic cost
model.
- Work with the value engineer to ensure functional value of high performance features.

Construction documents
- Hold regular team meetings to ensure communication among team members.
- Have the commissioning authority and maintenance and operations personnel perform a
document review of building systems.
- Update the school cost model and schedule with team input.
- Update rating document/scorecard as part of benchmarking.
- Request documentation from team.
- Verify that the construction documents contain the strategies to meet the performance goals.



45

Construction phase

- Conduct a construction kick-off meeting with the contractors and subcontractors to secure
their commitment to the high performance goals. Point out specific aspects of construction
documents that pertain to these goals.
- Ask the architect to carefully review submittals and substitution requests for impact on
performance goals.
- At the end of construction and prior to occupancy, allow time for the commissioning
authority to complete functional testing and operations & maintenance training.
- Review commissioning report and have contractor address recommended repairs or
alterations.

Occupancy

- Establish an ongoing energy management program, including training and periodic re-
commissioning.
- Use of CPERS scale for POE.
- After the warranty period shakedown, verify that high performance goals were met, assess
occupant satisfaction, and share feedback with the whole team.

6.0 Preliminary Findings

In asia pacific region IDP may be termed as a new term although it is in some or other way
practised in every project.The paper suggests that IDP may be further comprehensively adopted
by the construction industry to achieve better synchronisation among various performace
mandates. TBP importance is well understood by the industry and carries significance towards
conduciveness in the learning environment.TBP approach along with IDP parameters can be the
way to look the things in future. IDP is also considered as synonym for
sustainability.Sustainability of the learning environment will enhance the buildability aspects in
terms of energy consumption and long-term costs to the facility. These savings will directly and
indirectly help in achieving conduciveness through better and optimal designing.

7.0 Recommendations For Further Study

The limitation of this paper are subjective findings based on literature review. It is recommended
to further investigate the concerned topic on objective datasets . On similar terms IDP also needs
to be further objectively studied for specific project needs in accordance with building
performance requirements. Sustainability and its integration with conduciveness in learning
environment is also suggested for further research .

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Monitoring Indoor Air Quality:80–98.




47

Membina Semula Persekitaran Pembelajaran di luar Kelas yang Mampan
dari Pemahaman Rekabentuk dan Pendekatan-Pendekatan Sekolah Alam di
Indonesia


N. Spalie, N. Utaberta, M.M. Tahir, N.A.G.Abdullah, A.I.Che-Ani
Jabatan Seni Bina, Fakulti Kejuruteraan dan Alam Bina, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
nemo_k2h2@yahoo.com, nangkula_arch@yahoo.com,designaar@gmail.com, akmal.goh@gmail.com, adiirfan@gmail.com

Abstrak

Dengan perkembangan yang sedia ada didalam pendekatan pedagogi pembelajaran dan pengajaran di
dunia,tidak banyak kajian yang dilakukan ke atas pemebelajaran di luar kelas di Malaysia. Kebanyakan
dari kajian menfokuskan dalam pembangunan kurikulum dan penyampaian ilmu tetapi tidak banyak
penulisan dan pendekatan yang dilakukan dalam melihat pembelajaran di luar kelas merupakan salah satu
kaedah alternatif dalam pembelajaran di dalam dunia akademik. Kertas kerja ini berusaha utnuk
menerangkan tentang falsafah dan pendekatan salah sebuah daripada sekolah alternatif di Indonesia iaitu
Natural School atau lebih di kenali sebagai Sekolah Alam. Sekolah ini menggunakan kaedah yang unik
serta falsafah gaya Toto Chan dalam pembelajaran telah di ambil kira sebagai salah satu sekolah alterbatif
yang paling berkembang di Indonesia. Kejayaan dalam melahirkan anak-anak yang luar biasa telah
membuktikan bahawa ini merupakan implimentasi yang paling efektif dalam pembelajaran di luar kelas
di Indonesia. Perbincangan ini akan terbahagi kepada empat bahagian. Bahagian yang pertama akan
memperbincangan permasalahan semasa dan situasi dalam kurikulum dan rekabentuk pembelajaran di
luar kelas. Manakala di bahagian kedua pula akan akan mengekplorasi dan mengkaji semula definisi
pembelajaran di luar kelas serta kepentingan dan karakter dalam persekitaran pembelajaran. Bahagian
ketiga pula akan menfokuskan pengajaran dari pendekatan dan falsafah dari Sekolah Alam. Bahagian
terakhir pula analisis dan perbandingan akan di buat dalam mencari keputusan dan cadangan dan
rekomendasi untuk fasiliti pembelajaran di luar kelas daripada pendekatan sebelum ini di Malaysia.

Kata Kunci: Pembelajaran di luar kelas (Outdoor Learning), Sekolah Alam, Indonesia.

1.0 Pendahuluan

Kecenderungan hasrat Negara dalam mencapai visi yang bertemakan 1 Malaysia telah
melahirkan satu pemikiran dan ideologi iaitu 1 perubahan, 1 pencapaian. Selaras dengan hasrat
Negara untuk mencapai matlamat Wawasan 2020, Malaysia terus mencuba untuk mencari nafas
baru dalam sistem pendidikannya. Visi ini bertujuan untuk mewujudkan kestabilan,keterampilan,
kebijaksanaan ke arah pertumbuhan produktiviti yang boleh di capai melalui alam lingkungan,
teknologi, dan lima pancaindera. Sistem pembelajaran yang baru seperti pembelajaran di luar
kelas (outdoor learning) sedikit sebanyak membantu dalam penghasilan generasi yang lebih
optimis. Oleh yang demikian, kerajaan Malaysia telah berusaha untuk menggalakkan sekolah-
sekolah supaya mempunyai inisiatif dalam mempertingkatkan prestasi dari segi pembelajaran
dan pengajaran. Di harapkan penulisan kertas kerja awal ini dapat membantu dalam menjayakan
projek Negara yang kini gah diperkatakan iaitu Projek Permata Pintar.



48

1.1 Definisi Pembelajaran Di Luar Kelas

Terdapat pelbagai definisi yang diungkapkan dalam mempamerkan pemahaman terhadap
‗outdoor learning‘ yang bermaksud pembelajaran di luar kelas. Definasi ini terbahagi kepada
dua iaitu ‗Psychosocial definitions‘ atau diklafisikasikan sebagai ‗Definisi Psycososial‘ dan
‗Environmental Definitons‘ atau diklasifikasikan sebagai ‗Definisi Alam Sekeliling‘.
Berdasarkan C. A. Lewis, 1975, The Administration of Outdoor Education
Programs. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt, pembelajaran di luar kelas dari segi psycososial ialah
“appeals to the use of the senses - audio, visual, taste, touch, and smell - for observation and
perception.” iaitu percubaan terhadap penggunaan deria pancaindera- pendengaran,
penglihatan, rasa, sentuh, dan hidu. Bagi definisi Alam Sekeliling pula mendifinisikan
pembelajaran ini sebagai “an experiential method of learning by doing, which takes place
primarily through exposure to the out-of-doors. I n outdoor education, the emphasis for the
subject of learning is placed on RELATI ONSHI PS: relationships concerning human and
natural resources.” Priest, S. (1988). The ladder of environmental learning. Journal of
Adventure Education, 5(2), 23-25. iaitu satu kaedah pembelajaran pengalaman dengan
melakukan atau mempraktikkan, yang mengambil tempat terutamanya melalui pendedahan
kepada alam di luar. Dalam pendidikan luar, penekanan untuk perkara pengajian diletakkan
pada PERHUBUNGAN: perhubungan berkenaan manusia dan sumber semulajadi.

2.0 Permasalahan Sistem Pembelajaran Prasekolah di Malaysia

Sebagaimana yang kita telah sedia maklum, kebanyakan system pembelajaran pra-sekolah yang
dipraktikkan di Malaysia menggunakan sistem pembelajaran di dalam kelas. Sistem yang
memerlukan fokus dalam mengingati dan menghafal semua maklumat. Lazimnya sistem
pembelajaran ini di gunakan hampir di setiap institusi prasekolah si seluruh Malaysia baik
institusi kerajaan atau swasta. Masalah yang paling kritikal adalah permasalahan pembelajaran
dan pengajaran berasaskan penilaian dan kedudukan mata di dalam kelas. Ini mengakibatkan
kerosakan sistem pendidikan dari penghayatan dan pengmanfaatan pembelajaran dalam
kehidupan seharian kepada asas mengejar nilai mata kedudukan dengan hanya menghafal,
bukan menghayati, memahami serta memanfaatkan ilmu tersebut. Terdapat standard kurikulum
bagi institusi prasekolah yang disediakan oleh Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia yang harus di
turuti oleh setiap institusi prasekolah di seluruh Malaysia. Di bawah merupakan contoh modul
kurikulum prasekolah yang telah dikeluarkan oleh Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

49




















Rajah 1 :
Contoh Modul Kurikulum Standard Prasekolah di Malaysia.
Sumber : Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.





















Rajah 2: Contoh Modul Teras Bertema Kurikulum Standard Prasekolah.
Sumber: Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

50

Berdasarkan kurikulum ini, semua institusi harus menyediakan bahan pembelajaran yang
mencukupi bagi memenuhi paiwaian yang telah di tetapkan oleh Kementerian Pelajaran
Malaysia. Kurikulum yang telah di tetapkan ini bukan merupakan batu penghalang bagi
menvariasikan kaedah pengajaran dan pembelajaran, malahan ini merupakan titik permulaan
bagi memvariasikan kaedah pengajaran dan pembelajaran dengan lebih terbuka. Satu contoh
modul teras tema di ambil untuk dianalisis iaitu Modul teras tema yang ke tiga; Living Things
yang mempunyai sub-tema Alive or Not, How do I Stay Alive, My Body Parts, Why Do We
Have..?,Do We Look Same?,Who I am ?,Nice to Know You plants, Wonderful Animals, dan
Simillar But Not Same. Kebanyakan institusi prasekolah di Malaysia menggunakan kaedah
pembelajaran di dalam kelas dengan memaparkan visual video, visual gambar dan juga
gambaran imaginasi. Walhal , dari kajian awal yang telah di lakukan ke atas segelintir pelajar
prasekolah menunjukkan peningkatan minat dan juga pemahaman hampir 40% dengan
menggunakan kaedah pembelajaran dan pengajaran di luara kelas-outdoor learning. Sebagai
contoh bagi modul sub-tema Nice to Know You Plants yang menggunakan kaedah audio visual
sebagai kaedah pembelajaran dan pengajaran mungkin menarik minat para pelajar buat seketika
serta teknik menghafal tumbuh-tumbuhan hanya akan member kesan yang tipis terhadap
memori berbanding dengan penggunaan teknik pembelajaran di luar kelas dengan ―the use of the
senses - audio, visual, taste, touch, and smell”- menggunakan 5 pancaindera bagi proses
pemerhatian, pemahaman dan tanggapan. Bukankah terdapat perbezaan di antara melihat bunga
berduri di dalam bentuk visual berbanding melihat secara hidup,merasa dengan lidah, menyentuh
dengan tangan, dan menghidu dengan hidung? -“an experiential method of learning by doing,
which takes place primarily through exposure to the out-of-doors. I n outdoor education, the
emphasis for the subject of learning is placed on RELATI ONSHI PS: relationships concerning
human and natural resources.” Priest, S. (1988). The ladder of environmental
learning. Journal of Adventure Education, 5(2), 23-25
Ya ! Inilah yang dikatakan ―outdoor learning‖-pembelajaran di luar kelas

3.0 Kurikulum „Outdoor Learning‟ - Sekolah Alam Di Indonesia

Beberapa institusi prasekolah di Indonesia khususnya di Jakarta, telah di jadikan bahan kajian
awal bagi kaedah pembelajaran di luar atau di kenali sebagai sekolah alam. Institusi-institusi ini
telah berjaya menggunakan teknik pengajaran dan pembelajaran di luar kelas dengan
menggunakan 5 pancaindera dan juga pengalaman hidup. Kejayaan ini telah memperlihatkan
perkembangan sekolah-sekolah alam bagai cendawan yang tumbuh selepas hujan kerana
permintaan yang semakin menigkat di kawasan bandar dan juga di luar bandar. Ini
memperkuatkan lagi azam untuk melanjutkan kajian tentang ―outdoor learning‖-pembelajaran
di luar kelas ini.

3.1 Sekolah Alam Bogor

Sekolah Alam Bogor ini terletak di Jakarta dan menggunakan 3 konsep alam iaitu :
- Alam sebagai ruang belajar
- Alam sebagai media dan bahan ajar
- Alam sebagai objek pembelajaran

Sementara proses pembelajaran di Sekolah Alam Bogor ini bersandarkan kepada 4 tiang iaitu:
51

- Pengembangan akhlak melalui teladan (Learning by Qudwah)
- Pengembangan logik dan daya cipta melalui Expreriental Learning
- Pengembangan kepemimpinan dengan kaedah Outbond Training
- Pengembangan kemampuan Interpreneur.


















Gambar 1: Sekolah Alam Bogor
Sumber : felita2822vania.blogspot.com

3.2 Sekolah Alam Bekasi

Sekolah alam bekasi juga terletak di Jakarta dan menggunakan 3 asas kurikulum iaitu :
- Pengembangan Akhlak, dengan kaedah belajar "Tauladan"
- Pengembangan Logika, dengan kaedah belajar "Action Learning"
- Pengembangan Sifat Kepemimpinan, dengan kaedah belajar "Outbound Training"
Sementara proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran bagi Sekolah Alam Bekasi ini
berdasarkan 3 kaedah iaitu:

- Menerapkan kaedah SPIDER WEB.
Dengan berasaskan tema ataupun projek, proses belajar dikembangkan secara
menyeluruh ke semua bidang ilmu dengan tujuan akhir mengenal pengatur Alam Semesta
Dialah Allah SWT.

- Melalui Proses Accelerated Learning,
siswa belajar dengan melibatkan semua potensi dirinya

- Penerapan Active Learning,
siswa diajak untuk Fun, Fresh and Friendly dalam belajar dan aktif dengan kegiatan
observasi dan eksplorasi.

52


Gambar 2 : Sekolah Alam Bekasi
Sumber : www.sekolahalambekasi.com

3.3 Sekolah Alam Ciganjur

Sekolah alam ini juga terletak di Jakarta, berada di tengah kota metropolitan menjadikan sekolah
ini semakin terkenal dan semakin di ingini oleh para ibu bapa untuk menyekolahkan anak-anak
mereka di institusi prasekolah yang terbaik. Sekolah Alam Ciganjur ini mengenengahkan 3
konsep pembelajaran dan pengajaran iaitu:

1. Akhlaqul Karimah :
Menjadikan anak memiliki akhlaq yang baik dengan kaedah utamanya keteladanan yang
berdasar pada Al-Qur‘an dan Hadits

2. Falsafah Ilmu
Pengetahuan : menjadikan anak memiliki pemikiran logik yang baik, menghormati alam
lingkungannya serta dijadikan media pembelajaran dengan kaedah action learning dan
diskusi.

3. Kepemimpinan/
Leadership : menjadikan anak memiliki semangat kepemimpinan yang baik dengan
kaedah out bound dan dynamic group.

Pembelajaran dan pengajaran di sekolah alam ini menggunakan modul tema Spider Web, bukan
mengikut per bab matapelajaran dan dengan pendekatan modul ini, siswa mampu mengaitkan
pelajaran dengan nyata serta mengitkan hubungan antara pelajaran yang di terima. Di sekolah
ini bukan hanya siswa yang belajar , malahan guru turut belajar dari para pelajar, bahkan orang
53

tua juga turut belajar dari guru dan siswa. Para pelajar tidak hanya belajar di kelas, tetapi mereka
belajar dari mana sahaja dan dari siapa sahaja. Mereka tidak hanya belajar dari buku, tetapi juga
belajar dari alam sekelilingnya. Mereka bukan belajar untuk mengejar nilai markah atau nilai
kedudukan di dalam kelas, tetapi mereka belajar bagi memanfaatkan ilmunya dalam kehidupan
seharian.



















Gambar 3 : Pembelajaran di luar kelas di Sekolah Alam Ciganjur
Sumber : wongawam.blogspot.com

3.4 Sekolah Alam Depok

Konsep Sekolah Alam ini berdasarkan kesedaran bahawa pendidikan harus mengacu ke arah
tujuan asas penciptaan manusia di bumi, iaitu sebagai Khalifatullah fil ardh (pemimpin di muka
bumi) dengan pra syarat :

- Memahami cara tunduk kepada Allah SWT
- Memahami cara tunduk makhluk lain/alam semesta kepada Allah SWT(sunnatullah)
- Memahami memimpin makhluk lain/alam semesta sesuai dengan hokum Allah SWT.

Konsep diatas di adaptasikan dengan menggunakan 3 konsep iaitu :

- Kurikulum Akhlaq (efektif),
meliputi: penghafalan dan penghayatan Al-Qur‘an dan Sunnah, kejujuran, menjaga
amanah, rendah hati, keberanian, kesabaran, mampu bersyukur, berdikari, ekspresi, cinta
ilmu, kestabilan emosi, memaafkan dan meminta maaf, simpati, ingin memberi dan
berkongsi, mampu bekerjasama, motivasi tinggi, disiplin, lapang dada,
bertanggungjawab, mengenali dirinya sendiri dan kemampuan berinteraksi dengan alam
dan lingkungan.
54

- Kurikulum Logika Ilmu Pengetahuan (Kognitif)
pembelajaran berdasarkan tematik yang diwujudkan dalam Spider Web, yang mencakupi
pengetahuan umum, Ad-din, pengetahuan alam, matematik, kreativiti dan seni.

- Kurikulum Leadership (Pshicomotorik)
meliputi: Outward Bound, Life skill, Renang dan Kewirausahaan

Aplikasi kurikulum tersebut disokong dengan 3 tiang utama bagi proses pembelajaran dan
pengajaran iaitu :

- Keteladanan guru
- Fun learning
- Active learning

Gambar 4 : Aktiviti luar kelas , Sekolah Alam Depok.
Sumber : www.sekolahalamdepok.com

3.5 Sekolah Alam Natur Islam

Pada Kurikulum Sekolah Natur Islam semua kelebihan dari konsep pendidikan yang ada pada
sistem sekolah-sekolah lain seperti :
- pembelajaran Islam dan Al Quran yang intensif
- pembelajaran melalui alam terbuka dan aplikasinya
- kebebasan dalam berekspresi dan berdikari

Konsep tersebut dijadikan satu kesatuan dalam sistem pendidikan Sekolah Natur Islam.
Semua itu dirangkumkan dalam satu kurikulum yang memadukan semua aspek pengetahuan
yang diperlukan anak murid, dimana dalam setiap subjek pelajaran, nilai Quran dan hadith
Rasulullah SAW senantiasa hadir. Selain itu, Sekolah Natur Islam ini mengikuti , standard
Diknas( seperti kementerian pelajaran) diterapkan sebagai standard minimum sekolah tersebut
bagi mempersediakan para pelajar menghadapai dunia luar sekolah.
Sekolah ini juga juga memiliki kurikulum yang mengatur pengajaran akhlak, serta kurikulum
yang mengajar tentang life skill bagi para pelajar. Termasuk didalamnya outbond yang mengajar
anak untuk mampu mengatasi masalah dan bertanggung jawab, serta 3 jenis olahraga yang
dianjurkan Rasulullah SAW iaitu :

55

- berenang,
- berkuda
- memanah.
















Gambar 5: Sekolah Alam Natur Islam
Sumber : www.oursani.com

4.0 Kesimpulan

Salah satu bentuk sistem pendidikan pada saat ini yang mula berkembang di Indonesia adalah
pendidikan sekolah alam. Sistem pendidikan sekolah ini berbeza dari sekolah formal secara
umumnya. Kurikulum yang diterapkan di sekolah ini disusun oleh kakitangan pengajar agar
sesuai dengan kemampuan para pelajar. Sistem pendidikan di sekolah ini menggabungkan teori
dan penerapannya. Pembelajaran di Sekolah Alam menggunakan model lama spider web, tidak
per Bab mata pelajaran. Dengan model ini, siswa mampu mengaitkan pelajaran dengan dunia
nyata dan juga dapat saling mengaitkan hubungan antara pelajaran yang mereka terima. Di
Sekolah Alam bukan hanya para pelajar yang belajar, guru juga belajar dari murid dan ibu bapa
juga belajar dari guru dan para pelajar. Mereka tidak hanya belajar di kelas, tetapi mereka belajar
dari mana saja dan dari siapa saja. Selain belajar dari buku, para pelajar juga belajar dari alam
sekelilingnya. Anak-anak bukan belajar untuk mengejar nilai, tetapi untuk memanfaatkan
ilmunya dalam kehidupan seharian. Suatu tema ditegaskan dalam semua mata pelajaran. Dengan
demikian pemahaman siswa terhadap akar pembelajaran bersifat integratif, komprehensif dan
aplikatif sekaligus juga memahami kemampuan asas yang ingin ditumbuhkan kepada pelajar-
pelajar Sekolah Alam adalah kemampuan membangunkan jiwa keingintahuan, melakukan
observasi, membuat hipotesis, serta kemampuan pemikiran ilmiah. Dengan kaedah spider web
mereka belajar tidak hanya dengan mendengar penjelasan guru, tetapi juga dengan melihat,
menyentuh, merasakan, dan mengikuti keseluruhan proses dari setiap pembelajaran. Di sini para
pelajar juga diarahkan untuk memahami potensi asasnya sendiri. Setiap anak dihargai
kelebihannya, dan difahami kekurangannya. Dengan begitu, di Sekolah Alam, berbeza dengan
pendapat guru itu bukanlah hal yang tabu tetapi itu merupakan pembaharuan dalam pembentukan
generasi yang lebih intelektual dan outspoken.Ini merupakan anjakan paradigma yang perlu di
56

ambil bagi sistem dan modul pengajaran dan pembelajaran prasekolah yang baru di Malaysia
bagi melahirkan generasi yang lebih intellectual, critical, outspoken, independence dan
expression. Selaras dengan hasrat kerajaan dalam menjayakan Projek Permata Pintar, titik tolak
permulaan dalam pembaharuan dan pencapaian bermulanya di sini.

Rujukan

Lewis, C. A. 1975. The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-
Hunt
Haas, Malka, (v72, n6, 1996) "Children In The Junkyard", Childhood Education, , Association
for Childhood Education International, Wheaton, MD.
Komunitas Sekolah Alam. 2005. Menemukan Sekolah yang Membebaskan-Perjalanan
Menggapai Sekolah yang Mendidik Anak Menjadi Manusia Berkarakter
Moore, Robin,. Vol. VIII, 1996."Compact Nature: The Role of Playing and Learning Gardens
on Children's Lives", Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture.
Moore, Robin, C., Herb, Hong, H. 1997. Natural Learning: Creating Environments for
Rediscovering Nature's Way of Teaching, Berkeley, California, MIG Communications.
Priest, S. 1988. The ladder of environmental learning. Journal of Adventure Education, 5(2),
23-25
Trianto , M.Pd. 2010. Model Pembelajaran Terpadu-Konsep, Strategi, dan Implimentasinya
dalam Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan.(KTSP)
Kuroyanagi, T. 1981. The Little Girl at The Window.













57

Green Building Design Features For A Better Smart School: Lesson Learnt
From Geo and Leo Office Buildings

S.N.Kamaruzzaman
1
, R.Sulaiman
1
& L.Chi-Hin
1

1
Building Performance and Diagnostic, Faculty of Built Environment,
University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur
Correspondence email: queenofkuji@gmail.com

Abstract

There are many evidences based on previous researches that buildings are responsible for the global
warming and climate changes due to the carbon footprint, which resulted not only from the construction
activities but also throughout buildings lifecycle. As for schools, people need to build new buildings as to
cater the growing demands of young generation. Apart from new constructed buildings, the existing one
also need to be upgraded and improved from time to time as to be equivalence with current demand
especially in terms of comfort and energy efficiency. Contrary to office building, Malaysia does not have
a standard for an energy efficient school building or so-called green school building. Therefore, this paper
focuses on the Green Building Design being applied in the office buildings with the aim that it can be a
basis for a smart and green school building. The focus of the research will be on the relationships between
the design applied and level of energy efficiency performance in GEO and LEO buildings. The findings
shows that orientations, shading devices, interior layout, roof and walls insulation, ventilation system and
innovative windows are some of the solutions for an effective smart building.

Keywords: Green building, passive design features, energy efficient,

1.0 Introduction

On 24
th
July 2009, The Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato‘ Sri Mohd Najib has launched Green
Technology Policy 2009 stressing on energy efficiency and green building design that the
country heading towards in the future. Some of the approaches taken were setting up a green
technology agency, promoting foreign investments, allocating incentives for students who
pursuing green technology, and provision for R&D (Oh et. al, 2010)

A sustainable building, or green building is an outcome of a design which focuses on
increasing the efficiency of resources used (energy, water, and materials) while reducing
building impacts on human health and the environment during the building's lifecycle through
better orientation, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal (Frej, 2005). A
successful green design is a building that cleans its own air, save its own water, and produces its
own energy, makes it off grid from power generator stations that emit greenhouse gases and heat.
A green design also covers installation, verification and monitoring of HVAC, lighting and other
equipments and the use of renewable energy.

The term ―green‖ is essentially a synonym of sustainable, but it is frequently used more
loosely than the term sustainable (Resnick, 2009). While the green building movement in
Malaysia is still in its infancy, the green building revolution is happening around the globe,
which fuels by the understanding of the impacts on the environment and human health. This
revolution is further fueled by the consciousness of the limited time for the world to counteract
58

against the dangers of climate change and global (Yudelson, 2007). The revolution can be
tracked down to numerous causes over the years, just as the seeds of the independence of
Malaysia were planted decades before the country erupted into open rebellion.

Malaysia was listed as the bottom 10 country of cleanliness in climate index. The design
of our buildings will determine the energy efficiency of the buildings. However, the green
building design concept is still not popular among the construction field. There is a lack of
awareness among the commercial financial institution and the absence of viable projects on the
benefits of this design. This condition may contribute to the growth climate changes as well as
global warming and thus indirectly affect the welfares of human race in the next generation.

The Green Building Index Malaysia defined a green building as a building designed to be
efficient of resource use, while reducing building impact on human health and the environment
throughout the building‘s lifecycle. Whilst Frej (2005) defined green building as ―an outcome of
a design which focuses on increasing the efficiency of resource use – energy, water, and
materials – while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment during the
building‘s lifecycle, through better sitting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and
removal‖ (p. 4).

The Green Building Index (GBI) rating system year 2009 assesses the impact of a new
building on its environment based on the six criteria of Energy Efficiency, Indoor Environment
Quality, Sustainable Site & Management, Materials & Resources, Water Efficiency, and
Innovation (Oh, 2010)

Looking back to the literatures (Resnick, 2009;Frej, 2005; McDonald, 2005; Yudelson,
2007; Cole et al, 2000; Kats, 2003), the more common terms used by the industry to discuss
about the ―environmental friendly‖ building matters are ―Sustainability‖, ―Green Building‖,
―Holistic Whole Building Design‖ and others. However there is few or no definition that had
been set by the industry about the term ―Green Building Design‖. In this paper, the term ―Green
Building Design‖ is used to reflect the initiatives and approach of the Malaysia industry. The
reason why the term ―Green Building Design‖ is used in this paper is to identify the passive
approaches that integrate in an innovative building to achieve an energy efficient vision. In
which the term ―Passive Approach‖ is often related to the ―Design‖ of one building. In addition,
such passive approaches were one of the major criteria to realize the Green Buildings that will
then advanced to Sustainable Buildings and Regenerative Buildings. It was from thus intention
and relations that the ―Green Building Design‖ is being derived. Therefore, the term ―Green
Building Design‖ in this paper, and thereon after throughout the whole project, is defined as: the
passive design approaches integrated in a building that to achieve the objectives of a Green
Building, in the context of reducing negative impacts on the environment and ecosystems.
Hence, Green Building Design in Energy Efficiency (EE) means that the passive design
approaches integrate into a building in order to achieve a very low energy consumption state and
utilizing the still conventional energy spring from fossil fuel efficiently.

In order to deeper clarify the title, Green Building Design is the elements that are
permanently attached to or part of the building design such as building orientation, building
envelope, shading device, innovative windows, roof and wall insulation etc. These features are
59

often related to the passive cooling, lighting and ventilation of a building, which in turn
contribute to the EE of the building.

A review on passive design listed that passive cooling, ventilation, day lighting, roof and
wall insulation and interior space layout are the features that widely implemented in green
building design (Azizi and Adnan, 2008). The concept of Green Building Design is a vital
approach to achieve EE vision in a building. By integrating this concept early in the design stage
will greatly reduce the cost for development as well as maintenance.

Normally to assess whether these green features are benefitted in achieving an energy
efficient building, the management will look into the building‘s energy consumption. The energy
consumption in buildings for a green building is given in terms of the Building Energy Index or
BEI. Based on Ahmed (2008), the Malaysian Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication
(MEWC) or previously known as the Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia
(MECM) before the year 2004; introduced the Guidelines for Energy Efficiency in Non-
Domestic Buildings in 1989 which was meant to be a building code of practice. The guidelines
now have been renamed as the Malaysian Standard MS 1525:2001 and further improved in 2007.

Further, the Green Building Index in Malaysia was introduced on Jan 3, 2009 (Oh and
Chua, 2010). It holds the distinction of being the first and only non-governmental and
profession-driven green-rating tool developed for the tropical climate. The GBI‘s ultimate goal is
to reduce the carbon footprint of Malaysia‘s urban cities. With this index in place, buildings in
Malaysia can now be assessed and guided to reduce and minimize their impact on the
environment. Based on Oh et al (2010), the index rates green buildings on six criteria which are
energy efficiency (35%); indoor environmental quality (21%); sustainable site planning and
management (16%); materials and resources (11%); water efficiency (105); and innovation (7%).
Depending on the score, buildings will be rated accordingly as as platinum (86+), gold (76 – 85),
silver (66 – 75) and certified (50 -65).

From the six key criteria, Energy Efficiency represents the highest marks. This criterion
encompasses the design (25%); commissioning (5%); and also verification and maintenance
(5%). Thus, we can see that Energy Efficiency is the crucial part of making a building green or
sustainable; yet the design decides the energy efficiency of a building.

In hot tropical climate like Malaysia for instance, the cooling load for buildings is usually
at its highest at mid day. This makes the mechanical equipment work harder to keep the
occupants comfortable, which leads to greater electricity and hence energy consumption (Jain,
2009). Every 1K rise in the daily maximum temperature leads to 2 to 4% increase in peak urban
electricity demand for cooling starting from the 15-20 °C (59-68 °F) temperature range (Akbari,
2001). Thus, it is important for us to make sure that these increments would not lead to higher
energy consumption and thus the effort of making energy efficient building is just a waste.

2.0 Materials And Methods

This research adopts qualitative method, which only carefully selected buildings will be studied
by interviewing their managing department and analyzing previous records and documents. No
60

structured questionnaire survey to the public will be conducted due to the lack of knowledge
about green among the public sector. However, semi-structured and open end questionnaires
were prepared for interview sessions. The questionnaires are shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: Questionnaires used for the case studies

Case study selection was based on three criteria.
- Energy Efficient : To include buildings that consumes energy efficiently.
- Green Building Design : To include buildings that integrates passive approaches into the
design such as building orientation, interior space layout design, roof and walls insulation etc.
- Building type/function : To include buildings focus on a specified function.
Observations were carried out in order to identify the location of green design integrated in the
subject buildings; what is the level of comfort inside the building; and how such design helps to
reduce the energy consumption of the building. Photographs were taken for visual purpose.

3.0 Results And Discussion

Despite the most advance EE features integrated in the GEO Building, the building was only
GBI certified, instead of Gold or Platinum award. The limitation in the research is that the
available energy performance of the studied buildings was not up to date. The data obtained from
the LEO Building was data monitored in 2005. While the buildings have been fine-tuning from
time to time in order to achieve a better energy performance, therefore the data such as the
building energy index (BEI) is believed to be energy efficient than the data shown in the this
chapter. However, such fine-tuning often involved only with the active EE approach and human
behavior. Hence, the data studied can be considered still pertinent for this research.

61

The PTM Green Energy Office Building (GEO Building), previously known as Zero Energy
Office (ZEO Building), located in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, is an administration-
cum-research office for the Malaysia Energy Centre. The GEO Building is officially the first and
only completed GBI Certified building to date in Malaysia, which is why it was chosen to be the
case study. Though being a pilot project, the building marked another milestone towards greater
promotion and adoption of sustainable building concept in the Malaysian Building sector.
According to PTM‘s officer, it is the only such building in Malaysia that integrates the Energy
Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) in one working demonstrator building to date.

Meanwhile the LEO building is the first government building to be built with green building
design in context of energy efficiency. As a showcase building like the GEO Building, the LEO
Building demonstrates the EE features so that other buildings can replicate such measures, make
it public or private sector. Although the LEO Building is not a certified Green Building by any
available Green Building Rating System, it was chosen to be one of the case studies of this
research due to its most advances EE Green Building Design features in the region to date. The
building displays integration of the best EE designs, which will be discussed together with the
GEO Building in the next section. The buildings are shown in Figure 2 and their background is
tabulated in Table 1 below.

Table 1: Building background

PTM GREEN ENERGY OFFICE
BUILDING
LEO BUILDING
Building Owner Pusat Tenaga Malaysia KETTHA
Gross Floor Area
4,000 m
2
38,606 m
2

Total Number of Storey
(excluding roof-top and
basement)
3 6
Commencement Date
of Building Operation
September 2004 September 2004
Primary Use Administration-cum-research office for
the Malaysia Energy Centre
Administration &
Research for KETTHA
Differences (BIPV) panels are all integrated into the
building design and connected to the
National Electricity (TNB) grid which
contribute to Zero Energy Office
Did not integrate active
Solar Technology which
only lead to Low Enerqy
Office










62





(a) (b)

Figure 2: The GEO (a) and LEO (b) buildings
Source: Pusat Tenaga Malaysia and KETTHA

3.1 Green Building Design Elements

Table 2 below shows the integration of several passive green designs that enables the buildings
achieve very low energy characteristics. The table shows the different approach but yet still fall
under the same passive design features.
63

Table 2: Green Building Design Elements in the PTMM GEO and LEO building
PTM GREEN ENERGY OFFICE BUILDING LEO BUILDING
Overview
- integrates passive green design
- integrates EE active system (ie EE office equipment; EE
IT Network & server room; EE air conditioning and
ventilation; floor slab cooling; Chilled Metal Ceilings; Ice
storage cooling system; and controls & sensors)
- integrates several passive green design
- Active EE system in the building includes innovative air-
conditioning system; lighting system; energy efficient
office appliances; comprehensive energy management
system; as well as mechanical ventilation system
- Installed with solar photovoltaic‘s system that generate
Direct Current (DC) and will be diverted to local loads in
the building
- Rainwater harvest system from the secondary roof helps to
reduce water consumption.
Building orientation Façade facing north and south Orientated to the North and the South
Sun shading devices - Large overhang at west facing windows
- Eastern façade does not have any windows or doors facing
directly to the east to avoid direct sunlight
- Larger shading on the eastern façade
- Exterior shading over the windows
Windows design
- Double-glazing windows at north and south facing façade
- Double-glazing windows and internal blinds at west facing
façade
- 50% light transmission and 25% heat transmission
- See Figure 3a and Table 3
- Punch hole window façade in the lower floors, and curtain
wall windows with exterior shading louvers in the upper
floors. (Figure 5)
- Windows area are about 25-39% of the façade area
- no windows on the western façade but with 12mm thick
light green tinted glazing
Interior layout - Open space concept with all the workstation are positioned
near the windows where daylight is available
- Meeting rooms, facility room and stores are located at the
centre
- Ground level is reserved for the publics
- Lower ground is mostly consist of M&E rooms, with other
facilities
- Open space concept, where all the workstations are
concentrated along the border as well as the atrium area in
order to have the maximum daylight
- Secondary functions are consigned to the inner part, where
artificial lighting is needed.
Daylight design
- Set to 100% daylight during daytime
- Integrates mirror light shelf, roof light and skylight system
respectively inside the building
- See Figure 3b
- Managed to achieve 65% visible light transmission and
allows only 51% of the heat
- Using a combination of exterior shading and tinted glazing
- The atrium allows daylight access to the central of the
building
- See Figure 6
64

Roof and wall
insulation
- Adequate insulation at the roof and wall particularly the
western and eastern façade
- The building is airtight in order to achieve low cold air
leakage
- 100mm thermal insulation in East and West walls; 200mm
roof insulation, 200mm thermal insulation in ground floor
slab
- See Figure 4
- Insulated with 200mm aerated concrete block with 15mm
plaster on both sides, together with light colours on the
exterior surface
- The envelope of the building uses lightweight concrete
walls that have an insulation value 2.5 times better than
that of a conventional brickwall
- Flat roof of the building is 100mm thick reinforced
concrete with 50mm thick polystyrene insulation of
insulation
- Canopy roof attached above the roof surface standing as a
secondary roof
- Green landscaping along the boundary of the roof
Ventilation system - District cooling system; mainly mechanical ventilation - Stack ventilation (Atrium)
Others
- Skylight system; Assisted day lighting
- Natural ventilation system in the LEO Building through its
thermal flue at the roof top, which creates the thermal
stack effect.
- Black painted walls and vents of the thermal flue chimney

65


(a) (b)
Figure 3: The glazing system in GEO building (a) and the daylight design (b)



Figure 4: Roof and wall insulation of GEO Building

Table 3: Typical values of the double-glazing windows

Description
Heat % Light %
U-Value
W/m2K
Single 85 85 6
Single, tinted 25 20 5
Double 75 75 3
Double, spectrally selective, low-emissive,
gas filled
25 50 1




66



Figure 5: Punch hole windows façade of the LEO Building


(a) (b)
Figure 6: (a) Interior space layout design of GEO Building and (b) The atrium of the building

3.2 Energy Performance

Due to the limitation of the research, the detail up to date energy performance of this building
was not available to obtain. However, the Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (PTM) claims that the BEI
achieved by the building is 65 kWh/m
2
/year. It is the lowest BEI in Malaysia to date. Referring
to the illustrated energy index in Figure 6, the air-conditioning system is still the highest energy
consuming factor, but obviously much lower than the conventional buildings as well as the LEO
Building. Resulting from the daylight design of the building, the lighting system consumes only
less than 5 kWh/m
2
/year from the total energy consumption, which very much less than the other
buildings.

The EE features performance of the LEO Building has been monitored by MECM themselves
since October 2004. The data is covering the period from 1
st
January 2005 to 31
st
December
2005 (Table 4 and Figure 7) which is all available from the KETTHA official website. The
average electricity consumption was 4,532 kWh/day while the total monitored energy
consumption was 6,000 kWh/day. Derived from the total energy consumed in the building, the
monitored building energy index (BEI) is 114 kWh/m
2
/year, based on an air-conditioned area of
67

19,237 m
2
and actual operation of 2,930 hours in the first year of observation. A study conducted
by Malaysia Energy Centre in 2003 on government buildings with conventional design
illustrated that energy consumption is typically 62% air-conditioning, 18% lighting and 20%
plug loads. In contrast, the energy for air-conditioning represents 45%, lighting 21% and
equipment 34% of the total energy consumption of the LEO Building.



