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1. Answer A. Endometritis is an infection of the uterine lining and can occur after prolonged rupture of membranes.

Endometriosis does not occur after a strong labor and prolonged rupture of membranes. Salpingitis is a tubal infection and could occur if endometritis is not treated. Pelvic thrombophlebitis involves a clot formation but it is not a complication of prolonged rupture of membranes. 2. Answer B. Before amniocentesis, a routine ultrasound is valuable in locating the placenta, locating a pool of amniotic fluid, and showing the physician where to insert the needle. olor !oppler imaging ultrasonography identifies blood flow through the umbilical cord. A routine ultrasound does not accomplish this. ". Answer B. Protamine sulfate is a heparin antagonist given intravenously to counteract bleeding complications cause by heparin overdose. #. Answer !. $hile caring for an infant receiving phototherapy for treatment of %aundice, vital signs are chec&ed every 2 to # hours because hyperthermia can occur due to the phototherapy lights. '. Answer !. A bilateral pudental bloc& is used for vaginal deliveries to relieve pain primarily in the perineum and vagina. Pudental bloc& anesthesia is ade(uate for episiotomy and its repair. ). Answer A. Eating dry crac&ers before arising can assist in decreasing the common discomfort of nausea and vomiting. Avoiding strong food odors and eating a high*protein snac& before bedtime can also help. +. Answer . Beginning after completion of the ta&ing*in phase, the ta&ing*hold phase lasts about 1, days. !uring this phase, the client is concerned with her need to resume control of all facets of her life in a competent manner. At this time, she is ready to learn self*care and infant care s&ills. -. Answer A. .reatment of partial placenta previa includes bed rest, hydration, and careful monitoring of the client/s bleeding. 0. Answer . Prevention of breast engorgement is &ey. .he best techni(ue is to empty the breast regularly with feeding. Engorgement is less li&ely when the mother and neonate are together, as in single room maternity care continuous rooming in, because nursing can be done conveniently to meet the neonate/s and mother/s needs. 1,. Answer A. .he 1oro, or startle, refle2 occurs when the neonate responds to stimuli by e2tending the arms, hands open, and then moving the arms in an embracing motion. .he 1oro refle2, present at birth, disappears at about age " months. 11. Answer A. .ailor sitting is an e2cellent e2ercise that helps to strengthen the client/s bac& muscles and also prepares the client for the process of labor. .he client should be encouraged to rest periodically during the day and avoid standing or sitting in one position for a long time. 12. Answer !. 3f bleeding occurs after circumcision, the nurse should first apply gently pressure on the area with sterile gau4e. Bleeding is not common but re(uires attention when it occurs.

1". Answer B. .he most common assessment finding in a client with abruption placenta is a rigid or boardli&e abdomen. Pain, usually reported as a sharp stabbing sensation high in the uterine fundus with the initial separation, also is common. 1#. Answer B. .he nurse should contact the physician immediately because the client is most li&ely e2periencing hypotonic uterine contractions. .hese contractions tend to be painful but ineffective. .he usual treatment is o2ytocin augmentation, unless cephalopelvic disproportion e2ists. 1'. Answer A. Providing stimulation and spea&ing to neonates is important. Some authorities believe that speech is the most important type of sensory stimulation for a neonate. 5eonates respond best to speech with tonal variations and a high*pitched voice. A neonate can hear all sound louder than about '' decibels. 1). Answer !. .he transitional phase of labor e2tends from - to 1, cm6 it is the shortest but most difficult and intense for the patient. .he latent phase e2tends from , to " cm6 it is mild in nature. .he active phase e2tends form # to + cm6 it is moderate for the patient. .he e2pulsive phase begins immediately after the birth and ends with separation and e2pulsion of the placenta. 1+. Answer B. astor oil can initiate premature uterine contractions in pregnant women. 