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FLOW IN CONDUITS
Main Topics
• Types of flow
Review of laminar and turbulent flow
Developing flow and fully developed flow
• Pipe head loss
• DarcyWeisbach equation
• Stress distribution in pipe flow
• Turbulent flow and the Moody diagram
• Combined head loss
• Noncircular conduits and hydraulic diameter
Fully Developed Pipe Flow
• Comparison of laminar and turbulent flow
There are some major differences between laminar and
turbulent fully developed pipe flows
Laminar
• Can solve exactly
• Flow is steady
• Velocity profile is parabolic
• Pipe roughness not significant
• Friction factor f=64/Re
• V
avg
= 1/2U
max
and u(r)= 2V
avg
(1  r
2
/R
2
)
Fully Developed Pipe Flow
Turbulent
• Cannot solve exactly (too complex)
• Flow is unsteady (3D swirling eddies), but is steady in the mean
• Mean velocity profile is fuller (shape more like a tophat profile, with
very sharp slope at the wall)
• Pipe roughness is very important
• V
avg
> 2/3 of U
max
(depends on Re a bit)
• No analytical solution, but there are some good semiempirical
expressions that approximate the velocity profile shape. See text.
Logarithmic law
Power law
Instantaneous
profiles
Fully Developed Pipe Flow: wallshear stress
• Recall: Newton’s law of viscosity u=u(y), t = µ du/dy
• In fully developed pipe flow, t = µdu/dr
Laminar
Turbulent
t
w
t
w
t
w,turb
> >t
w,lam
t
w
= shear stress at the wall,
acting on the fluid
Recall, in turbulent flow, effective
viscosity is not a fluid property.
Developing and fullydeveloped flow
6
Linking head loss in a pipe with shear stress
• There is a direct connection between the pressure drop in a pipe and
the shear stress at the wall
• Consider a horizontal pipe, fully developed, and incompressible flow
1
2
L
t
w
P
1
P
2
Take CV inside the pipe wall
• Total head loss in a system is comprised of major losses (in the pipe
sections) and the minor losses (in the components) [more later]
Linking head loss in a pipe with shear stress
8
STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN PIPE FLOW
Friction factor
•Steady, fully developed flow
• Valid for both laminar & turbulent flow
•Valid for round/nonround pipes+ ducts
DarcyWeisbach Equation
Linear stress distribution in pipe flow
10
Laminar Flow in a Round Tube: Velocity Profile
11
12
Laminar Flow in a Round Tube: Discharge
and Mean Velocity
Laminar Flow in a Round Tube: Head
Loss and Friction Factor
13
Functional relation via dimensional analysis
14
To predict head loss, we need to be able to calculate t
w
. How?
Laminar flow: solved exactly
Turbulent flow: rely on empirical data (experiments)
In either case, we can benefit from dimensional analysis!
t
w
= func(µ, V, µ, D, c) c = average roughness of the
inside wall of the pipe
Hanalysis gives
Nikuradse’s Experiments
• In general, friction factor
Function of Re and
roughness
• Laminar region
Independent of roughness
• Turbulent region
Smooth pipe curve
• All curves coincide @
~Re=2300
Rough pipe zone
• All rough pipe curves
flatten out and become
independent of Re
Re
64
= f
( )
Blausius
Re
4 / 1
k
f =
Rough
Smooth
Laminar Transition Turbulent
Blausius OK for smooth pipe
) (Re,
D
e
F f =
Re
64
= f
2
9 . 0
10
Re
74 . 5
7 . 3
log
25 . 0
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+
=
D
e
f
Moody Diagram
Fully Developed Pipe Flow
Friction Factor
• Moody chart was developed for circular pipes, but can
be used for noncircular pipes using hydraulic diameter
• Colebrook equation is a curvefit of the data which is
convenient for computations
• Both Moody chart and Colebrook equation are accurate
to ±15% due to roughness size, experimental error,
curve fitting of data, etc.
Implicit equation for f which can be solved using
the rootfinding algorithm in Excel, for example
Types of Fluid Flow Problems
In design and analysis of piping systems, 3
problem types are encountered
Type 1: Determine Ap (or h
L
) given L, D, V (or flow rate)
Can be solved directly using Moody chart and Colebrook
equation
Type 2: Determine V (or flow rate), given L, D, Ap (or
h
L
)
Type 3: Determine D, given L, Ap, Q (or flow rate)
Types 2 and 3 are common engineering design
problems, i.e., selection of pipe diameters to
minimize construction and pumping costs
However, iterative approach required since both
V and D are in the Reynolds number.
Types of Fluid Flow Problems
• Explicit relations have been developed which
eliminate iteration. They are useful for quick,
direct calculation, but introduce an additional 2%
error
Type 2:
Type 3:
Minor Losses
• Piping systems include fittings, valves, bends, elbows,
tees, inlets, exits, enlargements, and contractions.
• These components interrupt the smooth flow of fluid and
cause additional losses because of flow separation and
mixing
• We introduce a relation for the minor losses associated
with these components
• K
L
is the loss coefficient.
• Is different for each component.
• Is assumed to be independent of Re.
• Typically provided by manufacturer or
generic table (e.g., see Table in text).
Minor Losses
• Total head loss in a system is comprised of
major losses (in the pipe sections) and the minor
losses (in the components)
• If the piping system has constant diameter
i pipe
sections
j
components
Piping Networks and Pump
Selection
• Two general types of
networks
Pipes in series
• Volume flow rate is
constant (Q
A
=Q
B
)
• Head loss is the
summation of parts
Pipes in parallel
• Volume flow rate is the
sum of the components
• Pressure loss across all
branches is the same
Piping Networks and Pump
Selection
• For parallel pipes, perform CV analysis between
points A and B
Since Ap is the same for all branches, head loss
in all branches is the same
Piping Networks and Pump Selection
• Head loss relationship between branches allows the following ratios
to be developed
• Real pipe systems result in a system of nonlinear equations.
• Note: the analogy with electrical circuits is obvious
Flow flow rate (VA) : current (I)
Pressure gradient (Ap) : electrical potential (V)
Head loss (h
L
): resistance (R), however h
L
is very nonlinear
Piping Networks and Pump Selection
• When a piping system involves pumps and/or
turbines, pump and turbine head must be included in
the energy equation
• The useful head of the pump (h
pump,u
) or the head
extracted by the turbine (h
turbine,e
), are functions of
volume flow rate, i.e., they are not constants.
• Operating point of system is where the system is in
balance, e.g., where pump head is equal to the head
losses.
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