Figure 7: Comparative Building Energy Index of typical, LEO and GEO Building

Table 4: Energy Data in 2005 for LEO building


68



Figure 8: Breakdown of Energy Consumption in the LEO Building

Both being the government‘s showcase buildings in terms of Energy Efficiency, the GEO
Building and LEO Building demonstrated equality in the Green Building Design approach,
which they share common passive design in several items such as the building orientation,
building envelope shading, day lighting design etc. However, the GEO Building overwhelmed
the LEO Building in some cases. In order to be certified by the GBI rating system, the GEO
Building had been installed with most advance innovation such as the spectrally selective
double-glazing windows and BIPV panels. Yet by having the innovative atrium design, the LEO
Building has a better natural ventilation system than the other, which comforts the occupants
physiologically and psychologically.

Overall, the daylight design of the GEO Building surpasses other buildings. The energy
consumption of lighting system in the GEO Building is obviously smaller than the other
buildings. This indicates that the integration of mirror light shelf, roof light, reflective ceiling,
and skylight system was a success, whereby the system promotes day light throughout the
building and then lower the requirement of artificial lighting.

Both of the buildings also emphasized on the building orientation and interior space
layout design in order to reduce the cooling load and artificial lighting system that require more
energy. Though the LEO Building is having the site limitation, the architects tried their best to
orientate the building envelope. The interior space layout design helps reduce the energy
consumption by promoting day lit into the buildings.

Against these findings, it is ascertain that each of the features could not make a big
difference in achieving Energy Efficiency, but to integrate all them into one whole Green
Building Design. It is undeniable that this integration showcases the success of Green Building
Design through the readings of Table 5.

Table 5 exhibits the comparison of monitored Building Energy Index (BEI) among the
conventional government office building with GEO Building and LEO Building. By utilizing the
Green Building Design approach, the LEO Building reduces the energy consumption down to
69

50% from the typical conventional buildings. On the other hand, the GEO Building surpasses all
of the buildings by reducing the energy consumption down to 30%.

Table 5: Comparison of monitored BEI among conventional government office building,
GEO Building and LEO Building


Building

Element
Conventional
Government Office
Building
GEO Building LEO Building
Monitored Building
Energy Index
(kWh/m
2
/year)
200 - 300
65 (excl. PV
generation)
114

4.0 Conclusion

Based on the two subjects in the case study chapter, it can be concluded that the Green Building
Design that can be realized, and proved effective, in a Green Building and EE Building were the
building orientation; shading devices; roof and walls insulation; daylight design; ventilation
system; and interior space layout design. However, these features will not give a significant
effect, but incorporate all of them together into one building‘s design.

The paper reveals the efficacy of Green Building Design in context of Energy Efficiency.
Compare to the BEI of the conventional government office building, which is 200 – 300
kWh/m
2
/year, the LEO Building is 114 kWh/m
2
/year and GEO Building is 65 kWh/m
2
/year.
This is a thrilling result that serves to motivate all the building industry players to involve
themselves in building green and sustainability.

5.0 Recommendation

As school is a prior asset to deliver the best education system, it is strongly recommend having a
future research on having Green School Building Standard. Study from the two subject buildings
in the previous discussion shown that Green Building Design has a short payback period such as
10 years compare to the age of building up to 100 years. Therefore, the government needs to
change their mindset to get prepared for the emergence of Green School Building and alleviate
the development of green environment. Early formal education can only be obtained from
school. It shows how important schools need to be maintained in an energy efficient approach as
well as to prolong their life-cycle.

McDonald‘s (2005:57) concluded that ―Despite the commitment of the private sector to
sustainable development, it is clear that it is unlikely to be delivered without a partnership with
government and the support of an appropriate fiscal and regulatory framework‖. Hence, the
public sector policy makers play an important part in realizing the vision of sustainability and
green.


70

References

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FAU Conference, 14-15 May 2008, Copenhagen, Denmark
Akbari, H., 2001. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island
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at:http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/860475-UIHWIq/860475.PDF
Azizi, A.A., Adnan, Y. 2008. Incorporation of Innovative Architecture Features in Office
Building Design Toward Achieving Operational Cost Saving – The Move to Enhance
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Environment, University of Malaya
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design, Proceedings: International Conference Sustainable Building 2000, Maastricht, The
Netherlands, 22-25th October 2000
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variables for an urban heat island analysis. M.B.S. dissertation, University of Southern
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cost effective green building. MA unpublished dissertation. Royal Roads University
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Society Pub






71

A Model of Uncertainty in Refurbishment Design Process

S.A.F. Al-Zawawi, L.P.Wah, A.S.Ali*

Building Performance and Diagnostic Group
Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya
50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: +603-7967 4494 Fax: 603-7967 5713
*Corresponding e-mail: asafab@um.edu.my

Abstract

Refurbishment project is growing gradually in Malaysian construction industry. The refurbishment works
included upgrading or alteration on existing building to improve building facilities and extend the
building lifespan. However refurbishment work is complex compare to newly built construction.
Uncertainty is a major characteristic of refurbishment work. Complexity contributes into the uncertainties
variables in design process and during construction. The objectives of this paper are to determine the
factors of uncertainties; to find out the relationship between uncertainties variables and performance; and
to produce a predictive model based on uncertainties variables and performance. This research
implemented quantitative method to gather data and study the relationship between variables. The
research started with an overview of refurbishment and followed by variables identification and project
performance. In order to obtain the data and information on uncertainties variables, 80 sets of
questionnaires were distributed to architects firm which directly involved in refurbishment design
process. The data were collected from architects that involved in refurbishment projects located in Klang
Valley with minimum project size of RM 500,000. The relationship between performance and the
uncertainty variables was obtained through the correlation test. In relation to that, two regression models
were produced in order to obtain the most accurate model. From those variables, 4 variables were found
significantly correlated with the performance variable which is cost variance. The variances were
percentage of provisional sum of total contract, design data, time frame for design and client‘s
commitment.

Keywords: Uncertainties, refurbishment, design process

1.0 Introduction of Building Refurbishment

Quah (1988) defined refurbishment as
―upgrade, major repair works, renovations, alteration, conversion, and modernization of
existing building, but exclude routine maintenance and cleaning work.‖

Another brief description given by Faizah (2007) from CIOB that defined refurbishment
as: ―refurbishment also include rehabilitation, extension, improvement, conversion,
modernisation, fitting out and repair which is undertaken on existing building to permit its reuse
for various specific purpose.‖

The refurbishment project in Malaysia is gradually increasing. The growth shown that
refurbishment projects are slowly utilized by the Malaysian construction industry. The
increasing of number in the refurbishment projects are shown in Table 1.

72

Table 1: Total Refurbishment Projects as of December 2009

TYPE OF
WORK
TOTAL NUMBER OF PROJECTS
2007 2008 2009
Upgrading 448 548 608
Expansion 351 282 471
Repair 268 249 257
Renovation 263 287 215
TOTAL 1330 1336 1551
Source: Malaysia, CIDB (2009)

Building is major asset and needs services in internal building to support the building
operations. Langston (2008) mentioned that building needs maintenance and restoration work to
ensure the building lifespan can be prolonged. Refurbishment is required for buildings that faced
obsolescence, deterioration and abandonment because the building cannot cope with the current
building use. According to Rahmat (2005), the increase number of aging building and rapid
change of technology in Malaysia construction, the design process is very essential in
refurbishment. Refurbishment project will managed differently in order to reduce the
uncertainties.

Yi et al. (2008), Ali et al. (2009) highlighted that refurbishment characteristic is complex.
Yi et al., (2008) further explained that the complexity of refurbishment involved technical,
technological, ecological, social, comfort and esthetical. Basically refurbishment involves many
complex works before and during the refurbishment. A proper planning is needed in order to
complete the project in time and fulfil the client‘s requirement.

Reyers and Mansfield (2001) said that the scope of refurbishment is wide which covers
complete demolition and rebuild to retained façade. The scope included financial size of projects,
decision making according to statutory sources and other professional bodies. The parties
involved on refurbishment seem to be giving impact to feasibility and design stage. The benefits
of refurbishment are:
a) Consideration efficiency gains in term of reduced construction time
b) Lower total projects costs compared with new-build
c) The more effective use of urban land via existing stock retention
d) A positive contribution to international requirements for urban environment
protection and sustainable development via increased usage of recycled and reused
components and materials and enhanced embodied energy conservation
(Mansfield, 2009)

It can be concluded that refurbishment give benefits to economic, environmental and
social benefits. In economic benefits, the refurbishment cost will be lower than a new built
73

construction. For environmental benefits, the increase of building quality gives good
environment to the building user such as safety and health.

2.0 The Design Process Of Refurbishment Projects

Hassan (1996) quoted in Baldwin et al., (1999) defined that building design as:
―a process which maps an explicit set of client and end-user requirements to produce, based on
knowledge and experience, a set of documents that describe and justify a project which would
satisfy these requirements imposed by the domain or the environment‖. The design process
involved:








3.0 Performance And Uncertainties in Refurbishment Design Process

A success project depends on the performance throughout the construction stage. However there
are few factors that contributed to the performance of project. Kamrul et al. (2008) stated that a
project performance should be determined by overall performance rating where it is time and
cost performance. Chan (2001) had done a study on time-cost relationship of public sector
projects in Malaysian construction industry and concluded that most Malaysia projects have
inter-relationship on time and cost performance. The project performance of will affect each
other in order to produce a good quality of work.

According to Frimpong et al. (2003), poor technical performance such as design work
will cause cost overrun. Though, most of the project cost overrun happened during construction
stage. This is because inflation of material cost. Sadi et al. (2006) stated that financial problem in
a project will affect the project performance. He further explained that changes in design and
scope; delay in decision making and approvals by owner will affected project performance.
Stage A
Inception
Stage B
Feasibility
Stage C
Outline Proposal
Stage D
Scheme Design
Stage E
Detail Design
Stage F
Production
Information
Stage G
Bills of
Quantities
Stage H
Tender Action
Stage J
Project Planning
Stage K
Operation on
Site
Figure 1: Traditional Design and Management Process
Source: RIBA and Plan of Work
74


Chan and Mohan (2002) mentioned that construction time is essential for construction
project and its benchmark is for assessing performance of a project. Kamrul et al., (2008)
concluded that major causes of project delay are long duration of contract or procurement; civil
works and land acquisition; and consultant employment.

As a result there is an inter-relationship between cost and time performance. It will affect
each other. A project cost can be function of a project time. The cost is dealing among the
parties involved. Therefore cost planning is important to avoid cost overrun.

Kirkham (2007) concluded that a major characteristic of refurbishment work is
uncertainty. The uncertainty will affect the time and cost performance of a project. Salihudin et
al., (2009) quoted from Kartam (2001) construction industry is involves with numbers of
uncertainties and it has high risk due to the nature of construction activities, processes,
environment and organization. Reyers and Mansfield (2001) stated that the refurbishment project
has more technical and economic uncertainties and higher risk compared to newly built
construction. Uncertainties occurs prior refurbishment work.

Throughout the study, the author had identified eight uncertainty variables that
related with refurbishment design process. The variables are:

a) Insufficient design data
b) Lack of communication between client and architect
c) Refurbishment design fee
d) Sufficient time frame for design
e) Building usage
f) Lack of client attributes
g) Ease of access
h) The percentage of provisional sum of total contract.

Insufficient design data

Design data is information obtained prior design process and perform the data into client‘s
requirement. The data needed to be collected before design stage. Kirkham (2007) concluded
that refurbishment has high level of uncertainty, not only in the client requirements but also in
physical data. It will extend the construction period. Baldwin et al., (1999) said that data is the
‗fuel of design‘ that needed for design team to perform the tasks. Without the ‗fuel‘ the design
team is unable to complete the task given. Besides that the current condition of the building will
affect the ‗fuel of design‘. Quoted from Clancy (1995) in Ali et al. (2009) said that the accuracy
of data is important as the data of existing building. This will leads to inaccuracy due to
incomplete information. Limited data will leads to delays in time and produced poor quality of
work. After obtaining documented data, Andi and Minato (2004) said that site survey is needed
in order to observe the current condition and compare with documented information such as as-
built drawing. Accuracy of the information is important in order to produce a high quality of
design. Insufficient information will affect the performance of design.

75

Lack of communication between client and architect

Communication is a process to share ideas or understanding among parties involved. Baldwin et
al., (1999) stated that changing in design needed communication among the parties involved.
Well communication will produced a good design. Andi and Minato (2003) noted that client
expects communication among client, architect and contractor will give chances to learn more
from each other. Besides that, they said that lack of feedback from contractor will affect the
design quality. Opinion is needed to improve the quality of the design. Based on the experience
of client and contractor will produced a good quality design. Communication is important in
order to run a project smoothly. Without a good communication among parties involved, the
project might fail due to unachievable objective and project requirements. Communication brings
pros than cons.

Refurbishment design fee

Andi and Minato (2003) found out the fee is depends on economic condition of the country and
services provided by the architect. This would conclude that services provided will affect the fee
or cost. This would be the uncertainty of design fee as different services have different charges.
Besides that, Kirkham (2007) reviewed that safety and cost has close relationship. To ensure the
safety of a project, many safety facilities need to be provided. The expenses in safety will
contribute into refurbishment fee. If the expenses were high then the refurbishment cost will
increase as well. The fee mainly be provided by the client. Thus, architect and other party
involved should perform well in order to fulfilled the requirement and reduce the claim from the
client. The performance of project is very important to ensure the successful of the project. If the
management were planned well, the project will complete within budget and in good quality.

Sufficient time frame for design

Time is essential for every task. According to Andi and Minota (2003) time is one of the factors
that affect the quality of design works. If there is insufficient time to prepare the design work for
the project, the project will delay and may lead to poor design quality. The design should be
complete in time or early to provided sufficient times for any changes before work commenced
and submission for planning authority. Baldwin et al., (1999) stated that schedule is important in
a project. The schedule needs to be followed for a smooth running project and produced a
success project. Time frame can be the uncertainty in design process. If the time given for design
process is insufficient, it will affect the quality of design. To produce a good quality design,
client needs to give sufficient time frame for architect to complete the required design.

Building usage

Current building operation will affect uncertainty in design process. Different type of building
operation will face different problem and uncertainty. According to Ali et al. (2009) different
building has its complexity on design and the design has to fulfil the government statutory in
order to produce good performance. If the building size is small then it will be the uncertainty
because might not have space for material storage and might have obstructed the ways of
76

building occupants. Although building operation will contribute to uncertainty, it can be avoid
with good planning and management after observation from site survey.

Lack of client attributes

The involvement of client in a project is very significant. The architect will transform the data
based on the requirement of the client. Beside contribution during design stage the involvement
during construction is essential as well. Andi and Minato (2003) said that involvement for
architect, client and contractor in construction will give chances to improve the design quality.
During discussion, parties involved will share their opinion based on the experience gained. The
opinions are important because architect might not have enough experience in site work as their
expertise is in design. Client‘s commitment will affect the performance. If the client did not give
any commitment throughout the project it might produce a poor quality of project and the client
might face losses in the project.

Ease of access

Compare to newly built construction the accessibility to the working area is much more difficult.
This is because the existing condition of the building might have some obstruction. The design
needs to consider on the openings, staircase and building structure. For example, the column or
wall could not be demolished because it might affect the entire building structure. In addition,
the transfer of material to the site is uncertain in accessibility of the building. The consideration
on transferring large size of material could not be transfered from opening. This needed to be
considered during site survey. In design process, ease of access is essential because Kirkham
(2007) founded out the obstruction is one of the uncertainty during construction. Mitropoulous
and Howell (2002) said that accessibility is one of the problems that needs time and cost to
overcome it. Therefore architect needs to consider this limitation in the refurbishment design
process.

The percentage of provisional sum of total contract

According to Standard Method of Measurement (SMM), provisional sum defined as:
―a sum provided for work or for costs which cannot entirely be foreseen, defined or detailed at
the time the tender documents are issued.‖

According to Rayers and Mansfield (2001) reported that if the project value increase, the
provisional sum will be decreased. However these only apply to large size project because small
size project will have more uncertainty. Provisional sum should be included in the tender
document to avoid the uncertainty. The provisional sum to cover the uncertainty work occurred
throughout the construction work. If the provisional sum is high this will leads to poor project
performance.

4.0 Research Methodology

The uncertainty variables could be found from literature review and it can be derived to some
quantitative evaluation. In this research, quantitative approach is used by implement postal or
77

email questionnaire survey for data collection. Balvanes and Cupati (2001) mentioned that
questions in questionnaire will be the variables for analysis. The data from questionnaire were
analysed by Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 and the relevant data will
be performed to help in producing predictive model of variables. There are 80 sets of
questionnaire sent out to architect firms that were involved in refurbishment design process.
From 38 replied questionnaires only 32 questionnaires are valid for data analysis and the
response rate is 40%. The questionnaires represent project with minimum size of project RM
500,000 in Klang Valley. Table 2 shows almost 34% of respondents are principal architect and
mostly were involved in the industry more than 6 years.

Table 2: Respondents Job Title
PROFESSION PERCENTAGE (n=32)
Principal Architect 34.4
Senior Architect 31.3
Architect 21.9
Others 12.5
TOTAL 100.0

5.0 Analysis Of Data

According to Pallant (2003), correlation is used to show the strength and the direction of linear
regression for dependent and independent variables. Hinton et al., (2004) and Pallant (2003) said
that the Pearson correlation coefficient is between -1 to 1. This shows that the variable can be
determined exactly by knowing the value on the other variable. Pallant (2003) noted that Pearson
is designed for continuous variables and the test statistic value is more than 0.3 (n>0.3) and the
significance (p) value should be less than 0.05.

Table 3: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation between measured of uncertainty variable and
time and cost performance
Cost Performance
Design Data
n .365
*

p .040
Time Frame for
design
n .618
**

p .000
Client's Commitment
n .405
*

p .022
% of Provisional Sum
of Total Contract
n .409
*

p .020

78

The results shows that time performance found to be less correlation with uncertainty
variable. As a result the cost performance is more suitable to show the relationship between the
performance and uncertainty. In this case, cost performance is chose to be the dependent
variable. As a result, it shown the correlation between cost performance are design data (n=0.36,
p=0.040), time frame for design (n=0.618, p=0.000), client‘s commitment (n=0.405, p=0.222)
and percentage of provisional sum of total contract (n=0.409, p= 0.020). In order to generate a
multiple regression, the independent variables- design data, time frame for design client‘s
commitment and percentage of provisional sum of total contract with correlation with dependent
variable which is the cost performance are the data for the regression.

6.0 Multiple Regression

According to F.N. Kerlinger and E.J. Pedhazur (1973) multiple regression is defined as ―a
method of analyzing the collective and separate contributions of two or more independent
variables, X
i
, to the variation of s dependent variable, Y.‖ Anuar et al., (2006) quoted from Hair
et al., (1998) mentioned that multiple regression used widely in prediction and explanation.
Therefore multiple linear regression model could be written as:

y = β
0
+ β
1
X
1
+ β
2
X
2
+ …… + β
k
X
k
+ ε


Where
y is dependent variable
X
1
, X
2…
X
k
are independent variable
y = β
0
+ β
1
X
1
+ β
2
X
2
+ …… + β
k
X
k
is the deterministic portions of the model
β
i
determines the contribution of the independent variable X
i

ε is random error

With the multiple regression above, the uncertainty variable can be derived into the regression
and produce a prediction model. Besides produce prediction model R
2
can be read from the
model summary and coefficient table produced from the process.

There are two regression models were produced and presented as:

Regression 1
CP = 8.055 – 1.199 PS + 0.679 DD -0.480 TF – 0.401 CC
Coefficient of multiple regression, R
2
= 0.294 (29.4%)

Regression 2
CP = 9.063 – 1.071 PS – 0.526 CCL
Coefficient of multiple regression, R
2
= 0.211 (21.1%)

Where,
CP = Cost Performance
PS = Percentage of Provisional Sum of Total Contract
DD = Design Data
79

TF = Time Frame for Design
CC = Client‘s Commitment
R
2
= (Difference between Total and Error Sum of Squares)
Measure of the variation of the observed values around the mean
= ∑( Ŷ
i
–Ÿ)
2

∑( Y
i
–Ÿ)
2

Y
i
= the observed dependent variable

Ŷ
i
= the fitted dependent variable for the independent variable
Ÿ = mean (Y
i
= ∑ Y
i
/ n)

Regression 1 used Enter method where the variables were selected manually based on the
correlation (Table 3). While regression 2 used Stepwise method that the variables selected by the
system according to its significance.

7.0 The Validity Of Regression Model

Table 4: Checking Assumption of Regression 1
ITEM VALUE VALUE
Collinearity Diagnosis
Tolerance


Variance Inflation Factor
(VIF)

Design Data 0.785 Design Data 1.274
Time Frame for design 0.580 Time Frame for design 1.723
Client‘s Commitment 0.779 Client‘s Commitment 1.284
% of Provisional Sum of
Total Contract
0.738 % of Provisional Sum of
Total Contract
1.356

Table 4: Checking Assumption of Regression 2
ITEM VALUE VALUE
Collinearity Diagnosis
Tolerance


Variance Inflation Factor
(VIF)

Communication with
Client
0.984 Communication with
Client
1.016
% of Provisional Sum of
Total Contract
0.984 % of Provisional Sum of
Total Contract
1.016

Checked on the assumptions confirmed that they were not violated. The data above shows the
model multicolliearity problem where checks had been made through value of tolerance (not less
than 0.1) and variance inflation factor, VIF (not greater than 10).

8.0 Conclusion

From the study the objectives were achieved. Based on literature reviews, eight variables are
identified as uncertain variables. The result of analysis shows that there is some variable with
significance different concerning on the uncertainty variables. The result of the test shows there
are four significant correlations between the uncertainties towards the design performance. There
are two prediction model generated using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The first
80

model was less significance due to the independent variables is selected manual from the
observation. The result with four independent variables model is not that significance because
the significance not near to 0. Then the second model is produced where the independent
variables are selected by SPSS. The result selected two independent variables that is more
significance compare to the first model. Therefore two models were presented in the research.

Regression 1
CP = 8.055 – 1.199 PS + 0.679 DD -0.480 TF – 0.401 CC


Regression 2
CP = 9.063 – 1.071 PS – 0.526 CCL


References

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International Journal of Project Management , 537-546.
Ali, A.S., Kamaruzzaman, S.N., Salleh, H. 2009. The Characteristic of Refurbishment Project in
Malaysia,. Facilities, Vol. 27 , 56-65.
Baldwin, A. N., Austin, S. A., Hassan, T. M., Thorpe. 1999. Modelling Information Flow during
the Conceptual and Schematic Stages of Building Design. Journal of Construction
Management and Economics , 155-167.
Chan, D.W.M., Mohan, K. 2002. Compressing construction durations:Lessons learned from
Hong KOng building projects. Journal of Project Management , 23-35.
Frimpong, Y., Oluwoye, J, Crawford, L. 2003. Causes of delay and cost overruns in construction
of ground projects in a developing countries; Ghana as a case study. Journal of Project
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Kamrul, A., Indra, G. 2010. Analysis of Cost and Schedule Performance of International
Development Projects. International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 28 , 68-78.
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Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc.
Kirkham, R. 2007. Ferry and Brandon's Cost Planning of Building. United Kingdom: Blackwell
Publishing.
Kumar, R. 2005. Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. London: SAGE
Publication Ltd.
Langston, C., Wong, F.K.W., Hui, E.C.M., Shen, L.Y. 2007. Strategic Assessment of Building
Adaptive Reuse Opportunities in Hong Kong. Building and Environment, Vol. 46 , 1709-
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Mansfield, J.R. 2009. The Use of Formalized Risk Management Approaches by UK Design
Consultants in Conservation Refurbishment Projects, Engineering. Construction and
Architectural Management, Vol. 16 , 273-287.
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Teknologi Malaysia.
Pallant, J. 2003. SPSS Survival Manual. Philadephia: Open University Press.
81

Reyers, J., Mansfield, J. 2001. The Assessment of Risk in Conservation Refurbishment Projects.
Structural Survey, Vol. 19 , 238-244.
Assaf Sadi, A., Al-Hejji, S. 2006. Causes of delay in large construction. Journal of Project
Management , 349-357.
Hassim, S., Jaafar, M.S., Abu Hassan Sazalli, S.A. 2009. The Contractors‘ Perception towards
IBS: Risk in Construction Projects in Malaysia. The Malaysian Surveyor, Vol. 44 , 14-19























82

Comparison How Outdoor Learning Enhances EQ Skills Between Australia
and Singapore Education

S. Mirrahmi, N.M.Tawil, N.A .G. Abdullah, A.I. Che-Ani, N. Utaberta
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment,
University Kebangsaan Malaysia
e-mail: mirrahimi.elmira@gmail.com, nmtawil@gmail.com, akmal.goh@gmail.com

Abstract

Outdoor learning (0E) has positive impact on activities related to enhance emotional intelligence (EQ) in
school. This paper investigated the effect of outdoor learning curriculum on development of EQ between
Singapore and Australia. Research also indicates that school can provide opportunities to develop social
and emotional intelligent. The advantage of learning outside the classroom have been recognized for
many years in Australia and Singapore, student can learn new skills in outdoor learning.

.Key words: Outdoor learning, EQ, Australia, Singapore.

1.0 Introduction

Internationally, the past researchers have found that students require improved ability related to
learning for skills of work and employment opportunities. Goleman identified Emotional
intelligence (EQ) included self-awareness; self-regulation; motivation; empathy and social skills.
The significant of these skills for youth has been increased in their personal lives and at school.
Schools can provide to enhance these ability of social and emotional skills. Outdoor learning is a
huge educational source that can be gradually increased learning. Educators who scheme and
manage purposeful education activities in the report of outdoors that their students are more
involved, enjoyable and healthier learning. (Ministry of education in Singapore – MOE, 2006)

The current strategy of educational executed, it is getting more necessary for educating to
occur not only inside of school but also outside, at the vast outdoors. .( conference in Singapore).
If a person has a high EQ level, then this indicates that the individual is able to experience
feelings as they occur. Higher EQ furnishes a person with compassion, empathy, adaptability and
self-control. If persons strengthen their EQ, then they also are more able to strike a healthy
balance between personal needs and the needs of others. (Segal ,1997)Singapore has some
places to suggest regarding to wealthy environment of education to satisfy, motivated and mind
of curious for the young generation. In fact, they are great outdoor classroom. ( conference in
Singapore)

Outdoor education and environmental education have variety event of the past in the
curriculum formal in Victoria; therefore, outdoor education would be reasonable places to
progress substantiality in school of Australian. (Gough, 2007)

2.0 Defination of EQ on Outdoor Learning

The term ―emotional intelligence ―was first defined by Salovery and Mayer in 1990. The EQ
related to communication skills, time management, teamwork, leadership skills and business
83

acumen. (Salovery and Mayer, 1998). The ability of emotional intelligence were approximately
four times more important than IQ in stating professional achievement, even for those a
background of scientific. Goleman says that emotional intelligence has five domains: self-
awareness; self- regulation; motivation; empathy and social skills. (Goleman, 1998). The
evidence shows that emotional and social intelligence is unfixed at birth, and also can be
methodically improved in indivduals during learning and experience. (Pasi, 1997).

EQ is a learnable ability;so, it can be change. This shows that learning has a main role to
enhance the students EQ levels that should developed working abilities of graduate students.
(Riemer, 2003) Mayer and Salovy says that levels of EQ behaviors and EQ awareness around
emotional intelligence be enhanced. (Mayer, Salovey and Caruso, 2004)The level of EQ in
person‘s can have a significant impact on education. (Salovery and Mayer, 1998). Schools offer
a place to reach children with basic and essential life lessons. Goleman, 1995).

EQ skills education seems to be in a row with experimental learning and development
approach to studies; so, supporting students to study new abilities throughout activity of project
work and in this method will succeed more than lecture on EQ; theory lacking practice does not
run far. (Riemer, 2003). Team work and cooperation will improve produce EQ qualities and are
especially important abilities given the advanced environments of team-based in industry. (Segal
,1997). Emotional intelligence was seen as being of main importance in teamwork or in the
management of a group of people. (Szkutnik , 2002)EQ, throughout its emphasis on intercultural
awareness, empathy self-awareness and social skills, be able to powerfully help intercultural
communication competences. (Jansen and Riemer, 2002), EQ skills, particularly related to
flexibility, adaptability, self- awareness and a higher level of motivation to learn, engage into this
form of education. (Riemer, 2003), EQ requires to be embedded within organizational system for
it to be effective. (Fitzgerald, 2003), separating EQ learning into one subject will not get the
desired change as much as incorporating EQ elements across the curriculum. (Riemer, 2003).
Social and emotional intelligence, then, includes various - dimensional and multi - faceted set of
awareness, abilities, attitudes, and behaviors that allow the successful management of a wide
variety of important life responsibilities (Elias, Weissberg, Frey, Greenberg, Haynes, Kessler,
Shwab-Stone, & Shriver).

NO The element of EQ
1 communication skills
2 time management
3 teamwork
4 leadership skills
5 business acumen
6 cooperation
7 self-awareness
8 self- regulation
9 motivation
10 Empathy
11 social skills
12 intercultural awareness
13 intercultural communication
84

14

flexibility

15
adaptability

16
Self control

Table 1: the element of EQ
Source: Author

3.0 Comparison Background Of Outdoor Learning Between Singapore And Australia

3.1 Singapore

In Singapore, The majority of outdoor learning has been occurred in the shape of camping and
journey in Singapore from 1980s. Although, a number of local undergraduate do investigate on
the precept of outdoor learning by Ho (1994), Chan (1998), Tay (1999). Recently, School in
Singapore practice to have camping just three to four days per year in one group camp; however,
it may not be enough not one bit. Students are required to undertake a long-term curriculum in
order to have increased learning. ( Abdul Rahman, 2009). Historian of education have found that
outdoor education occur out of school grounds, in the area of camping, from formal curriculum
of school outdoor, in contrast other subjects such as math, English, science or physical education,
outdoor learning usually take place along way classroom of school outside wide different variety
of activity context. (Georgakis, 2010). Health and physical education was one of the remind
marginalized. It was started as a personality subject in higher level in 1975. And also, agriculture
and science of environment have been launched in 1977.( Gough, 2007)

3.2 Australia

The government of Australian has been supported sustainable schools in the New South Wales
state (NSW) and Victoria (Vic), in approximately 100 schools in 2003. There were considered
positive income. (Australian Government, 2008) and due to that Western Australia (WA), South
Australia (SA) and Queensland (QLD) have started AuSSI IN 2005. In addition, North Territory
(NT) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Tasamina (Tas) have found in Sustainable
school in 2007. Presently, more than 2000 Australian‘s school engaged in AuSSI. (Australian
Government, 2008, cited in Davis et al,2009 ). The following of the outdoor education to
improve and replace political, social and condition of education between 1980s and 1990s.
(Martin, 2008), In New South Wales Outdoor learning history ―socio-moral‖ a purpose of this
form of education and the physical activities f Outdoor education which is instituted in primary
and secondary schools and also in public and private schools in New South Wales. Most of the
Australian students engage in at the lowest one significant camping or outdoor learning so that is
hypothesis of logical. (Neill, 2001, p.2).unction during 1890s to 1960s.( Georgakis, 2010).
Outdoor learning in school of Australia has been admissible more than 25 years, Despite of the
fact that Australia has been claimed over this time; and also, outdoor learning in curriculum of
secondary school has been established as a journey in 1982 in Victorian Certificate of Education
(VCE). (Gough, 2007 ). In Australia outdoor education is established in post World-War II in
85

1956. (Gass, 1998; Herbert, 1998 cited in Georgakis, 2010 ). Referring to John Rawling was a
teacher of senior at first of 1980s in Victoria was incentive behind the primary 12 curriculum of
outdoor education to be formally trained by a authority of state education in Australia. ( Martin,
2008).





Table 2: The comparison of outdoor learning in Australia and Singapore
Source: Author

4. Survey Of Eq In Singapore And Australia

4.1 Singapore

In Singapore, Mr Thaman Shanmugaratnam, who was the doing the Minister for Education,
speaking on opening at the Co-Curricular Activities(CCA) conference in 2003, focused on the
required to provide students by rearing in them ability of life and attributes as suborns, a healthy
and flexible approach to life and more of a soul of ‗can do‘, surviving recent economy. If
outdoor learning and experiences of camping could actually contribute to envelopment in these
fields of area, they definitely have vast value in economy of Singapore. Therefore, the opinion
that outdoor learning and experience of camping propose superior opportunities to improve these
life abilities is the foundation of the outdoor learning ingredient of the sports and healthiness
schedule for the NothLight school. (khamis,2009). Plans of outdoor can supply a framework for
association to enhance in areas as working in a group, resolve of problem, self- esteem, take of
risk and communication between students. (khamis,2009) In singapore, The Physical Education
wants to improve skill of every student to do and enjoy a diversity of physical activities with
perceiving [and]… support physical health and physical ability during regular taking part
physical activities. (Singapore Ministry of Education – MOE, 2006)


outdoor learning

Australia Singapore
1 Camping × ×
2 Journey × ×
3 Culture of countries
4 School summer ×
5 School ground
6 Traditional play ground
7 Natural environment × ×
8 Environmental science ×
9 Natural ecosystem × ×
10 sustainability ×
11 International play ground
12 Primary school ×
13 Secondary school ×
14 Private school ×
15 Public school ×
86

4.2 Australia

Australia historians have established to encourage sport culture and society of style of society in
front of focus on convict opening and endangerning environment of natural in this during time.
(Cashman, 1995; Light & Rockwell, 2005 cited in Georgakis, 2010)
In South Eastern Australia, Outdoor education teacher explains that encouraging self-steem and
team working are investigated the education influence from take part in outdoor education.
(Lugg & Martin, 2001; Polley & Pickett, 2003 cited in Martin, 2008)
In New South Wales Outdoor learning history ―socio-moral‖ a purpose of this form of education
and the physical activities function during 1890s to 1960s. (Georgakis, 2010) The plan of
Physical education was advanced social training in responsibility, imagination, health and self-
confidence in the post World War II during in the 1952. (Georgakis, 2010). In Australia, Young
people were supplied for inflexibility of World War I by education of health. And also it seems
to have created the aims and camping train and motivated the camping progression. (Georgakis,
2010)

Table 3:Survey of element of EQ in school of Australia and Singapore
Source: Author

5.0 Conclusion

Finally, the element of EQ skills can be encouraged to develop and motivated and how students
are educated. EQ is a learnable skill in school and also can be changed. In additional, students
have more employment opportunities in work space. In Singapore , educators‘ effort to make
plan for the program of outdoor for Schools may need to look activity of environment directed
through the 10 weeks curriculum and the objective of learning that they expect to get for the
pupils; moreover, Studies in the future could also search on the nature group and the student‘s
role with esteem to take part inside and interpersonal improvement. It may be useful to search at
difference among the initial journey experience to take part comparison by participants already
taking part to travel to learn something. (khamis,2009)
Element of EQ

Australia Singapore
1 Self-esteem × ×
2 Communication × ×
3 sustainability ×
4 Working together × ×
5 Self-confidence ×
6 Ability of life ×
7 Flexible approach of life ×
8 Improve life ability ×
9 Take of risk ×
10 Physical ability × ×
11 Physical health × ×
87

In Australia, Recently, for the program of primary and secondary school was not recognized in
outdoor learning. It was not a physical activity and it could not be observed in activity while it
occurred in out of school camps sites. (Georgakis, 2010). Outdoor learning curriculum could
expand to inquiry into dealings between communities and regions as formed in the public interest
by ground and catchment management, exercise planning.

5.0 Reference

Fitzgerald, M., 2003. Corporate EQ: creating an emotionally- intelligent workplace. HR
Professional, 20, 1, February/ March, 46-49.
Jansen, D.E. and Riemer, M.J. 2002. The importance of emotional intelligence in intercultural
communication. Proc. 6
th
Baltic Region Seminar on Engng. Educ., Wismar/ Warnemünde,
Germany, 79-82.
Georgakis, S., Light, R. 2010. The outdoor classroom: School camping as education in
NSW 1890-1960s, Australian Journal of Outdoor Education. Milton. Vol. 14, Iss. 1; pg. 3, 10
pgs
Goleman, D. 1995. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ. New York:
Bantam Books.
Goleman, D. 2998. Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Gough, A. 2007. Outdoor and Environmental Studies: Yet more challenges to its place in the
curriculum. Paper presented at the 15th National Outdoor Education Conference. Sustaining
our Spirit of Place, Ballarat.
Ho, C.C.C. 1994. Outdoor adventure provision in three types of schools in Singapore.
Unpublished undergraduate dissertation, Loughborough University of Technology, England.
Student Development: Emotion versus Intelligence.
http://www.qub.ac.uk/cap/studentdevelopment/news.htm
Khamis, Samsiah. 2009. Action Research In Outdoor Education–Using The Life Effectiveness
Questionaires (Leq-H) To Measure The Impact Of The Outdoor Module On Character
Education In Northlight School, Educational Research Association of Singapore (ERAS)
Conference 2009, Unpacking Teaching and Learning through Educational Research,
Samsiah_Khamis@moe.edu.sg
Kierstead, J., Human Resource Management Trends and Issues: Emotional Intelligence (EI) in
the Workplace. Public Service Commission of Canada (2001), http://www.psc-
cfp.gc.cs/research/personnel/ei_e.htm
Lugg, A., Martin, P. 2001. The nature and scope of outdoor education in Victorian schools.
Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 5(2), 42-48.
Margo, R. Ross. 2002. New roles for school psychologists: addressing the social and emotional
learning needs of students, School Psychology, National Association of School
Psychologists, vol:31.
Martin, P. 2008. Outdoor education in senior schooling: clarifying the body of knowledge,
Australia Journal of Outdoor Education, 12(1), 13-23.
Ministry of National Development and Ministry of Education (2010), at the MOE Kindegarten
Conference.
Pearce, T. Building personal skills into a master of engineering degree. Proc. Global Congress
on Engng. Educ., Cracow, Poland, 369-372 (1998). Polley, S., & Pickett, B. (2003). The
88

nature and scope of outdoor education in South Australia. Australian Journal of Outdoor
Education, 7(2), 11-18.
Rahman, HA, The The Effect of Outdoor Education on Students‘ Social Emotional
Competencies Development and Engagement in the Classroom,
Zhenghua Secondary School, Singapore Paper presented at ‗Outdoor education research and
theory: critical reflections, new directions‘, the Fourth International Outdoor Education
Research Conference, La Trobe University, Beechworth, Victoria, Australia, 15-18 April
2009.
Riemer, M.J. 2001. IQ versus EQ: Emotional intelligence and the graduate engineer. Proc. 5th
Baltic Region Seminar on Engng. Educ., Gdynia, Poland, 79-82.
Riemer, M.J. 2003. The impact of emotional intelligence on communication in engineering
education. Proc. 6
th
UICEE Annual Conf. on Engng. Educ., Cairns, Australia, 203-206.
Salovey, P., Meyer, J.M. 1998. Emotional Intelligence. In: Jenkins, J.M., Oatley, K. and Stein,
N.L. (Eds), Human Emotions: A Reader. Malden: Blackwell.
Segal, J. 1997. Raising Your Emotional Intelligence: A Practical Guide. New York: Henry Holt
and Co.
Szkutnik, J. 2001. New trends in increasing the competitiveness of graduates. Proc. 4
th
UICEE
Annual Conf. on Engng. Educ., Bangkok, Thailand, 144-146.
Tay, C.G. 1999. Outdoor adventure provision in primary schools in Singapore. Unpublished
undergraduate dissertation. Loughborough University of Technology, England.
