3t also can produce other adverse effects, but it does not promote sodium retention. astor oils is not &nown to increase absorption of fat*soluble vitamins, although la2atives in general may decrease absorption if intestinal motility is increased. 1-. Answer B. 3f bleeding and cloth are e2cessive, this patient may become hypovolemic. Pad count should be instituted. Although the other diagnoses are applicable to this patient, they are not the primary diagnosis. 10. Answer A. 7etal attitude8the overall degree of body fle2ion or e2tension8determines the type of molding in the head a neonate. 1olding is not influence by maternal age, body frame, weight, parity, or gravidity or by maternal and paternal ethnic bac&grounds. 2,. Answer A. 3nternal E71 can be applied only after the patient/s membranes have ruptures, when the fetus is at least at the *1 station, and when the cervi2 is dilated at least 2 cm. although the patient may receive anesthesia, it is not re(uired before application of an internal E71 device. 21. Answer A.!uring most of the first stage of labor, pain centers around the pelvic girdle. !uring the late part of this stage and the early part of the second stage, pain spreads to the upper legs and perineum. !uring the late part of the second stage and during childbirth, intense pain occurs at the perineum. 9pper arm pain is not common during ant stage of labor. 22. Answer !. $omen ta&ing the minipill have a higher incidence of tubal and ectopic pregnancies, possibly because progestin slows ovum transport through the fallopian tubes. Endometriosis, female hypogonadism, and premenstrual syndrome are not associated with progestin*only oral contraceptives. 2". Answer . A patient with pregnancy*induced hypertension complains of headache, double vision, and sudden weight gain. A urine specimen reveals proteinuria. :aginal bleeding and uterine contractions are not associated with pregnancy*induces hypertension.

2#. Answer A. .he nurse should monitor fluid inta&e and output because prolonged o2yto2in infusion may cause severe water into2ication, leading to sei4ures, coma, and death. E2cessive thirst results form the wor& of labor and limited oral fluid inta&e8not o2yto2in. ;2yto2in has no nephroto2ic or diuretic effects. 3n fact, it produces an antidiuretic effect. 2'. Answer . ommon source of radiant heat loss includes cool incubator walls and windows. <ow room humidity promotes evaporative heat loss. $hen the s&in directly contacts a cooler ob%ect, such as a cold weight scale, conductive heat loss may occur. A cool room temperature may lead to convective heat loss. 2). Answer !. Bethanechol will increase =3 motility, which may cause nausea, belching, vomiting, intestinal cramps, and diarrhea. Peristalsis is increased rather than decreased. $ith high doses of bethanechol, cardiovascular responses may include vasodilation, decreased cardiac rate, and decreased force of cardiac contraction, which may cause hypotension. Salivation or sweating may gently increase. 2+. Answer !. .he transitional phase, which lasts 1 to " hours, is the shortest but most difficult part of the first stage of labor. .his phase is characteri4ed by intense uterine contractions that occur every 1 > to 2 minutes and last #' to 0, seconds. .he active phase lasts # > to ) hours6 it is characteri4ed by contractions that starts out moderately intense, grow stronger, and last about ), seconds. .he complete phase occurs during the second, not first, stage of labor. .he latent phase lasts ' to - hours and is mar&ed by mild, short, irregular contractions. 2-. Answer B. 1easures that help relieve nipple soreness in a breast*feeding patient include lubrication the nipples with a few drops of e2pressed mil& before feedings, applying ice compresses %ust before feeding, letting the nipples air dry after feedings, and avoiding the use of soap on the nipples. 20. Answer B. A pregnant woman usually can detect fetal movement ?(uic&ening@ between 1) and 2, wee&s/ gestation. Before 1) wee&s, the fetus is not developed enough for the woman to detect movement. After 2, wee&s, the fetus continues to gain weight steadily, the lungs start to produce surfactant, the brain is grossly formed, and myelination of the spinal cord begins. ",. Answer A. <ochia should never contain large clots, tissue fragments, or membranes. A foul odor may signal infection, as may absence of lochia.