89

Space Management - A Relation Of Workspace in the Office and Schools
Environment

S.N.Kamaruzzaman
1
, N.M.Salleh
1,2
, N.Razali
1
1
Building Performance and Diagnostic,
Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,
2
Building Technology Department,
School of Housing Building & Planning, University Science Malaysia,
6800 Penang, Malaysia

Abstract

In office space management, spatial is crucial to ensure that the space areas are utilized to
enhance the workers productivity. Hence, space characteristic varies according to the spatial
setting, organization activities, health and safety matters, and the metaphoric and symbolic
qualities of space. All information and qualities must be integrated in order to achieve the
productivity and efficient usage of space. Spatial information has made major advances in both
theories and application for studies in spatial management. This research aims to identify and
evaluate the application of spatial information in office space management. It is also embraces an
assessment on effectiveness of the application of spatial information in space management of an
office workplace. Spatial information is a tool that utilizes the space data collection and
processing of data in order to develop a new set of application in monitoring, managing and
controlling the spatial. Space management of an office space requires experts such a qualified
facilities manager to ensure the space allocated for each task are suitable, ergonomic and safe for
the workers. Thus, this research can also becomes a reference to the space management in
schools, whereas it directly gives impacts on learning process and the children performance in
schools.

1. Introduction

The applications of spatial information in office space management allow the integrations of
information of such space ergonomics, workplace, furniture design, and ergonomics. Workplace
areas principles, materials, anthropometry, office layout security, services and other issues
regarding on office work space (Watkins, 2007). In office space management, spatial
information is crucial to ensure that the space areas are utilized to enhance the workers
productivity. Thus, the space characteristic varies according to the spatial setting, organization‘s
activities, and health and safety matters. It is also includes metaphoric and symbolic qualities of
space. Although, the technology and information technology (IT) have been hailed as the key
influence on changing work styles, yet the workplace is being more required by people and
needs (Steiner, 2005)

In the early stage of space planning, stipulation for future development or sustainability
matters are commonly projected by the designers (Xia, 2004). However, in the real practice,
matters that have been predicted by the designers fail to keep up with the dynamic changes of
space function. Consequently, facilities manager need to perform an intermittent space re-
arrangement in order to accommodate these changes. The re-arrangements of space are
90

depending on the information and data collected from the daily operations. Due to this, a space
management system needs to be instigated to record and monitor the space management of the
working are and the facilities. Besides, system is benefit to maintain the space effectiveness and
the efficiency of daily functions.

2. Literature Review

According to Lindahl (2004), four aspects has identified and remain in use as basis of
fundamental in workspace, thus include;
- The work environment qualities that have mainly to do with health and safety
- The metaphoric and symbolic qualities of space , it is part of ―corporate‖ image that
related to identity of company
- The dynamic and contextual interdependence between the spatial setting and the
everyday actions carried out in the organisation
- The quality and degree of participation in the processes of change and design.

Furthermore, IT application takes place in one of the elements that enhance the competitive
advantage crossing over (Steiner, 2005). Laing (2004) has added technology as one of the
aspects of the space management in the office and integrated with other elements as mentioned
in figure 1. These four major interconnected themes will determine the future of the workplace.

Figure 1: Work Space Shaped by Four Key Factors









Source: DEGW Survey, Laing (2004)

Hence, in school environments perspectives, there is a relation to the implications of the
spatial volume, et al. (1999), for example, found that differentiation in ceiling height was related
to higher levels of cooperative behavior among preschool children. On the issue of space
perception, Stankovic and Stojic (2007) reported that if some space is constructed and equipped
in the right way, the development of a child‘s increased abilities is supported, and this allowed
the child‘s capacities to be confirmed by the child. Pertaining to playroom arrangement,
Legendre (1999) found that the type of furniture arrangement did not change the joint use of play
areas and the social interactions for the peers whose relationships were weak. In contrast, for
children showing an emerging relationship, the playroom arrangement affected the quantity and
the quality of their social interactions.

Uline and Moran (2007) have reported that the combination of shared and personal
spaces for student and teacher, can help to nurture an orderly and serious academic atmosphere.
INDIVIDUAL
WORKSTATION
WORKING ENVIRONMENT


GROUP WORKSPACE


TECHNOLOGY
FUTURE WORK SPACE
91

This is support by Zhang and Barret (2010) whereas the open plan classroom with effective
activity area makes the teaching situation flexible and share space is an extension of the
classroom‘s activities. Non-appropriate behaviors were observed in the poorly defined
classrooms where the classrooms are entirely in impropriete layout and lower floor area . While,
it seemed that a well defined classroom would inhibit more appropriate behaviors (Abbas and
Othman, 2010), Class size is an important design and drives a host of costly facility-related
issues that are part and parcel of the school building‘s planning, design, construction, cost,
maintenance and operation (Schneider, 2002). It becomes a big factor in determining the number
of teachers needed and hence, it affects the education outcomes.

Good space management will stem from business trends that encourage work-style, such as
knowledge-sharing, collaborative work, increased mobility and working productivity. These key
influencing factors need to perfectly synchronizing with best work practice to achieve success
and it has become the major factor influencing workplace design. The main consideration in
space management is to acknowledge the need of the occupants rather than the building and
physical space in order to give the positive impact to the organization as well as in school
environment predictions.

3. Research Objectives

This study aim to get the characteristic of space management in workplace. The objectives of the
research are:
i. to analyze the spatial information and its application in workplace
ii. to correlate the significance of spatial information with space management in office and
classroom

4. Material And Methods

In the process to complete the objectives, data collection on observation and questionnaire by
implementing the Post Occupancy Observations are made. The two case studies mainly selected
are in high educational area which represented the workplace in the office and can be correlated
with the classroom‘s and study‘s atmosphere.

4.1 Case Studies

Two case studies selected have the same function, but, in the different location and education
institution. The case studies selected, namely;
i. Facilities Management Department, University Technology MARA, Shah Alam,
Malaysia (UiTM)
ii. Development and Estate Maintenance Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia (UM)

4.2 Post Occupancy of Evaluation (POE)

The POE processes encompassing of indication, investigations and diagnostic approaches. This
would be quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the efficiency of spatial information.
92

It‘s including the cross sectional information of observation and the questionnaire obtained from
the occupants. The questionnaire was distributed to the management level and space occupants.
i. Observation
The observation is done during two days site visit for each case study where it
focused on the application of spatial information system in space management. Then,
it will be relate to the questionnaire results.
ii. Questionnaire Design
It is a process to get the space end-user feedback on the application of spatial
information system in space management which includes spatial needs, settings and
space usage efficiency. The questionnaire was distributed to the space end-user for at
least 30% of the office population. The questionnaire is consists of 16 questions
which is divided into two sections, Part A pertains on the general background of
respondent such as age, gender, disabilities, working years and work description.
In part B, eleven (11) questions regarding space management, spatial information,
setting and needs. The respondent has been provided with an ―optional-answer‖ type
question. These mean, the answer for the questions have been provided and the
respondents just need to tick the answer which is complied with them.
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (SPSS 16) used to obtain the
descriptive statistics: Cross tabulation and Frequencies of the result

iii. Questionnaire Outcomes
In both case studies, 50 sets of questionnaires have been distributed as a sample for
population at each case study

CASE STUDY Population Questionnaire
Distributed
Questionnaire
Unreturned
Questionnai
re Returned
Percentage
of Return
UiTM 55 50 12 38 74%
UM 60 50 16 34 68%
Table 2: Percentage of returned questionnaire

5. Result And Discussion

Audit Section A

From the result presented in Figure 2, over 60% of respondents from both case studies are
female. But in UiTM, the male respondents are more than 50%. Figure 2 shows that the
respondent questioned in UM is 50% age 25years old, while the majority respondent in UiTM
(44.7%) was age between 26-45%. As per Figure 4, there is no disabilities worker at UiTM, but
2.9% are recognized has the disabilities in UM. Figure 5 has stated that the working experience
for both case studies have the common working experience of average 1-5 years. Figure 6 has
mentioned the different rate of space satisfaction, whereas 68% UM workers feel dissatisfied
with their working space compared to UiTM where most of their workers are satisfied with the
current space.


93

j
Figure 2: Respondent gender



Figure 3: Respondent age


Figure 4: Respondent disability
UiTM UM
53%
18%
47%
82%
Respondent Gender
Male Female
<25 26-45 36-45 46-55 >55
10.50%
44.70%
21.10%
23.70%
0%
50%
41.20%
8.80%
0% 0%
Respondent Age
UiTM UM
UiTM
UM
0.00%
2.90%
100.00%
97.10%
Respondent Disabilities
Yes No
94


Figure 5: Respondent working experience


Figure 6: Respondent working experience
Audit Section B

Figure 7 investigated on the space rearrangement that has been done recently. The data retrieved
in order to make the relation to the factor of productivity of every worker. Surprisingly, for both
case studies, most the occupants have never made any space rearrangement.


Figure 7: Recent space rearrangement
<1 year
1-5 years
6-10 years
>10 years
5.30%
55.30%
39.50%
0%
44.10%
41.20%
11.80%
2.90%
Respondent Working Experience
UM UiTM
YES
NO
55.30%
17%
32%
68%
Space Satisfaction
UM UiTM
<1 month
4-6 month
7-12 month
>1 years
Never
10.50%
23.70%
5.30%
11%
50%
23.50%
14.70%
5.90%
17.60%
38.20%
Recent Space Management
UM UiTM
95


The respondent s who have done the arrangement, Figure8, has mentioned that in UM itself, the
workers preferred to make the arrangement on file storage (58.82%) compared to UiTM, where
most of the workers keen to change the desk‘s locations (26.32%).


Figure 8: Matters of rearrangement

Majority of UiTM occupants do not need the spatial setting as compared to UM workers, who
need more space. 50% of workers at UM need more space if they are giving any opportunity to
rearrange the spatial setting. These can be seen at Figure 9. These dynamic change will directly
may affect the task of delivery afficiency to perform an intermittent space rearrangement in order
to accommodate the changes.



Figure 9: Spatial setting

For both case studies, most of the occupants have a good quality of working efficiency (Figure
10). Yet, they were considering on equipments as a main factor of productivity (Figure 11). But
26.32%
10.53%
0.00%
13.16%
50.00%
0.00%
58.82%
2.94%
0.00%
38.24%
Desk
Location
File
Storage
Dekstop
Other
None
Matters of Rearrangement
UM Percent UiTM Percent
More Space
More privacy
Own tools
Background music
Personal radio
Another workspace
No
31.58%
5.26%
7.89%
5.26%
0.00%
5.26%
44.74%
50.00%
23.53%
23.53%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
2.94%
Spatial Setting
UM Percent UiTM Percent
96

in UM, space area became priority to enhance the productivity. This interrelates to the previous
study IT and the equipments have been influence on changing work styles, yet the workplace is
being more required by people and needs (Steiner, 2005). Hence, most of the end-users are prefer
to have a better space area and privacy (Figure 12).



Figure 10: Working Efficiency


Figure 11: Factor of Productivity
UiTM
UM
73.70%
70.60%
26.30%
29.40%
Current Working Efficiency
YES NO
26.32%
5.26%
52.63%
5.26%
10.53%
0.00%
38.24%
20.59%
17.65%
0.00%
0.00%
23.53%
Space area
Services
Equipments
Furniture design
Security
All the above
Factor of Productivity
UM Percentage UiTM Percentage
97



Figure 12: Working Efficiency

The characteristic of space management required facilities manager to considerate various
aspects; people, work performance, corporate image, cost and beyond the working space. Space
management need to satisfy people‘s need rather than building. Space allocation should be
determined by referring the work process and by its suitable work space for the specific task. The
arrangement of the space should be able to give a good impression to the end-user dealing with
the organization. The task beyond the building should be consideration where the influence of
outer views and facilities are concluded to give the impact to the space management.

The influences of the indoor physical environment upon children‘s behaviors are well
documented in previous studies. They dealt with matters such as spatial definitions, space
requirements pertaining to crowding and privacy, implications of the spatial volume and wall
color, spatial perception, playroom arrangement, children‘s competency, and development
(Abbas and Othman, 2010). Teachers perceive that cleanliness, orderliness, and the general
character of a school building influences student behavior (Lackney, 1996). In a study of the
relationship between building condition and learning climate in three Texas elementary schools,
learning climate was perceived to be related to overall building condition, size and organization
of spaces (Lowe, 1990). Maxwell (1996) found that the physical environment is related to
measures of competency

6. Conclusion

Space characteristic varies according to the spatial setting, organization activities, health and
safety matters, and the metaphoric and symbolic qualities of space. This study has revealed the
used of spatial information which can be applied in space management to enhance the
productivity. It will also becomes a benchmark and as a references to the school/ environment in
order to get the work and space adequacy to increased the performance and the productivity.

63.20%
10.40%
5.30%
5.30%
10.50%
5.30%
50%
8.80%
0.00%
0.00%
2.90%
38.20%
Space Area
Desk facing window area
Facing away from workstaion entry
Conventional desk configuration
Table desk with conference seats
Work are visually separated from rest of office
Work Preference
UM UiTM
98

References

Abbas, M. Y. and M. Othman. 2010. Social behavior of preschool children in relation to physical
spatial definition. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 5: 935-941.
Kantrowitz, E.J., Evans, G.W. 2004. ―The relation between the ratio of children per activity area
and off-task behavior and type of play in day care centers‖. Environment and Behavior,
Vol. 36 No 4, pp 541-557.
Lackney, J.A. 1996. Quality in school environments: a multiple case study of the diagnosis,
design, and management of environmental quality in five elementary schools in
theBaltimore City public schools from an action research perspective. Unpublished
PhDthesis, The University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.
Laing, A. 2004. The future of the workplace is now, A survey of 20 leading European facility
executives, representing about 250, 000 employees, conducted by DEGW on behalf of
Knoll Legendre, A. (1999). Interindividual relationships in groups of young children and
susceptibility to an environmental constraint. Environment and Behavior, Vol. 31 No. 4,
pp 463-486.
Lowe, J. 1990. ―The interface between educational facilities and learning climate in three
elementary schools‖, unpublished PhD thesis, Texas A and M University, College
Station, TX.
Maxwell, L.E. 1996. Multiple effects of home and day care crowding. Environment and
Behavior, Vol. 28, pp 494-511.
Schneider, M. Do school facilities Affect Academic Outcomes? National Clearinghouse for
Educational Facilities, Washington, DC.
Stankovi, D., Stoji, J. 2007. Psycho-developing needs of children and spatial features for
children‘s stay. Architecture and Civil Engineering, 5(1), 71 – 75.
Uline, C., Tschannen-Moran. 2006. ―The wall speaks: the interplay of quality facilities, school
climate, and student achiements‖, Journal of Education Administration, Vol. 46 No. 1,
pp. 55-73.
Zhang,Y., Barret, P. 2010. Findings from a post-occupancy evaluation in the UK primary
schools sector. Facilities Journal, 28(14), 641-666.
Steiner, J. 2005. The art of space management: planning flexible workspaces for people. Journal
Facilities of Management, Vol. 4 No.1, pp 6-22.
Watkins, C. 2007. A spatial consideration of organizational performance: an excess of
presentation?. International journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol.
56 no 1, pp. 76-89.
Xia, J. 2004. Library space management: a GIS proposal. Library Hi Tech, Vol. 22 No 4, pp 375-
282.
Xia, J. 2004. GIS in the management of library pick-up books. Library Hi Tech, Vol. 22 No 2, pp
209-216.





99

Pengenalan Penjenisan Rumah Tradisional Orang Asli di Semenanjung
Malaysia

M. Surat
1
, A.R.Musa
2
, M.Y.A.Broughton
3

1,2
Jabatan Senibina, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Dan Alam Bina,
3
Muzium Warisan Akademik,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan
mastor@visl.eng.ukm.my, azalilah@eng.ukm.my

Abstrak

Masyarakat Orang Asli yang terdapat di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu terdiri daripada pelbagai suku kaum
yang menetap di pelbagai daerah dan persekitaran yang berbeza. Keadaan ini telah menyebabkan setiap
suku kaum dari pelbagai kumpulan etnik Orang Asli tersebut juga mengamalkan gaya hidup yang
berbeza antara satu sama lain. Gaya hidup dan persekitaran yang berbeza inilah yang telah melahirkan
gaya rupa rekabentuk rumah kediaman mereka.Desakan keperluan hidup juga telah menyebabkan mereka
membina rumah atau tempat perlindungan walaupun ada sesetengah daripada suku kaum ini
mengamalkan cara hidup berpindah-randah. Kaedah binaan rumah yang rata-ratanya boleh dikatakan
bersifat sementara telah membuatkannya tidak tahan lama dan tidak memiliki nilai keindahan untuk
diwarisi. Namun begitu usaha pihak kerajaan dalam menyediakan penempatan baru dengan rumah gaya
rupa ‗moden‘ kepada Orang Asli secara tidak sedar telah melenyapkan senibina tradisional Orang Asli
tersebut. Justeru itu pencarian semula senibina tradisional rumah masyarakat Orang Asli dijalankan
dengan terlebih dahulu membuat penjenisan tersebut berdasarkan suku kaum yang terdapat di
Semenanjung Tanah Melayu.

Kata Kunci: Senibina, orang asli, semenanjung.

1.0 Pengenalan

Masyarakat Orang Asli yang terdapat di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu terdiri daripada 3
kumpulan etnik yang dikenali sebagai kumpulan orang Asli Negrito, Senoi dan Melayu-proto.
Setiap kumpulan tersebut dipecahkan pula kepada 6 suku kaum yang menetap di pelbagai daerah
dan persekitaran yang berbeza di Semenajung Tanah Melayu. Hal ini menyebabkan setiap suku
kaum dari pelbagai kumpulan etnik orang asli ini juga mengamalkan cara hidup yang berbeza
antara satu sama lain. Gaya hidup dan persekitaran yang berbeza inilah yang melahirkan gaya
rupa rekabentuk rumah kediaman mereka. Seperti juga bangsa lain di dunia rumah merupakan
elemen penting dalam keperluan hidup, begitu juga kepada masyarakat Orang Asli di
Semenanjung Tanah Melayu ini juga. Oleh kerana desakan keperluan hidup inilah yang
menyebabkan mereka membina rumah atau tempat perlindungan walaupun ada sesetengah
daripada suku kaum ini mengamalkan cara hidup berpindah-randah.

Sebagaimana masyarakat yang lainnya masyarakat Orang Asli juga mempunyai budaya
mereka yang tersendiri yang mencorakkan perjalanan hidup mereka. Dengan budaya inilah
sebenarnya telah mewarnai gaya dan perwatakan senibina rumah kediaman dan pola penempatan
masyarakat Orang Asli ini. Tidak banyak ahli antropologi dan ethnologi yang memilih senibina
tradisional orang asli sebagai topik utama dalam kajian mereka. Hal ini berkemungkinan
disebabkan mereka beranggapan bahawa kajian antropologi ini tiada hubungkaitnya dengan
100

senibina, hakikatnya senibina itu lahir daripada budaya dan berkait rapat dengan cara hidup
masyarakat. Lantaran daripada itu tiada kajian secara terperinci dijalankan dalam mengenalpasti
rekabentuk tradisional masyarakat Orang Asli. Oleh kerana kurangnya kajian terhadap pola
penempatan dan senibina tradisional masyarakat Orang Asli ini telah menyebabkan kita
kehilangan salah satu khazanah warisan bangsa jika usaha yang gigih tidak diambil. Oleh yang
demikian kajian ini dijalankan adalah sebagai usaha untuk mendokumentasikan dan
mengkelaskan senibina penempatan semulajadi masyarakat Orang Asli di Semenanjung Tanah
Melayu

2.0 Pendekatan dan Tatakaedah

Kajian terhadap penjenisan senibina tradisional masyarakat Orang Asli dijalankan secara
berperingkat-peringkat. Tata kaedah kajian ini mengandungi 3 peringkat bagi memastikan kajian
yang dijalankan berjalam lancar. Peringkat pertama kajian ini meliputi kajian pustaka di mana
sebelum kajian ini dijalankan maklumat mengenai masyarakat Orang Asli itu sendiri dikumpul
daripada bahan bacaan, majalah, pamplet dan sebagainya. Setiap kelompok dah suku kaum
orang asli dikenalpasti kelompok-kelompok mereka dan seterusnya mengenalpasti lokasi
penempatan setiap suku kaum masyarakat Orang Asli ini. Selain daripada itu juga cadangan-
cadangan dan pandangan daripada orang yang lebih arif mengenai Orang Asli dikumpul
seterusnya digunapakai dalam hasil kajian ini. Segala maklumat yang diperolehi dan dikumpul
pada peringkat pertama ini di cerakinkan dan kemudiannya isu-isu serta permasalahan kajian
dikenalpasti.

Peringkat keduanya meliputi kajian kes dengan mengadakan kajian perbandingan serta
temubual. Segala maklumat yang diperolehi dicerakinkan. Peringkat kedua ini tata kaedah kajian
ini adalah melalui lawatan tapak ke penempatan orang asli dan muzium Orang Asli. Seterusnya
peringkat ketiganya pula setelah maklumat daripada peringkat pertama dan kedua dicerakinkan
satu kesimpulan dan cadangan dibuat.

3.0 Latar Belakang Orang Asli di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu

Masyarakat orang asli di semenanjung Tanah Melayu terdiri daripada pelbagai suku kaum yang
menetap dipelbagai kedaerahan dan mengamalkan cara hidup yang berbeza setiap suku kaum.
Masyarakat orang asli di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu juga merupakan sebahagian daripada
kaum bumiputera di negara ini. Jumlah Orang Asli menurut bancian yang di jalankan oleh
Jabatan Hal Ehwal Orang Asli sehingga disember 2006 di dapati sebanyak 141 230 Orang Asli
di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Di mana masyarakat Orang Asli ini terbahagi kepada tiga
kumpulan kaum yang utama iaitu kaum negrito, kaum Senoi, Kaum Melayu-Proto. Daripada 3
kumpulan kaum utama masyarakat Orang Asli ini terdapat 6 lagi pecahan suku kaum bagi setiap
kaum seperti yang ditunjukkan di dalam jadual 1






101












Melalui hasil bancian dan kajian daripada Muzium Orang Asli di dapati bahawa
kedudukan penempatan masyarakat Orang Asli boleh dibahagikan kepada 3 bahagian di
Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Di dapati bahawa kaum Negrito kebanyakkannya dijumpai
menetap dibahagian utara Semenanjung Tanah Melayu yang meliputi negeri Perak, Kedah,
Kelantan dah hanya sedikit sahaja kaum Negrito yang menetap di negeri Pahang. Seterusnya
kaum Senoi pula ditemui penempatan mereka disepanjang pinggiran banjaran titiwangsa dan di
sepanjang pesisiran pantai di Negeri Selangor atau dengan kata lainnya penempatan kaum Senoi
ini di bahagian tengah Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Sementara itu pula kaum Melayu-Proto pula
kebiasaannya penempatan mereka di bahagian selatan Semenanjung Tanah Melayu dan di
sepanjang persisiran pantai barat Johor dan kuala sungai.




Sebilangan besar masyarakat Orang Asli masih lagi mengamalkan adat resam dan
kepercayaaan kepada animisme iaitu kepercayaan kepada semangat dan penunggu yang
dikatakan menjadi tempat mereka meminta pertolongan. Lantaran daripada itu kebanyakkan
daripada mereka masih lagi berpegang teguh dan menjadi amalan bagi mereka untuk
menjalankan upacara-upacara adat sama ada upacara berjampi, upacara jamuan pada hari-hari
kepercayaan tertentu mengikut suku kaum masing-masing.
Kaum Negrito Senoi Melayu-Proto


Suku
kaum
Kensiu Temiar Temuan
Kintak Semai Semelai
Lanoh Semoq Beri Jakun
Jahai Che Wong Orang Kanak
Mendrik Jah Hut Orang Kuala
Batek (Bukit) Mah Meri Orang Seletar
Gambarajah 1: Peta penempatan Orang Asli di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu
Jadual 1 : Suku Kaum Masyarakat Orang Asli Semenanjung Malaysia.

102


4.0 Kaum Negrito

4.1 Latar Belakang Kaum Negrito

Secara tradisionalnya kaum Negrito dikatakan kumpulan kaum yang paling miskin kerana pada
dasarnya kaum negrito ini tidak mempunyai penempatan yang tetap. Hal ini kerana kaum
Negrito mengamalkan cara hidup separa berpindah-randah (nomad), di mana kaum ini
kebiasaanya tidak membina rumah oleh kerana kehidupan kaum negrito ini yang sering
berpindah randah inilah maka mereka lebih selesa dan mudah bagi mereka untuk membina
pondok yang ringkas sebagai tempat perlindungan sementara bagi puak negrito ini. Kaum
Negrito ini menjadikan sesetengah tempat sebagai tempat persinggahan mereka untuk
mendapatkan sumber makanan dan apabila sumber makanan disekitar kawasan itu telah habis
mereka akan meneruskan perjalanan mereka ke tempat yang baru.

4.2 Pondok Orang Negrito

Disebabkan cara hidup mereka yang sering berpindah-randah dari satu tempat ke tempat yang
lain maka mereka hanya membina pondok yang ringkas berupa pisang sesikat dan dapat
disiapkan dalam masa yang singkat dengan menggunakan bahan binaan yang diperolehi
daripada persekitaran mereka sebagai tempat tinggal mereka. Tempat tinggal yang mereka
dibina dengan menggunakan ranting-ranting kayu dan dahan-dahan pokok serta dilitupi dengan
daun-daun yang terdapat disekitarnya. Pondok kaum negrito ini dapat digambarkan dengan
rupabentuk separa bulat dengan bahagian atap yang diperbuat daripada lalang ataupun jerami
kering yang berbentuk melengkung.














Ruang dalaman pondok Negrito hanyalah terdiri daripada satu ruang sahaja. Pondok
Negrito ini mempunyai pelantar yang berfungsi sebagai tempat tidur mereka. Pelantar ini dibina
dengan kayu-kayu yang disusun dan diikat serta dilitupi dengan kepingan-kepingan buluh yang
dileperkan sebagai alas tempat tidur mereka. Dinding pondok ini diperbuat daripada kulit kayu.
Kulit kayu ini adalah daripada pokok kepong yang disusun memanjang dan diikat dengan
bingkai pondok ini. Sementara bahan binaan bumbungnya adalah daripada daun ‘chucho‘ sejenis
daun daripada spesis pokok palma yang disusun dan diikat.
Gambar 1: Replika Pondok Negrito
Sumber : Muzium orang asli
Gambar 2: Penempatan Puak Negrito
103

Penempatan tradisional kaum Negrito ini mengandungi beberapa bilangan pondok yang
di susun mengikut susunatur mereka yang tersendiri. Di antara bilangan pondok-pondok Negrito
ini terdapat tempat unggun api yang dijadikan sebagai ruangan untuk mereka memasak dan
berfungsi untuk memanaskan badan pada waktu malam disamping untuk menghidari daripada
ganguan haiwan. Kaum Negrito ini juga mempunyai adat mereka yang tersendiri dalam
mengasingkan kaum lelaki dan perempuan muda bagi menjaga hubungan antara generasi muda.
Adat dan amalan ini pertama sekali di temui oleh I.H.N Evans dalam lawantan dan kajian beliau
ditengah hutan belantara penempatan kaum Negrito ini di Lenggong Utara Perak pada tahun
1913 ( The Negrito of Malaya ) di dalam penulisan buku beliau ada menggambarkan mengenai
pondok negrito ini.

4.3 Ran

Ran boleh ditafsirkan sebagai pondok yang dibina di atas pokok tetapi bagi masyarakat Orang
Asli pula ran merupakan tempat berteduh atau tempat perlindungan sementara apabila
masyarakat Orang Asli ini pergi mengembara jauh ke dalam hutan dalam suatu jangka masa
yang lama. Ran seringkali di salah tafsirkan oleh kebanyakkan orang kerana ada yang
menganggap ran adalah rumah kediaman Orang Asli sebenarnya anggapan ini sama sekali tidak
benar.

Hal ini kerana berdasarkan kajian dan lawatan yang dilakukan oleh I.H.N Evans di dalam
penulisan buku beliau The Negrito of Malaysia ( 1973 ). Ran yang ditemui beliau adalah kira-
kira dalam tahun 1915 adalah di Temenggor bahaggian utara negeri Perak. Ran ini di bina atas
sebilangan pokok lebih kurang 8 batang pokok dengan ketinggian ran lebih kurang 15 kaki dari
aras tanah. Pemilihan pokok adalah penting sebelum ran ini dibina di mana kedudukkan pokok-
pokok dipilih terlebih dahulu bagi memastikan penyokong ran adalah kukuh dan stabil. Pokok
yang sesuai untuk dibina ran di atasnya adalah pokok yang tumbuh berdekatan dalam satu
rumpun dan dibina diantara dahan-dahan pokok kelihatan seperti sarang burung. Ran
dihubungkan dengan sebatang pokok yang bertindak sebagai tangga seperti di dalam foto 3.
Tujuan ran ini dibina tinggi di atas pokok adalah untuk tujuan keselamatan bagi mengelakkan
serangan binatang buas. Menurut I.H.N Evans lagi di dalam lawatan beliau pada tahun 1915 ran
yang ditemui beliau adalah daripada suku kaum Jahai.
104





5.0 Kaum Senoi

Suku Kaum Semai tinggal bertaburan di kawasan Banjaran Titiwangsa, meliputi Perak Tengah,
Perak Selatan dan Pahang Barat. Mereka hidup bermasyarakat.Sebuah kampung biasanya
terdapat diantara 60 hingga 300 penduduk yang diketuai oleh seorang Penghulu atau ―Batin‖
yang di lantik dari golongan berpengaruh seperti pawang, bomoh dan ketua adat. Secara
tradisinya mereka hidup dalam kumpulan kecil yang terdiri daripada 10 hingga 50 kelamin.
Ketua keluarga atau orang tua dalam keluarga tersebut bangun lebih awal untuk menghidupkan
api bagi memanaskan badan dan memasak makanan. Mereka mengamalkan ekonomi tradisional
berasaskan pertanian sara diri dan mengamalkan sistem bertukar-tukar makanan, perkhidmatan
dan keperluan lain secara berkongsi. Selain daripada itu memburu dan menangkap ikan
merupakan sebahagian daripada aktiviti yang dilakukan kaum ini manakala pada waktu petang
sebelum senja, mereka melakukan aktiviti seperti berehat di rumah duduk berbual-bual.

5.1 Rumah Panjang Temiar

Masyarakat orang asli suku kaum Temiar merupakan kumpulan etnik Orang Asli daripada
kumpulan Senoi. Suku kaum Temiar ini kebanyakkannya ditemui menetap di pedalaman negeri
Perak seperti di Grik, Kuala Kangsar dan Kinta serta sebahagian kecil di negeri Kelantan iaitu di
Gua Musang. Suku kaum Temiar ini adalah satu-satunya suku kaum orang asli di Semenanjung
Tanah Melayu yang menetap di rumah panjang suatu ketika dahulu. Rumah panjang Temiar
tidaklah seperti rumah panjang Iban yang terdapat di Sarawak. Rumah panjang Temiar ini lebih
bersaiz kecil dengan panjang rumahnya tidak melebihi 50 meter dan lebar rumahnya pula kira-
kira 20 meter. Seperti rumah Melayu Tradisional, rumah panjang Temiar ini juga dibina dengan
lantai berpanggung, di mana kedudukan lantai kira-kira 3 meter daripada aras tanah.

Gambar 4 & 5: Menunjukkan Replika Ran Gambar 3: Tangga yang digunakan menaiki
ran
Sumber : Muzium orang asli
105

Binaan utama rumah panjang Temiar ini menggunakan tiang kayu yang diperolehi
daripada hutan sekitarnya. Manakala bahagian dinding dan lantai rumah panjang Temiar ini
diperbuat daripada buluh yang dileperkan. Tangga bagi rumah panjang Temiar ini juga
menggunakan bahan binaan daripada buluh yang diikat menjadi tangga. Selain daripada buluh
bahan binaan lain yang digunakan dalam pembinaan rumah panjang Temiar ini adalah seperti
nipah digunakan untuk bahagian atap rumah, bertam dan rotan digunakan untuk tujuan ikatan.






Susun atur ruang dalaman bagi rumah panjang Temiar ini pula dibahagikan kepada
bahagian-bahagian atau bilik-bilik kecil di mana bahagian-bahagian ini menempatkan beberapa
bilangan keluarga. Kebiasaannya rumah panjang Temiar ini dapat menempatkan kira-kira 3
hingga 10 buah keluarga. Di tengah-tengah bahagian rumah terdapat ruang terbuka yang panjang
yang juga bertindak sebagai koridor atau serambi kepada penghuni rumah panjang Temiar ini.
Di tengah-tengah ruangan panjang ini terdapat ruang untuk unggun api ( fire hearth ) yang
digunakan bersama oleh penghuni rumah panjang ini. Rumah panjang Temiar ini dibina
mengikut adat dan kepercayaan mereka di mana ruang untuk ketua atau tok batin mestilah
diberikan keutamaan dan sentiasa dipastikan ruang ini lebih baik dan cantik daripada ruang yang
lainnya. Ruang ketua ini mestilah dilengkapi dengan tempat tidur yang di alas dengan buluh-
buluh yang diratakan dan dilitupi dengan anyaman buluh-buluh kuning sebagai tempat alas tidur.

Menurut John D.Leary di dalam buku penulisan beliau yang berjudul Violence And The
Dream People ( 1995 ) , K. Endicott, mengulas mengenai rumah panjang Temar ini. Menurut
beliau suku kaum Temiar ini lebih cenderung tinggal di dalam rumah panjang berkemungkinan
besar disebabkan oleh faktor keselamatan, kedudukkan lantai rumah ditinggikan dar kedudukan
lantai adalah sebagai langkah keselamatan daripada serangan binatang liar dan pengudaraan
yang baik. Di bawah bahagian rumah panjang Temar ini kebiasaanya menempatkan sekumpulan
anjing peliharaan yang berindak sebagai penjaga rumah dan haiwan pemburu.

5.2 Rumah Orang Semai

Semai merupakan suku kaum masyarakat Orang Asli dari kumpulan Senoi dan juga merupakan
suku kaum masyarakat Orang Asli yang mempunyai bilangan penduduk yang tertinggi
berbanding suku kaum lain masyarakat Orang Asli di Semenanjung Tanah Mealyu. Lazimnya
masyarakat Orang Asli Semai ini menetap di sepanjang sempadan Perak-Pahang iaitu di sekitar
kawasan Batang Padang sehingga ke Cameron Higlands.
Gambar 6: Rumah Panjang Temiar
Sumber : Muzium Orang Asli
Gambar 7: Menunjukkan Replika Rumah Panjang
Temiar
Sumber: Muzium Orang Asli
106


Terdapat 3 faktor utama yang mempengaruhi corak penempatan suku kaum Semai yang
pertamanya adalah keadaan geografi, faktor ekonomi di mana kemudahan untuk mereka
memperolehi sumber makanan dan faktor yang ketiganya adalah faktor agama dan kepercayaan.

Terdapat empat jenis tempat kediaman Kaum Semai:

1. Deg Semai (Rumah Kediaman)
2. Deg Yeau (Rumah Yeau)
3. Deg Pisang Sesikat (Rumah Pisang Sesikat)

5.3 Deg Orang Semai

Lazimnya Rumah Orang Semai di bina secara berpanggung dimana kedudukkan lantainya dibina
tinggi dari aras tanah dengan ketinggian tiang penyokong kira-kira 4-6 kaki tinggi dari aras
tanah. Seterusnya saiz rumah Orang Semai ini pula kebiasaanya dibina pada purata saiz 9 x 12
kaki sehingga 23 x 32 kaki manakala ketinggian rumahnya pula kira-kira 12 – 20 kaki dari aras
tanah. Kedudukan setiap rumah atau jarak antara satu rumah dengan rumah yang lain dalam satu
penempatan masyarakat Semai ini adalah berbeza dan mengikut keadaan dan bentuk permukaan
bumi seperti di dalam foto 7 dan 8.










Ruang dalam rumah Orang Semai ini terdiri daripada ruang terbuka yang bertindak
sebagai ruang utama kepada rumah. Ini di ketahui melalui heraki aras lantai kerana ketinggian
Gambar 7: Rumah kediaman Orang Semai di
kawasan berbukit di Tapah
Gambar 8: Jenis Rumah kediaman Orang Semai
di Tapah pada permukaan bumi yang
tidak rata.

Gambar 9: Jenis rumah Kediaman Rumah
Orang Semai yang mempunyai
serambi

Gambar 10: Jenis rumah Kediaman Rumah
Orang Semai pada permukaan
yang landai

107

lantai ruang ini adalah tertinggi daripada ruang yang lain. Seterusnya ruang untuk tempat tidur
pula hanya dibezakan melalui perbezaan lantai dan dinding penghadang sahaja. Manakala ruang
dapur pula merupakan elemen yang penting bagi rumah kediaman mereka kerana pelbagai
aktiviti di jalankan di dalam ruangan ini selain daripada memasak ruang dapur ini juga
digunakan untuk tujuan penyembelihan dan pembersihan haiwan buruan mereka maka oleh yang
demikian lantai bagi ruang dapur ini dibina jarang dan ketinggian lantainya lebih kurang pada 1‘
6‘‘ bagi membolehkan pengaliran air yang baik semasa membersihkan haiwan buru mereka.







5.4 Rumah Yeau

Rumah Yeau berfungsi sebagai rumah untuk menunggu padi yang masak. Rumah Yeau ini
dibina setiap kali padi menguning untuk mengelakkan gangguna makhluk perosak seperti burung
pipit, belalang, tikus dan sebagainya. Rupabentuk rumah Yeau adalah seperti rumah pisang
sesikat tetapi yang membezakannya adalah dari segi ketinggiannya tiang dan lantainya dimana
rumah Yeau lebih tinggi berbanding rumah pisang sesikat.

Untuk mengelakkan daripada serangan makhluk perosak rumah Yeau ini akan dipasang
tali ke kawasan ladang dengan objek-objek yang dapat mengeluarkan bunyi seperti tin 4 hingga 6
batang rotan diregangkan ke kawasan ladang dan diikatkan pada sebatang kayu yang di pakaikan
dengan pakaian. Tin-tin ini disusun dan apabila batang kayu ini digerakan tin-tin ini akan berlaga
dan mengeluarkan bunyi yang dapat menghalau haiwan perosak ini.












Gambar 11: Tempat Masak Rumah
Orang Semai di Tapah
Gambar 12: Menunjukkan Lantai Dapur
Rumah Orang Semai Yang
Jarang
Gambar 11: menunjukkan jenis rumah Yeau.
Sumber: Muzium Orang Asli
108

5.5 Rumah Pisang Sesikat

Lazimnya suku kaum Semai membiana rumah Pisang Sesikat adalah sebagai tempat berteduh
dan berehat setelah penat bekerja mencari hasil hutan serta menyumpit. Selain rumah pisang
sesikat ini dibina di dalam hutan yang dijadikan tempat persinggahan sementara ianya juga di
kawasan ladang dan juga di tepi sungai. Kekerapa rumah ini dibina bergantung kepada keperluan
dan tujuannya. Rupabentuk rumah pisang sesikat ini dapat digambarkan dengan bentuk atapnya
mencerun dari permukaan tanah ke atas. Seterusnya atap condong ini pula disokong oleh 2
batang tiang dan lantainya pula membentuk runag segiempat yang dialas dengan belahan batang
pokok bertam ataupun belahan buluh-buluh serta diikat dengan menggunakan akar dan rotan.

6.0 Kaum Melayu-Proto

Orang Melayu-Proto tinggal berjiran dengan Orang Melayu di Selangor, Negeri Sembilan,
Melaka dan Johor. Adat resam dan kebudayaan mereka boleh dikatakan ada persamaan tertentu
dengan orang Melayu. Kebanyakkan perkampungan mereka kini terletak di dalam kawasan
bandar dan pinggir. 6 suku kaum di dalam rumpun kaum Melayu-Proto ialah Temuan, Semelai,
Jakun, Orang Kanaq, Orang Kuala dan Orang Seletar.

6.1 Rumah Bot

Masyarakat Orang Asli yang tinggal dipersisiran pantai dan tebing sungai pada dahulunya
dikenali sebagai orang laut atau orang lanun. Orang laut ini merupakan kaum daripada kumpulan
masyrakat Orang Asli Melayu-proto. Suku kaum masyarakat Orang Asli yang juga dikenali
sebagai orang laut ini adalah daripada suku kaum orang seletar, orang kuala, dan orang semelai.
Di mana suku kaum ini tinggal di kawasan perairan dan menjadikan pengangkutan bot sebagai
tempat tinggal mereka. Orang laut ini juga akan turun ke darat untuk mendapatkan sumber
bekalan makanan dan keperluan lainnya.













Tidak banyak bukti yang jelas dijumpai mengenai rumah bot masyarakat Orang Asli ini.
Oleh yang demikian jangka hayat serta sejarah latar belakang rumah bot ini tidak dapat
diketahui. Hal ini berkemungkinan disebabkan oleh keadaan persekitaran dan penghijrahan
masyarakat Orang Asli daripada suku kaum ini serta akibat daripada penjajahan telah memaksa
orang asli daripada suku kaum ini telah mengubah cara hidup mereka. Keadaan ini telah terbukti
Gambar 12: Rumah Bot
Sumber: Muzium Orang Asli
109

apabila Sir Stamford Raffles telah berjaya menawan Singapura di dalam buku penulisan Skeat &
Blagden di dalam buku Pangan Race of The Malay Peninsula Volume One ( 1906 ) ada
menerangkan serba sedikit tentang rumah bot ini.

7.0 Binaan Lain

7.1 Rumah Sewang

Mengikut kepercayaan masyarakat Orang Asli suku rumah Sewang merupakan binaan yang
terpenting dalam pembinaan sesebuah penempatan masyarakat Orang Asli. Tidak kiralah apa
juga rekabentuk rumah Sewang ini walaupun dengan hanya pelantar dengan ruang yang terbuka
ataupun rumah yang dibina dengan anyaman buluh yang indah, rumah Sewang ini telah menjadi
kemestian kerana rumah selain daripada sebagai tempat pemujaan dan pengubatan rumah
Sewang ini juga bertujuan untuk upacara adat dan keramaian serta tempat bermesyuarat. Di
samping halaman juga bertindak sebagai tempat berkumpul bagi penduduk kampung. Hal ini
adalah untuk menyesuaikan dengan kehidupan orang asli, di mana biasanya menghabiskan
masanya di luar rumah, dan rumah hanya untuk, rehat, tidur dan makan. Rumah ini bertindak
sebagai dewan berkumpul untuk masyarakat mereka dan rumah tetamu untuk orang luar







Rumah Sewang pula merupakan ciri yang terpenting dalam seni bina Orang Asli
sehingga mempengaruhi orientasi susun atur rumah kediaman.. Rumah Sewang ini biasanya
ditempatkan di tengah-tengah perkampungan atau selalunya bersambung dengan rumah batin.
Untuk perkampungan yang berkelompok, dan terdapat halaman di tengah, rumah Sewang
diletakan di tengah-tengah halaman. Kemudianya, orientasi rumah kediaman, seharusnya
menghadap ke tengah halaman iaitu menghadap rumah Sewang.

8.0 Perbincangan dan Kesimpulan

Masyarakat pribumi yang terdapat di Semenanjung Malaysia terdiri dari pelbagai kaum yang
menetap di pelbagai daerah dan persekitaran yang berbeza. Setiap suku kaum juga mengamalkan
cara hidup yang berbeza diantara satu sama lain. Cara hidup dan persekitaran tersebut jugalah
Gambar 13: Rumah sewang yang menjadi tempat berkumpul masyarakat Orang Asli
suku kaum Semai
Sumber: Muzium Orang Asli
110

yang membuatkan rekabentuk dan gaya rumah kediaman mereka juga turut berbeza. Sehingga
kini mungkin telah banyak dibuat bancian, kajian dan penulisan tentang jumlah dan jenis suku
kaum masyarakat pribumi tersebut serta kedudukan penempatan mereka tetapi mungkin masih
belum ada kajian dan penulisan yang dibuat bagi membincangkan gaya atau perwatakan rumah-
rumah kediaman setiap dari suku kaum tersebut serta pola tatatur perumahan yang telah mereka
bangunkan dalam sistem kemasyarakatan dan sistem ekonomi dalam kehidupan mereka.
Mungkin mereka agak ketinggalan dalam pembangunan tamadun jika dibandingkan dengan
masyarakat Melayu yang sama-sama tinggal ‗sebumi‘ dengan mereka, tetapi mereka juga telah
menunjukkan peningkatan dalam membangunkan kehidupan. Mereka juga mempunyai budaya
tersendiri yang mengandungi garispanduan, pantang larang, kepercayaan dan amalan kehidupan.
Budaya tersebut jugalah sebenarnya yang berperanan dalam mencorakkan gaya dan perwatakan
senibina rumah kediaman dan corak penempatan setiap dari suku kaum Orang Asli.

Rumah kediaman perlu dibangunkan berdasarkan amalan kehidupan penghuninya serta
persekitaran dimana ianya dibangunkan. Kesimpulannya kita tidak boleh mengambil model
pembangunan rumah kediaman dari tempat lain yang masyarakatnya memiliki budaya dan cara
kehidupan yang cukup berbeza lalu diberikan model pembangunan tersebut kepada masyarakat
pribumi di Semenanjung Malaysia dengan harapan mereka juga akan maju sebagaimana pemilik
model kepada pembangunan tersebut. Ini adalah pandangan yang meleset dan bertentangan
dengan konsep pembangunan dalam amalan senibina. Melalui senario yang telah dibincangkan
di atas, adalah jelas bahawa masyarakat pribumi tersebut telah menolak pendekatan
pembangunan yang telah ditawarkan kepada mereka dan sudah sewajarnyalah kita mencari suatu
pendekatan yang lebih menepati citarasa mereka sekiranya kita benar-benar ikhlas untuk
membantu mereka.

Rujukan

Mohamed Yusuf Bin Ahmad Adam Broughton. 2003. The Comparison To The Level
Of Beliefs Towards The Planning And Tradisionjal Architecture Between The Semai And
Mahmeri. Universiti Teknologi Mara.
Permata, Pameran Tamadun Orang Asli, Universiti Pahang Malaysia. 2004. Portal Permata
Orang Asli. Mengenali Tamadun Orang Asli, http://permataorangasli.blogspot.com/
(accessed April 2009)
Jabatan Hal Ehwal Orang Asli, Masyarakat Orang Asli.http://www.jheoa.gov.my .
(accessed April 2009)
Skeat, Walter William & Blagden, Charles Otto, 1906. Pangan Race of The Malay
Peninsular Vol. I & II Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
Evans, I.H.N. 1937. The Negritos of Malaya. Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
Rashid, M.N. Perbezaan Penempatan Dan Senibina Orang Asli Pendalaman Dengan Pinggir
Pantai ; Universiti Teknologi Mara, Fakulti Perancangan Dan Ukur Seni Bina.




111

Scale of Measurement for Benchmarking in Building Maintenance

S.A.F.Al-Zawawi, L.C.Hsia, A.S.Ali*
Building Performance and Diagnostic Group
Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya
50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: +603-7967 4494 Fax: 603-7967 5713
Corresponding e-mail: asafab@um.edu.my

Abstract

Benchmarking is a systematic procession of comparison for standard performance measurement of
product, aims in identifying best practice that can be adopted for high-improvement on a particular
product or service. Nowadays, there are many failures occurred on the building asset, causing
depreciation in asset performance especially in office or commercial buildings. Thus, benchmarking need
to be implemented to increase the building asset performance, ensuring the building system is running
smoothly. Hence, these paper aims to identify asset performance of office or commercial buildings around
Klang Valley and develop a measurement scale in terms of maintainability. The steps carried out in this
preliminary study includes selection of topic and formulation of research problem, formulation of
research proposal focusing on selection of research design, data collection method, data analysis,
conclusion and recommendations for future research. Quantitative approach has been used in the data
collection. Questionnaires which consists of closed ended questions and open-ended questions has been
highlighted and distributed to 30 respondents which consists of personnel with understanding and
experience in the building maintenance industry to answer the questionnaires. The respondents were
chosen from 30 different commercial or office buildings around Klang Valley. Statistical Package for
Social Science (SPSS) were be used to interpret and evaluated the data collected from the respondents. In
this paper, it was found that the asset performance of the commercial or office building around Klang
Valley in terms of economic, sustainability, efficiency, functional effectiveness, functional safety and
customer‘s satisfaction were good condition while the cost effectiveness is fair. In terms of asset value,
there were in a poor condition. As to develop the scale, respondents‘ opinion mainly includes
maintenance cost, routine maintenance, noise level of equipment, energy saving, environmental friendly
and condition level of equipment.

Keywords: Benchmarking, Maintainability, Performance measurement, Asset performance

1.0 Introduction

Benchmarking is important in maintaining the building to ensure the building to perform, as
stated by Al Najjar (2004) in his claim that it is important to identify properly performance
measures required to achieve the organization objectives. He also noted that maintenance
measurement is essential for companies to recognize their planned goals and this can be utilized
by benchmarking which is one of the never ending improvement tools.

As an effort to establish performance measurement, Nayak (1998) stated that
benchmarking is seen as a tool for measurement performance for improvement in economic
sector among the companies in the Australian industry. Energy Star (2008) noted the experience
of USAA Real Estate Co on how benchmarking can inform about the whole energy management
process .The company went to benchmark 100 percent of its buildings and resulted in more than
112

10 million in energy savings over a five-year period through 2007. As an example of
benchmarking saves appreciable economic loss, Marriott Hotel relied on benchmarking for
observation and improvement of energy performance and as a result, Marriott Hotel save
$4.5million annually in energy costs.

Meanwhile, KPI is also one of the tools to measure performance. The identification for
Key Performance Indicator (KPI) helps in defining the roles and responsibilities for the
maintenance to function against the assets for which they apply. According to Wireman (2005),
when failures occurred in the facility, KPI dictated which assets need to be focused base on its
consequence and impacts of failure and led to achievement of 12 percent return on net assets
(RONA). It can be concluded that benchmarking indeed is a tool to help in cost-effective and
time-efficient in terms of man-power and resource-usage of an organization.

2.0 Research Objectives

There are three objectives identified and need to be achieved in this topic:
- To review types of benchmarking and its advantages in building maintenance
- To identify the asset performance of the commercial building
- To develop a standard graduated scale for asset condition in terms of maintainability of
building

3.0 Benchmarking in Building Maintenance

Maintenance can be the largest part of any operational budget besides energy cost in a building.
This shows the importance of maintenance management and its function since its total
operational cost are grow over the years. Maintenance is important in all the work place
condition to ensure the building can be well-operated. Horner (1997) highlights that there exist
some policies from British Government whereby the requirement of building maintenance
approach mainly focused on the housing sector.

Benchmarking in the other hand is a systematic process that can be adopted for
measurement performance of particular products, services or practices to determine the extent for
achievement of high-improvement performance and this has been agreed by Wober (2002) who
points out benchmarking as ―a systematic procedure of comparative measurement with objective
to achieve continuous improvement‖.

Horner et al. (1997) highlights there are two types of benchmarking mainly external and
internal benchmarking. Zairi (1996) states that internal benchmarking is a benchmark between
the partners in the same organization which resembles the marks of the particular company‘s
benchmarking while external benchmark will be the comparison of different organization in the
same industry (Wober , 2002). Internal benchmarking need to be applied in a particular
organization before any external benchmark could take place. The external benchmarking covers
a larger market compared to the internal benchmarking.

In terms of advantages, benchmarking is a technique to overcome a problem besides
ensure continuous improvement and provide outputs that achieve the companies‘ set of goals,
113

priorities and mission (Khurrum, 1999). This is supported by Sitnikov et .al (2008) quoted from
Boxwell (1994) which notes one of the benchmarking purpose is it can be an efficient way to
improve a product or services besides helping the manager to eliminate the trial or error of the
process improvements and strives companies to make improvement in the shortest time.
Therefore, benchmarking aims to provide never-ending improvement service to ensure the
objectives of the company are achieved.

Zairi (1998) also states that the purpose of benchmarking is to encourage the organization
for never-ending learning besides upgrade the organization to a higher standard of performance.
Sand (2004) mentions that benchmarking also aims to compare performance of companies
recognized the company that operate most efficiently and rank the efficient companies referred
.This shows that purpose of benchmarking is also to level up the standard of the company
performance to ensure the organization can be brought to the world class to compete with the
world best in class products or services. Treasury Board of Canada (2006) in other way
highlights that it can be used for the purpose of evaluating the information to ensure performance
measures are compared effectively. Other advantages of benchmarking includes best practices
will be identified to ensure best in class performance can be observed during benchmarking
project (Wireman, 2004).

Thus, benchmarking helps to provide a breakthrough for an organization to improve their
business services to gain competitive advantage and achieve good performance in global
standard. The continuous upgraded quality of facility in building through utilization of
benchmarking not only helps in achieving best practices in terms of business strategy approach
but it also lead the management team to the realization of continuous learning process in the
company.

3.1 Maintainability

Maintainability refers to the measures during development and installation of manufactured
product which could minimize stated maintenance, man hours, tools, logistic cost, skill levels
and facilities to ensure that the product can meet the requirement for its intended usage (Horner
et al., 1997). Hence, maintainability can be referred as measures on how well the equipment can
perform using appropriate procedures. Maintainability aims to minimize the life cycle cost
besides increasing the equipments‘ performance in terms of reliability, supportability etc.

3.2 Economic

Grag (2006) mentions that there are two key conflicts needed to be taken into consideration in
producing the economic life of capital plants which is the increased operation and maintenance
cost of aging asset and the declined ownership cost in keeping the asset in service. Besides that,
it also points that life cycle cost approach which includes costs of purchase, operating and
maintenance costs and disposal value need to be taken into consideration in economic-life
examples.



114

3.3 Sustainability

According to Tsang (1998), sustainability refers to a term, method or even way of life. It allows
communities to come out with a strategy whereby aspects of economy, environmental and social
characteristics will be taken into consideration.

3.4 Efficiency

In terms of efficiency measures, there are four categories mainly maintenance costs, labor, spares
and materials and planning and control. Maintenance costs can be measured through total
maintenance cost which includes entire facility, each business unit and asset. Besides that, it also
can be analyzed through maintenance cost per unit and the ratio of parts to labour expenditure
(Moubray, 1997).


3.5 Functional Effectiveness

A truly-oriented maintenance organization need to put their concentration on the functional
effectiveness whereby if this requirement is used, it will increase the accuracy of referring it as
measures of ―primary functional effectiveness‖ rather than ―overall equipment
effectiveness‖(Moubray, 1997).

3.6 Cost Effectiveness

Mobley et al. (2008) mentions one of the most effective cost control systems is the conventional
job-cost method which accumulate expense items for labor, supply and services on a specific job
number which in turn is the liability of a detailed division. The companies tend to continuously
improve the potential to enhance the cost-effectiveness of their operations in terms of physical
asset management (William et al, 1994).

3.7 Functional Safety

Safety in maintenance is an essential aspect needed to be considered whereby it much relies on a
larger extent on the individual safety performance of its men. Maintenance department not only
need to be responsible of the safety of personnel but they should also need to be in-charge of
mechanical safeguards and maintenance services and maintaining equipment and services in a
safe-operating manner (Mobley et al., 2008). Mobley et al (2008) further elaborate that asset
reliability and employees‘ safety are closely related. It also mentions that maintenance
engineering is responsible for effective asset maintenance whereby it can maintain the function
in terms of required safety.

3.8 Asset value

Mobley et al. (2008) points that if the routine maintenance is delayed on equipment due to
production demand or resource limitations, the company is in fact mortgaging the future value of
115

the particular asset, causing a wasted asset must be replaced. Wauters (2005) mentions that the
value of property is depreciated annually according to the allowable schedules.

3.9 Customers Satisfaction

Levitt (1997) states that customers can be internal or external departments, people or processes
that will be adversely affected by product failure. The best way to understand the customer‘s
expectation is to question them as this approach helps to gain response besides discussions can
be done between customers and suppliers whereby the range of opinions can be exchanged
Wilson (2002).Patterson (1995) states that adaptation the best practices of others will help to beat
customer‘s expectations

4.0 Research Methodology

There are two types of data collection methods mainly primary data and secondary data. There
were 30 respondents consists of personnel have thorough understanding and experience in
building maintenance industry to answer the questionnaire. These respondents were selected
from the 30 commercial or office buildings around Klang Valley. The buildings which were
selected have few limitations as follow:
- Benchmarking must be applied on the building asset
- The building consists of commercial/office building
- The buildings were located around Klang Valley

Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to interpret and evaluated the data
collected from the respondents. The objectives and the results of findings were presented to
ensure the aims have been achieved.

5.0 Analysis And Discussion

There are two types of questions that have been asked in the questionnaire mainly closed ended
questions and open-ended questions. The multiple questions have been asked to the respondents.

5.1 Closed Ended Questions

Table 1 mainly summarized some of the highest answers of results gained from each multiple
questions asked to the respondents.

Table 1: Major answers gained from each multiple questions asked to the respondents.
Multiple Questions Major answer from
respondents
Percentage (%)
Position of the respondent Building executive 36.7
Years of experience of respondent More than 15 years 36.7
Average age of the building More than 15 years 66.7
Built area of the building More than 200000 sq ft 50.0
Frequency of maintenance work for
chiller
Less than 5 years 76.7
116

Number of chiller available 2-3 chiller 53.3
Size (cooling capacity) of chiller
(tonnage)
201-500 tonnage 50.0
Cost of maintenance for chiller (per
year)
More than RM9000 83.3
Number of breakdown for chiller
(per year)
Less than 5 times 86.7

To identify the asset performance of the chiller, there are 8 requirements taken into consideration
mainly economic, sustainability, efficiency, functional effectiveness, cost effectiveness,
functional safety, asset value and customers‘ satisfaction. Likert scale of rating 1 to 5 has been
used to rank and identify the chiller performance. Table 2 shows the results of the findings.

Table 2: Results of the Respondents Regarding the Asset Performance the Chiller
Asset
Performance

E (%) S (%) EF (%) FE (%) CE
(%)
FS (%) AV (%) CS (%)
Very poor 0 0 0 0 0 0 10.0 0
Poor 0 3.3 0 0 30.0 0 50.0 3.3
Fair 36.7 23.3 16.7 16.7 40.0 20.0 23.3 26.7
Good 63.3 66.7 76.7 66.7 26.7 56.7 6.7 60.0
Excellent 0 6.7 6.7 16.7 3.3 23.3 10.0 10.0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0








Based on the results of the questionnaire, most of the respondents rated that in terms of
economic, sustainability, efficiency, functional effectiveness, functional safety and customer‘s
satisfaction, the performance of chillers were in good condition. In terms of cost effectiveness,
most of the respondents indicated the asset in fair condition .On the other hand, the performance
in terms of asset value were mostly rated in poor condition.

5.2 Open-Ended Questions

Only one open-ended questions asked to the respondents which as shown in Table 3.





LEGEND
E- Economic FE-Functional Effectiveness AS- Asset value
S- Sustainability CE-Cost Effectiveness CS- Customer satisfaction
EF- Efficiency FS- Functional Safety


117

Table 3: Open ended questions








From the results, it can be concluded that most of the respondents suggested that the
aspect need to be taken into consideration to develop the scale value of asset condition in terms
of maintainability includes maintenance cost, routine maintenance, noise level of equipment,
energy-saving, environmental-friendly, level of equipment‘s technology, life cycle of asset and
power consumption. Table 4 shows the results of the developed standard measurement scale after
amendment.

Table 4: Summary of the opinions gained by the varies respondents
No Summary of Respondent’s Opinion
1.0 Maintenance cost
2.0 Routine maintenance
3.0 Noise level of equipment
4.0 Energy-saving
5.0
6.0
Environmental-friendly
Level of equipment‘s technology

6.0 Conclusion

Based on the literature review, there are two types of benchmarking mainly internal and external
benchmarking. The advantages of benchmarking includes it can lead to cost-saving and time-
efficiency besides improve the quality of a product. Benchmarking helps the organization to
determine the aims and objectives of the organization and achieve the goals effectively in a
lower operating-cost at shortest time through comparison standard performance within varies
products. As for the performance of asset, most of the chillers at the office or commercial
buildings in Klang Valley are in good condition in terms of economic, sustainability, efficiency,
functional effectiveness, functional safety and customer‘s satisfaction since routine maintenance
and frequent inspection by maintenance personnel. Chiller performance was ranked in fair
condition in terms of cost effectiveness since the use of chillers in the office or commercial
building could lead to high electricity bill due to its high consumption. This eventually cause the
cost for the payment of high electricity consumption could lead to reduction in cost effectiveness
of chiller while most respondents state asset value of chiller is ranked in poor condition. This
was because once the age of chillers increased, the efficiency and functional effectiveness of
chillers will decrease; causing its performance cannot be functioned as it was first purchased.


What other aspect of rating requirement can be considered in the scale of asset
maintainability?


118

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120

Quality of Architecture in Use: Users Experience and Expectation to Usability
of Design in Learning Environment

S.N.Haron
1
, M.Y.Hamid
2
, A.A.A.Ghani
3

1&3
PhD Student in Built Environment,Faculty Achitecture, Panning & SurveyinUniversiti
Teknologi Mara (UiTM Malaysia)
2
Faculty Architecture, Planning & Survey, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak, Malaysia
1
aqilmuazumar@yahoo.com.my
2
yusof344@perak.uitm.edu.my
3
aidaa017@perak.uitm.edu.my

Abstract

One of the main goals of quality architecture is to organize an informational domain into a usable design.
It can be achieved when the design meets the end-users needs. There are different backgrounds and
categories of users, either is able or disable. Each of those users has their own needs when dealing with
the use of design. Consequently, to meet users need is through feedback from their experience and
expectation to the design. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the literature on ―usability concept and
parameters‖ in a built environment. Later the researcher will suggest a possible usability concept in
evaluating the quality of physical environment, facilities and activities in other to meet the end-users
needs. This paper will focus on three usability key factors: efficiency, effectiveness and user‘s
satisfaction. This overview will help a researcher in their research; to evaluate the quality of learning
environment in Malaysia's public school. This usability concept is useful in improving the quality design
and product outcome. It is relevant in achieving the Malaysia education philosophy and goals, which is
more valuable to the end-users; students and educators.

Keywords: Usability of design, Usability dimension, Users needs, Quality learning environment.

1.0 The Concept Of Usability

The concept of usability was first developed in the 1950s, for ICT and software development
[1].

When evaluating the usability of buildings, the aim is to evaluate the relation between building,
people and organization. The users‘ actions are unpredictable, and there is a long list of user
types and groups. Users interpret and interact with the building with all their senses, their
cultural and social baggage, and often (at least in parts) unconsciously.

Usability is the degree to which something – service, facilities, product or anything is easy to
use and a good fit for the people who use it. It is whether a product is efficient, effective and
satisfying for those who use it, and it depends on what kind of goals the user holds. This
definition derived from the international standard on usability ‗…. effectiveness, efficiency and
satisfaction with which a specified set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular
environment‘
[2]
. Usability also is the extent in measuring a service or organization in achieving
specified goals or mission
[3; 4; 1].


1.1 Efficiency

The efficiency of the service provides is to test of how much effort and how fast does it take for a
user to complete the task. The efficiency is based on a ratio of a system‘s service work output
and its work input. This can be seen through students‘ or users‘ experience with school
121

environment, are they able to complete every procedure after receiving process of learning.
These are all due to the accessibility and reachability factors.

1.2 Effectiveness

The effectiveness of the service provided is measured by how a user completes the tasks. Often
we interpret effectiveness as the ability to reach the target we have set up; to get the desired
effects of something. Therefore, in school design the rule of space provision or space workflow
and facilities arrangement should readily, be users friendly, functional, flexible in design because
it will be used by various types of users both able and disabled people with different mission and
vision. According to Shaw and Ivens 2002, the customer experience is a blend of company‘s
physical performance and the emotional evoked, intuitively measured against customer (end-
users) expectations across all the moments of contact
[5]
.

1.3 User satisfaction

User satisfaction also in common language has to do within the fulfillment of a desire or a need
through their feelings and attitude towards the service or product
[6]
.The phenomenon of users
experiences involved users emotion reflects the users' satisfaction and at the same time produces
a high quality service
[5;7]
.

2.0 Usability Concept In Built-Environment

Usability is a part of human behavior study or action. It recognizes humans are lazy, get
emotional, and are not interested in putting a lot of effort into. Hence generally their prefer things
that are easy to do. It shows that usability is a focus to users how they can complete the task in
the easiest way with a short time. It means the service provide is learn ability, memorability and
those factors refers to the efficiency and the effectiveness of the service or product or task.

This is visibly seen through the perspective of Arge, 2004. The term usability describes
whether or not a product is fit for a specific purpose. Usability, or functionality in use, is
concerned with a building‘s ability to support the user organization‘s economic and professional
objectives
[4]
.











Figure 1: The Usability Triangle (Rothe, 2006 )
( Source: Johanna Alho, (2008), Usability of Workplaces Phase 2, CIB W111 report)
USABILITY
FUNCTIONALITY
ENVIRONMENT
SERVICEABILITY
SITUATION
USER
122

Buildings last for a long time, and will have interactions with many user groups at different
moments in time (Blakstad et al., 2008). This means that evaluation of the relation between
people, and building is challenging. Working with usability, we should not only focus on the
individual level, but also at the impact of the building in the organizational context
[1]
.Figure ,
shows the usability dimensions that come from service design to achieve the user‘s goals and
design target.

Usability is all about users‘ experience, expectations and a space design of learning facilities.
All in all, they reflect the society perspective, human beings and the patients. Usability evaluates
service design with three parameters key factors; efficiency, effectiveness and users‘ satisfaction
to achieve an organization goal with user friendly service design or specified goals
[3;4;1]
.Usability
key concept is depending on usability attribute, which are users‘ values in culture, time context
and users‘ background, knowledge users‘ behaviors or actions
[8;3;5]
and customers‘
characteristics, lifestyles, values and demographics.

2.1 Usability - Quality in Architecture in Use

Usability is to measure quality related to using of building
[10]
.Never before has the world
become so concerned with quality of learning environment. ―Quality involves the consistent
delivery of a product or service according to expected standards‖.‖ Standards‖ in this context are
related to expectations and actual experiences with the product as perceived by the end-users.
This definition was applied- involves three groups; ―customers (students and educators), and
employees (service providers) the support staff that interact in the provisional environment
[20]
.
In the relationship among these groups, the students‘ satisfaction was made the focus of all
operations with educators and employees working together as a team of decision-makers and
providers.













Figure 2: Theoretical classification of usability dimensions and the new empirical classification.
Source: Rasila (2010)

Hillier and Leaman (1976)
[11]
distinguished the main functions of the building in achieving
quality of architectural design, which is spatial organizations of activities. They provide optimum
support for the activities. They require available spaces, which are related to each other and a
symbolic function. It can be viewed as a manifestation of specific ideas and expectations not

Efficiency
Accesibility
Flexibility
Learnability
Memorability
Amount/ tolerance/ prevention of
errors
Navigation
Functionality
Atmosphere
Visual design
Interaction and feedback
Satisfaction
Efficiency
Accesibility
Flexibility
Learnability
Memorability
Amount/ tolerance/ prevention of
errors
Navigation
Functionality
Atmosphere
Visual design
Interaction and feedback
Satisfaction
Servicescape
Feeling secure
Space
Networks

123

only of the designers, but also from users thus it will be a design of a cultural object intertwining
social and symbolic meanings
[11].








Usability
attribute
evaluatio
n in Built
environm
ent
Rasila;2010 Voordt;2
005;2009
Jenso;2008 Alexander;2
010
McGee;2004
Efficiency
Accessibility
Flexibility
Learn ability
Memorability
Prevention of
errors,Navigat
ion
Functionality
Atmosphere
Visual design
Interaction
and feedback
Satisfaction
Services cape
Feeling secure
Space,Networ
ks
Reach
ability &
parking
facilities,
Accessibilit
y,
Efficiency,
Flexibility,
Safety,
Spatial
orientation;
Privacy,
territoriality
& social
contact,
Health &
physical
well-being,
Sustainabilit
y
Adaptabilit
y
- generality
- flexibility
- elasticity
Functionali
ty

Usefulness
Accessibilit
y
Esthetics
Identity
(internal)
Image

(external)
Enjoyable
Memorable
Valuable

Clear, Friendly,
Understandable,
Consistent, Logical,
Efficient –fast &
smooth, Productive,
ideal ,Predictable,
Organized, natural
Easy To Use, Easy
To Learn,
Effective, Familiar,
Manageable, Stress
Free, Accessibility,
Integrated,
Precise,Informative
, Problem
solving,Expected,
Simple,Coordinate,
Complete, Helpful,
Dependable, Useful
,controllable,
customizable
Journey
experience
Quality
architecture
in use
design
Quality of
design –
patient
focus
Quality
learning
environme
nt
Quality of use
attributes

Table 1: Usability attributes and outcomes evaluation in Built environment
Source: Author

Based on the body of usability research in the built environment the usability measurements
in achieving quality of architecture in use or service design shows that the outcomes of users
needs and expectation and the indicators of measurement are same. From those results, we can
conclude that the requirements of end users are based on the overall usability of the design and
the result will impact the quality of the task or design. This scenario shows in figure 2 and table
1.
However, in ensuring the quality of the design, there are some things to take into account.
Three values have been continuously used which are cultural values, the utility and values of the
future. Utility value refers to the extent to which a building or space with the potential to serve as
required. Cultural value refers to criteria such as originality, expression, connection to the
environment, as part of the history and value associated with the quality
[11].

124

2.2 Usability Attribute from users experience

As explained in detail about the concept of usability, it indicators are derived from user
expectations and needs. Hence in the previous study shows usability is to facilitate organization
goals or aim or to help facilitate the end users in achieving their dreams or mission to complete a
task. Table 1 shows the attributes of usability assessment in achieving the quality of the task or
service from the evaluation of end users perspective and experience, which the value comes from
the effectiveness, efficiency and users satisfaction.

In this article user mean those who actually use learning environment, service and activities,
it, including student, educators and support -staff. Today built environment presenting complex
challenges to professional designer. Design is an evolutionary process that attempts to create
beyond our best imagination to the real world. Design forms what we desire and what we need
sometimes it follows by design trend but a good design considered the resources and human end-
user participant.

In other way usability also is a component of user‘s participation or organization as the co-
designer as they will experience the future space other than architect and experts in driving
design process. Previous research had shown that participants and allow opinions from the end –
user in the design process, influence design outcome, which satisfied and more functional and
friendly
[7;19]
.

The user's feedback throughout their experience, become an information or key answer to
improve the service performance
[3;4]
.In order to do this, clients, designers or facilities
management must know how the space works and why. Understanding how things work and
why requires us to analyze and explain
[12]
.Therefore it is important to understand the concepts of
usability, in order to provide a better understanding of the users‘ experience and give positive
views to the organization
[9]
.

Furthermore, in many situations in the built environment, effectiveness design able to be seen
after the service delivered and space being utilized by the end users, only the users can judge or
response to the service outcome. In this situation facilities management is needed in planning
space and facility to become more organized, at the same time the strategic facilities'
management process is used to understand the organization flow and mission
[13; 14]
and
consequently, the use of space becomes more valuable
[15].
Figure 3 shows the user s experience
and the expectation of what they want to perceive during their experience.










125

















Figure 3: Usability criteria and parameters of spatial design
Source: Author

2.3 Usability of Learning Environments

The role of education in this century is very challenging because these areas have a greater
responsibility for producing excellent students. Learning equipment and facilities design are
essential to support positive learning environment. Usability of school design, which is meeting
the needs of students and educators or teachers, is important in achieving quality learning
environment and school mission or goals. Consequently, it will affect on students learning
outcome
[16; 17]
.

To improve the performance and educational aspirations, it may not necessarily be realized
with the construction of new schools
[18]
but the mission can be achieved when designing and
facilitate the facilities by understanding user expectations, as well as provide a conducive
learning environment
[17]
. According to Alexander, 2010, quality learning environment can be
achieved with considering the learning environment usability criteria; enjoyable, memorable and
valuable in improving or redesign the school, facilities and activities
[18]
. Figure 4 explain the
usability of learning environment scenario in supporting the quality learning environment, which
is derived from the understanding of user‘s experience and usability concept.












Spatial orientation
/features /relationship
- Efficiency
- Accessibility
- Flexibility
- Learn ability
- Memorability
- Amount/ tolerance/
prevention
- Navigation
- Functionality
- Atmosphere
- Visual design/
Aesthetical
- Interaction
- Satisfaction




How much effort do users
require to do this? / How long
it takes them to achieve it
- Distance of each space –
minimum time taken to
reach the service and
relationship between each
space
- Time spent (effort)-achieve
service; distance & size.
- Design or facilities/
activities can shift the
attention.
- Increase productivity -use of
area and number of user


Efficiency




Focus





Can users complete tasks,
achieve goals with the
product
- Features –experience
journey to reach the
service
- Guidance to reach the
service
- Human Action to
design/space provided
- Facilities /activities for-
support the expectation -
increase flexibility
- Safety design and
facilities
- Design appearance

- Users feedback-
impact on
efficiency &
effectiveness





- Value of
satisfaction

- Users complain

Effectiveness




Satisfaction




126

















Figure 4: Usability of learning environment design approaches in contributing quality of the
service design
Source: Author

3.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, the paper developed an understanding of the usability concept and how its benefits
could be used as a guideline for the designer and facilities manager. In addition, what perceived
service quality is and how to measure it and its relation to the usability outcome were also
discussed. Therefore, spatial design is important to study especially from the service process and
design aspect such as for way finding design and spatial layout, accessibility, workflow and
people behavior. By giving full attention to these factors it will reflect the space setting design
and space requirement based on end-user‘s end-user's expectations. Furthermore, the provision
of efficient and effective facility can improve students and teachers performance, by knowing
what their needs and expectation in producing quality learning environment.

References

Fenker M., 2008. Towards A Theoretical Framework for Usability of Buildings. CIB Report
316: Usability of Workplaces Phase 2. Alexander ,K. Rotterdam.International Council for
Research and Innovation in Building and Construction.
International standards for HCI and usability.
http://www.usabilitynet.org/tools/r_international.htm
Blakstad, S.H, Hansen, G. K., et al. 2008. Methods and tools for evaluation of usability in
buildings. CIB Report 316: Usability of Workplaces Phase 2. Alexander ,K. Rotterdam.
International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction.
Alexander K. 2008. Usability Philosophy and Concepts.CIB Report 316 : Usability of
Workplaces Phase 2. Alexander ,K. Rotterdam.International Council for Research and
Innovation in Building and Construction.
Output


User’s
experience
Usability of learning environment
Effectiveness
attributes
Efficiency
attributes
Learning
environment
Satisfaction
Enjoyable/
memorable/
valuable
Facilities design
Quality learning
environment
Culture/Situation/ Action/Context/Background

Expectation /Needs /Perception

Needs
Quality in-use Usability problems identification
Impact
Feedback
127

Nenonen, S., Rasila, H. et al. 2008. Customer Journey – a method to investigate user experience.
CIB Report 316: Usability of Workplaces Phase 2. Alexander ,K. Rotterdam. International
Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction.
Bahari, M. B., Ling, Y. W. 2010. Factors Contributing to Customer Satisfaction with
Community Pharmacies in Malaysia. Journal of Public Health Vol.18: 35–41.
Poldma, T. 2009. Experiential Knowledge and Rigour in Research. International Conference
2009 of the DRS Special Interest Group on Experiential Knowledge. London metropolitan
University.
Granath, J. A., Gilleard, J. 2008. Usability in the Workplace:Case study of Pamela Youde
Eastern Hospital Hong Kong. CIB Report 316: Usability of Workplaces Phase 2. Alexander
,K. Rotterdam.International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and
Construction.
Alho, J., Nenonen, S. et al. 2008. Usability of Shopping Centres: components of a usability
rating tool. CIB Report 316: Usability of Workplaces Phase 2. Alexander K.
Rotterdam.International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction.
Jenso, M., Haugen, T. 2005. Usability of Hospital Buildings: Is patient focus leading to usability
in hospital buildings? Usability Of Workplaces: Case study: Nord-Trøndelag University
College Nylåna, Røstad. Report CIB Task Group 51.
Voordt, T. J. M. v. d. 2009. Quality of design and usability: a vetruvian twin. Ambiente
Construído, Porto Alegre Vol 9,(2): 17-29.
Hignett, S., L.U.J. 2009. An Investigation Of The Use Of Health Building Notes By UK
Healthcare Building Designers. Journal Applied Ergonomics Vol.40: 608–616.
Friedman, K. 2003. Theory Construction In Design Research: Criteria: Approaches, and
Methods. Journal of Design Studies Vol.24(6):507-522.
Alexander, K. 2006. The Application of Usability Concepts in the Built Environment." Journal
of Facilities Management .Vol. 4(4):262-270.
Hamid, M.Y., Baldry, D. et al. 2008. Facilities Management Processes In Higher Education
Institutions. EuroFm Research Monograph. Facilities Management Processes. K. Alexander.
Northampton. Centre for Facilities Management.
Kamaruddin, R.et al. 2009. The Quality of Learning Environment and Academic Performance
from a Student‘s Perception.International Journal of Business Management Vol.4(4): 171-
175.
Azizan, F. Z. 2010. Blended Learning In Higher Education Institution In Malaysia. Proceedings
of Regional Conference on Knowledge Integration in ICT 2010.
Alexander, K. 2010. Usability of learning environments CIB Report 316: Usability of
Workplaces Phase3. Alexander ,K. Rotterdam.International Council for Research and
Innovation in Building and Construction.
Haron, S.N. Hamid, M.Y., et al. 2009. Towards healthcare service quality: an understanding of
the usability concept in healthcare design. Proceedings of ASEAN Conference on
Environmental-Behaviour Studies,Sarawak, July 2009.
Haron, S.N., Hamid, M.Y. et al. 2009. Towards Health-Care service quality: An adaptation
usability concept in healthcare design. Proceedings of Arte-Polis 3 International Conference
on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place, Bandung, July 2009.


128

Factors Affecting Students’ Performance In Calculus

B.Faridah, M.Y.Yuzainee, A.R.Fadhilah
Department of Engineering Science and Mathematics
College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional,
Km 7, Jalan Kajang Puchong, 43009, Selangor Darul Ehsan
faridah@uniten.edu.my, yuzainee@uniten.edu.my, fadhilah@uniten.edu.my,

Abstract

The poor students' performance in Advanced Calculus at degree level in UNITEN has been the subject of
discussion in Department of Sciences and Mathematics. In order to improve the performance in Calculus,
a study needs to be done to look into the problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the
factors affecting students‘ performance in Calculus. Using feedback from a sample of 125 students who
had taken the Advanced Calculus and Fuzzy Conjoint method adapted from Turksen Model, the results
reveal that the students considered four most relevant factors affect their performance in Advanced
Calculus. The factors are examination difficulty level and time factor, basic knowledge related to the
advanced calculus course, teaching effectiveness and attitude problem. Hopefully, the result can helps the
academicians to find an approach and the method of teaching to assist students in the process of learning
mathematics particularly in calculus.