1. Answer . $hen obtaining the history of a patient who may be in labor, the nurse/s highest priority is to determine her current status, particularly her due date, gravidity, and parity. =ravidity and parity affect the duration of labor and the potential for labor complications. <ater, the nurse should as& about chronic illness, allergies, and support persons. 2. Answer B. !uring the second stage of labor, the nurse should assess the strength, fre(uency, and duration of contraction every 1' minutes. 3f maternal or fetal problems are detected, more fre(uent monitoring is necessary. An interval of ", to ), minutes between assessments is too long because of variations in the length and duration of patient/s labor. ". Answer A. Blurred vision of other visual disturbance, e2cessive weight gain, edema, and increased blood pressure may signal severe preeclampsia. .his condition may lead to eclampsia, which has

potentially serious conse(uences for both the patient and fetus. Although hemorrhoids may be a problem during pregnancy, they do not re(uire immediate attention. 3ncreased vaginal mucus and dyspnea on e2ertion are e2pected as pregnancy progresses. #. Answer B. ystic fibrosis is a recessive trait6 each offspring has a one in four chance of having the trait or the disorder. 1aternal age is not a ris& factor until age "', when the incidence of chromosomal defects increases. 1aternal e2posure to rubella during the first trimester may cause congenital defects. Although a history or preterm labor may place the patient at ris& for preterm labor, it does not correlate with genetic defects. '. Answer . ;vulation ?the period when pregnancy can occur@ is accompanied by a basal body temperature increase of ,.+ degrees 7 to ,.- degrees 7 and clear, thin cervical mucus. A return to the preovulatory body temperature indicates a safe period for se2ual intercourse. A slight rise in basal temperature early in the cycle is not significant. Breast tenderness and mittelschmer4 are not reliable indicators of ovulation. ). Answer A. An 5S. assesses the 7AB during fetal movement. 3n a healthy fetus, the 7AB accelerates with each movement. By pushing the control button when a fetal movement starts, the client mar&s the strip to allow easy correlation of fetal movement with the 7AB. .he 7AB is assessed during uterine contractions in the o2ytocin contraction test, not the 5S.. Pushing the control button after every three fetal movements or at the end of fetal movement wouldn/t allow accurate comparison of fetal movement and 7AB changes. +. Answer B. Blurred or double vision may indicate hypertension or preeclampsia and should be reported immediately. 9rinary fre(uency is a common problem during pregnancy caused by increased weight pressure on the bladder from the uterus. lients generally e2perience fatigue and nausea during pregnancy. -. Answer B. Becent breast reduction surgeries are done in a way to protect the mil& sacs and ducts, so breast*feeding after surgery is possible. Still, it/s good to chec& with the surgeon to determine what breast reduction procedure was done. .here is the possibility that reduction surgery may have decreased the mother/s ability to meet all of her baby/s nutritional needs, and some supplemental feeding may be re(uired. Preparing the mother for this possibility is e2tremely important because the client/s psychological adaptation to mothering may be dependent on how successfully she breast*feeds. 0. Answer B. 9sing two or more peripads would do little to reduce the pain or promote perineal healing. old applications, sit4 baths, and Cegel e2ercises are important measures when the client has a fourth* degree laceration. 1,. Answer B. 3n a client with gestational trophoblastic disease, an ultrasound performed after the "rd month shows grapeli&e clusters of transparent vesicles rather than a fetus. .he vesicles contain a clear fluid and may involve all or part of the decidual lining of the uterus. 9sually no embryo ?and therefore no fetus@ is present because it has been absorbed. Because there is no fetus, there can be no e2trauterine pregnancy. An e2trauterine pregnancy is seen with an ectopic pregnancy. 11. Answer . 7etal station 8 the relationship of the fetal presenting part to the maternal ischial spines 8 is described in the number of centimeters above or below the spines. A presenting part above the ischial spines is designated as D1, D2, or D". A presenting part below the ischial spines, as E1, E2, or E".

12. Answer !. Assessing the attachment process for breast*feeding should include all of the answers e2cept the smac&ing of lips. A baby who/s smac&ing his lips isn/t well attached and can in%ure the mother/s nipples. 1". Answer !. 9ltrasound is used between 1- and #, wee&s/ gestation to identify normal fetal growth and detect fetal anomalies and other problems. Amniocentesis is done during the third trimester to determine fetal lung maturity. horionic villi sampling is performed at - to 12 wee&s/ gestation to detect genetic disease. 7etoscopy is done at appro2imately 1- wee&s/ gestation to observe the fetus directly and obtain a s&in or blood sample. 1#. Answer . .he BPP evaluates fetal health by assessing five variablesF fetal breathing movements, gross body movements, fetal tone, reactive fetal heart rate, and (ualitative amniotic fluid volume. A normal response for each variable receives 2 points6 an abnormal response receives , points. A score between - and 1, is considered normal, indicating that the fetus has a low ris& of o2ygen deprivation and isn/t in distress. A fetus with a score of ) or lower is at ris& for asphy2ia and premature birth6 this score warrants detailed investigation. .he BPP may or may not be repeated if the score isn/t within normal limits. 1'. Answer . !uring the third trimester, the pregnant client typically perceives the fetus as a separate being. .o verify that this has occurred, the nurse should as& whether she has made appropriate changes at home such as obtaining infant supplies and e(uipment. .he type of anesthesia planned doesn/t reflect the client/s preparation for parenting. .he client should have begun prenatal classes earlier in the pregnancy. .he nurse should have obtained dietary information during the first trimester to give the client time to ma&e any necessary changes. 1). Answer B. .his (uestion re(uires an understanding of station as part of the intrapartal assessment process. Based on the client/s assessment findings, this client is ready for delivery, which is the nurse/s top priority. Placing the client in bed, chec&ing for ruptured membranes, and providing comfort measures could be done, but the priority here is immediate delivery. 1+. Answer A. :ariable decelerations in fetal heart rate are an ominous sign, indicating compression of the umbilical cord. hanging the client/s position from supine to side*lying may immediately correct the problem. An emergency cesarean section is necessary only if other measures, such as changing position and amnioinfusion with sterile saline, prove unsuccessful. Administering o2ygen may be helpful, but the priority is to change the woman/s position and relieve cord compression. 1-. Answer A. Aemorrhage %eopardi4es the client/s o2ygen supply 8 the first priority among human physiologic needs. .herefore, the nursing diagnosis of Bis& for deficient fluid volume related to hemorrhage ta&es priority over diagnoses of Bis& for infection, Pain, and 9rinary retention. 10. Answer A. <actation is an e2ample of a progressive physiological change that occurs during the postpartum period. 2,. Answer B. .he ma%or maternal adverse reactions from cocaine use in pregnancy include spontaneous abortion first, not third, trimester abortion and abruption placentae.