Keywords: performance; factors, Advanced Calculus, Fuzzy Conjoint method.

1.0 Introduction

There have been many studies worldwide done on the performance of students in Calculus. Their
results reveal that hard work, previous schooling, teaching method, family income and self
motivation are among the factors that affect the student‘s grade. Most researchers agree that
good performance in Mathematics, either at the school or college levels are so much affected by
the strong mathematical background obtained at preceding levels. Knowledge in calculus is a
critical course for students to pursue studies in sciences, mathematics, engineering and many
other fields. The failure in calculus will disqualify students from pursuing the next college-level
of study especially in sciences related field as mentioned earlier. Furthermore, calculus tends to
serve as the entry course for academic success for engineering majors as the nature of
engineering courses more likely to be quantitatively oriented. In addition, Mathematics‘ ability is
the strongest predictor of success in the field of engineering (LeBold & Ward, 1988)

In Finn (2010) article, he discussed on Treisman‘s finding on how students improved their
poor grades in calculus by changing their way of study. According to Finn, Treisman found out
that class study groups improved the mathematics test score dramatically when they changed
their study habits. This shows that the part of the factor affecting to the performance in calculus
is the attitude of students related to way of study. According to LeBold & Ward, the reason of
students‘ failure in calculus does depend on what the students bring to the university, namely
motivation and prior preparation. Gillespie (1919) in his article did describe as ―…the nature of a
course in advanced calculus should serve a bridge between the works in elementary calculus…‖
which shows that the relationship between advanced calculus and the elementary calculus.
Calculus alike to other mathematics courses is taught according to topics which precede them, or
129

courses depend on the courses which precede them. This characteristic of calculus and sciences
makes it difficult for students to improve their performance once they are having difficulty at the
beginning in the subjects.

Regardless of many attempts to improve the students‘ ability in understanding the calculus,
the college still has high percentage of low grade in advanced calculus (Figure 1). Therefore, the
aim of this study is to investigate the factors affecting students‘ performance in Advanced
Calculus by getting a feedback from students who had taken the Advanced Calculus.

2.0 Methodology

A survey was conducted on 125 second year engineering students at UNITEN who have taken
Advanced Calculus during the first semester of their degree year. Their performance in
Advanced Calculus was ranged from A to D. These students were used as respondents since they
had gone through the course and experienced the challenges in learning the subject. The bar
graph is used to describe the students‘ grades for Advanced Calculus and it is shown in Figure 1.
The result indicates that 62% of the students did not do well (B÷ to E) in Advanced Calculus.




Figure 1: Grades Earned in Advanced Calculus by students.

The responses to the survey regarding the factors relevant to their performance in Advanced
Calculus were analyzed using Fuzzy Conjoint method adapted from Turksen Model. A conjoint
analysis was used to examine the level of relevant of the influential factors affecting the
students‘ performance. Conjoint analysis is a technique to explain consumers‘ preferences in an
indirect way (Haaijer et al., 2003). It is a de-compositional method that estimates the structure of
consumers‘ preferences (Green & Srinivasan, 1990). In other word, it is an overall preferences
rating for an alternative that can be de-composed into a combination of preferences for its‘
component. The Fuzzy Conjoint Model is developed by integrating fuzzy measurement of
evaluations into the vector preference model. The fuzzy conjoint analysis used in this study is a
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
E D D+ C- C C+ B- B B+ A- A
Academic Grade
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f


130

method originally designed by Turksen and Biswas, in which the method is used for the analysis
of consumer preferences.

The original Turksen Conjoint Model:


( , ) ( , )
i
i
B j A j
i
W
y m x m
W
µ µ =
¿
¿


The Fuzzy Conjoint Model adapted from Turksen is:


1
1
( , ) ( , )
i
T
i
R j B j T
i
k
k
W
y A x A
W
µ µ
=
=
=
¿
¿

where,
( , )
R j
y A µ
= the estimated overall evaluation which is a weighted sum of the membership
functions of the fuzzy sets that represent the attribute evaluation; W
i
=a crisp attribute
―relevant‖ weights (1-7);

(

, ) = the degree of membership for respondent i for item A
according to linguistic label y
i
= 1, 2, . . . , T ; A=factors affecting the students‘ performance; T=
the number of linguistic label.

In this study, the variable of linguistic for domain element is ―relevant‖. The crisp weight is
a rating of attribute‘s relevant using rating Likert scaled ranged from 1: ―very irrelevant‖ to 7:
―very relevant‖ as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Likert-Scale For The Fuzzy Linguistic Value Represent Level of Relevant
Scale Level of Relevent Fuzzy Linguistic Value
1 1 – very irrelevant { }
0.7 0.2 0.1 0 0 0 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 2 – irrelevant { }
0.6 0.6 0.3 0.1 0 0 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3 3 – quite irrelevant
{ }
0.2 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.1 0 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4 4 – neutral { }
0 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.1 0 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5 5 – quite relevant { }
0 0.1 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.2 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

6 6 – relevant { }
0 0 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.6 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7 7 – very relevant { }
0 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.1 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Note :
0.1
6

means 0.1 at 6
The membership value degree calculated above, represents the fuzzy set of response given by
respondents is then compared to fuzzy set (Biswas, 1995). This can be conducted using fuzzy
similarity measure based on Euclidean distance of two fuzzy sets (Turksen, 1994). In some
results, there is fuzzy similarity degree between two fuzzy set. There are few formulas to
131

determine the fuzzy similarity degree between two fuzzy sets. This study will make use of the
formula of dot product based on Euclidean Inner Product formulated by Biswas (1995). The
fuzzy similarity degree between fuzzy set R and M is defined by:

) , max(
) , (
M M R R
M R
M R S
- -
-
=
where,
( )
1 2 1 2
1 2
( ( ), ( ),...), ( ( ), ( ),...) , .
, ,...
R R M M
R x x M x x R M are vectors
X x x
µ µ µ µ = =
=

The procedures of the analysis begin with:
1) Obtained the level of relevant for all respondents on factors affecting students‘
performances based on seven linguistic values.
2) Defined the seven scales measured for relevant into fuzzy set.
3) Obtained the weights by dividing the measurement of respondent with sum of
measurement of all respondent.
4) Obtained membership degree of every respondent by multiplying the weight and
every fuzzy set membership value accordingly.
5) Obtained the overall membership degree by total up the membership degree of every
linguistic respect to linguistic value.
6) Determine the overall linguistic value by obtained the fuzzy set similarity degree for
the overall measurement with seven fuzzy set value defined. The result of this
analysis is determined based on the maximum similarity degree. (Adapted from
Biswas, 1995)

By using this method similarity values for each level of relevant are determined based on the
maximum similarity degree among the level of relevant. For example, there may be a few
factors have same level of relevant, such as ―quite relevant‖ but with the different linguistic
value. The hierarchy of the factors can be established by comparing the fuzzy set similarity
value for each factor affecting the performance. The results are shown in Table 2.

3.0 Results And Discussions

The results show that the first four main factors play most significant role in the performance of
the students in Advanced Calculus are examination difficulty level and time factor, basic
knowledge related to the advanced calculus course, teaching effectiveness and attitude problem.
These four factors are considered ‗relevant‘ and contribute to their performance in Advanced
Calculus. However, they did not think that examination phobia, peer's influence and extra
curriculum activities have any significant to their achievement. This shows that they are matured
enough to overcomes the problem of examination phobia, peer's influence and extra curriculum
activities. The other four factors are considered quite relevant. Students believed that the factors
only have small effect to their study. Table 2 shows the hierarchy of the factors contributing to
the performance in Advanced Calculus which analyzed by Fuzzy Conjoint Turksen Model
(Biswas R. 1995, Dubois, 1991).



132

Table 2 Hierarchy of the factors contributing to the performance in Advanced Calculus

Factor
Linguistic
Value Linguistic Rank
Examination difficulty level and time factor 0.7860 Relevant 1
Basic knowledge related to the advanced
Calculus course
0.7821 Relevant 2
Teaching Effectiveness 0.7748 Relevant 3
Attitude problem 0.6963 Relevant 4
Lack of interest of the subject 0.7138
Quite
Relevant
5
Classroom conditions 0.6971
Quite
Relevant
6
Personal Problem 0.6963
Quite
Relevant
7
Taking more than one mathematics courses
during a semester
0.6953
Quite
Relevant
8
Peer's Influence 0.7540 Neutral 9
Extra curriculum activities 0.7539 Neutral 10
Examination Phobia 0.7213 Neutral 11

4.0 Suggestions

First factor that students believed have a significant effect on their achievement in the subject is
―examination difficulty level and time factor‖ seems need to have lecturers‘ attention. Lecturers
should look into different method when constructing the questions for exam. They can utilize
Bloom Taxonomy level to prepare the questions. The examination paper should contain
questions that need the student need to recall or remember the information, explain ideas or
concepts, use the information in a new way, distinguish between the different parts, justify a
stand or decision and create new product or point of view.

The syllabus for the foundation or diploma programs should include all the necessary topics
that are adequate for the students to undertake Advanced Calculus during the degree year.
Advanced Calculus is one of the mathematics courses that enquire students to visualize the
concepts in three dimensional systems. Thus the different, innovative and interesting approaches
used by the lecturers will further enhance the students understanding of the course. Teaching
effectiveness would probably include the use of teaching aids, the details presentation of the
lectures and the involvement of students during tutorial classes. Attitude problem is another
factor that may cause a student to obtain either good result or otherwise. This includes class
attendance, study in group or self-study. Lecturers should motivate their students to study in
groups because it was proven by the previous study that this method helps to improve students‘
achievement in calculus and other subjects.

We are proposing a replacement test to be given to the first semester degree students before
enrolling in Advanced Calculus course. With the increasing number of credit transfer students
133

(either locally or abroad) the placement test will be a good selection criterion to determine
whether the students should be given credits transfer or not. Those who fail the test will have to
enroll in a course that emphasizes basically on differentiations and integrations. Special
syllabuses for the course need to be designed to cater for the above need.

5.0 Conclusion

Examination difficulty level and time factor, inadequate knowledge pertaining to calculus and
teaching effectiveness contribute significantly to the performances of the students in advanced
calculus. Weak mathematical background and basic knowledge may also lead to students‘ failure
in Calculus. Students with strong mathematical background obtained during the foundation,
matriculation or diploma years seemed to excel in calculus at the degree level.

Discussion with students shows that students spend fewer hours outside classes doing
calculus and unfortunately those who spend the necessary time seemed to lack an understanding
of how to structure and organize their efforts. They didn‘t have a comprehensive strategy for
learning and retaining the materials, nor did they recognize the important of working consistently
and regularly. We too believe that adherence to blind route learning is the source of students‘
weak calculus performance. In order to further enrich a diverse academic environment, an active
effort should also be made by lecturers to encourage groups study among students, update
teaching method and the usage of teaching aid.

As shown in the finding, the other factors might affect the students‘ performance although
they are not significant. Efforts should be made to eliminate these factors so as to improve the
students‘ performance in calculus.

References

Biswas, R. 1995. An Applications of Fuzzy Sets in Students‘ Evaluation. Fuzzy Sets and System,
74,187-194.
Dubois, D., Koning, J.L. 1991. Social Choice Axioms for fuzzy set Aggregation, Fuzzy Sets and
Systems,43,257-274.
FinnWing. 2010. Improving Education by Making Academic Culture More Accessible. Brain and
Education Web Paper 2. Second Essay.
Gillespie, D. C. 1919. Advanced Calculus or Differential Equations. The American
Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May, 1919), pp. 189-190.
Green, Srinivasan. 1990. Conjoint Analysis in Marketing: New Developments with Implications
for Research and Practice, Journal of Marketing. pp 3-19.
Haaijer, R., Wedel, M. 2003. Conjoint Choice Experiments: General Characteristics and
Alternative Model Specifications. In A. Gustafsson, A. Herrmann & F. Huber (Eds.),
Conjoint Measurement Methods and Application Third Edition (3 ed., pp. 371-412);
Springer.
LeBold, W. K., Ward, S. K. 1988. Engineering retention: National and institutional
Turksen, I. B., Wilson I. A. 1994. A Fuzzy Preference Model for Consumer Choice," Fuzzy Sets
and Systems, vol. 68,pp. 253-266.

134

Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Pelajar Dalam Memilih Universiti: Kajian Kes

M.Y.Yuzainee, A.R.Fadhilah , B.Faridah
Jabatan Sains dan Matematik, Kolej Kejuruteraan,
Universiti Tenaga Nasional,43009 Kajang Selangor Darul Ehsan
yuzainee@uniten.edu.my, fadhilah@uniten.edu.my, faridah@uniten.edu.my

Abstrak

Kajian dijalankan bertujuan mengenalpasti faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pemilihan ke universiti oleh
pelajar bagi menyambung pengajian mereka dan seterusnya menyenaraikan faktor-faktor ini mengikut
keutamaan. Seramai 200 sampel pelajar-pelajar Pengajian Tahun Asas Universiti Tenaga Nasional sessi
pengajian Trimester 2, 2010/2011 menjawab soal-selidik dengan memilih faktor yang mempengaruhi
keputusan mereka mengikut tahap keutamaan faktor tersebut. Hasil kajian mendapati pelajar memilih 10
faktor utama sebagai faktor pemilihan ke universiti. Faktor tersebut terdiri daripada syarat kemasukan,
kualiti program yang ditawarkan, prasarana dan persekitaran universiti, yuran pengajian, lokasi universiti,
reputasi universiti, populariti universiti, mengikuti rakan sepengajian, mengikuti pilihan ibubapa, dan
biasiswa /pembiayaan. Data-data yang diperolehi dianalisa menggunakan kaedah Model Set Kabur
Konjoin. Keputusan menunjukkan tiga faktor utama pemilihan universiti adalah kualiti program, reputasi
universiti, dan prasarana dan persekitaran universiti.

Kata kunci : universiti, faktor pemilihan, keutamaan, Model Set Kabur Konjoin

1.0 Pengenalan

Pemilihan tempat untuk melanjutkan pelajaran boleh menjadi satu proses yang merumitkan dan
mengelirukan. Memilih universiti yang tepat bagi diri pelajar adalah satu keputusan yang besar
dan perlu mengambil kira banyak faktor tertentu. Institut pengajian tinggi (IPT) yang dipilih
bukan sahaja tempat yang akan menganugerahkan ijazah tetapi juga tempat tinggal, menimba
ilmu, bersukan, menambah pengalaman dan mendewasakan diri. Untuk itu, pelajar perlu berhati-
hati semasa mengisi borang permohonan ke universiti. Pelajar perlu memilih universiti yang
sesuai dengan matlamat pengajian dan kesesuaian untuk diri sendiri.Terdapat berbagai faktor-
faktor yang perlu dipertimbangkan semasa memilih universiti.

Pertimbangan pemilihan sesebuah IPT mesti berdasarkan kelayakan kemasukkan dan
program yang ditawarkan di universiti berkenaan. Selain dari itu, terdapat faktor-faktor tertentu
yang perlu dipertimbangkan dimana ianya membezakan antara satu IPT kepada IPT yang lain,
dan juga atas sebab-sebab peribadi. Antara faktor-faktor yang perlu dipertimbangkan adalah
syarat kemasukan, kualiti program yang ditawarkan, prasarana dan persekitaran universiti, yuran
pengajian, lokasi universiti, reputasi universiti, populariti universiti, mengikuti rakan
sepengajian, mengikuti pilihan ibubapa, dan biasiswa /pembiayaan.

Pembiayaan pengajian yang tinggi perlu diambilkira walaupun buat masa kini kerajaan
menyedia kemudahan untuk menampung perbelanjaan pengajian siswazah. Ini termasuk
biasiswa, pinjaman dan pinjaman bersyarat. Bank-bank juga menawarkan pinjaman pengajian
bagi membantu meringankan tanggungan ibubapa. Kumpulan wang simpanan kerja (KWSP)
turut membenarkan pengeluaran wang untuk meringankan bebanan ibubapa dalam membiayai
pengajian anak-anak mereka.
135


Lokasi IPT turut menjadi salah satu faktor pemilihan ke universiti bagi pelajar. Ada
pelajar memilih universiti yang berdekatan atau berjauhan dengan tempat tinggal ibubapa.
Terdapat pelajar dan ibubapa yang mementingkan kualiti program yang ditawarkan oleh IPT.
Ianya penting kerana kualiti program dapat menjamin kebolehpasaran pelajar setelah mereka
tamat pengajian. Populariti dan reputasi sesebuah universiti turut menjadi faktor pemilihan ke
IPT oleh pelajar. IPT popular seperti Universiti Malaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
Universiti Sains Malaysia dan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia yang menjadi pilihan pelajar
kerana IPT ini telah lama bertapak dan terkenal di Malaysia. Reputasi IPT adalah penting
terutama untuk pengikhtirafan ijazah yang bakal diterima. Prasarana dan persekitaran
universiti turut menjadi faktor pemilihan oleh pelajar dan ibubapa pelajar kerana ianya amat
penting untuk perkembangan dan pembelajaran yang cemerlang untuk pelajar. Selain itu,
terdapat pelajar yang memilih sesuatu IPT kerana mengikut rakan sepengajian dan mengikut
pilihan ibubapa. Pelajar mengikut pilihan rakan sepengajian kerana ingin sama-sama belajar atau
atas sebab peribadi.

Pembangunan yang pesat dalam negara ini turut mempengaruhi perkembangan
pendidikan negara. Pelajar cemerlang bertambah setiap tahun menjadikan persaingan untuk
mendapat tempat di universiti semakin tinggi. Membuat keputusan memilih sesebuah universiti
bagi meneruskan perjalanan pendidikan bagi seseorang pelajar adalah suatu perkara yang
merumitkan, memandangkan pelajar turut perlu memikirkan akibat dan cabaran yang mereka
perlu hadapi semasa pengajian di universiti nanti. Pelajar perlu membuat penelitian yang baik
dengan sebab musabab yang munasabah dan bersesuai dengan diri mereka sendiri. Misalnya, jika
memilih universiti yang popular berkemungkinan mendapat saingan hebat dan mungkin juga
menjejas peluang pelajar bagi mendapat tempat di universiti berkenaan. Jika memilih universiti
yang lokasinya terletak berjauhan daripada keluarga mungkin menyusahkan mereka untuk
pulang ke kampung. Pemilihan universiti amat berkait rapat dengan kursus yang akan diikuti
oleh pelajar bagi mencapai cita-cita mereka. Untuk itu mereka perlu memikirkan syarat-syarat
kemasukan bagi membolehkan mereka mendapat kursus atau program yang mereka impikan.
Keadaan kewangan turut memberi kesan kepada pemilihan mereka terhadap sesebuah universiti.
Pelajar tidak boleh terburu-buru membuat keputusan agar apa yang dihajati dapat dicapai dengan
mudah tanpa menyesal di kemudian hari.

2.0 Pelajar Pra-Universiti

Pada tahun 1999, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (KPM) menubuhkan Matrikulasi KPM yang
menawarkan kursus pra-universiti kepada pelajar lepasan SPM. Kini terdapat lebih daripada
7,000 pelajar yang mengikuti kursus Matrikulasi KPM yang layak memohon masuk ke IPT
(Perangkaan KPTM 2009). Ini menjadikan peluang untuk mendapat tempat di universiti pilihan
sebagai satu saingan hebat di antara pelajar lepasan matrikulasi dan tidak ketinggalan pelajar
lepasan Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia (STPM). Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) yang
ditubuhkan pada tahun 1996 turut menyediakan kursus pra-universiti yang dikenali Program
Pengajian Tahun Asas pada Jun 2004,bagi memenuhi keperluan dan syarat KPM.

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk melihat faktor-faktor yang menjadi keutamaan pelajar pra-
universiti semasa membuat pemilihan universiti bagi melanjutkan pelajaran mereka. Diharap
136

juga, hasil kajian ini membantu pelajar lain dalam memilih universiti, terutama pelajar yang
masih keliru dalam membuat pilihan tempat untuk melanjutkan pelajaran. Pihak universiti,
kaunselor, pendidik, pelajar, ibu bapa dan masyarakat umum juga boleh menjadikan hasil kajian
ini sebagai panduan dalam mengenalpasti universiti pilihan. IPT boleh menggunakan keputusan
kajian ini untuk mempromosikan universiti masing-masing terutama institut pengajian tinggi
swasta (IPTS) bagi menarik lebih ramai pelajar dan menjadikan universiti mereka sebagai
universiti pilihan. Selain kaedah pemasaran yang hebat, pihak universiti perlu meneliti apa
faktor yang menyebabkan pelajar memilih universiti mereka.

3.0 Kajian Literatur

Kajian yang dijalankan ke atas pelajar-pelajar Tingkatan Empat di sekolah menengah oleh
Nadzri Mohamad (2000) terhadap pembuatan keputusan kerjaya dalam pemilihan bidang dan
tempat untuk melanjutkan pengajian, mendapati secara keseluruhan pelajar tidak begitu
menumpukan kepada keperluan asas sesuatu bidang pengajian. Pengetahuan pelajar tentang
sesuatu bidang yang ditawarkan oleh pusat pengajian tinggi juga kurang memuaskan. Beliau juga
mendapati pelajar-pelajar ini tidak mengambil berat tentang apa yang akan dilakukan di masa
akan datang. Justeru, hasil kajian mendapati ada pelajar yang telah membuat pilihan kursus yang
tidak ditawarkan dipusat pengajian yang dipilih. Walaupun demikian, daripada aspek membuat
keputusan, pelajar dilihat mempunyai pendirian yang baik apabila meletakkan keinginan sendiri
sebagai asas keputusan dengan meletakkan minat dan kemampuan diri sebagi amat penting.
Untuk aspek tempat melanjutkan pelajaran, memperlihatkan universiti yang popular menjadi
pilihan utama pelajar-pelajar Tingkatan Empat ini.

Sementara itu, Wong Pak Hui (2002) yang menjalankan kajian ke atas pelajar Tingkatan
Empat tentang pembuatan keputusan dalam pemilihan ke universiti awam (IPTA) dan universiti
swasta (IPTS) , mendapati faktor yang diutamakan untuk kedua-dua jenis IPT adalah serupa iaitu
jenis kursus yang ditawarkan dan yuran pengajian menjadi faktor utama dalam pemilihan tempat
untuk melanjutkan pelajaran ke universiti. Walaupun yuran sudah dijangkakan sebagai salah
satu faktor utama di IPTS namun yuran yang jelas diketahui sebagai lebih murah di IPTA juga
menjadi faktor utama dalam pilihan ke IPTA pelajar. Memandangkan pelajar yang menjadi
responden dalam kajian beliau adalah dari kawasan bandar, maka hasilnya memperlihatkan IPT
yang berada di lokasi bandar menjadi pilihan utama pelajar ini. Menurut Hairunnaja (2007)
peluang pelajar masa kini untuk melanjutkan pelajar ke IPTA mahupun IPTS adalah terbentang
luas tanpa mengira latar belakang kewangan keluarga pelajar memandangkan adanya kemudahan
biasiswa dan pinjaman pendidikan kepada pelajar yang layak. Ini memberi ruang kepada pelajar
daripada keluarga yang kurang mampu. Norngainy(2004) yang menjalankan kajian ke atas
pelajar pra-universiti tentang pemeringkatan faktor pemilihan universiti mendapati kursus yang
ditawarkan oleh sesebuah universiti dan syarat kemasukan menjadi faktor penting bagi pelajar
pra-universiti untuk melanjutkan pengajian mereka. Beliau mendapati pelajar lebih
mementingkan kursus yang dipilih berkait rapat dengan kerjaya pilihan mereka, dan syarat
kemasukkan dianggap penting bagi memastikan diri mereka mendapat tempat di universiti yang
dipilih.



137

4.0 Metodologi Kajian

Kajian ini dijalankan ke atas 200 orang pelajar Pengajian Tahun Asas UNITEN . Pelajar-pelajar
ini terdiri daripada pelajar-pelajar lepasan SPM dari seluruh negara (75%) dan pelajar dari luar
negara (25%). Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menyelidiki faktor-faktor yang mendorong pelajar
pra-universiti ini dalam memilih sesebuah universiti untuk melanjutkan pelajaran mereka di
peringkat ijazah dan secara tidak langsung mengetahui, mengapa UNITEN menjadi pilihan.

Kajian awal dimulakan dengan mendapatkan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pelajar
semasa memilih sesebuah universiti bagi melanjutkan pengajian ke peringkat Ijazah. Soal
selidik telah dibuat ke atas 29 pelajar Pengajian Asas Trimester 2, Sesi 2008/2009. Hasilnya
menunjukkan pelajar-pelajar ini menyenaraikan pelbagai faktor yang menyebabkan mereka
memilih UNITEN. Sepuluh (10) faktor yang paling banyak disenaraikan oleh pelajar adalah.

- Syarat Kemasukan – syarat kemasukan minima yang dikenakan oleh pihak universiti
terhadap kursus-kursus tertentu.
- Kualiti Program – program yang ditawarkan oleh sesebuah universiti diperakui oleh
Malaysian Qualifications Agensy (MQA).
- Prasarana dan persekitaran – Infrastruktur yang moden dan kemudahan yang
disediakan oleh universiti mencukupi, canggih dan selesa untuk belajar.
- Yuran berpatutan – yuran universiti adalah berbeza-beza di antara satu sama lain.
- Lokasi – universiti terletak kawasan yang strategik, selesa, selamat dan mesra alam.
- Reputasi – kemampuan sesebuah universiti dengan kehadiran tenaga pengajar yang
berkelayakan dan berpengalaman.
- Populariti – universiti yang popular dengan kursus yang ditawarkan, lokasi yang
strategik dan popular dikalangan sahabat handai, ahli keluarga atau sebagainya.
- Kawan – pengaruh kawan dalam pemilihan universiti atau kursus.
- Keluarga – universiti atau kursus adalah pilihan pilihan keluarga.
- Biasiswa dan pembiayaan – terdapat organisasi tertentu yang memberi biasiswa
untuk pengajian di universiti berkenaan.

Berdasarkan maklumbalas tersebut satu borang soal selidik bersesuiaan dengan keadah
Model Set Kabur Konjoin dibentuk untuk mencari faktor utama pemilihan universiti oleh pelajar
ke sesebuah universiti. Sebanyak 200 borang soal selidik telah diedarkan kepada para pelajar
Pengajian Tahun Asas UNITEN Trimester 2, Sessi 2010/2011. Pelajar diminta untuk memilih
tahap kepentingan terhadap setiap faktor yang tersenarai. Pelajar diberi masa seminggu untuk
mengisi borang kaji selidik tersebut. Ini memberi masa kepada pelajar untuk berfikir dan tidak
terburu-buru dalam membuat keputusan. Sembilan empat peratus (94%) borang soal selidik ini
dikembalikan dan 25% daripadanya diketepikan kerana ―rosak‖ menjadikan 75% iaitu
bersamaan 152 borang soal selidik sahaja diambil kira untuk dianalisa. Maklumbalas yang
diperolehi dianalisa menggunakan model yang diadaptasikan dengan Model Konjoin Kabur
Turksen dan juga kaedah statistik untuk perbandingan. Borang ini dibentuk untuk melihat
kepentingan faktor secara individu. Setiap faktor diberi nilai kepentingan mengikut skala Likert
tujuh mata iaitu Sangat tidak penting, Tidak penting, Kurang penting, Berkecuali, Agak penting,
Penting dan Sangat penting.

138

Pelajar diminta untuk memberikan nilai kepentingan bagi setiap faktor berpandukan kepada
skala tujuh (7) nilai mata yang diberikan. Jadual di bawah adalah contoh borang soal selidik
tersebut.

Jadual 1 : Jadual Penilaian Kepentingan Faktor
Faktor
Kepentingan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Syarat Kemasuk an /
2. Kualiti Program yang
ditawarkan
/
3. Prasarana dan persekitaran
Universiti
/
4. Yuran berpatutan /
5. Lokasi Universiti /
6. Reputasi Universiti /
7. Populariti Universiti /
8. Mengikut Kawan /
9. Kehendak Keluarga /
10. Biasiswa dan pembiayaan /

Model Konjoin Kabur ini melihat secara keseluruhan pilihan pelajar namun analisa
terhadap setiap faktor akan dikaji secara berasingan untuk mendapatkan nilai kekaburan masing-
masing, kemudian perbandingan akan dibuat ke atas kesemua faktor berdasarkan nilai kabur
yang diperolehi.

4.1 Takrif Set Kabur

Manusia sentiasa berada dalam situasi yang memerlukannya membuat keputusan. Adakalanya
ianya agak mengelirukan dan diselangi dengan kekaburan seperti sangat suka atau agak suka dan
sebagainya. [Zimmermann(1991)]. Dubois (1991) dan Wang(1997) dalam bukunya menyatakan
―set teori klasik‖ ditakrifkan sebagai satu kumpulan elemen. Setiap elemen samada unsur kepada
suatu set ataupun sebaliknya. Kenyataan ini terlalu tepat dan jelas, sedangkan keadaan sebenar
ada kekaburan dalam sesuatu penentuan. Teori set kabur yang diperkenalkan oleh Zadeh(1965)
adalah bertujuan untuk menyelesaikan masalah ketidaktepat yang tidak dapat dijelaskan oleh
teori set klasik(jelas). Untuk kajian ini, Model Konjoin Kabur yang diadaptasikan daripada
Model Tuksen mampu memberi penyelesaian secara keseluruhan untuk setiap individu. Ini
kerana analisa yang dibuat sememangnya melibatkan keseluruhan individu dan keputusan yang
dicapai adalah keputusan secara menyeluruh. Set kabur dalam A dalam set semesta U adalah
dicirikan dengan fungsi keahlian µ
A
(x) yang mengambil nilai dalam selang [0,1]. Kekuatan
keahlian x dalam A adalah bergantung kepada nilai µ
A
(x). Apabila nilai menghampiri nilai 1
maka darjah keahlian yang dimilikinya adalah tinggi dalam A. Set kabur A dalam U boleh
diwakili oleh pasangan tertib bagi unsur x dan nilai fungsi keahliannya iaitu,


( ) ( ) {
}
,
A
A x x x U µ = e

139

Jika A nilai diskret, fungsi keahlian ini ditulis sebagai
( )
A
x
A
x
µ
=
¿
dan jika A nilai selanjar,
fungsi keahlian ditulis sebagai
( )
A
x
A
x
µ
=
}
.

4.2 Pembolehubah Linguistik

Pembolehubah linguistik mempunyai nilai berbentuk perkataan atau kata sifat. Contohnya,
perkataan ―tinggi‖ dinyatakan dalam bentuk linguistik dan perkataan sangat tidak tinggi, tidak
tinggi, tinggi dan sangat tinggi merupakan nilai linguistik yang dinyatakan bagi menunjukkan
sifat sebenar seseorang. Sementara itu, ketinggian dalam bentuk berangka pula boleh dinyatakan
seperti 140 cm tinggi, 157 cm tinggi atau ketinggian 5 kaki 2 inci dan sebagainya(Norngaint,
2004). Pembolehubah yang mempunyai nilai berbentuk kata sifat adalah dikenali sebagai
pembolehubah linguistik dan ditakrifkan seperti berikut:
Pembolehubah linguistik dicirikan dengan (X,T,U,M) iaitu:
- X adalah nama bagi pembolehubah linguistik. ( tinggi, cantik, berat dan sebagainya)
- T adalah set nilai linguistik yang mungkin bagi X. (tidak tinggi, sangat tinggi)
- U adalah domain secara kuantitatif bagi pembolehubah linguistik X misalnya U = [1,
190].
- M adalah hukum semantik yang menghubungkan setiap nilai linguistik T dengan set
kabur dalam U. Contohnya, M adalah hubungan antara tidak tinggi, tinggi dan
sangat tinggi dengan fungsi keahlian seperti rajah di bawah.


0 30 120 180 60 90 150
1
Tidak
Tinggi
Tinggi
Sangat
Tinggi
Tinggi/cm
F
u
n
g
s
i

K
e
a
h
l
i
a
n
Hubungan Fungsi Keahlian Dengan Ketinggian

160

Rajah 1: Contoh Hubungan Fungsi Keahlian Dengan Ketinggian (Adaptasi daripada
Norngainy,2004)

4.3 Model Konjoin Kabur daripada adaptasi Model Turksen

Model konjoin kabur Turksen yang asal adalah berbentuk seperti

( , ) ( , )
i
i
B j A j
i
W
y m x m
W
µ µ =
¿
¿

Model Konjoin Kabur daripada adaptasi Model Turksen ini adalah seperti berikut:
140


( , ) ( , )
i
i
R j B j
i
W
y A x A
W
µ µ =
¿
¿

dengan,
W
i
- pemberat yang menggambarkan tahap kepentingan responden i berbanding semua
responden
( , )
R j
y A µ
- anggaran darjah keahlian keseluruhan untuk nilai linguistik yang ditandakan dengan
R bagi semua responden terhadap perkara/faktor mberdasarkan nilai linguistik, y
i
= 1, 2, . . . , k
( , )
i
B j
x A µ
- darjah keahlian yang diberikan oleh respondan bagi nilai linguistik B
i
bagi
respondan i terhadap faktor A berdasarkan nilai linguistik, x
j
= 1, 2, ..., k.
k - bilangan nilai linguistik yang digunakan
m - sebarangan criteria yang dipertimbangkan
Untuk kajian ini, pembolehubah linguistik yang digunakan adalah terhadap perkara
―penting‖. Pembolehubah ini mempunyai tujuh nilai linguistik yang menggunakan skala Likert
tujuh mata seperti jadual di bawah:

Jadual 2 : Pembolehubah Linguistik dengan skala tujuh mata
Pembolehubah Linguistik Nilai-nilai Linguistik
Penting

1 – Sangat tidak penting
2 – Tidak penting
3 – Kurang penting
4 – Berkecuali (neutral)
5 – Agak penting
6 – Penting
7 – Sangat penting

4.4 Takrifan Set Kabur

Set kabur bagi semua nilai linguistik dalam analisis kajian ini ditakrifkan mengikut takrifan
Turksen seperti yang tertera dalam Jadual 3.

Jadual 3 : Nilai Linguistik kabur mewakili tahap kepentingan
Nilai skala Tahap Kepentingan Nilai Linguistik Kabur
1 sangat tidak penting { }
0.7 0.2 0.1 0 0 0 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 tidak penting { }
0.6 0.6 0.3 0.1 0 0 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3 kurang penting
{ }
0.2 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.1 0 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4 berkecuali { }
0 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.1 0 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5 agak penting { }
0 0.1 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.2 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

6 penting { }
0 0 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.6 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

141

Nilai skala Tahap Kepentingan Nilai Linguistik Kabur
7 sangat penting
{ }
0 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.1 1
, , , , , ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Catatan :
0.1
6
bermakna nilai 0.1 pada skala 6

4.5 Darjah Kesamaan Antara Dua Set Kabur

Terdapat beberapa formula bagi menentukan darjah kesamaan antara dua set kabur.Untuk
analisis kajian ini, formula hasil darab bintik (dot product) yang telah digunakan oleh Biswas
(1995) digunakan bagi menentukan darjah kesamaan antara dua set kabur R dan M dalam set
kabur x. Darjah kesamaan ditakrifkan sebagai

( , )
max( , )
R M
S R M
R R M M
-
=
- -

dengan ,
( )
1 2 1 2
1 2
( ( ), ( ),...), ( ( ), ( ),...) , .
, ,...
R R M M
R x x M x x R M adalah vektor
X x x
µ µ µ µ = =
=

adalah darab bintik

4.6 Proses Analisis

Proses analisis menggunakan model yang diadaptasikan dengan Model Konjoin Kabur Turksen
ini bermula dengan:

1. Mendapatkan tahap penilaian dengan menyenaraikan semua penilaian responden
terhadap faktor yang dikaji, pengukuran berdasarkan tujuh nilai linguistik.
2. Mentakrifkan set kabur dengan mentakrifkan skala pengukuran penilaian responden 7
nilai linguistik kepada set kabur.
3. Mendapatkan pemberat dengan membahagikan penilaian setiap responden dengan
jumlah penilaian semua responden.
4. Mendapatkan darjah keahlian setiap responden dengan mendarabkan pemberat dengan
setiap nilai keahlian set kabur yang sepadan dengan penilaian responden.
5. Mendapatkan darjah keahlian keseluruhan dengan menjumlahkan darjah keahlian setiap
nilai linguistik terhadap nilai linguistik berkenaan.
6. Menentukan nilai linguistik keseluruhan dengan mendapatkan darjah kesamaan set kabur
keseluruhan penilaian dengan 7 set kabur untuk nilai linguistik yang ditakrifkan. Nilai
linguistik bagi penilaian keseluruhan responden ditentukan dengan mengambil darjah
kesamaan maksimum.
(Adaptasi daripada Norngainy,2004)

4.7 Menentukan Keutamaan Bagi Keputusan Linguistik

Setelah nilai linguistik bagi penilaian keseluruhan responden diperolehi bagi semua faktor,
Terdapat beberapa faktor yang berada pada nilai linguistik yang sama, contohnys pada nilai
linguistik ―penting‖. Oleh itu, perbandingkan darjah kesamaan bagi setiap keputusan yang
142

diperolehi bagi setiap faktor perlu dibuat untuk menentukan kedudukan keutamaan untuk
kesemua faktor yang dikaji.



4.8 Contoh Proses Analisis

Katakan terdapat 10 responden dalam kajian. Analisis dijalankan untuk faktor ―Yuran‖ .
Kepentingan bagi faktor ini adalah tidak serupa bagi setiap responden. Set responden ditandakan
sebagai { R
1
, R
2
, R
3
, R
4
, R
5
, R
6
, R
7
, R
8
, R
9
, R
10
}. Tahap kepentingan yang diberikan oleh
responden misalnya adalah
{ } 3, 7, 4, 4, 6, 7, 6, 4, 7, 5


Jumlah keseluruhan nilai linguistik adalah 53 [3 + 7 + 4 + 4 + 6 + 7 + 6 + 4 + 7 + 5].
Oleh itu, setiap linguistik perlu dibahagi dengan 53 untuk mendapatkan pemberat bagi tahap
kepentingan.