21. Answer !. 7or most clients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, nonstress testing is done wee&ly until "2 wee&s/ gestation and twice a wee& to assess fetal well*being. 22. Answer A. .he chemical ma&eup of magnesium is similar to that of calcium and, therefore, magnesium will act li&e calcium in the body. As a result, magnesium will bloc& sei4ure activity in a hyper stimulated neurologic system by interfering with signal transmission at the neuromascular %unction. 2". Answer B. .he blastocyst ta&es appro2imately 1 wee& to travel to the uterus for implantation. 2#. Answer A. An episiotomy serves several purposes. 3t shortens the second stage of labor, substitutes a clean surgical incision for a tear, and decreases undue stretching of perineal muscles. An episiotomy helps prevent tearing of the rectum but it does not necessarily relieves pressure on the rectum. .earing may still occur. 2'. Answer !. .he fetus of a cocaine*addicted mother is at ris& for hypo2ia, meconium aspiration, and intrauterine growth retardation ?39=B@. .herefore, the nurse must notify the physician of the client/s cocaine use because this &nowledge will influence the care of the client and neonate. .he information is used only in relation to the client/s care. 2). Answer B. After administration of rubella vaccine, the client should be instructed to avoid pregnancy for at least " months to prevent the possibility of the vaccine/s to2ic effects to the fetus. 2+. Answer !. .he priority for the pregnant client having a sei4ure is to maintain a patent airway to ensure ade(uate o2ygenation to the mother and the fetus. Additionally, o2ygen may be administered by face mas& to prevent fetal hypo2ia. 2-. Answer A. 3n some birth settings, intravenous therapy is not used with low*ris& clients. .hus, clients in early labor are encouraged to eat healthy snac&s and drin& fluid to avoid dehydration. Gogurt, which is an e2cellent source of calcium and riboflavin, is soft and easily digested. !uring pregnancy, gastric emptying time is delayed. 3n most hospital settings, clients are allowed only ice chips or clear li(uids. 20. Answer A. $hen the client says the baby is coming, the nurse should first inspect the perineum and observe for crowning to validate the client/s statement. 3f the client is not delivering precipitously, the nurse can calm her and use appropriate breathing techni(ues. ",. Answer A. 9sing both hands to assess the fundus is useful for the prevention of uterine inversion.

Answers and Explanation 1. C: The greatest risk to the newborn infant occurs with a vaginal delivery during a primary genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. nfection most commonly occurs by direct transmission! rather than across the placenta. The risk of transmission during vaginal delivery with an active primary infection is approximately "#$. %eonates with symptomatic HSV infection are often critically ill and may suffer chronic complications as a result of the neonatal infection. &isk of transmission to the infant with vaginal delivery during an active secondary HSV infection drops significantly to less than "$. 'esarean section is recommended for women with signs of an active primary or secondary genital HSV outbreak around the time of delivery. Transmission is low in

patients with a history of genital HSV infection who have no signs or symptoms of an active outbreak around the time of delivery. 2. B: (etal heart rate variability reflects the interplay between cardiac responsiveness and the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. )aseline fetal heart variability refers to the degree of fluctuation in the fetal heart rate around the baseline. *n amplitude of +,-" beats.min in fetal heart rate variability (moderate variability) is considered normal. /ecreased fetal heart rate variability is the best predictor of fetal compromise. 'auses of decreased fetal heart rate variability include hypoxia! acidosis! gestational age under 0- weeks! fetal anomalies! central nervous system depressant medications! fetal tachycardia! and preexisting fetal neurologic abnormalities. 1arked fetal heart rate variability of more than -" beats.min amplitude (saltatory variability) is usually caused by early hypoxia! as occurs with umbilical cord compression! and is considered a nonreassuring pattern. 3. A: 2recipitous labor is defined as labor that leads to delivery of the infant in less than 0 hours. * ma3or predictive factor for precipitous labor is a history of previous precipitous labor. 2recipitous labor may be anticipated if there is rapid cervical dilation! rapid fetal descent! or intense! fre4uent uterine contractions. 1aternal risks with precipitous labor include cervical! vaginal! and perineal in3ury5 postpartum hemorrhage as a result of both lacerations and uterine atony5 and unaccompanied precipitous delivery. (etal risks include hypoxia secondary to uterine hypertonicity and brachial plexus in3ury as a result of rapid descent and delivery. 2recipitous labor in the group ) Streptococcus,positive patient may not allow ade4uate time for administration of prophylactic antibiotics. 4. C: 6hen an &h,negative patient is pregnant with an &h,positive fetus! any maternal exposure to fetal &h,positive blood (e.g.! spontaneous or therapeutic abortion! antepartum hemorrhage! delivery) can lead to sensiti7ation or production of &h antibodies in the maternal circulation. 6hen maternal exposure (and sensiti7ation) to fetal blood occurs at the time of delivery! the first &h,positive infant is not affected. Subse4uent &h,positive fetuses in the sensiti7ed &h,negative mother are affected (often severely) by the hemolysis that occurs when maternal &h antibodies cross the placenta and destroy fetal red blood cells. &h,negative fetuses are not affected as their blood cells do not have &h antigen. &h,negative pregnant patients (who have not been sensiti7ed) are given &hogam (&h immune globulin) to prevent sensiti7ation when there is a reasonable likelihood of maternal exposure to &h,positive fetal blood. 5. B: /ecreased fetal movement has been associated with fetal distress and death. There is no established standard for a normal number of fetal movements in a given time period. *s a general rule! four fetal movements in 8 hour or ten fetal movements in - hours is considered reassuring. 2atterns of fetal movement are dependent on multiple factors! including time of day! location of the placenta! maternal medications! and the fetal sleep cycle. 9ow,risk patients reporting decreased fetal movement of less than -,0 hours duration can be instructed to count fetal movements and inform the health care provider if there are less than ten movements in - hours (after 0-,0: weeks; gestation). t has not been definitively demonstrated th

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. <vaporation of moisture from a wet body dissipates heat along with the moisture. =eeping the newborn dry by drying the wet newborn infant will prevent hypothermia via evaporation. -. 8. The penis is normally red during the healing process. * yellow exudate may be noted in -: hours! and this is a part of normal healing. The nurse would expect that the area would be red with a small amount of bloody drainage. f the bleeding is excessive! the nurse would apply gentle pressure with sterile gau7e. f bleeding is not controlled! then the blood vessel may need to be ligated! and the nurse would contact the physician. )ecause the findings identified in the 4uestion are normal! the nurse would document the assessment. 0. -. The infant with respiratory distress syndrome may present with signs of cyanosis! tachypnea or apnea! nasal flaring! chest wall retractions! or audible grunts. :. 0. To measure the head circumference! the nurse should place the tape measure under the infant>s head! wrap the tape around the occiput! and measure 3ust above the eyebrows so that the largest area of the occiput is included. (The : option was pretty damn funny though.) ". :. )reast feeding should be initiated within - hours after birth and every -,: hours thereafter. The other options are not necessary. +. 0. The aim of therapy in &/S is to support the disease until the disease runs its course with the subse4uent development of surfactant. The infant may benefit from surfactant replacement therapy. n surfactant replacement! an exogenous surfactant preparation is instilled into the lungs through an endotracheal tube. ?. :. * newborn infant born to a woman using drugs is irritable. The infant is overloaded easily by sensory stimulation. The infant may cry incessantly and posture rather than cuddle when being held. @. 0. Vitamin = is necessary for the body to synthesi7e coagulation factors. Vitamin = is administered to the newborn infant to prevent abnormal bleeding. %ewborn infants are vitamin = deficient because the bowel does not have the bacteria necessary for synthesi7ing fat,soluble vitamin =. The infant>s bowel does not have support the production of vitamin = until bacteria ade4uately coloni7es it by food ingestion. A. 8. The highest priority on admission to the nursery for a newborn with low *pgar scores is airway! which would involve preparing respiratory resuscitation e4uipment. The other options are also important! although they are of lower priority. 8#. 0.