{ }
3 5 6 7 1 2 4
, , , , , ,
53 53 53 53 53 53 53
W =

Pemberat yang telah diperolehi ini perlu didarabkan dengan set kabur bagi setiap nilai
linguistik menjadi:

Nilai Linguistik VU = { 0.0189 0.0132 0.0038 0.0019 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000} }
Nilai Linguistik U = { 0.0226 0.0377 0.0226 0.0113 0.0038 0.0000 0.0000} }
Nilai Linguistik QU = { 0.0113 0.0396 0.0566 0.0396 0.0113 0.0057 0.0000} }
Nilai Linguistik NTRL= { 0.0000 0.0075 0.0528 0.0755 0.0528 0.0075 0.0000} }
Nilai Linguistik QI = { 0.0000 0.0094 0.0189 0.0660 0.0943 0.0660 0.0189} }
Nilai Linguistik I = { 0.0000 0.0000 0.0113 0.0340 0.0679 0.1132 0.0679} }
Nilai Linguistik VI = { 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0132 0.0264 0.0925 0.1321} }

Bagi setiap nilai linguistik, ianya didarapkan dengan bilangan pilihan responden terhadap
nilai liguistik tersebut. Didapati seorang memilih kurang penting(3), tiga orang memilih
neutral(4), seorang memilih agak penting(5), dua orang memilih penting(6) dan tiga orang
memilih sangat penting(7). Ini menjadikan nilai linguistik bagi setiap set kabur sekarang adalah :

Nilai Linguistik VU
={
0.000
0
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000
}
}
Nilai Linguistik U
={
0.000
0
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000
}
}
Nilai Linguistik QU
={
0.011
3
0.0396 0.0566 0.0396 0.0113 0.0057
0.0000
}
}
Nilai Linguistik
NTRL={
0.000
0
0.0226 0.1585 0.2264 0.1585 0.0226
0.0000
}
}
Nilai Linguistik QI
={
0.000
0
0.0094 0.0189 0.0660 0.0943 0.0660
0.0189
}
}
Nilai Linguistik I
={
0.000
0
0.0000 0.0226 0.0679 0.1358 0.2264
0.1358
}
}
Nilai Linguistik VI 0.000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0396 0.0792 0.2774 0.3962 }
143

={ 0 }

Setiap darjah keahlian nilai linguistik dijumlahkan untuk mendapatkan darjah keahlian
keseluruhan responden terhadap nilai linguistik berkenaan. Nilai yang diperolehi adalah:

R = { 0.0113 0.0717 0.2566 0.4396 0.4792 0.5981 0.5509
}

Untuk mendapatkan nilai linguistik yang mengambarkan set kabur R, darjah kesamaan
set kabur ini dengan tujuh nilai linguistik dicari menggunakan rumus hasildarab bintik dan
hasilnya:


S(R,VU) ={ 0.0074 0.0326 0.0333 0.0285 0.0000 0.0000
0.000
0
}
=
0.1018
S(R,U) ={ 0.0037 0.0394 0.0846 0.0725 0.0263 0.0000
0.000
0
}
=
0.2265
S(R,QU) ={ 0.0011 0.0242 0.1240 0.1487 0.0463 0.0289
0.000
0
}
=
0.3732
S(R,NRTL)=
{
0.0000 0.0036 0.0898 0.2198 0.1677 0.0299
0.000
0
}
=
0.5108
S(R,QI) ={ 0.0000 0.0035 0.0248 0.1487 0.2315 0.2023
0.053
2
}
=
0.6639
S(R,I) ={ 0.0000 0.0000 0.0141 0.0725 0.1580 0.3286
0.181
6
}
=
0.7548
S(R,VI) = { 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0285 0.0622 0.2719
0.357
8
}
=
0.7204
Berdasarkan keputusan daripada pengiraan di atas, didapati nilai bagi ―penting‖ adalah
nilai yang tertinggi iaitu 0.7548, maka untuk faktor yuran ini, ianya berada pada kedudukan
penting.

5.0 Keputusan dan Perbincangan

Alat kajian yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah Borang Kaji Selidik yang mengandungi
sepuluh faktor utama untuk mengukur tahap kepentingan faktor pemilihan ke universiti
dikalangan pelajar-pelajar Pengajian Tahun Asas UNITEN.

Faktor pemilihan ke universiti termasuk Syarat Kemasukan, Kualiti Program yang
ditawarkan, Prasarana dan persekitaran Universiti, Lokasi Universiti, Yuran berpatutan, Reputasi
Universiti, Mengikut Kawan, Kehendak Keluarga, Populariti Universiti dan Biasiswa dan
pembiayaan. Tujuh tahap kepentingan berdasarkan tujuh (7) nilai linguistik kabur dibuat
berasaskan tujuh mata Skala Likert seperti yang dinyatakan dalam Jadual 2 dan Jadual 3.

Setiap keputusan individu dihimpunkan mengikut faktor dengan tujuan mendapatkan
kedudukan kepentingan setiap faktor berdasarkan tujuh nilai linguistik kabur iaitu Sangat Tidak
Penting, Tidak Penting, Kurang Penting,Neutral,Agak Penting, Penting dan Sangat Penting.
Setiap nilai linguistik kabur ini mempunyai set kabur masing-masing yang telah dijelaskan dalam
144

takrifan Set Kabur (Jadual 3). Menggunakan Model Konjoin Kabur, hasil analisis diberikan
dalam Jadual 4 dibawah.

Jadual 4 : Keputusan menggunakan Kaedah Model Konjoin Kabur
Faktor Nilai Linguistik Linguistik Keutamaan
Kualiti Program yang ditawarkan 0.9454 Sangat Penting 1
Reputasi Universiti 0.9435 Sangat Penting 2
Prasarana dan persekitaran
Universiti
0.9270 Sangat Penting 3
Yuran 0.8596 Sangat Penting 4
Biasiswa dan pembiayaan 0.8583 Penting 5
Lokasi Universiti 0.8480 Penting 6
Populariti Universiti 0.8146 Penting 7
Syarat Kemasukan 0.7913 Penting 8
Kehendak Keluarga 0.7349 Agak Penting 9
Mengikut Kawan 0.7117 Agak Penting 10


Berikut adalah jadual perbandingan keputusan yang diperolehi menggunakan kedua-dua
kaedah iaitu Model Konjoin Kabur dan Min statistik. Perbandingan antara dua kaedah
menunjukkan ada persamaan yang ketara dari segi susunan keutamaan tetapi berbeza mengikut
tahap kepentingan. Ini menunjukkan kaedah Model Konjoin Kabur yang digunakan
menghasilkan keputusan yang boleh dipercayai.

Jadual 5 : Perbandingan Keputusan menggunakan Kaedah Model Konjoin Kabur dan Min
statistik.

Faktor Kaedah
Sanga
t
Tidak
Penti
ng
Tidak
Pentin
g
Agak
Tidak
Pentin
g
Neutra
l
Agak
Pentin
g
Penting
Sangat
Penting
Keputusan
Kualiti
Progra
m
Konjoin 0.0266 0.0766 0.1676 0.2798 0.5802 0.8438 0.9454
Sangat
Penting
(0.9454)
Min
Statistik
6.43 (SD = 0.92) Penting
Reputas
i
Konjoin 0.0294 0.0804 0.1724 0.2865 0.5884 0.8488 0.9435
Sangat
Penting
(0.9435)
Min
Statistik
6.33 (SD =1.12) Penting
Prasara
na dan
persekit
Konjoin 0.0347 0.0904 0.185 0.2993 0.5891 0.8381 0.927
Sangat
Penting
(0.9270)
145

a-ran Min
Statistik
6.28 (SD = 1.13) Penting
Yuran
Konjoin 0.0633 0.1384 0.2442 0.3594 0.6052 0.8061 0.8596
Sangat
Penting
(0.8596)
Min
Statistik
5.85 (SD = 1.47) Penting
Biasisw
a dan
pem-
biayaan
Konjoin 0.0698 0.1390 0.2396 0.3551 0.6067 0.8583 0.8078
Penting
(0.8583)
Min
Statistik
5.53 (SD= 1.88) Penting
Lokasi
Konjoin 0.066 0.1567 0.2820 0.432 0.6846 0.848 0.841
Penting
(0.8480)
Min
Statistik
5.75 (SD = 1.25) Penting
Popular
iti
Konjoin 0.1056 0.2231 0.2820 0.5336 0.7308 0.8146 0.7404
Penting
(0.8146)
Min
Statistik
5.12 (SD = 1.55)
Agak
Penting
Syarat
Kemas
uk-an
Konjoin
0.118
7
0.256
3
0.419
6
0.5985 0.7549 0.7913 0.6791
Penting
(0.7913)
Min
Statistik
4.87 (SD = 1.53)
Agak
Penting
Keluarg
a
Konjoin 0.1734 0.3268 0.4864 0.6423 0.7349 0.7204 0.588
Agak
Penting
(0.7349)
Min
Statistik
4.41 (SD = 1.66) Neutral
Kawan
Konjoin 0.2236 0.3822 0.529 0.654 0.7117 0.6754 0.5357
Agak
Penting
(0.7117)
Min
Statistik
4.08 ( SD =1.69) Neutral

Keputusan ini menunjukkan pelajar mengutamakan kualiti program yang ditawarkan
dipilih sebagai faktor paling penting memandangkan ijazah daripada sebuah program yang
berkualiti dan diikhtirafkan oleh badan-badan akreditasi menjamin kemudahahpasaran,
kebolehpasaran dan masa depan mereka setelah tamat pengajian. Ini selari dengan keputusan
yang perolehi oleh Norngainy(2004) terhadap pelajar Matrikulasi KPM. Faktor kedua yang
paling penting adalah reputasi universiti memandangkan pelajar mengutamakan kemampuan
sesebuah universiti menyediakan tenaga pengajar yang berkelayakan serta berpengalaman.

Faktor seterusnya difikirkan sangat penting adalah prasarana dan persekitaran universiti
menunjukkan pelajar mementingkan keselesaan dan kemudahan yang disediakan oleh universiti
bagi memastikan mereka boleh belajar dengan baik dan tenang. Prasarana dan persekitaran
pembelajaran amat penting bagi membolehkan pelajar belajar dengan baik tanpa gangguan dari
146

anasir-anasir persekitaran yang merosakkan pembelajaran dan sikap pelajar. Prasarana yang
tidak lengkap sedikit-sebanyak boleh menjadikan pembelajaran yang tidak efektif. Persekitaran
IPT yang berdekatan dengan kota juga boleh mengganggu pengajian pelajar di samping
mempengaruhi sikap pelajar terutama pelajar yang berasal dari luar bandar.

Yuran menjadi faktor keempat pentingnya menunjukkan pelajar turut prihatin terhadap
bebanan masalah kewangan yang mereka dan keluarga mereka akan hadapi, tanpa mengira
samada mereka mendapat pinjaman pelajaran atau tidak. Keputusan analisa ini juga
menunjukkan kematangan pelajar dalam menentukan masa depan mereka, di mana kehendak
keluarga dan mengikut kawan dianggap agak penting sahaja oleh pelajar ini. Lokasi, populariti
dan syarat kemasukan difikirkan penting sahaja. Sebelum ini kajian pernah dibuat ke atas pelajar
Tingkatan Empat oleh Nadzri Mohamad (2000) dan Wong Pak Hui (2002), yang menunjukkan
populariti dan lokasi universiti dianggap penting bagi meneruskan pengajian keperingkat
universiti.

Diharap dengan hasil kajian ini memberi panduan kepada pelajar-pelajar lain khasnya
pelajar Matrikulasi, pelajar Tingkatan 5 dan 6 dalam pemilihan universiti untuk meneruskan
pengajian mereka ke IPT. Juga diharapkan faktor-faktor yang dianggap penting oleh pelajar
Pengajian Tahun Asas UNITEN ini dijadikan kriteria universiti semasa mempromosikan
universiti bagi menarik minat pelajar memilih ―universiti pilihan‖ dimasa akan datang. Pihak
universiti, kaunselor, pendidik, pelajar, ibubapa, masyarakat umum dan stake holders lain juga
boleh menjadikan hasil kajian ini sebagai panduan dalam melihat faktor-faktor pemilihan ke
universiti di Malaysia.

Rujukan

Dubois ,D., Koning, J.L. 1991. Social Choice Axioms for fuzzy set Aggregation, Fuzzy Sets and
Systems,43,257-274.
Hairunnaja N. 2007. Membimbing Remaja Memilih Pendidikan dan Kerjaya.PTS Professional.
Publishing Sdn. Bhd.
Nadzri Mohamad. 2000. Pembuatan Keputusan Kerjaya: Analisis kabur Pemilihan Bidang
dan Tempat Pengajian. Satu kajian kes di dua buah sekolah di Perak. Latihan Ilmiah.
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Norngainy, M.T. 2004. Pemeringkatan Faktor Pemilihan Pelajar Matrikulasi ke Universiti
Menggunakan Model Set Kabur Pembuatan Keputusan Berkumpulan. Latihan Ilmiah.
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Perangkaan Pengajian Tinggi Tahun 2009. 2010. Bahagian Perancangan dan Penyelidikan
Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia.
Ranjit, Biswas. 1995. An Applications of Fuzzy Sets in Students‘ Evaluation. Fuzzy Sets and
System, 74,187-194.
Wang, L.X. 1997. A Course in Fuzzy System and Control. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall
International.
Wong, P.H. 2002. Proses pembuatan Keputusan Dalam Pemilihan Universiti Menggunakan
Proses Hierarki Analisis. Satu kajian kes ke atas pelajar tingkatan 4 di tiga buah sekolah di
Selangor. Kajian Ilmiah. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Zadeh, L.A. 1965. Fuzzy Sets, Information and Control, vol.8, 338-353.
147

Zimmermann, H.J. 1991. Fuzzy Sets Theory and its Applications. Second Edition, Kluwer
Academic.

























148

Pembangunan Kriteria Pemeriksaan Ruang Tandas Bangunan Institusi
Pengajian Berdasarkan Enam Piawaian Pemeriksaan Bangunan

A.R.M. Nasir, A.I. Che-Ani, N.M. Tawil, M.M. Tahir, N.A.G. Abdullah
Jabatan Seni Bina, Fakulti Kejuruteraan dan Alam Bina,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
rashidi@vlsi.eng.ukm.my, adiirfan@gmail.com

Abstrak

Ruang tandas merupakan suatu bentuk fasiliti asas yang sangat penting didalam sesebuah bangunan
samada kediaman, pejabat, pasaraya dan sebagainya. Ia sangat berbeza berbanding ruang yang lain
walaupun terletak didalam satu bangunan yang sama. Kepentingan fungsi serta kelebihan komponen dan
kemudahan bangunan yang terdapat didalam ruang tandas bagi menyokong fungsinya merupakan
perbezaan utama ruang tandas berbanding ruang yang lain. Selain daripada itu, keunikan ruang tandas
dapat dilihat selepas sesuatu bangunan mula diduduki. Pada peringkat ini, isu berkenaan penyenggaraan
tandas mula timbul terutama melibatkan bangunan awam. Bagi bangunan persendirian seperti kediaman
dan pejabat,isu ini mungkin tidak ketara berikutan sais dan kadar penggunaan tandas yang sederhana.
Berbanding bangunan awam, kadar penggunaan yang kerap berikutan kehadiran pelawat dan jumlah
kakitangan yang ramai seringkali mengakibatkan kepincangan berlaku terhadap fungsi ruang tandas
seterusnya tahap ketersediaan ruang tandas seringkali dipertikaikan. Aspek kebersihan dan kefungsian
merupakan matlamat utama senggaraan ruang tandas. Dalam kitar hayat penyenggaraan, terdapat
peringkat kerja-kerja pemeriksaan bangunan yang diperlukan bagi memastikan status fizikal semasa
bangunan. Dalam konteks yang lebih luas, teori penilaian bangunan turut menekankan aspek pemeriksaan
bangunan berdasarkan tahap dan petunjuk prestasi yang bersesuaian. Penulisan ini membincangkan
pembangunan kriteria pemeriksaan ruang tandas berdasarkan piawaian pemeriksaan bangunan sediada.
Metodologi yang digunakan adalah kajian literature intensif. Hasil literatur mendapati pembangunan
kriteria pemeriksaan haruslah berdasarkan kepada objektif utama penilaian prestasi bangunan,
pemeriksaan yang menyeluruh dari segi teknikal dan nilai kepenggunaan meliputi aspek kesihatan dan
keselamatan, fungsi, efisyen dan aliran kerja,psikologi, sosial,budaya dan estetik. Secara spesifik, kriteria
pemeriksaan ruang tandas ialah struktur, senibina, mekanikal dan elektrikal, kerja luaran, kemudahan
bangunan, kebolehsenggaraan, kesihatan dan keselamatan, dan kefungsian.

Kata kunci: kriteria pemeriksaan, ruang tandas, piawaian pemeriksaan, prestasi bangunan, penilaian, ukur
bangunan

1.0 Pengenalan

Penilaian prestasi bangunan semakin berkembang dalam konteks alam bina di Malaysia.
Pemeriksaan pula merupakan komponen yang menyokong objektif utama penilaian. Menurut
Ahmad (2008), pemeriksaan merupakan satu pengujian terhadap suatu bahan atau produk.
Wordworth (2001) pula menyatakan bahawa pemeriksaan adalah proses bagi mengukur kualiti
pada suatu produk atau perkhidmatan bagi mencapai piawai yang telah ditetapkan. Pendapat
Wordworth (2001) adalah bersesuaian dengan prinsip pemeriksaan bangunan iaitu pemeriksaan
pada sesuatu bangunan perlulah dilakukan mengikut piawaian yang telah ditetapkan oleh badan
pemeriksaan bangunan. Menurut Chandler (1995), penilaian keadaan fasiliti adalah proses
pemeriksaan kesemua komponen bangunan dan infrastruktur, termasuk kelengkapan mekanikal
dan elektrikal, kerangka bangunan, struktur dalaman dan kemasan serta tapak bangunan. Proses
149

pemeriksaan tersebut harus berdasarkan pengurusan strategik dalam menilai prestasi teknikal
bangunan bagi memenuhi jangkaan senggaraan jangka masa panjang.
Kriteria pemeriksaan ruang tandas mesti dibangunkan berdasarkan maklumbalas asas pengguna.
Keperluan pengguna akan menghasilkan objektif penilaian melalui kriteria penilaian. Seterusnya
ukuran prestasi dinilai secara perbandingan dengan kriteria penilaian berdasarkan objektif
penilaian. Kesepaduan antara kesemua elemen tersebut membentuk satu kitaran proses sebagai
model untuk mengenalpasti kriteria pemeriksaan dan meningkatkan kualiti rekabentuk. Situasi
ini disokong oleh Preiser (2005) berdasarkan model sistem maklumbalas asas seperti yang
ditunjukkan didalam Rajah 1 dimana peneraju di setiap fasa kitaran hayat bangunan merupakan
pemangkin bagi model ini.


















Rajah 1 Sistem maklumbalas asas
Sumber: BPE (2005)

Kajian yang dijalankan oleh Bilbo (2009) terhadap amalan pengurusan penyenggaraan
fasiliti di sekolah awam di Texas telah membuktikan bahawa majoriti sekolah tersebut telah
mempertimbangkan perancangan penyenggaraan sebagai bahagian penting dalam rancangan
organisasi secara keseluruhan. Pemeriksaan ruang tandas bangunan institusi pengajian sangat
penting bagi menyokong matlamat organisasi dalam menyediakan kemudahan pendidikan
berkualiti tinggi dalam persekitaran yang sihat sebagai sokongan terhadap pengajaran,
pembelajaran serta penyelidikan (Yussof, 2010). Penyenggaraan reaktif yang menelan kos yang
tinggi serta tidak teratur merupakan amalan tipikal di kebanyakan institusi pengajian tinggi.
Berdasarkan Taival (2007), tahap prestasi bangunan yang rendah dan tidak cekap boleh memberi
impak negatif terhadap institusi pengajian tinggi. Ia bukan sahaja melibatkan peningkatan kos
operasi secara pukal, malah turut menyumbang ke arah ketidakselesaan penghuni, masalah
kesihatan dan tahap produktiviti yang rendah.










PENILAI


KEPERLUAN
PENGGUNA
KRITERIA
PENILAIAN
OBJEKTIF
PENILAIAN
UKURAN
PRESTASI
PERBANDINGAN
150

2.0 Bahan dan Kaedah

Penulisan ini telah menggunakan kaedah kajian literatur intensif dalam membangunkan kriteria
pemeriksaan ruang tandas. Sumber bertulis yang terdiri daripada pelbagai piawai penilaian dan
pemeriksaan bangunan telah dikaji bagi mengumpul dan mengenalpasti panduan dan kaedah ke
arah pembangunan kriteria. Enam piawai pemeriksaan bangunan sediada telah dijadikan bahan
rujukan utama iaitu JKR, ASTM, QLASSIC, CONQUAS, SIRIM dan RICS seperti yang
diringkaskan didalam Jadual 2.

No. Piawai Negara Tahun Sumber
1 Laporan Pemeriksaan Tahap Ketersediaan
Penggunaan Bangunan, Jabatan Kerja
Raya (JKR)
Malaysia 2009 JKR (2009)
2 Standard Guide for Property Condition
Assessments: Baseline Property Condition
Assessment Process (Designation: E 2018-
08). American Society for Testing and
Material (ASTM)
Amerika
Syarikat
2008 ASTM
(2009)
3 Sistem Penilaian Kualiti Pembinaan
Bangunan (QLASSIC)
Malaysia 2006 QLASSIC
(2006)
4 Sistem Penilaian Kualiti Pembinaan
(CONQUAS)
Singapura 2008 CONQUAS
(2008)
5 RICS HomeBuyer Report: Property Survey
and Valuation (RICS)
United
Kingdom
2009 RICS
(2009)
6 MALAYSIA STANDARD:MS 2015: PART
3:2006 Public Toilet – Part 3: Rating
Criteria (SIRIM)
Malaysia 2006 Malaysian
Standard
(2006)
Jadual 2 Piawai Pemeriksaan Bangunan (Edisi terkini)

Laporan Pemeriksaan Tahap Ketersediaan Penggunaan Bangunan disediakan oleh
Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) selaku Pegawai Penguasa bagi projek bangunan baru sebelum
diserahkan kepada pelanggan. Pemeriksaan adalah berdasarkan senarai semak dokumen sebaik
sahaja habis tempoh pembinaan bagi megenalpasti rekod penemuan kerosakan dan kecacatan.
Laporan pemeriksaan akan menghasilkan nilai indeks berdasarkan bilangan dan tahap kecacatan
yang akan menentukan tindakan selanjutnya.

Metodologi dan peralatan American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM)
merupakan kaedah bagi mengenalpasti keperluan dan menjalankan penilaian prestasi bangunan
berdasarkan piawaian spesifik. Piawaian ASTM digunakan untuk mengenalpasti keperluan
bangunan terhadap pengguna, pengurus dan pemilik serta untuk mengukur sejauh mana fasiliti
tersebut memenuhi keperluan golongan sasar berkenaan. Pengukuran adalah mengikut skala
kesesuaian berdasarkan perbandingan apa yang diperlukan dengan apa yang disediakan.
Pendekatan ini telah diketengahkan untuk memudahkan komunikasi diantara pemegang
kepentingan, menggalakkan usahasama dan menyediakan kandungan berguna untuk portfolio
dan pengurusan aset, untuk perancangan strategik, kenyataan terhadap keperluan (Statement of
Requirement) dan keutamaan bajet.
151

Sistem Penilaian Kualiti Pembinaan Bangunan (QLASSIC) merupakan kaedah
tersendiri untuk menilai dan mengukur tahap kualiti dan kemasan kerja bagi projek bangunan di
Malaysia. Kerja pembinaan bangunan dibahagikan kepada empat komponen utama iaitu struktur,
senibina, mekanikal dan elektrikal (M & E) dan kerja luaran. Setiap komponen dipecahkan pula
kepada elemen yang lebih kecil seperti kekotak konkrit bagi kerja struktur, kemasan lantai bagi
kerja senibina, longkang bagi kerja luaran, sesalur kondiut bagi kerja mekanikal dan elektrikal
(M & E) dan sebagainya. Pemeriksaan dan penilaian pula dijalankan oleh pemeriksa
berkelayakan yang telah menjalani program latihan QLASSIC.

Sistem Penilaian Kualiti Pembinaan (CONQUAS) dibangunkan oleh Building
Construction Authority (BCA) Singapura dengan kerjasama sektor swasta dan peneraju industri
bangunan bagi mengukur tahap kualiti pembinaan di Singapura. Kerja pembinaan bangunan
dipecahkann kepada tiga komponen utama iaitu struktur, senibina serta mekanikal dan elektrikal
(M & E). Walaubagaimanapun, penilaian terhadap projek bangunan diluar Singapura hanya
dihadkan terhadap komponen senibina sahaja berdasarkan faktor kekangan masa dan kewangan.

Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) telah menerbitkan The RI CS
HomeBuyer Service 2009 (3rd Edition Practice Notes) direkabentuk khusus bagi menilai
kecacatan yang terdapat pada sesuatu hartanah. Kecacatan tersebut mungkin mempengaruhi nilai
sesuatu hartanah yang mungkin terjejas akibat kecacatan dimana kos yang tinggi diperlukan bagi
kerja-kerja baikpulih. Laporan pemeriksaan yang dikeluarkan juga adalah berbentuk rumusan
kecacatan dan anggaran nilai pasaran semasa hartanah termasuk anggaran kos baikpulih yang
serta cadangan atau nasihat kepada pelanggan.

MALAYSI AN STANDARD:MS 2015: PART 3:2006 Public Toilet – Part 3: Rating
Criteria dibangunkan oleh SIRIM bagi mengukur tahap kebolehkhidmatan fasiliti atau bangunan
berasaskan tandas. Piawai ini juga turut menyediakan kaedah bagi membandingkan sejauh mana
bangunan yang berbeza dari segi lokasi, struktur, sistem mekanikal, usia dan rekabentuk
bangunan dapat mencapai tahap kebolehkhidmatan yang diperlukan. Rujukan terhadap kesemua
siri yang terdapat dalam piawai MS 2015 adalah perlu jika kajian adalah melibatkan kesesuaian
kos terhadap keberkesanan fungsi rekabentuk dari segi kebolehkhidmatan.

3.0 Analisis dan Perbincangan

Kriteria pemeriksaan ruang tandas perlu dibangunkan selaras dengan objektif penilaian prestasi
iaitu tahap keberkesanan. Seperti digariskan oleh MALAYSIAN STANDARD (2006), dengan
mengetahui objektif pemeriksaan akan membolehkan pemeriksa untuk memanfaatkan masa yang
terhad di lokasi pemeriksaan. Menurut Che-Ani et. al (2009), tahap keberkesanan dapat
ditentukan berdasarkan objektif yang ingin dicapai. Secara prinsip, objektif yang baik
mempunyai lima ciri utama yang turut dikenali sebagai SMART iaitu specific (spesifik),
measurable (boleh diukur), achievable (boleh dicapai),reasonable/ reliable (munasabah) dan
time (mempunyai tempoh masa). Dalam konteks pemeriksaan ruang tandas, kebanyakan objektif
yang digariskan oleh setiap piawai pemeriksaan tidak mempunyai kesemua ciri yang dinyatakan
itu. Jadual 3 menggariskan hasil analisis bagi piawai penilaian bangunan dalam konteks objektif
pemeriksaan.

152

No. Piawai Objektif pemeriksaan
1 JKR Menentukan tahap ketersedian serta mengenalpasti kecacatan &
rekabentuk/ pembinaan yang memberi kesan kepada senggaraan
& operasi, kefungsian & keselamatan
2 ASTM Mempraktikkan amalan penilaian bangunan bagi meningkatkan
kualiti hartanah dan laporan penilaian dengan cadangan dan
jangkaan serta membangunkan garis panduan piawai industri bagi
penilaian
3 QLASSIC Menetapkan tanda aras terhadap tahap mutu dan kualiti dalam
industri pembinaan, mewujudkan sistem penilaian kualiti setara
bagi kualiti kemasan kerja bagi projek bangunan berdasarkan
standard yang diluluskan dan menilai prestasi kontraktor
berdasarkan kualiti kemasan kerja disamping mengumpul data
bagi tujuan analisis statistik
4 CONQUAS Mendapatkan sistem penilaian berpiawai bagi projek pembinaan,
menilai kualiti melalui pengukuran kerja pembinaan berdasarkan
standard mutu kerja dan spesifikasi, pendekatan persampelan bagi
menggambarkan keseluruhan projek serta penilaian kualiti
dilakukan secara sistematik dengan jangkauan kos dan masa yang
munasabah
5 RICS Memeriksa keadaan hartanah bagi mengenalpasti kecacatan serta
membuat penilaian harga pasaran semasa serta kos baikpulih yang
mempengaruhi nilai pasaran
6 SIRIM Mengenalpasti dan mengukur tahap kebolehkhidmatan terhadap
tiga kategori fasiliti tandas iaitu bangunan atau ruang tandas
sediada, yang akan dibina serta yang akan diubahsuai atau
ditambah-baik

Jadual 3 Objektif pemeriksaan berdasarkan piawai penilaian bangunan

Berdasarkan kepada hasil analisis di atas, jelas menunjukkan bahawa objektif
pemeriksaan harus menitikberatkan tahap kebolehkhidmatan dan ketersediaan ruang tandas
disamping mengenalpasti kecacatan yang boleh menjejaskan kesihatan, keselamatan, kefungsian,
senggaraan dan operasi. Secara tidak langsung ia selaras dengan pendapat Preiser dan Vischer
(2005) yang mensintesiskan keperluan pengguna kepada tiga tahap keutamaan iaitu:

i. Prestasi kesihatan, keselamatan dan kawalan;
ii. Prestasi fungsi, efisyen dan aliran kerja;
iii. Psikologi, sosial, budaya dan astetik.

Tahap prestasi merupakan perkara pokok dalam memastikan kriteria yang dibangunkan
dapat mencapai objektif pemeriksaan. Berdasarkan sintesis kajian, sebanyak lapan kriteria
pemeriksaan telah dipilih sebagai set lengkap komponen penilaian iaitu struktur, senibina,
mekanikal dan elektrikal, kerja luaran, kemudahan bangunan, kebolehsenggaraan dan operasi,
kesihatan dan keselamatan serta kefungsian. Peranan dan skop pemeriksaan tersebut perlu
difahami oleh pemeriksa yang terdiri daripada Juruukur Bangunan. Berdasar kajian literatur
153

terhadap enam piawai tersebut, berikut adalah hasil analisis perincian kriteria tahap prestasi
seperti yang ditunjukkan didalam Jadual 4.

No. Kriteria
Pemeriksaan
Perincian Tahap Kualiti Fokus
1 Struktur Integriti struktur yang mempunyai impak
kecacatan serta kos membaik-pulih meliputi
struktur konkrit bertetulang, struktur keluli, konkrit
pra-tegasan termasuk pelbagai produk struktur
pasang-siap (IBS).
Elemen
pemeriksaan
2 Senibina Banyak melibatkan bahan siapan dimana kualiti,
kekemasan dan mutu kerja menjadi keutamaan
seperti lantai, dinding, siling, pintu & tingkap,
bumbung, kelengkapan/peralatan dan longkang.

3 M & E Melibatkan keseimbangan kos dan prestasi
bangunan meliputi kerja elektrikal, sistem
penyaman udara & pengudaraan mekanikal,
perlindungan kebakaran, sanitari & perpaipan serta
kelengkapan asas M & E.

4 Kerja
Luaran
Meliputi kerja am luaran seperti laluan, sistem
saliran, jalan, parkir, taman permainan, pagar,
kolam renang, lanskap kejur & rumah pencawang
elektrik.

5 Keudahan
Bangunan
Kemudahan bangunan yang khusus perlu diperiksa
oleh pakar berkenaan yang terlatih. Terhad kepada
kemudahan asas seperti bekalan air, pembetungan,
sistem perpaipan dan alat pencegah kebakaran.

6 Keboleh-
senggaraan
Mengenalpasti kecacatan yang mempunyai
implikasi dan boleh menjejaskan operasi
senggaraan di masa akan datang. Semakan
terhadap manual dan senarai sistem sebagai
dokumen rujukan semasa operasi senggaraan dan
pengurusan aset.
Aspek
pemeriksaan/
penanda aras
7 Kesihatan &
Keselamatan
Pematuhan terhadap keperluan khas seperti
kehendak menentang kebakaran, keperluan OKU,
alam sekitar, kawalan pencemaran, kesihatan
awam dan lain-lain.

8 Kefungsian Keupayaan sesuatu komponen, elemen dan sistem
menjalankan fungsi khusus sebagaimana
direkabentuk dan prestasi umum bagi perkaitan
setiap subjek.

Jadual 4 Perincian kriteria tahap prestasi berdasarkan piawai pemeriksaan

Mengambil kira pandangan Hollis dan Gibson (2005) serta Hoxley (2002), teknik
pemeriksaan secara atas ke bawah mengikut arah putaran jam turut diadaptasikan sebagai
prosedur penilaian ruang tandas. Prosedur ini disokong oleh Ramly (2004) dan Noor (2010) bagi
154

membolehkan setiap kriteria pemeriksaan dapat dinilai dengan teliti dan mengelakkan kecuaian
semasa mengenalpasti kecacatan.

4.0 Kesimpulan

Pemeriksaan ruang tandas amat penting untuk dilaksanakan bagi menjamin perkhidmatan
berkualiti dan kepuasan pengguna. Pemeriksaan bukan sahaja memastikan tahap
kebolehkhidmatan dapat dicapai malah turut membolehkan ruang tandas tersebut menepati
fungsi rekabentuk yang menyumbang kepada kepuasan pengguna. Melalui kriteria pemeriksaan
yang spesifik, pengurus fasiliti/senggaraan mampu mengenalpasti keutamaan yang mesti
dimasukkan ke dalam program penilaian. Dalam penulisan ini, kriteria pemeriksaan ruang tandas
dibangunkan dengan melihat kepada objektif utama penilaian. Secara teori, kriteria pemeriksaan
perlu menepati keperluan objektif utama, dibangunkan secara padanan kepada piawai penilaian
bangunan dan bersifat holistik. Kriteria pemeriksaan merupakan komponen asas yang sangat
penting semasa membuat penilaian prestasi keadaan ruang tandas.


Rujukan

Ahmad, M.A. 2008. Pembinaan Perisian Pemeriksaan dan Pemantauan Kerja-kerja
Penyenggaraan Bangunan. Tesis Msc., Universiti Malaya.
ASTM. 2009. Designation: E 2018 – 08. Standard Guide for Property Condition Assessments:
Baseline Property Condition Assessment Process. ASTM International., United States.
Bilbo, D.L. 2009). Facilities maintenance management practice in large public school, Texas.
Facilities, Vol.27, No.1/2.
Chandler, I. 1995. The generation and use of stock condition surveys, Journal of the Institute of
Maintenance and Building Management. Vol. 1, No. 1.
Che-Ani, A.I., Ali, A.S., Tawil, N.M., Tahir, M.M., Abdullah, N.A.G. 2010. The Development of
a Condition Survey Protocol (CSP) 1 Matrix for Visual Building Inspection. The
Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA) of the Royal
Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) 2010, Dauphine Universite, Paris, France. 2-3
September 2010 (online).
Che-Ani, A.I., Tawil, N.M., Zakiyuddin, M.Z., Tahir, M.M., Ramly,. A., Jamil. M. 2009.
Pengukuran Keberkesanan Fasiliti Perumahan Bertingkat Bukan Kos Rendah. Prosiding
Simposium Alam Bina Serantau 2009. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. pp.87-94.
CONQUAS. 2008. Construction Quality Assessment System, 7
th
Eds., Building and Construction
Authority (BCA). Singapore.
Hollis, M., Gibson, C. 2005. Surveying Buildings, Fifth Edition., Coventry. RICS Books.
Imprint., United Kingdom.
Hoxley, M. 2002. Condition Inspections of Residential Property: A procedural Framework.,
Journal of Structural Survey. Volume 20. Number 1. Pp. 31-35. MCB University Press
Limited.
JKR. 2009. Laporan Pemeriksaan Tahap Ketersediaan Penggunaan Bangunan., Cawangan
Senggara Fasiliti Bangunan (CSFB). Sektor Kejuruteraan Senggara. Jabatan Kerja Raya
(JKR)., Kuala Lumpur.
155

MALAYSIAN STANDARD. 2006. MS 2015: PART 3:2006., Public Toilet – Part 3: Rating
Criteria., Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM)., Malaysia.
Noor, Z.M. 2010. Impak Pembinaan Baru Terhadap Fizikal Bangunan Sekitar: Kajian Keretakan
Bangunan-bangunan Di Taman Wawasan, Pusat Bandar Puchong, Selangor., Tesis MSc
(Tidak Diterbitkan). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Preiser, W.F.E., Vischer, J.C. 2005. The Evolution of Building Performance Evaluation: An
Introduction., Assessing Building Performance., Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Oxford,
United Kingdom. pp.3-14.
QLASSI. 2006. Quality Assessment System For Building Construction Work., Standard Industri
Pembinaan, CIS 7:2006., Lembaga Pembinaan Industri Pembinaan Malaysia (CIDB).,
Kuala Lumpur.
R, Yussof. 2010. The Facility Condition Assessment For Higher Education Buildings In
Malaysia., Prosiding Seminar Pembangunan dan Pengurusan Fasiliti Kampus Pendidikan,
Penerbit UKM, Bangi. pp. 72-84.
Ramly, A. 2004. Panduan Kerja-kerja Pemeriksaan Kecacatan Bangunan. Building & Urban
Development Institute (BUDI)., Hizi Print Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia.
RICS. 2009. RICS HomeBuyer Service 2009 (3rd Edition Practice Note)., Royal Institutions of
Chartered Surveyors (RICS)., United Kingdom.
Taival, D. 2007. Financing options to meet building performance dan organization goals, US
Business Review, Vol. 10, No 5.
Wordsworth, P. 2001. Lee‘s Building Maintenance Management. 4
th
Editions. Oxford: Blackwell
Science.














156

Mendefinisikan Semula Rekabentuk Pembelajaran di Luar Kelas di
Malaysia: Pengajaran Dari Pendekatan-Pendekatan Frank Llyod Wright
Dalam Penyusunan Ruang dan Landskap

N.Utaberta, N.Spalie, N.A.G.Abdullah, M.M.Tahir

Jabatan Seni Bina, Fakulti Kejuruteraan dan Alam Bina, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
nangkula_arch@yahoo.com, nemo_k2h2@yahoo.com, designaar@gmail.com, akmal.goh@gmail.com

Abstrak

Obkektif utama kertas kerja ini adalah untuk memulakan dan meluaskan perbincangan tentang rekabentuk
dan fasiliti pembelajaran di luar kelas di Malaysia. Cubaan dalam mengambil pengajaran dari arkitek dari
Amerika yang terbaik iaitu Frank Lloyd Wright. Perbincangan tersebut akan mengandungi empat
bahagian. Bahagian yang pertama akan membincangkan masalah semasa dan situasi dalam pembelajaran
di luar kelas di Malaysia, manakala bahagian yang kedua pula cuba untuk meneroka dan mengkaji semula
mengenai definisi pembelajaran di luar kelas beserta kepentingan dan karakter dalam persekitaran
pembelajaran. Bahagian yang ketiga akan menfokuskan ke atas pendekatan Frank Llyod Wright dalam
penyusunan ruang dan landskap, sementara bahagian yang terakhir akan membuat analisis dan
perbandingan yang akan membuahkan pendapat dan rekomendasi bagi rekabentuk fasiliti pembelajaran di
luar kelas di Malaysia. Dengan pemahaman dari pendekatan persekitaran yang telah ditubuhkan oleh
Frank Llyod Wright di atas di harapkan kita dapat membina semula dan mendefinisi semula sebahagian
rangka kerja dan garis panduan untuk rekabentuk fasiliti pembelajaran di luar kelas di Malaysia.

Kata kunci: Rekabentuk Fasiliti Pembelajaran di Luar Kelas, Frank Lloyd Wright, Penyusunan Ruang dan
Landskap.

1.0 Pendahuluan

Tujuan utama dari penulisan kertas kerja ini adalah untuk memberikan sebuah pendekatan alternatif dari
rekabentuk bilik darjah yang sedia ada di Malaysia. Kajian ini berusaha mengambil beberapa pengajaran
dari pendekatan organik yang dilakukan oleh salah satu arkitek terbesar di Amerika Syarikat iaitu Frank
Lloyd Wright. Pengajaran ini sendiri akan memfokuskan kerangka perbincangannya dalam dua aspek
penting dalam reka bentuk fasiliti pembelajaran luar kelas iaitu rekabentuk ruang dan landskap.
Diharapkan melalui perbandingan dan analisis terhadap pendekatan dan pelbagai bangunan Wright
sebagaimana disebutkan sebelum ini akan membuahkan sebuah kerangka rekabentuk dan bahasa seni bina
yang lebih baik sebagai rujukan bagi rekabentuk fasiliti pembelajaran luar kelas yang lebih baik di
Malaysia.

2.0 Definisi Pembelajaran Di Luar Kelas

Terdapat pelbagai definisi yang diungkapkan dalam mempamerkan pemahaman terhadap
‗outdoor learning‘ yang bermaksud pembelajaran di luar kelas. Definasi ini terbahagi kepada
dua iaitu ‗Psychosocial definitions‘ atau diklafisikasikan sebagai ‗Definisi Psycososial‘ dan
‗Environmental Definitons‘ atau diklasifikasikan sebagai ‗Definisi Alam Sekeliling‘.
Berdasarkan C. A. Lewis, 1975, The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs. Dubuque,
IA: Kendall-Hunt, pembelajaran di luar kelas dari segi psycososial ialah “appeals to the use of
the senses - audio, visual, taste, touch, and smell - for observation and perception.” iaitu
percubaan terhadap penggunaan deria pancaindera- pendengaran, penglihatan, rasa, sentuh, dan
157

hidu. Bagi definisi Alam Sekeliling pula mendifinisikan pembelajaran ini sebagai “an
experiential method of learning by doing, which takes place primarily through exposure to the
out-of-doors. I n outdoor education, the emphasis for the subject of learning is placed on
RELATI ONSHI PS: relationships concerning human and natural resources.” Priest, S.
(1988). The ladder of environmental learning. Journal of Adventure Education, 5(2), 23-25.
iaitu satu kaedah pembelajaran pengalaman dengan melakukan atau mempraktikkan, yang
mengambil tempat terutamanya melalui pendedahan kepada alam di luar. Dalam pendidikan luar,
penekanan untuk perkara pengajian diletakkan pada PERHUBUNGAN: perhubungan berkenaan
manusia dan sumber semulajadi.

3.0 Permasalahan Sistem Pembelajaran Prasekolah di Malaysia

Sebagaimana yang kita telah sedia maklum, kebanyakan system pembelajaran pra-sekolah yang
dipraktikkan di Malaysia menggunakan sistem pembelajaran di dalam kelas. Sistem yang
memerlukan fokus dalam mengingati dan menghafal semua maklumat. Lazimnya sistem
pembelajaran ini di gunakan hampir di setiap institusi prasekolah si seluruh Malaysia baik
institusi kerajaan atau swasta. Masalah yang paling kritikal adalah permasalahan pembelajaran
dan pengajaran berasaskan penilaian dan kedudukan mata di dalam kelas. Ini mengakibatkan
kerosakan sistem pendidikan dari penghayatan dan pengmanfaatan pembelajaran dalam
kehidupan seharian kepada asas mengejar nilai mata kedudukan dengan hanya menghafal, bukan
menghayati, memahami serta memanfaatkan ilmu tersebut. Terdapat standard kurikulum bagi
institusi prasekolah yang disediakan oleh Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia yang harus di turuti
oleh setiap institusi prasekolah di seluruh Malaysia.

4.0 Pendekatan Frank Llyod Wright Dalam Outdoor Learning- Pembelajaran di Luar
Kelas

Terdapat pelbagai definisi tentang outdoor learning baik dari segi ‗Psychosocial definitions‘ atau
diklafisikasikan sebagai ‗Definisi Psycososial‘ ataupun dari segi ‗Environmental Definitons‘ atau
deklasifikasikan sebagai ‗Definisi Alam Sekeliling‘. Akan tetapi di sini pendekatan pemahaman seorang
arkitek yang termasyur berdekad yang lalu diambil sebagai pendekatan bagi outdoor learning-
pembelajaran di luar kelas.

Bermulanya titik permulaan Wright sebagai arkitek yang masyur adalah bersama Anna Loyd
Jones ibu kandungnya yang juga merupakan seorang guru sebagaimana dua adiknya Elinor dan Jones,
namun ibunya lebih terkenal sebagai orang yang berpengaruh dan cerdas dengan visi serta keinginan yang
kuat.
1
Perkara ini jelas kelihatan dalam tulisan Frank yang menjelaskan pandangan lingkungan tersebut
terhadap ibunya,

―Education was sister Anna‘s passion even while very young. All this family was imbued with the
idea of education as salvation…soon she became a teacher in the countryside, riding a horse
over the hills and through the woods to and from her school each day. Old men in the
neighborhood still speak of sister Anna as their teacher, with admiration and respect.‖
2



1
Ketika pertama kali melahirkan Frank, beliau begitu yakin bahawa di masa yang akan datang anaknya ini akan menjadi
seorang arkitek yang hebat.
2
Lihat Wright, Frank Lloyd (1943), an autobiography, Hal 9.
158

disini begitu kelihatan pengaruh dan visi Anna terhadap persekitaran sekitarnya. Anna merupakan
seorang guru yang sangat inovatif dan salah satu hadiah yang diberikan bagi pendidikan anaknya
merupakan permainan yang di kenali sebagai Froebel Kindegarten Block
3
.

― Mother learned that Frederick Froebel taught that children should not be allowed to draw from
casual appearances of nature until they had first mastered the basic form lying hidden behind
appearances‖
4


Pelajaran tentang bentuk-bentuk asas inilah yang melatih dan membentuk kemampuan Wright semasa
zaman kecilnya sehingga menjadi seorang pengubah bentuk yang handal ―All in my fingers to this day‖
5

,demikian pengakuan Wright kemudian.

Dengan kaedah ini dalam pandangan Wright, rekabentuk menjadi begitu menyenangkan. Sumber
lain dari bakat rakabentuk Wright berasal dari ―German Paper‖ yang berwarna menarik, biasanya
dipotong-potong dan disusun sesuai mengikut keinginan, permainan struktur dengan pencungkil gigi, tiub
plastic(straw), dan tumbuhan serta ranting kering. Bahkan Anna sering mengajak Frank melihat alam dan
mengajarkan tentang banyak hal.

― She loved to pick windflowers in the hills and meadows, studying them, arranging them in
cluster, explaining to him the intricate formation of the petals in relation to leaves and stem. She
love ferns because of their geometric design and passed that love to her son….‖
6


Pemahaman dan kecintaan Wright kepada alam menjadi semakin besar ketika ia dihantar oleh
ibunya untuk tinggal di pertanian bapa saudaranya, James Lloyd Jones di Wisconsin.

―Young Wright saw that nature was a wonderful teacher and had answers to many question that
theoretical learning could not explain nearly so well.‖
7


―Why is any cow, red, black or white, always in just the right place for a picture in any
landscape? Like a cypress tree in Italy, she is never wrongly placed. Her outlines quite down so
well into what ever contours surround her…‖
8


In these adventures alone-abroad in the wooded hills to fetch the cows, he, barefoot, barehead
urchin, was insatiable, curious and venturesome. So he learned to know the wood, from the trees
above to shrubs below an grass beneath. And the millions of curious lives hidden in surface of the
ground, among roots, stems, and mold.
9



4.1 Kekuasaan dari Alam ke atas Manusia dalam pemikiran Wright

Berdasarkan dari sebuah pemahaman , alam merupakan ―The only body of God that you can see‖, Frank
Lloyd Wright meneguhkan sebuah konsep bahawa alam sebagai sebuah refleksi dari Tuhan yang harus
mendominasi pemikiran manusia.

3
Anna mulai tertarik dengan Froebel System ketika dia melihat Frederick Froebel KindergartenEexhibit di Philadelphia
Centennial, 1876.
4
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1957), a Testament, hal 19
5
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1957), a Testament, hal 19
6
Wright, Olgivanna Lloyd (1966), Frank Lloyd wright: His Life, His Work and His Words, hal 15
7
Peter Blake, Master Builders, hal 270.
8
Lihat Wright, Frank Lloyd. An Autobiography. hal 23.
9
Lihat Wright, Frank Lloyd. An Autobiography. hal 25.
159


―The real body of our universe is spiritualities-the real body of the real life we live. From the
waist up we‘re spiritual at least. Our true humanity begins from the belt up, doesn‘t it? Therein
comes the difference between the animal and the man. Man is chiefly animal until he makes
something of himself in the life of the spirit so that he becomes spiritually inspired-spiritually
aware. Until then he is not creative. He can‘t be.―
10


Perkara ini sangat jelas kelihatan dari rumah-rumah Praire dan kebanyakan bangunan awam yang
direkabentuk oleh Frank Lloyd Wright yang secara konsisten diterapkan hingga ke akhir hayatnya.

Bangunan merupakan hasil pengeluaran tangan manusia harus tunduk dan menyesuaikan agar
dapat berdiri di atas karakter dan kekuatan dari lingkungan alam dan binaan di sekitarnya. Bangunan
harus mampu mempunyai pengadaptasian dengan konteks yang ada di sekitarnya. Perkara seperti ini
yang menjadikan bangunan-bangunan Frank Lloyd Wright bersatu dengan tapaknya, tidak menjadikannya
secara sombong berteriak untuk menunjukkan dirinya, akan tetapi kelihatan bersuara secara harmoni
dengan apa sahaja yang ada di sekitarnya.



Gambar 1: Pelbagai bangunan karya Frank Lloyd Wright yang mencerminkan kekuasaan dan
penghormatan terhadap alam dan lingkungan tempat bangunan tersebut dibina.

Sumber: Heinz, Thomas A (2002). The Life and Works of Frank Lloyd Wright. Kent: Grange Books Plc.


―Young Wright saw that nature was a wonderful teacher and had answers to many question that
theoretical learning could not explain nearly so well.‖
11


Hasil daripada kajian tentang kehidupan Frank Lloyd Wright sebelum ini,didapati kita akan dapat
menyelusuri asal dari pemikiran dan konsep ini. Persekitaran masa kecil, perhatian dari ibunya dan
pengalaman selama bekerja di ladang pakciknya membentuk , melatih pemikiran dari Frank Lloyd Wright
untuk menghargai dan melihat alam asli sebagai sebuah elemen yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dalam
perancangan sebuah rekabentuk. Ia merupakan sebuah faktor utama yang menentukan sebuah rekabentuk.

10
Wright, Frank Lloyd, Truth Against the World, hal 270
11
Blake, Peter (1960), Master Builders, hal 270.
160


― She
12
loved to pick windflowers in the hills and meadows, studying them, arranging them in
cluster, explaining to him the intricate formation of the petals in relation to leaves and stem. She
love ferns because of their geometric design and passed that love to her son….‖
13


Idea dan pemikiran tentang kekuasaan alam ini memiliki sebuah implikasi yang sangat besar dan
penting kerana dalam seni bina Wright ia berbicara dalam penggunaan bahan, proses rekabentuk dan
bagaimana menetapkan skala dan perbandingan. Beliau membahasakan bagaimana kita memperlakukan
bangunan sebagai produk manusia ketika berhadapan dan berinteraksi dengan alam sekitarnya.

Idea dan pemikiran tentang kekuasaan alam juga akan melahirkan sebuah konsep tentang sebuah
kehidupan yang berkelanjutan (sustainable). Kehidupan yang berkelanjutan jika kita pelajari dalam
pemikiran dan falsafah dari Wright mengandungi dua dimensi iaitu dimensi alam sebagai aspek fizikal
dan dimensi sosial yakni pemikiran dan pemahaman manusia sebagai aspek internal (spiritual)
14
.

Dimensi alam berbicara tentang perjuangan untuk menjaga dan merawat alam sebagai sebuah
produk Tuhan yang harus dilestarikan bahkan ditingkatkan kualiti daya sokongannya. Sedangkan dimensi
sosial berbicara tentang pemeliharaan sikap kritis dan pemeliharaan terhadap aspek sosial dan sisi-sisi
dari pemikiran dan tingkah laku manusia. Keduanya memiliki hubungan yang sangat erat. Tanpa
pemahaman yang integral terhadap kedua-duanya kita akan menghadapi sebuah masalah yang serius dan
kronik.

― We must conceive and integrate: begin again at the beginning to build the right kind of building
in the right way in the right place for the right kind of people.‖
15


Inilah yang dapat kita lihat pemikiran dan falsafah hidup dari Frank Lloyd Wright, sebuah semangat
‗sustainability‘ yang merangkumi aspek fizikal dan juga aspek sosial.

4.2 Aplikasi Pendekatan Wright Dalam Fasiliti Ourdoor Learning-Pemebelajaran di
Luar Kelas

Seperti yang telah di perbincangkan di atas, pendekatan Wright terhadap alam yang begitu mendalam
telah membuahkan satu pemikiran dalam mengaplikasikan konsep tersebut dalam fasiliti outdoor
learning. Terdapat beberapa contoh pendekatan alam sekitar pada sekolah-sekolah outdoor learning yang
juga dikenali sebagai Sekolah Alam di Indonesia.


12
― She‖ me-refer pada ibu dari Frank Lloyd Wright.
13
Wright, Olgivanna Lloyd (1966), Frank Lloyd wright: His Life, His Work and His Words, hal 15
14
Lihat Manuskrip persembahan Dr Tajuddin M Rasdi, Towards a Theory of Islamic Architecture from the Sunna, University
Malaya 8 Julai 2003.
15
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1949), Genius and Mobocracy, hal 13
161



Gambar 1:Fasiliti outdoor learning perlu memanfaatkan dan menghormati alam sekeliling.

Pendekatan alam ini yang dimaksudkan dengan kata-kata Wright;

―Why is any cow, red, black or white, always in just the right place for a picture in any
landscape? Like a cypress tree in Italy, she is never wrongly placed. Her outlines quite down so
well into what ever contours surround her…‖
16


Rekabentuk fasiliti yang menghormati alam tanpa menghilangkan struktur alam yang sememangnya
terbentuk secara semulajadi kerana bagi Wright alam semulajadi itu merupakan―The only body of God
that you can see‖.
Pemanfaatan alam semulajadi dalam sistem pembelajaran juga merupakan satu pengadaptasian
pendekatan Wright yang menghormati alam semulajadi kerana di situ terdapat beribu jawapan kepada
semua persoalan.

―Young Wright saw that nature was a wonderful teacher and had answers to many question that
theoretical learning could not explain nearly so well.‖
17


Bagi Wright, membentuk suatu bangunan harus bermula dari alam semulajadi. Membina sebuah struktur
dengan intergrasi alam dan manusia tanpa merosakkan lingkungan alam sekitarnya.

― We must conceive and integrate: begin again at the beginning to build the right kind of building
in the right way in the right place for the right kind of people.‖
18


4.3 Kesimpulan

Pengajaran serta pelajaran dari rekabentuk Wright dalam pengaplikasian rekabentuk fasiliti
pembelajaran di luar kelas sedikit sebanyak telah mengilhamkan satu proses

16
Lihat Wright, Frank Lloyd. An Autobiography. hal 23.
17
Blake, Peter (1960), Master Builders, hal 270.
18
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1949), Genius and Mobocracy, hal 13
162

pembelajaran―Smart Green Education‖. Satu kaedah pembelajaran yang baru berkonsepkan
penghormatan alam dengan menggunapakai alam semulajadi sebagai kaedah utama pengajaran
dan pelajaran di peringkat pra-sekolah.

Rekabentuk fasiliti perlu dan wajib menghormati alam tanpa menghilangkan struktur alam yang
sememangnya terbentuk secara semulajadi kerana bagi Wright alam semulajadi itu merupakan―The only
body of God that you can see‖. Pemanfaatan alam semulajadi dalam sistem pembelajaran juga merupakan
satu pengadaptasian pendekatan Wright yang menghormati alam semulajadi kerana di situ terdapat beribu
jawapan kepada semua persoalan.

Rujukan

Blake, Peter. 1960. The Master Builders. New York: Alfred A Knopf.
Blake, Peter. 1974. Form Follow Fiasco. USA: Atlantic Little, Brown Books.
Curtis, William JR. 1982. Modern Architecture since 1900. Oxford: Phaidon Press Ltd.
Heinz, Thomas A (1996). Frank Lloyd Wright: Field Study. London: Academy Editions.
Heinz, Thomas, A. 2002. The Life and Works of Frank Lloyd Wright. Kent: Grange Books Plc.
Hitchcock, Henry Russell. 1941. The Nature of Materials. New York: Da Capo Press, Inc.
Hoffman, Donald. 1978. Frank lloyd Wright‘s Fallingwater: The House and Its History, New
York: Dover Publication Inc.
Kaufmann, Edgar, J. 1989. 9 Commentaries on Frank Lloyd Wright. Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Laseau, Paul. 1937. Frank Lloyd Wright; Between Principle and Form. New York: Van Nosrand
Reinhold.
Nute, Kevin. 1993. Frank Lloyd Wright and Japan. New York: Van Nosrand Reinhold.
Perry, Marvin. 1981. Western Civilization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Peter, John. 1958. Masters of Modern Architecture. New York: George Braziller Inc.
Pevsner, Nikolaus. 1936. Pioneers of Modern Architecture. Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Pevsner, Nikolaus. 1943. An Outline of European Architecture. Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Peel, Lucy. 1989. An Introduction to 20
th
Century Architecture. London: Quantum Books Ltd.
Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks. 1984. Letters to Architect; Frank Lloyd Wright. California: California State
University Press.
Sullivan. Louis, H. 1918. Kindergarten Chats and Other Writing. New York: Dover Publications Inc.
Sullivan. Louis H (1924). A System of Architectural Ornament: According with a Philosophy of Man
Powers. New York: The Eakin Press.
Sullivan, Louis H. 1954. The Autobiography of an Idea. New York: Dover Publication.
Tajuddin, M. Rasdi,. Mohd. 2001. Identiti Seni Bina Malaysia: Kritikan Terhadap Pendekatan
Reka Bentuk. Johor Bahru: Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Utaberta, Nangkula. (ed). 2003. KALAM Books: Sejarah, Teori dan Kritikan Seni Bina. Johor
Bahru: Pusat Kajian Alam Bina Dunia Melayu (KALAM).
Willard, Charlotte. 1972. Frank Lloyd Wright: American Architect. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. 1943. An autobiography by Frank Lloyd Wright. New York: The Frank Lloyd
Wright Foundation.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. 1949. Genius and Mobocracy. New York: Horizon Press.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. 1957. Truth Against the World. New York: A Wiley-interscience Publication.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. 1957. A Testament. London: Architectural Press.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. 1958. The Living City. New York: Horizon Press.
Wright, Olgivanna Lloyd. 1966. Frank Lloyd Wright; His Life, His Work, His Words. London: Pitman
Publishing.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. 1954. The Natural House. New York: Horizon Press.
163

ANALYSIS OF LIGHTING PERFORMANCE DURING SUMMER EQUINOX
BETWEEN SINGLE DOME AND PYRAMID ROOF MOSQUE IN MOSTAR, BOSNIA-
HERZEGOVINA

1
Hassan,A,S.,
2
Arab.Y
School of Housing, Building and Planning
Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
1
sanusi@usm.my,
2
yasserarab2005@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study analyses a level of lighting performance between pedentive dome and pyramid roof mosque‘s
construction in Mostars, Bosnia Herzegovina. The selected case studies are Karadjoz Beg (pedentive
dome) and Neziraga Mosque (pyramid roof) which are located less than 500 metres apart from each other.
The purpose is to assess information on the architectural roof design in relation to lighting performance.
This assessment is simulated during summer equinox where it provides results when the sun is
perimetering at its maximum position at the tropic of cancer. This study apply simulation analysis for of
the case study using an Autodesk software known as 3DStudio Max programme. This programme creates
simulation of the illuminance level to the indoor building areas during summer season in the northern
region of the equator on June 21th. A weather file is inserted in the programme during simulation process
as a tool to gain accurate condition of the local weather. The analysis shows that mosque design using
pedentive dome provides evenly distributed illuminance level with Scale 3 and 4 lighting performance
inside the mosque compared to the pyramid roof design with Scale 2 and 3. The study concludes that
having excellent illuminance level distributed at all the locations is one of the crucial reasons why the
mosques with pedentive dome roof cover are popularly built in Bosnia as well its neighbouring regions
since introduced by the Ottoman master builders.

Keywords: illuminance, pendentive dome, pyramid roof, Mostars

1.0 Introduction

This study aims to identify with reference to indoor lighting performance why pedentive dome is
very popular roof form in the mosque design since this type of dome was introduced during the
reign of Ottoman Empire in Bosnia as well as its neighbouring provinces in Balkan region.
Assessment to obtain result of illuminance level is this research approach to measure the lighting
performance inside the building. The focus of this study is to compare results of indoor lighting
performance between pedentive dome and pyramid roof mosque by using lighting simulation
analysis created in a computer programme known as 3dStudio Max 2010. Karadgoz Beg Mosque
represents pedentive dome mosque whereas Neziraga Mosque exemplifies pyramid roof mosque
which are rarely built in Ottoman architecture. Both of these mosques are located in Mostar,
Bosnia Herzegovina about 500 metres apart from each other. Adoption of pedentive dome
concept had made possible for a mosque design with vast interior and ‗double space‘ in height;
as a result, the design with excellent natural lighting is necessary which it reflects its impact on
architectural grandeur. It is an ingenious works of Ottoman master builders by reinventing the
pedentive dome concept of Hagia Sophia‘s architecture translated to more elaborated lighting
performance from natural sunlight in the mosque design (Necipoglu, 2005). The idea is to
transmit the sunlight into the interior space from upper window openings at the projected
primary and secondary domes that besides intensifying a sense of sacredness (Hillenbrand,
164

1994). Mosques with ‗pedentive dome‘ for roof construction are popular compared to pyramid
roof form in this region. Pedentive dome design is a basic construction in Ottoman as well as
Byzantium architecture. Pedentive dome means a construction of ‗dome built above dome‘
concept, a dome design in a way as if it is ‗hanging in the air‘ over four giant arched supports
(Mango, 1976). The uniqueness is that it has a large double space design to the mosque interior.
During this time, the construction technology complies with load bearing technique. The dome
has no structural system, therefore; it bears its own weight. The upper dome is supported by four
grand arches which constitute as the lower dome. The advantage of this construction is that it
consumes efficient usage of building material such as stones, bricks and marbles for the
construction which leads to dematerialised concept of the building construction.

2.0 Materials and Methods

Indoor lighting performance of these two mosques in this study is evaluated based on the
illuminance level. This illuminance level used is measured in lux or lumen per metre square
(lumen/m
2
), which means the amount of luminance (lumen) affected on a 1m x 1m surface area.
By referring to this measurement, the study can determine the indoor lighting performance by
using comparative analysis between pedentive dome and pyramid roof form (Runsheng, Meir &
Etzion 2009). Building design using daylight system is considered as having excellent passive
design. Daylight is lighting obtained from indirect sunlight source. It provides the best source
which comfortably matches with human visual response. The amount of daylight‘s penetration
into a building is mainly through sunlit area from window and door openings which provide the
dual function not only of admitting natural light to the indoor environment but also allowing the
occupants to have visual contact with the outdoor environment (Chel, Tiwari, & Chandra, 2009;
Chel, Tiwari & Singh).

3.0 The Case of Study



Figure 1. Location of Karadjoz Beg and Neziraga mosque.
Source: Google Earth

Like in other parts of the Ottoman Empire, mosques in Bosnia during the same the period had
played an important symbol of the regional architecture, potraying the belief, culture and politics
165

of the Muslim society (Saoud 2004). Mostars is a small city in Bosnia located athe the both sides
of Neretva River and was once under the Ottoman Empire (Pasic 2004). This city is located in
Balkan Region. By fifteenth century, most of this region is under Ottoman Kingdom (Pacic
1990). Most mosques in this region were built during this period with two types of roof form
used in the mosque construction which are dome and pyramid roof form. This study selected
two mosques located in the city of Mostars for the case study. The reason for this selection is that
there are two mosques, one with dome and the other one with pyramid roof form located in this
city less than 500 metres, a distance to each other (Figure 1). With this distance away, the study
can relatively generate as minimum possible the error in the results of the simulation and
comparative study between these two mosques during the analysis. The selected mosques in this
case study are Karadjozbeg and Neziraga mosque.




Figure 2. Karadjoz Beg mosque plan and section (left), and 3D perspective (right)

Karadjozbeg mosque is an example of single pendentive dome mosque design with one
minaret (Serageldin, 1989) as illustrated in Figure 2. It was built in 1557. This type of dome
design has the simple plan unit layout in Ottoman mosque construction which consists of basic
square and round dome geometric elements. The dome is an element for roof cover to the main
prayer hall and its design had progressed from time to time in Ottoman architecture to
complexed dome construction with combination of domes‘ design (Necipoglu 2005). The bigger
the dome is, the larger is the size of its main prayer hall. The reason is that the dome of this
single plan unit design attributes to single pedentive dome roof cover built at the centre of the
mosque. The most discrete characteristic of this single dome plan design is that it has a dominant
pedentive dome roof. The plan has 13m length and 13m width. The building height is 15.9m
where the dome radius is 6.17m. Its attached hipped roof form covering the riwaq is not part of
this analysis as it was not element of the Ottoman mosque design.



0 5 m
166


Figure 3. Neziraga mosque plan and section (left), and 3D perspective (right)

Neziraga mosque is the other selected building for the case study as illustrated in Figure
3. Its location is closed to Mostar Old Bridge. This mosque has a single pyramid roof form with
one minaret. The mosque was built in 1550 but it was closed in 1930 and later torn down in
1950, left derelicted not until it is reconstructed in 1999 under UNESCO rehabilitation plan and
IRCICA‘s (Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture) Mostar 2004 programme with
cost of USD453,000. The mosque name is taken from the name of a person, Neziraga who was a
local novel family from a highly respected Vucjakovic family (Serageldin, 1989). It is located at
elevated hill platform east of Neretva River at distance of 150 meter from the old bridge of
Mostar. This mosque has a design of simple plan unit layout comprising basic square plan with
pyramid roof type. This single pyramid roof covers the main prayer hall. The most discrete
characteristic of this single plan design is that it has a dominant pyramid roof. This mosque has a
square plan design with 10.2m width and 10.2m length. Its height is 7.77m with its roof‘s height
at 2.59m.

4.0 Method of Simulation

The scope of this survey is to simulate the indoor‘s lighting performance of Karadjoz Beg and
Nezigara mosque in Mostar and to do comparative analysis of the results bewteen these two
mosques. This simulation is conducted on 21
st
June 2010 on the day of the summer equinox‘s
occurrence when the sun path is at its highest latitude of the northern hemisphere along the
Tropic of Cancer. The temperature ranges from 15
o
C to 22
o
C (mean temperature 18.3
o
C) with its
average humidity at 78% (TuTiempo 2010). The sunrise and sunset time are 5:06am and 8:32pm
respectively which has the longest day time 15 hours 28 minutes and 14 seconds (Sunrise-sunset
2010). This daylight simulation is a computer-based calculation of the amount of daylight inside
the building using 3dStudio Max proggramme. Before simulation analysis is conducted, three
dimension drawings of these two mosques are created using AutoCAD software based on one to
one scale illustrating exact measurement of the building form with reference to the mosque‘s two
dimensional AutoCAD plan and section. After that, these three dimension drawings are imported
to 3D Studio Max 2010. A daylight system is created in this programme, and a camera view is
set to the top view (perspective) before lighting analysis can be generated. A specific local
daylight system is inserted in this programme using the available weather data file of Banja Luka
(44°49'N and 17°11'E), the nearest a city to Mostar (43.34 N latitude and 17.81 East longitude).
This weather file is downloaded from weather data files (*.EPW) (EnergyPlus 2010), which
contain annual data for typical climatic conditions at this site. It will provide data with respect to
the local climatic condition.

167




Figure 3. Selected 5 points inside the building for Karadjoz Beg (left) and Neziraga (right)
mosque


A light metre is created by setting points of incidence which show the illuminance level.
Each subdivision represents a point at which incident illuminance normal to the grid (0.5 m x 0.5
m) will be measured (calculated). It provides overlaying a grid of illuminance results. This
simulation is created after identifying a light meter at human body level 450 mm (when sitting on
the ground while praying and listening to the Friday‘s sermon) above the ground floor plan of the
mosque. The results are based on its reference to this light meter‘s setting with modification of
the daylight system to the selected weather file (Landry & Breton 2009). Selected points on the
imaginary grid plan layouts are used in the measurements during this simulation. Duration of this
simulation is only scoped to 12 hours with one hour interval for each measurement taken from
6:00am to 6:00pm on 21
st
June 2010. The simulation does not taken account to the time of
sunrise and sunset when the measurements are collected. Each hour is represented by lighting
analysis calculation per frame in one rendering image at resolution 1024 x 768. This analysis is
to test indoor illuminance level by simulating the realistic atmosphere from weather file‘s data at
selected 5 points (P1=entrance door; P2 centre prayer hall; P3=mihrab; P4=right side prayer hall;
and P5=left side prayer hall) inside the building for each mosque (Figure 5). The results for each
selected points is collected and then converted to tables and line charts. These results allows us
to have comparative analysis of lighting performances between Karadjoz Beg and Neziraga
mosque. This analysis refers the measurable scale of the illuminance level as follows: (Schlyter
2010) and (Wikipedia 2010)

Table 1. Lighting scale of measurement

Scale Illuminance (lux) Level
1 0 Total darkness
2 1 - 79 Dark
3 80 - 199 Hallway brightness
4 200 - 500 Brightness for reading or office area
168

5 501 - 1000 Intricate work for brightness
6 1001 - 10000 Maximum brightness from sunlight to
indoor area
7 10001 - 100000 Outdoor area brightness
100000 lux is the maximum
measurement.

5.0 Results of the Analysis

The results are illustrated in Table 2 and 3, and Figure 4 to 9. Results of the analysis comprise
comparative study between Karadjoz Beg and Neziraga mosque as follows:

(a). Point 1
Figure 4 shows that the illuminance at Point 1 (location near the mosque entrance) for both of the
mosques has the brightest level compared to the other 4 locations ranging from 922 to 33.5 lux.
The study finds that the average illuminance level at Karadjov Beg mosque is higher than that at
Neziraga mosque. The afternoon sunlight from 10:00 am to 2:00pm provides higher illuminance
level than those in early morning and late evening sunlight. There is no intersecting point in the
Line Chart of Point 1 that indicates both mosques have the same illuminance level during the
simulation except at near 7:00am with about 370 lux. The average illuminance level at Karadjoz
Beg mosque is 462 lux more than twice higher than that of Neziraga mosque (186 lux). Karadjoz
Beg has brighter illuminance level than Neziraga mosque in all hourly simulation from 7:00 am
to 6:00 pm. Neziraga mosque has a very bright illuminance level (922 lux) at 6:00am which
indicates that it receives direct morning sunlight at Point 1. Neziraga mosque evenly distributed
brightness level from 7:00am to 4:00pm ranging from 119 (minimum) to 184 lux under Scale 3
with an average of 156 lux. On the other hand, Karadjoz Beg mosque has better evenly
distributed illuminance level throughout the simulation process from 6:00am to 5:00pm ranging
from 310 (minimum) to 606 lux (maximum) under Scale 4 and 5 with an average of 491 lux. The
morning and evening sunlight provides higher illuminance level than those in late evening
sunlight.



Figure 4. Line chart of Point 1



169

(b). Point 2
Figure 5 shows that the illuminance level at Point 2 (location at the central prayer hall) at both
of the mosques ranges from 18 to 308 lux. The morning sunlight provides higher illuminance
level than those in morning sunlight for Karadjoz Beg and Neziraga mosque. The chart shows
that Karadjoz Beg mosque has relatively higher illuminance level than Neziraga mosque at all
the interval times. The average illuminance level at Karadjov Beg mosque is 227 lux slightly
more than twice higher than that of Neziraga mosque (91 lux). The illuminance level in Karadjov
Beg mosque is 155 lux at 6:00am and then the level gradually increases to 308 lux at 10:00am.
Afterthat, it has gradual drop to 267, 203, 164 and 47 lux at 1:00, 4:00, 5:00 and 6:00pm
respectively. The illuminance level in Neziraga mosque reaches its brightest level (140 lux) at
10:00am. The level gradually hawever decreases to 106 lux at 2:00pm and its minimum
illuminance level at 18 lux at 6:00pm. Both mosques have evenly distributed brightness level
with Neziraga mosque ranging from 7:00am (110 lux) to 2:00pm (106 lux) and Karadjoz Beg
mosque from 7:00am (254 lux) to 5:00pm (166 lux), which means Karadjoz Beg mosque has
evenly distributed and higher illuminance levels (mostly under category Scale 4) than those in
Neziraga mosque (mostly under category Scale 3).



Figure 5. Line chart of Point 2

(c). Point 3
Figure 6 shows that the illuminance levels at Point 3 (location near the mihrab) in the Karadjoz
Beg mosque are brighter than those in Neziraga mosque in the simulation ranging from 11 to 199
lux. Karadjoz Beg mosque has higher illuminance levels than Neziraga mosque. There is no
intersecting point in the Line Chart of Point 3 that indicates both mosques have the same
illuminance level during the simulation. The morning sunlight provides higher illuminance level
than those in evening sunlight. The average illuminance level at mosque Karadjov Beg is 156 lux
which is 90 lux higher than that of Neziraga mosque (66 lux). Neziraga mosque has illuminance
level of 63 lux at 6:00am and gradual decrease to 123 and 101 lux at 9:00 and 10:00am
respectively before having a gradual decrease to 75 and 11 lux at 11:00am and 6:00pm
respectively. Karadjoz Beg mosque has similar projection starting from 109 lux at 6:00am and
then gradually increased to 199 lux at 1:00pm before having gradual decrease to 137, 93 and 31
lux at 4:00, 5:00 and 6:00pm respectively. Karadjoz Beg mosque has evenly distributed
illuminance level throughout the simulation process from 7:00am to 3:00pm, in contrast to
Neziraga mosque with low illuminance levels less than 125 lux throughout the simulation.
Almost all of the illuminance levels at Karadjoz Beg mosque fall under category Scale 3
compared to those at Neziraga mosque under Scale 2.
0
200
400
I
l
l
u
m
i
n
a
n
c
e
Point 2 Jun-21
Neziraga Karadjozbeg
170




Figure 6. Line chart of Point 3

(d). Point 4
Figure 7 shows that the illuminance at Point 4 (location near south-west wall) at both of the
mosques has the illuminance level ranging from 25 to 239 lux. The illuminance levels at
Karadjoz Beg mosque from 8:00am to 3:00pm are high above 200 lux and evenly distributed
(between 210 and 240 lux) compared to those at Neziraga mosque ranging from 160 to 190 lux.
The average illuminance level at Karadjov Beg mosque is 192 lux higher than that of Neziraga
mosque (124 lux) with the difference of 68 lux. The illuminance level in Karadjoz Beg mosque
is 145 lux at 6:00am and the level gradually increases to 239 lux at 11:00am reaching to its
maximum point, before it has gradual drop to 211 and 144 lux at 3:00pm and 5:00pm. At 6:00pm
it has sudden decrease to 38 lux. The illuminance level in Neziraga mosque however has its
maximum point (189 lux) at 10:00am before having gradual decrease to 160 and 99 lux at 2:00
and 4:00pm respectively, and to its minimum point of 25 lux at 6:00pm. Almost all of the
illuminance levels at Karadjoz Beg mosque fall under category Scale 4 compared to those at
Neziraga mosque under Scale 3.



Figure 7. Line chart of Point 4

(d). Point 5
Figure 8 shows that the illuminance levels at Point 5 (location near north-east wall) in both of the
mosques range from 21 to 203 lux. The illuminance levels from 7:00am to 3:00pm in Karadjoz
Beg mosque have more than 150 lux with its maximum of 203 lux at 10:00am. The illuminance
levels at Neziraga mosque however have less brightness compared to those in Karadjoz Beg
0
200
400
I
l
l
u
m
i
n
a
n
c
e
Point 4 Jun-21
Neziraga Karadjozbeg
171

mosque at all hourly interval during the simulation. The chart shows that the illuminances have
more than 150 lux from 7:00 to 11:00am. The chart shows that Karadjoz Beg and Neziraga
mosque have a drop of their illuminance level after 1:00pm from 185 and 135 lux to 129 and 78
lux at 4:00pm, and finally to 30 and 21 lux at 6:00pm respectively. The average illuminance
level at Karadjoz Beg mosque is 154 lux, a difference to that of Neziraga mosque (109 lux) with
45 lux. The illuminance level in Karadjov Beg mosque is 116 lux at 6:00am and the level
gradually increases to 203 lux (maximum level) at 10:00am. Afterthat, it gradually decrease to
156 and 129 lux at 3:00 and 4:00pm respectively and then to its lowest point, 30 lux at 6:00pm.
The illuminance level in Neziraga mosque has its maximum point (164 lux) at 8:00am before
having gradual decrease to 101 lux at 3:00pm and to its minimum point of 21 lux at 6:00pm.
Karadjoz Beg mosque has its brightness levels evenly disributed from 7:00am to 3:00pm ranging
from 156 to 203 lux in contrast to Neziraga mosque from 7:00 to 11:00am with 154 to 165 lux.
Most illuminance levels are under category Scale 3 except after 4:00pm in Neziraga and after
6:00pm in Karadjov Beg mosque under category Scale 2.



Figure 8. Line chart of Point 5

6.0 Discussion

The findings from the results of analysis are as follows:

(a). Pedentive dome design has higher illuminance levels in its indoor area than pyramid roof
design. The line charts shows that all the illuminance levels at Karadjoz Beg mosque are
brighter than those in Neziraga mosque except at 6:00am at Point 1, which is high (922 lux)
due to having direct sunlight. The result besides shows that Karadjoz Beg mosque has
relatively about twice higher average illuminance levels compared to Neziraga mosque at all
located points of the simulations. Karadjoz Beg mosque has an average of 462 lux at Point 1,
227 lux at Point 2, 156 lux at Point 3, 192 lux at Point 4 and 154 lux at Point 5 in contrast to
an average of 186 lux at Point 1, 91 lux at Point 2, 66 lux at Point 3, 124 lux at Point 4 and
109 lux at Point 5 in Neziraga mosque.

(b). Karadjoz Beg mosque has evenly distributed illuminance levels in its indoor area under
category Scale 4 (brightness level suitable for reading purpose) at Point 1, 2 and 4; and Scale
3 above 150 lux for Point 3 and 5. Most of these illuminance levels occur from 7:00am to
4:00pm. Neziraga mosque on the other hand has poor lighting performance in term of evenly
0
100
200
300
I
l
l
u
m
i
n
a
n
c
e
Point 5 Jun-21
Neziraga Karadjozbeg
172

distributed illuminance levels in its indoor area compared to those in Karadjoz Beg mosque
as is illustrated in Figure 9 and 10, and Table 2 and 3. Most of its illuminance levels fall
under category Scale 3 at Point 1, 2, 4 and 5; and Scale 2 for Point 3. Most of its illuminance
levels besides are less than 150 lux at Point 2, 3 and 5.



Figure 9. Line chart of Karadjoz Beg mosque at Point 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5



Figure 10. Line chart of Neziraga mosque at Point 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5

(c). The result shows that pedentive dome design provides evenly distributed illuminance level to
all locations inside the mosque whereas pyramid roof design has poor evenly distributed
illuminance level especially at the location near to mihrab with low illuminannce and at
other locations after 4:00pm in comparison to its other locations under category Scale 2
(considered as dark).

(d). Design with good illuminance level is necessary in this region. The recorded temperature
during summer equinox ranges between 15.8
o
C to 27.6
o
C (Worldweather 2010). Having
sufficient natural sunlight is important especially for morning sunlight to increase the indoor
temperature from 18
o
C to 28
o
C as recommended by World Health Organisation (1990).
Pedentive dome mosque design obtains higher illuminance levels than pyramid dome
mosque design.