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-. <ye prophylaxis protects the neonate against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The eyes are not flushed after instillation of the medication because the flush will wash away the administered medication. 8-. 8. The nurse should position the baby with head lower than chest and rub the infant>s back to stimulate crying to promote oxygenation. There is no haste in cutting the cord. 80. 8. The heart rate is vital for life and is the most critical observation in *pgar scoring. &espiratory effect rather than rate is included in the *pgar score5 the rate is very erratic. 8:. :. This se4uence is least disturbing. Touching with the stethoscope and inserting the thermometer increase anxiety and elevate vital signs. 8". 0. The heart rate varies with activity5 crying will increase the rate! whereas deep sleep will lower it5 a rate between 8-# and 8+# is expected. 8+. -. The respiratory rate is associated with activity and can be as rapid as +# breaths per minute5 over +# breaths per minute are considered tachypneic in the infant. 8?. -. %ormally the newborn>s breathing is abdominal and irregular in depth and rhythm5 the rate ranges from 0#,+# breaths per minute. 8@. 8. )ilirubin is excreted via the B tract5 if meconium is retained! the bilirubin is reabsorbed. 8A. 8. 1ilia occur commonly! are not indicative of any illness! and eventually disappear. -#. 8. )y now the newborn will have ingested an ample amount of the amino acid phenylalanine! which! if not metaboli7ed because of a lack of the liver en7yme! can deposit in3urious metabolites into the blood stream and brain5 early detection can determine if the liver en7yme is absent. -8. -. Teaching the mother by example is a non,threatening approach that allows her to proceed at her own pace. --. :. Surfactant works by reducing surface tension in the lung. Surfactant allows the lung to remain slightly expanded! decreasing the amount of work re4uired for inspiration. -0. -. *crocyanosis! or bluish discoloration of the hands and feet in the neonate (also called peripheral cyanosis)! is a normal finding and shouldn>t last more than -: hours after birth. -:. -. %eonates of mothers with diabetes are at risk for hypoglycemia due to increased insulin levels. /uring gestation! an increased amount of glucose is

transferred to the fetus across the placenta. The neonate>s liver cannot initially ad3ust to the changing glucose levels after birth. This may result in an overabundance of insulin in the neonate! resulting in hypoglycemia. -". :. The neonate with *)C blood incompatibility with its mother will have 3aundice (pathologic) within the first -: hours of life. The neonate would have a positive 'oombs test result. -+. 0. 2ostdate fetuses lose the vernix caseosa! and the epidermis may become des4uamated. These neonates are usually very alert. 9anugo is missing in the postdate neonate. -?. 0. 1agnesium sulfate crosses the placenta and adverse neonatal effects are respiratory depression! hypotonia! and )radycardia. -@. :. %eonates of mothers with diabetes are at increased risk for macrosomia (excessive fetal growth) as a result of the combination of the increased supply of maternal glucose and an increase in fetal insulin. -A. -. 'onvection heat loss is the flow of heat from the body surface to the cooler air. 0#. :. 'aput succedaneum is the swelling of tissue over the presenting part of the fetal scalp due to sustained pressure5 it resolves in 0,: days. 08. :. transmission of Broup ) beta,hemolytic streptococci to the fetus results in respiratory distress that can rapidly lead to septic shock. 0-. 0. 6hen caring for a neonate experiencing drug withdrawal! the nurse needs to be alert for distress signals from the neonate. Stimuli should be introduced one at a time when the neonate is in a 4uiet and alert state. Ba7e aversion! yawning! snee7ing! hiccups! and body arching are distress signals that the neonate cannot handle stimuli at that time. 00. 0. =eeping the cord dry and open to air helps reduce infection and hastens drying. 0:. :. 0". 0. 9ecithin and sphingomyelin are phospholipids that help compose surfactant in the lungs5 lecithin peaks at 0+ weeks and sphingomyelin concentrations remain stable. 0+. :. 'overing the neonates head with a cap helps prevent cold stress due to excessive evaporative heat loss from the neonate>s wet head. Vitamin = can be given up to : hours after birth. 0?. 8. Hypothermic neonates become bradycardic proportional to the degree of core temperature. Hypoglycemia is seen in hypothermic neonates. 0@. :. %eonatal skin thickens with maturity and is often peeling by post term.

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:. *ssessment findings indicate that the neonate is in respiratory distressDmost likely from transient tachypnea! which is common after cesarean delivery. * neonate with a rate of @# breaths a minute shouldn>t be fed but should receive V fluids until the respiratory rate returns to normal. To allow for close observation for worsening respiratory distress! the neonate should be kept unclothed in the radiant warmer. :#. 0. *ltered sleep patterns are caused by disturbances in the '%S from alcohol exposure in utero. Hyperactivity is a characteristic generally noted. 9ow birth weight is a physical defect seen in neonates with (*S. %eonates with (*S generally have a low threshold for stimulation.