Table 2. Indoor lighting performance of Karadjoz Beg mosque

Karadjoz beg

-300
700
I
l
l
u
m
i
n
a
n
c
e
Neziraga mosque
June - 21
po:1 po:2 po:3
po:4 po:5
173

mosque 21-6

6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
10:0
0
11:0
0
12:0
0
13:0
0
14:0
0
15:0
0
16:0
0
17:0
0
18:0
0
1
309.
7
380
464.
6
550
606.
4
569.
6
550.
8
588.
3
542.
2
453.
8
480.
7
397.
3
111.
6
2
154.
8
254.
2
267.
1
292.
7
307.
9
266.
8
253.
1
266.
9
246
222.
8
203
163.
6
47.2
3
109.
8
175.
8
178.
7
175.
5
198.
7
197.
8
182.
5
198.
5
186.
7
162.
8
136.
5
93.4 31.1
4
145.
1
181
226.
5
240 247
239.
1
207.
2
221.
4
217.
9
210.
6
179.
7
144.
3
38.4
5
115.
6
178.
6
191.
9
197.
5
202.
9
181.
9
169
185.
3
175
156.
2
128.
7
87.6 29.9

Table 3. Indoor lighting performance of Neziraga mosque

Neziraga mosque
21-6


6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
10:0
0
11:0
0
12:0
0
13:0
0
14:0
0
15:0
0
16:0
0
17:0
0
18:0
0
1
922.
4
120 152.4
162.
6
184.
1
174.
5
164.
4
175.
5
164.
7
142.
1
119.
2
91.6 33.5
2 76.3 109.8 127.3
132.
9
140.
2
128.
5
115.
5
118.
1
106.
2
84.7 67.4 42.3 18.3
3 63.5 109.8 107.9
123.
3
101 75 70.4 73.5 67.2 53.6 39.4 25.4 11.2
4 88.1 128.6 160.1
180.
6
189.
2
177.
1
162.
5
172.
7
160.
3
130.
5
99.1 61 24.9
5 85.6 153.9 164.5
159.
3
159.
3
153.
7
128.
8
135 124
101.
2
78.2 50.4 21.2

7.0 Conclusion

This study concludes that single pedentive dome design has better lighting performance than
single pyramid dome design. It has good evenly distributed illuminance level at all locations
inside the mosque in comparison to single pyramid roof design. This result supports the
argument why pedentive dome is very popularly choosen for the mosque roof form in Bosnia
when this type of dome was introduced by the Ottoman master builders from Asia Minor. By
applying pedentive roof form, it gives inspiration to the master builders to design a mosque with
excellent natural lighting performance transmitted into the mosque at various angles to provide
evenly distributed illuminance level at all locations. The design creates vast interior space plan
layout without obstruction by walls and columns providing excellent sunlight penetration into the
building (Goodwin 1993). This offers the master builders besides to explore lighting design as a
source of expression leading toward a sense for a place of worship with a presence of divinity
inside the building. Location near the mihrab is the most important because it is the place where
174

congregational prayers five times a day, sermon and lectures (kuliah) take place, therefore;
having good illuminance levels at this area is necessary.

8.0 Acknowledgement

This paper is under Research University Grant supported by Universiti Sains Malaysia. Thank
you to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Spahic Omer who is the co-researcher (Bosnian side) for the assistance
providing research materials and information.

9.0 References

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skylight an experimental validation using pyramid shape skylight over vault roof mud-house
in New Delhi (India). Applied Energy. 86, pp. 2507-2519.
Chel, A., Tiwari, G.N., Singh, H.N. 2009. A modified model for estimation of daylight factor
for skylight integrated with dome roof structure of mud-house in New Delhi (India). Applied
Energy. 87, pp. 3037-3050.
Goodwin, G. 1993. Sinan Ottoman Architecture and its Values Today. London: Saqi Books.
Hillenbrand, R. 1994. Islamic Architecture: Form, Function and Meaning. Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press.
Jayewardene, S. 1989. Conservation of Mostar Old Town, Yugoslavia, 1979. Space for
Freedom. In I. Serageldin. London: Butterworth Architecture. pp. 40-43.
Landry, M., Breton, P. 2009. Daylight Simulation in Autodesk 3ds Max Design 2009 - Advanced
Concepts. Autodesk Inc.
Necipoglu, G. 2005. The age of Sinan: Architectural culture in the Ottoman Empire. Muqarnas:
An Annual of Visual Culture of the Islamic World. In Gulru Necipoglu (Ed.), vol. xxiv.
London: Reaktion Books. Pp. 141-184.
Pacic, D. 1990. The Preservation of the Built Heritage of Mostar, Yugoslavia. Architectural and
Urban Conservation in the Islamic World. In Abu H. Imamuddin and Karen R. Longeteig(
Eds.). Geneva: The Aga Khan Trust for Culture.
Pasic, A. 2004. A Short History of Mostar In Conservation and Revitalisation of Historic Mostar.
Geneva: The Aga Khan Trust for Culture.
Runsheng, T., Meir ,I. A., Etzion Y. 2009. An analysis of absorbed radiation by domed and
vaulted roofs as compared with flat roofs, Energy and Buildings. 35: 6, pp. 539-548.
Saoud, R. 2004. Muslim architecture under Ottoman patronage . FSTC Limited.
Serageldin, I. 1989. Conservation of Mostar Old Town, Mostar, Yugoslavia. Space for Freedom.
In I. Serageldin. London: Butterworth Architecture. pp. 103-116.
Schlyter, P. 2010. Radiometry and Photometry in Astronomy. Retrieved 1
st
October 2010 at
http://www.stjarnhimlen.se/comp/radfaq.html#10.
Wikipedia. 2010. Lux Measurement. Retrieved 1
st
October 2010 at
http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lux#cite_note-3.
World Health Organisation. 1990. Indoor Environment: Health Aspects of Air quality, Thermal
Environment, Light and Noise. London: World Health Organisation; 1990.
_____. (2010). EnergyPlus energy simulation softwares: Weather data files. Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy. U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 10
th
Oct. 2010 at
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/cfm/weather_data.cfm.
175

_____. 2010. Calculate Sunrise and Sunset Times
for Any Location: Mostar. Retrieved 1
st
Nov. 2010 at http://sunrise-sunset.dusk-
dawn.com/?month=6&year=2010&longitude=17.8&latitude=43.35&timezone=2&zenith=9
0.83333333333&location=&view=month&resulting=1
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st
Nov. 2010 at
http://www.tutiempo.net/en/Climate/Mostar/06-2010/133480.htm























176

Pengembangan Sebuah Ruang Kelas Belajar Serta Aplikasi Learning by
Doing Di Sekolah High Scope Indonesia

A.Setiawan
Pengajar Department Sejarah, Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya,
Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta
a_setiawan55@hotmail.com

Abstrak

Tujuan utama penulisan paper ini adalah memberikan sebuah penjelasan mengenai perkembangan dan
pengembangan sebuah ruang kelas belajar dengan aplikasi learning by doing di Sekolah High Scope di
Indonesia. Pembahasannya sendiri terbagi atas tiga (3) bagian utama yaitu pembahasan mengenai
perkembangan pendekatan school ini di luar negeri, konsep dan filosofi dari pendekatan sekolah High
Scope dan penataan ruang belajar di sekolah tersebut di Indonesia. Diharapkan penulisan ini dapat
memberikan sebuah alternatif paradigma dan pendekatan dalam perancangan ruang kelas di Indonesia
secara khusus dan internasional secara umum

Kata Kunci: Ruang Kelas Belajar, Aplikasi Learning by Doing, Sekolah High Scope

1.0 Latar Belakang

Amerika Serikat adalah satu dari sekian banyak negara maju dimana model pendidikan yang
diterapkan di negara tersebut menjadi panutan di sejumlah negara lain. Amerika Serikat kini
menjadi salah satu tempat tujuan para siswa dari berbagai negara yang ingin melanjutkan
pendidikan di tingkat sekolah menengah hingga tingkat universitas. Beberapa universitas di
Amerika Serikat menawarkan jenjang pendidikan lanjutan mulai dari program sarjana
(Bachelor), master dan doktor. Bila kita teliti lebih dalam, maka kita akan mendapati bahwa
beberapa universitas tersebut memiliki program studi unggulan terkait dengan sumber daya alam
dan situasi yang dihadapi oleh mayoritas masyarakat di sebuah negara bagian. Hal ini sejalan
dengan prinsip awal dan peraturan yang dibuat oleh pemerintah federal bahwa setiap negara
bagian diharuskan mendirikan sebuah universitas yang memfokuskan pelaksanaan berbagai
penelitian dalam upaya mengeksploitasi sumber daya alam untuk kesejahteraan masyarakat di
negara bagian masing-masing.

Selain universitas, di Amerika Serikat dikenal pula adanya sebuah institusi pendidikan
yang berupaya menselaraskan antara keahlian teori dan praktek yakni Community College.
Konsep pendirian Community College sendiri diambil dari sistem pendidikan siap pakai di
Jerman atau yang lebih dikenal dengan Fachoscule. Institusi tersebut lebih menekankan pada sisi
keterampilan (skill) yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh industri-industri di Jerman sehingga penerapan
berbagai teori yang dipelajari mendapat porsi yang tinggi. Sementara di kebanyakan disiplin
ilmu yang dipelajari oleh para mahasiswa di perguruan tinggi justru lebih mengedepankan pada
pemahaman konsep agar kelak konsep tersebut dapat dikembangkan lagi seiring dengan
perkembangan zaman. Amerika Serikat memadukan dua konsep institusi semacam Junior
College dengan metode Fachoscule menjadi Community College yang kita kenal sekarang.

177

Berbagai konsep dan pemikiran para pemikir dan praktisi pendidikan di Amerika Serikat
ikut mengilhami pendirian Community College diantaranya adalah konsep Learning by Doing
yang merupakan aplikasi dari pemikiran pragmatisme di bidang pendidikan yang digagas oleh
John Dewey. Dalam menghadapi industrialisasi Eropa dan Amerika, Dewey berpendirian bahwa
sistem pendidikan sekolah harus diubah. Menurut Dewey, ilmu pengetahuan tidak harus
diperoleh dari buku-buku melainkan harus diberikan kepada siswa melalui praktek dan tugas-
tugas yang berguna. Belajar harus lebih banyak difokuskan melalui tindakan daripada melalui
buku. Dewey percaya terhadap adanya pembagian yang tepat antara teori dan praktek. Hal ini
membuat Dewey demikian lekat dengan atribut Learning by Doing. Yang dimaksud disini bukan
berarti ia menyeru anti intelektual, tetapi untuk mengambil kelebihan fakta bahwa manusia harus
aktif, penuh minat dan siap mengadakan eksplorasi.

2.0 Pemasalahan

Dalam masyarakat industri, sekolah harus merupakan miniatur lokakarya dan miniatur
komunitas. Belajar haruslah ditekankan pada praktek dan trial and error. Pendidikan harus
disusun kembali bukan hanya sebagai persiapan menuju kedewasaan, tetapi pendidikan sebagai
kelanjutan pertumbuhan pikiran dan kelanjutan penerang hidup. Sekolah hanya dapat
memberikan kita alat pertumbuhan mental sedangkan pendidikan yang sebenarnya adalah saat
kita telah meninggalkan bangku sekolah dan tidak ada alasan mengapa pendidikan harus berhenti
sebelum kematian menjemput.

Konsep Learning by Doing yang melekat pada Dewey diadopsi oleh Sekolah High Scope
yang berpusat di Michigan, Amerika Serikat. Sekolah ini menawarkan konsep belajar teori dan
praktek yang berimbang dan memiliki beberapa perbedaan dengan sekolah konvensional lainnya.
Konsep yang ditawarkan oleh Sekolah High Scope mendapat sambutan yang cukup luas idak
hanya dalam masyarakat Amerika Serikat namun juga diminati oleh beberapa praktisi
pendidikan di negara lain termasuk di Indonesia. Sekolah High Scope memang membuka
kesempatan bagi perluasan usaha pendidikan melalui sistem franchise sehingga ketertarikan para
praktisi pendidikan di Indonesia untuk mengaplikasikan konsep Learning by Doing milik
sekolah ini dapat terwujud dengan berdirinya Sekolah High Scope Indonesia.

Salah satu perebedaan mendasar dalam penyelenggaraan proses belajar mengajar antara
sekolah-sekolah di Indonesia dengan Sekolah High Scope adalah penataan ruang kelas. Di
kebanyakan sekolah Indonesia, posisi guru dan siswa berhadap-hadapan. Guru berada di depan
kelas menerangkan dan memimpin diskusi sementara seluruh siswa dengan posisi meja dan kursi
yang diatur sejajar menghadap papan tulis. Situasi ini sangat berbeda dengan penataan ruang di
Sekolah High Scope Indonesia dimana ruang kelas dibagi menjadi empat wilayah (zone) yang
akan menjadi tempat para siswa belajar dan beraktivitas, Makalah ini akan memfokuskan
kelebihan dan kekurangan penataan ruang belajar di Sekolah High Scope Indonesia khususnya
tingkat Sekolahy Menengah Pertama terhadap kualitas belajar para siswanya. Apakah penataan
ruang dengan pembagian wilayah memberikan kontribusi bagi peningkatan kualitas belajar siswa
atau justru melemahkan siswa dalam penyerapan ilmu?



178

3.0 Penataan Ruang Belajar di Sekolah High Scope Indonesia

Penataan ruang guna menunjang proses belajar mengajar merupakan salah satu faktor penting
keberhasilan seorang guru dalam mentransformasikan ilmu sesuai kurikulum pendidikan. Di
Indonesia, tuntutan permintaan berbagai perusahaan terhadap lulusan berbagai institusi
pendidikan yang terampil semakin besar seiring dengan makin cepatnya arus globalisasi dan
akan dilaksanakannya perdagangan bebas di wilayah Asia Pasifik. Beberapa sekolah swasta
mulai berbondong-bondong merayu para konsumen dalam hal ini orang tua untuk
memperkenalkan sistem pendidikan baru yang diyakini lebih unggul dalam mempersiapkan
putera-puterinya menghadapi tantangan dunai kerja di masa mendatang.

Sekolah High Scope Indonesia sebagai salah satu sekolah swasta papan atas berupaya
bersaing dalam memperebutkan pangsa pasar pendidikan di Indonesia dengan jalan
memperkenalkan sebuah konsep pendidikan Learning by Doing. Konsep ini mengharuskan agar
siswa lebih banyak bereksplorasi dan mempraktekan pengetahuan yang mereka miliki sehingga
penataan ruang kelas sangat penting dalam mendukung aplikasi konsep tersebut. Sekolah High
Scope Indonesia khususnya di tingkat menengah pertama di ruang kelas Social Studies membagi
ruang kelas menjadi empat zone yakni economic zone, geography zone, history zone dan
discussion zone. Pembagian wilayah dalam satu ruangan kelas ini tidak berarti para siswa belajar
beberapa pelajaran dalam saat yang bersamaan namun dalam satu topik pelajaran, kegiatan yang
dilakukan dibuat menjadi lebih bervariasi.

Zone merupakan sebuah tempat beraktivitas dalam proses belajar mengajar. Masing-
masing zone dibuat agar terdapat tempat yang dapat digunakan untuk menempatkan alat peraga
masing-masing bidang dalam Social Studies (Sejarah, Geografi dan Ekonomi). Disamping untuk
menyimpan alat-alat tersebut, masing-masing zone juga dilengkapi dengan tempat diskusi yakni
satu buah meja dan empat buah kursi. Dalam proses belajar mengajar terdapat dua orang guru
dalam satu ruang belajar. Proses pembelajaran dalam satu topik adalah sebagai berikut:

Model Simulasi
Topik: Sejarah Indonesia Masa Pergerakan Nasional
Waktu: 60 menit
Menit 0-10 Guru memberikan penjelasan singkat mengenai pergerakan nasional
di Indonesia dan instruksi kegiatan di masing-masing zone serta
pembagian kelompok. Setelah itu, masing-masing kelompok menuju zone
masing-masing.
Menit 10-20 Siswa di masing-masing zone melakukan aktivitas belajar mengajar.
Sebagai contoh di zone 1, guru memberikan tutorial kepada siswa, di zone
2 para siswa membaca artikel mengenai pergerakan nasional di Indonesia,
di zone 3 para siswa mengerjakan kuis dan di zone 4 para siswa membuat poster
terkait pergerakan nasional di Indonesia. Guru lainnya berkeliling zone untuk
memeriksa aktivitas para siswa di masing-masing zone.
Menit 20-40 Para siswa bertukar zone, siswa di zone 1 menuju zone 2, zone 2 menuju zone 3,
zone 3 menuju zone 4 dan zone 4 menuju zone 1. Siswa kemudian melakukan
aktivitas di masing-masing zone. Dengan demikian dalam satu sesi pelajaran
masing-masing siswa melakukan 2 aktivitas di 2 zone yang berbeda.
179

Menit 40-60 Semua siswa berkumpul di meeting point atau zone 1 untuk berdiskusi terkait
aktivitas yang telah mereka lakukan di dua zone.

Guru memegang peranan penting dalam sirkulasi aktivitas di tiap zone. Guru harus dapat
bekerjasama dengan mitra guru lainnya di kelas agar perpindahan antar zone tidak memakan
waktu lama karena bila siswa tidak disiplin mengikuti instruksi, maka penyelesaian masing-
masing aktivitas di tiap zone akan terhambat. Bila masing-masing aktivitas di tiap zone tidak
selesai maka sasaran pembelajaran tidak akan tercapai sehingga diskusi di akhir sesi hampir bisa
dipastikan tidak akan berjalan baik karena masing-masing siswa tidak memami secara utuh
sasaran pembelajaran.

Selama melakukan berbagai aktivitas di masing-masing zone, semua sarana dan
prasarana untuk melakukan aktivitas belajar mengajar harus sudah tersedia. Guru harus
mempersiapkan berbagai alat peraga pembelajaran yang mendukung aktivitas tersebut. Di zone 4
misalnya, sudah harus tersedia berbagai perlengkapan untuk membuat poster mulai dari kertas
kanvas, cat air atau minyak, pensil, rautan hingga kertas warna. Bila pada saat aktivitas tersebut
akan dilaksanakan sementara alat-alat yang diperlukan belum lagi tersedia, maka sirkulasi
kegiatan antar zone tidak bisa dilakukan.
Aktivitas yang aktif dari setiap siswa merupakan kunci keberhasilan konsep Learning by
Doing. Aktivitas yang bervariasi dimaksudkan agar pemahaman siswa bisa dilakukan dari
berbagai jalan. Siswa juga tidak lekas bosan dengan hanya melakukan satu aktivitas belajar
karena diharapkan aktivitas lain di tiap zone yang berbeda dapat memancing keingintahuan siswa
sehingga semangat belajar tetap tinggi. Metode ini diyakini akan tepat sasaran manakala siswa
memiliki rasa ingin tahu yang tinggi dan tergolong siswa yang aktif. Sayangnya, seleksi untuk
mendapatkan siswa yang aktif seringkali kurang ketat sehingga guru terkadang merasa kesulitan
untuk membangkitkan minat belajar siswa.

Bagan Pembagian dan Sirkulasi Antar Zone Dalam Ruang Kelas









4.0 Kesimpulan
Secara umum metode ini memberikan keuntungan bagi guru dan siswa. Dengan metode Active
Learning, guru tidak harus memberikan seluruh penjelasan namun hanya memberikan tuntunan
dan kesimpulan kendati tanggung jawab berjalannya sebuah aktivitas di tiap zone menjadi lebih


↖ ↓


Zone 1
Meeting Point
Zone 2
History Zone
Zone 4
Economics
Zone
Zone 3
Geography
Zone
180

besar. Bagi siswa, sisi kemandirian dalam menggali ilmu pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber
menjadi meningkat. Kemandirian dan keingintahuan merupakan factor kunci dalam metode
belajar ini karena siswa yang aktif menggali informasi selanjutnya diharapkan bisa
mendiskusikannya dengan guru di kelas. Diskusi memang diharapkan berhasil manakala siswa
sudah memilki dasar-dasar ilmu pengetahuan terkait topic yang tengah dipelajari sehingga terjadi
sebuah interaksi dua arah antara siswa dan guru. Selama ini, kebanyakan yang terjadi adalah
guru bertindak sebagai sumber tunggal dalam proses belajar mengajar, sebaliknya dalam metode
Active Learning, sumber belajar bisa digali dari banyak sarana. Masing-masing zone merupakan
sumber belajar interaktif yang diharapkan dapat menambah wawasan dan pengetahuan siswa saat
mereka tidak bertatap muka dengan gurunya karena masing-masing zone dilengkapi dengan
berbagai media belajar. Sirkulasi antar zone juga memberikan dinamisasi dan diupayakan dapat
merubah suasana belajar yang berbeda dalam satu sesi.

Seperti dijelaskan di muka, guru memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam metode
Active Learning. Guru harus memiliki banyak ide dan terus mengasah pengetahuannya terkait
dengan topik pembelajaran. Mereka juga harus terus meng update setiap perkembangan ilmu
pengetahuan terkait agar siswa merasakan pula bahwa ilmu pengetahuan terus mengalami
perkembangan. Selain itu, media yang digunakan juga harus bervariasi dan sebaiknya
memanfaatkan teknologi audio visual untuk menambah daya tarik siswa dalam beraktivitas.
Dengan demikian, guru juga harus kreatif dalam membuat jenis aktivitas di tiap zone.

Metode Active Learning memang memberikan banyak kontribusi terutama dalam
memvariasikan sumber-sumber belajar namun bukan berarti tanpa kelemahan. Kelemahan yang
ada diantaranya adalah kedisiplinan siswa. Dalam banyak hal, siswa sering terlambat dalam
menyelesaikan aktivitas di tiap zone dalam waktu yang telah ditentukan. Kelemahan ini akan
semakin bertambah apabila guru tidak tegas dalam memberikan instruksi sirkulasi antar zone.
Siswa yang tidak mandiri juga semakin tidak akan memperoleh pengetahuan apabila tidak
memiliki motivasi yang kuat untuk belajar karena seperti telah dijelaskan di muka, durasi tatap
muka dengan guru memang terbilang sedikit. Sedikitnya durasi tatap muka dengan guru dapat
memberikan efek samping lain yakni semakin sedikitnya penjelasan yang diberikan oleh guru.

BIBLIOGRAFI

Baylin, Bernard. 1960. Education in the Forming of American Society. Williamsburg, The
University of North Carolina Press.
Calhoun, C.C., Finch, A.V. 1982. Vocational Education: Concepts and Operations (2
nd
ed.)
Belmont, California: Wadworth Publishing Company.
Cincotta, Howard (ed). 2004. Garis Besar Sejarah Amerika, Jakarta, United States Information
Agency.
Dewey, John. 1966. Democracy and Education, New York, The Free Press.
Gabriel, Ralph, H. 1974. Nilai-nilai Amerika: Pelestarian dan Perubahan, Yogayakarta, Gadjah
Mada University Press.
Gollattscheck, James, F. 1982. The Community College in America, Washington, American
Association of Community and Junior Colleges.


181




























182

AN ALTERNATIVE DESIGN FOR A SMART SCHOOL

A.H. Abdullah, S.S. Zubir
Department of Architecture
Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying
UiTM, Shah Alam, Selangor

Abstract

A plot of 5.85 acres has been identified for this theoretical adventure to seek for the possibilities of
designing a smart school for gifted and talented students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The research
examines innovative design based on the non-traditional pedagogical models to generate a new hybrid
program for the proposed scheme. Drawing largely from Gestalt psychology of the embedded figure, this
study adopts a rational approach in the production of form and spaces that can trigger the students to be
more creative in their endeavor. The design process is based on a synoptic method so as synectic
strategies could be realized and transformed into a responsive program. As this exploration makes use of
multiple sources of evidence, a mixed-methodology model is adopted. It is a combination of historical-
interpretative as well as qualitative and quantitative strategies. This theoretical exercise will culminate in
a design proposal that abhors traditional methods in the design process and a more succinct approach that
is reflexive is urgently required in the design of smart schools in Malaysia. In doing so, the proposal will
also try to validate the possibilities of projecting a conducive and creative ambiance for learning through
critical analysis and innovative thinking.

Keywords: Gestalt psychology, reflexive, embedded figure, hybrid, smart school.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

What is the first thing that crosses the architects mind when they start designing schools for
talented students? Perhaps there are so many things that could be elaborated relating to the
typical requirements such as classrooms, libraries, formal and informal learning spaces and all
other supporting facilities. However, the lacks of considerations focusing on informal learning
environments have generated repeated models that fell short of innovative design. A school is a
place where it is good to learn through the environment of spaces (Lobell, 2008). Therefore, it is
necessary for designers to deal with the matters in the production of spaces for students. For
instance, RSP Architects has managed to generate a design at La Salle in Singapore that
incorporates hybrid and inductive learning spaces that promote students creative activities. In our
context of designing a smart school, since students are themselves gifted, therefore, it becomes a
challenge for us to provide conducive spaces that can, not only, promote their learning process
but also make them to be more creative and responsive. In order to achieve this, our main aim is
to try and establish an alternative approach that is different from the standard and conventional
design of schools in Malaysia.

Gifted children are not like any other children because they won‘t permit emotional
problems to control them (Silverman, http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/we_have_learned.htm).
They also find themselves out of place with their contemporaries. Some have no difficulties in
coping up, but others find themselves isolated and rejected by their peers. They may withdraw
into themselves and only have few friends. They may be bored with their school work and
183

become frustrated. Such problems need urgent solution and it‘s high time that Malaysia should
have special programs for them and perhaps this can make their lives better. The ways gifted
students learn are different from normal students. Studies have shown that spatial functionalism
of learning areas elevate students‘ critical thinking. How to design spaces to promote the
development of the students‘ mind becomes a big challenge for designers. There are some
special relationships between human behaviors and where it occurs has increased awareness of
the critical role of the built environment (Jamieson, 2007). Thus, the quest of new form of
learning environments as the focus of this design research must consider the characteristic of
gifted and talented students.

Ironically, learning disabilities have always being associated with gifted and talented
students. These students somehow show their outstanding gifts and also their capabilities but
learning disabilities contribute some difficulties in achieving high academic performance (Brody,
1997). Thus, for a smart school, student centered is one of the approaches in learning and this
requires an introduction of new spaces that integrate with other spaces. This design research also
highlights that particular space where it become a common area for all the students to utilized so
as to emphasize the place more towards a student centered approach. For example the Australian
Science and Mathematic School in Adelaide is different with other public high schools in South
Australia because no classrooms, no bells, no uniforms and even no textbooks (Mitchell, 2009).

The school is a comprehensive senior secondary school that caters for the last three years
of schooling (year 10-12) before entry into higher education. The school was built and situated
on the ground of Flinders University Campus in Adelaide. In fact, the school is an innovative and
internationally recognized center for research-based teaching and learning. The school aims to
create an innovative learning environment for upper secondary students specializing in math and
sciences within a framework of new pedagogies and a need for new spatial models. In term of
design wise, the traditional concept of classrooms and laboratories have been replaced by so-
called ‗learning commons‘ and ‗learning studios‘ which remark as a key feature of the school
(Donaldson, 2006). Through this approach, it create a negotiation both individual and groups by
having collaborative working connections and flexible teaching and also learning groups (Fisher,
2006). It was found that the school‘s floor plan has no classroom as to support the pedagogical
strategy and approach of ‗inquiry‘ and ‗constructivist‘ learning (Fisher, 2006). The planning for
flexible environments has been applied into this ‗learning commons‘ as it provide group spaces
facilitating collaborative problem solving of project based work (Figure 1).
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Figure 1: The learning commons are flexible learning spaces which can accommodate groups of
students (source:
http://www.woodsbagot.com/en/Pages/AustralianScienceMathematicsSchool.aspx)

Another good example is the first high school in Singapore to be developed and managed
by NUS, which aims to provide a stimulating environment for students with special aptitude in
mathematics and science. This project marks a critical milestone in the development of schools
in Singapore as it transcends beyond just the physical design of a school campus; it is about
setting a new paradigm, an inspiration for a new era of learning. The design philosophy
accentuates the school‘s vision of being an ―active participant‖ in the students‘ learning process
by designing the school buildings as 3D learning tools. It explores the innovative use of
elements, such as the Eco-Learning trail and the Pi Wall as real-life lessons. Classrooms are
designed to facilitate different layout configurations to adapt to new learning scenarios - a
strategy to support learning and accommodate changing pedagogies. To inculcate a sense of
environmental responsibility in students, the school is conceived as a real-life showcase of
sustainability by emphasizing climatic responsiveness, resource optimization, waste
minimization and occupant well-being using forms, orientation and layout. The design
philosophy envisions the building components of the school taking on the role of teaching tools.
This concept explores the innovative use of elements abstracted from scientific and mathematical
concepts, which are then integrated into the total built form. Many concepts were explored in the
design of the school. Ideas include extracting the dynamic form of a double helix from the
structure of DNA, and interpreting it into the form of an abstracted ‗nano tube stairway‘ at the
entry lobby (Figure 2). The ―Pi Wall‖ defines the edge of the main concourse facing the track
and field. It is derived from the mathematical concept of Pi, and consists of a mosaic of
rectangular perforated aluminum panels that are translated into the decimal digits of Pi through a
number-coded color system.
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Figure 2: Students are welcomed with the 'nano tube stairway' at the entry lobby and the Pi wall
which facing the field (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NUS_High_School)

Embedded Figures as Design Generator in Hybridization of Form and Space

Apart from acquiring knowledge from diversified resources, students must also learn to
synthesize different types of information. Therefore, a smart school must be a laboratory that
triggers the inquisitive minds of the students. One way of doing this is to establish the school as
the product of extensive research design innovation that creates a more heterogeneous
environment to propel students into the realm of enquiry. Based on our findings, we have
established the main theme of the proposed school as a ‗3-dimensional learning tool‘.

This generative idea has been attributed to an earlier research by Kurt Gottschaldt (1902-
1991) on the embedded figure. In gestalt psychology, ―embedded figures‖ are visual puzzles in
which smaller, simpler shapes are hidden within larger, more complex designs. In his famous
experiment, Gottschaldt showed five simple geometric figures to two subject groups for one
second each, instructing the subject to memorize the figures carefully enough that they could
draw them later. These figures were shown to the first group only three times, and to the second
group 520 times. Both groups were then introduced to a series of new, more complex drawings,
for two second each, into which one of the earlier figures had been integrated (Figure 3).
Initially, in both groups, fewer than 10 per cent of the subjects suspected the presence of an
embedded figure; and even when instructed to search for it, only about 30 per cent were able to
186

detect the original figure (Gottschaldt, 1926). The translation from 2-dimensional figure into 3-
dimensional object is part of this design hypothesis where utilization of an element such as the
basic geometrical form can be used as to promote knowledgibility. Perhaps this theoretical
assumption can elevate the potentials of the gifted students.

Over the years, Gottschaldt‘s research on the embedded figure have been frequently cited
by psychologists and other scientists and the issues most often debated have been the influence
of experience on perception; the extent to which the whole may influence its parts; and the nature
of problem-solving. It is conceivable that the figures used in Gottschaldt‘s experiments were
initiated by him, but surely he did not come up with the idea of an embedded figure. It is more
likely that comparable figures have been discovered or devised throughout human history, which
are ubiquitous visual events, example of which can be found in all cultures and time periods.



Figure 3: Examples of Gottschaldt's embedded figures (source: Behrens, 2000)

In addition, since Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has be considered
as one of the most powerful tool in educational delivery today, therefore, incorporating its values
would not be too prohibitive to the mainstream concept (Fisher, 2006). As ICT becomes an
important platform in education, this may affect the nature of space planning and regulations.
Typical design for classroom may no longer be like that all the time as new intervention of
classroom layout can affect the process of learning. Fisher relates the position of space and place
in campus life as to ICT to the physical environment. Even though he mentions about campus,
but in this smart school context, we still can consider it whenever something that we think
positive may take place. Pedagogy, space and environment are the crucial elements, which are
reciprocal to each other and it is necessary to translate them into a wider setting so that gifted
students can get advantages from that. In the traditional classroom setting, the normal approach
of educational learning is biased towards teacher-centered which means teachers describe what
students should learn. Conversely, an approach of student-centered seems more aligned with
what is required in the pedagogy of adult learning (Figure 4). Learning settings are thus
becoming much more than classroom. In fact, if this technique is to be fully developed, students
will work in a range of modalities, either independently or in a team, collaborating through the
social construction of knowledge that creates ―learning communities‖.

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Figure 4: Students at the center of learning by Fisher (source: Fisher, 2006)

2.0 Transformation

Our design exploration is not limited to only study the gestalten impact on design but also
consider other behavioral and technological components where we are not able to deliberate at
this juncture. The search for a new paradigm for this project seeks to emulate simultaneously the
transcultural continuity with the translatable qualities in the design approaches. The question of
reflexivity that was first coined by Foucault (1972) is therefore paramount in emphasizing the
process of hybridization where actors, processes, concepts and traditions play a role in
generating a hybrid model of a smart school. In such a situation ―the historical contents have
been buried and disguised in a functionalist coherence or formal systemization‖ (Foucault, 1972)
that projects the desired image of the built form within that cultural context in question. In
short,‖ hybridization would be a general consequence in seeking a new unity of dissociated
elements in architecture. Hybrid building programs with their mix of living, working, culture,
and recreation, break down the social barriers of rationalist zoning. Experimental hybrid
construction techniques as well as detail explorations would take this hybridization to the micro
level of an architectural construction and the experience of detail and material (Holl, 1993).
Through observation, precedent studies and rigorous analysis, we can re-invent a new design
notion by collaborating our architectural knowledge into our own hybrid interpretation (Figure
5).

188


Figure 5: Basic triangle form used as to create complex pattern.

It is a challenge to design a smart school in a compact plot whilst trying to establish a dynamic
structure of spaces for learning. Such questions like how learning spaces can trigger student’s mind
is also part of this design research that must be carried throughout this design exercises.

The proposed intervention sits comfortably on a hillside adjacent to a water body
between the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Engineering (Figure 6). The proposal seems to
rejuvenate the existing landscape with an iconic gesture where the applications of embedded
figures on the building envelope create a sudden surge of ambiguity to the context. Viewers will
be curios of the nature of this building, which looks more like a museum than an educational
building. Shifting away from the conventional design of schools not only deals with injecting
hybrid ideas to interior spaces but also inducing a provocative statement to the exterior image.
By doing so, further nourishes the artistic intuition and the inquisitive minds of the students.

Figure 6: The two school's blocks on a hill side.

The overall composition of the building envelope was generated from Gottschaldt‘s
theory of embedded figures. The punctuated ‗holes‘ are basically window openings not only to
permit natural lighting but also to create different modes to the interior ambiance by the
transparent colored sticker (Figure 7).
189


Figure 7: Colored window glass create different mode.

A new typology of classroom where formal and informal spaces are combined into a single place
of the learning studio. These hybrid classrooms include a space for lounge and group workstation
comprising computers to support ICT learning. A Learning Studio can accommodate up to 20
students at a time. The emphasis to have visual connections between the inside and outside are
deliberately enhanced. Therefore, materials with transparency qualities such as glass are
extensively being utilized. From inside the classroom, students can visually be connected to the
embedded figure wall and this connection perhaps can make them more eager to satisfy the
curiosity of their inquisitive minds. As to add richness to the complexity of the wall, reflective
materials are specified to fill up the internal surfaces of the wall thus create an instant
Kaleidoscope-effect (Figure 8).


Figure 8: Visual experience through the learning corridor.

Gifted students like daydreaming and like to work independently. Therefore, this criterion has
driven us to rethink the pertinent of individual spaces for them. We not only provide a place for
them to gather in groups but also try to create a territory of personal spaces. They might need a
place where they can isolate their minds as to be calmer and more relax (Figure 9).
190


Figure 9: Ramp stair is part of learning corridor and personal space.

Learning common is a large open space for the purpose of group work. As highlighted by
Fisher (2006), this can be achieved by proper planning in the space organization of the center.
Thus, it is necessary to provide workspaces for them so that they can have dynamic workstations
while at the same time, flexible and adjustable accordingly to the required program (Donaldson,
2006). Therefore, we incorporate such spaces in the learning common so that creative and
collaborative works among students are maximized to solve-problems in project-based works
(Figure 10).

Figure 10: Learning common promotes more collaborative works.

3.0 Conclusion

Through several tests on the embedded figures by Gottschaldt, have established the potential for
people to store memory from visual experiences. However, the test was done 2-dimensionally
within a specific time frame. In this design research, translating the idea of the embedded figure
onto a building envelope will generate an impact on the users and well as on the perceivers.
Factors of scale, materials used, complexity of the patterns will definitely contribute to the ways
students experience and utilize this building. By zeroing into the fragments as complete entities
in themselves, students would be able to appreciate the hidden dimensions of the school and the
embedded artefacts. This design escapade is a platform to approach design in a different way.
Our task is to look for functioning particularities rather that determining rules.
191

References

Jamieson, P. (2008) Creating New Generation Learning Environments on the University
Campus. Beijing: WB Research Press
Fisher, K. (2006) the New Learning Environment: Hybrid Designs For Hybrid Learning.
Melbourne: WB Research Press
Donaldson, R. (2006) Public Paper #2 Education Futures. Melbourne: WB Research Press
Lobell, J. (2008) Between Silence and Light. Boston: Shambala Publications, Inc
Foucault, M. (1972) Power/Knowledge. Brighton: Harvester
Holl, S, ―Locus Soulles‖ in P. Noever (ed) (1993) The End of Architecture. Munich: Prestel-
Verlage
Behrens, R.R. (2000) Revisiting Gottschaldt: Embedded Figures in Art, Architecture and Design.
Retrieved July 2010, from http://www.bobolinkbooks.com/Gestalt/EmbeddedFigures.html
Silverman, L. What We Have Learned About Gifted Children. Retrieved July 2010, from
http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/we_have_learned.htm
Mitchell, A. (2009) Aussie School Tries to Liberate Teen Brains. Retrieved July 2010, from
http://www.thestar.com/atkinsonseries/atkinson2009/article/720658--aussie-school-tries-to-
liberate-teen-brains
















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AUTHOR INDEXS

A.A.A.Ghani. 108, 120 N.A.G. Abdullah. 47,82, 148, 156
A.H.Abdullah. 182 N.Ishak. 24
A.I.Che-Ani. 47, 82, 148 N.M.Salleh. 66, 89,
A.R.Fadhilah. 128, 134 N.M.Tawil. 82, 148
A.R.Musa. 99 N.Razali. 66, 89
A.R.M.Nasir. 148 N.Spalie. 47, 156
A.S.Ali. 71, 106 N.S.Spalie. 24
A.S.Hassan. 163 N.Utaberta. 47, 82, 156
A.Setiawan. 176


R.K.Khanna. 36
B.Faridah. 128, 134 R.Rahman. 29

R.Sulaiman. 57
H.B.Gang. 36


S.A.F.Al-Zawawi. 71, 106,
L.Chi-Hin. 57 S.Mirrahmi. 82
L.C.Hsia. 88, 106, S.N.Haron. 108, 120,
L.P.Wah. 71, S.N.Kamaruzzaman. 57, 89,
L.S.Pheng. 1, 36 S.S.Zubir. 182

M.M.Tahir. 47,148, 156 Y.Arab. 163
M.Surat. 99

M.Y.A.Broughton. 99

M.Y.Hamid. 108, 120

M.Y.Yuzainee. 128, 134















193


194

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