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Determining Spline Canabili - gnment '.

_apa_ 1 mes M tsa Ii

e e

Richard 'T. IFriedman

Intred uct ion
Introducing been common component backlash practice into. pline couplings in order to provide has for

eccentric with

and angular


The method presented

here is believed to be exact

for splines


numbers of teeth


for those with odd numbers

of teeth.

This method i based on the reduction

of the max-

imum effective tooth thickne

Fig . -

to achieve the necsuch




as tooth

Inner and outer tooth pro'liles.


are also effective. Tooth Thickness and Its Re'larionship

to Misalignment

what feature of



to understand

the spline provides

Tbe approach direction

the rnisalignrnentcapability, here focuses on the sp!ine ro the the fol-


tooth and space width that is perpendicular

of misalignment.




lowing set of figures, this et of teeth is the geom-

etry that controls the mi alignment. F:ig. I shows the inner and outer tooth profiles of
Fig. 2 - Tooth profiles where effective tooth thickness measured bas been reduced bJ" at Ute pilCh diameter

a 16-loolh. 24/48-pitch, root, side-fit



angle, fillet condi-

spline at maximum


tions. In this slate. no allowance spline (inner

Direction of Misalignment

for misatignment

exists. The effective eooth thickness of the external tacturing

profile), can be reduced during to provide clearance (see Fig. 2).

In Fig. 2. the e lema! spline has been reduced. In shaping or hobbing, this is accomplished by
Tooth Contact Point

the feed of a standard


In this

Fig, 3 - TIL spline center pendicular 10 Ih

has moved ..0065", and contaet

occurs on the tooth per-

illustration. the effective tooth taickness mellftrecl has been reduced by .015". 111e resulting clearance allow the pline centerlines to be offset to provide for component mi alignment 111i appears in Fig. 3. where an enlarged. section has been howa for clarity, ote jhar the
at the pitch diameter amount the spline center moved is .(1065" [(Tooth Thickness Rcc.iuclionl2) '. cos30ol. Whell the spline loath ill Fig. 3 is rotated 30 about. the shaft centerline, tile normal 10 the involute profile at the pitch diameter is ill the misalignment direction. AI Ihat point, the profile of the internal and external splines are colineaz This is the limiting geometry, and it is cornpen ated for by the above trigonometric relationship

Upper Border Created by Internal Spline Space Width

Lower Border Created by Internal Spline Space Width

the horizontal tooth position. the allowable misalignment


Fig. " -

Cross section of onelooth

'on the external

spl in e and one



internal splln "

(angular and eccentric),

it is necess ary





- (5 - 2 ClOSfJ HK sinfJ + 2 cosP

lanA HK' cos8-

2 cosP GZ' tanA - 2,

ll=----------------~--~--~--~--~~~------------------- ts + 2 cos/3' GZ 'lartA + 2' cosf3. GH + 2 cos/3 /iK si1l8- 2 cos/3' -in" '. L~ - 2 cos/3' tanA 11K c058+ 2 cos/3 1.rUlAcesa- L\J



12=------------------------------------~--~--~--~~~---------------------------------(- cos{3. cos8- cosfJ tanA' ~in9)

Fig. S -

Equations to rind the tooth thickness spline

required h~, lip I, and lip' 2 crheria,

one 'tooth on the external width on the internal ularto the direction cro s section of (hi

and one space Viewing a

pline, The set is perpeedicof misalignment.

from the side in Fig. 4, one

pline as well as at

can see the tooth of the external.

the borders of the internal spline space width. The values for the space width and tooth thickness the pitch diameter In the example sider the external shaft and theiruernal are used in the calculations.

shown in Fig. 6, we shall conspline on the end of a pump spline on the end of a molar

shaft. Tile pump piVOLSarnund polru H. while 'the motor pivots around point Z. Point Z i off et vertically by distance #G and horizontally describes by disFig. 6,Diagram for

,cliret'l coupling. to find the must 'the

tance GZ. Distance


the pline length pline length.

The. e equations loath thickness teria. The smaller By making following thickness a

can be rearranged

beyond pivot point H. and Ls is the The length of the motor's ficient spline. to ensure Tile pump angular angular engagement

required bythe

lip I and tip 2 cri-

spline teeth must be sufwith the pump's is angle is angle misalignment misalignment

value for tooththickness substitutions,

be chosen (see Fig. 5).

the appropriate

(J'. and the motor's


are derived for tile tooth

(3. The

intercepts bl , b2 and b3 for contact at Tip but di lances bl-b2 not equal 10 one another.

al tip .1and lip 2.

I and Tip 2 are calculated. and h2-b3 axe probably

The formulas using t 1 the required tooth thiclmess to meet the geometric constraints that evolve [mill
'lip I

= 2 cosfJ GI-I b = 2 cosfJ flK sin6 (' = 2 co fJ lanA' HK', coB =



space width

are as follows:

d 2 cosf3 GZ 'lanA. e == .cosfJ cos 6' - casp .' LanA. sin


180 -



2 co. fJ in8 Ls

. IX' ;;;;, HK. casu Ll II, np - tip .. .1Y bl

g ; 2. cosfJ -

lanA cose' Ls
c -

= = -

(s -


d - 01

= HK sinf +.!!. 2 cos8

IY - tanA . tip IX



+ d + a + h - (- c + g)

= tip

b2 = - GZ tanA - GH s = 2 (b2 - b 1)0 co .f3

The 'required additional formulas using

t2 as the

tooth thickne

to meet the geometric

e 'TIle fixed angular displacement of the geometry force con ideration of both t 1 and 12 as independent elutions. The spline toorh thicknesi thai will fit within space width s i the smaller of these
two values. A second set of equations of must be derived in the arne manner for contact at rip 3 and lip 4. All permutations

construirus thai evolve from lip 2 contact wiLh a . pace width s are
Y= 180 -,B lip

fJ and

8 must be tried


= (HK = (HK

- L:I)

cos 9


sine cos6

10 evaluate

the smallc 'I tooth thickness. be multiplied

The final result should cosine of the pre

by the

lip 2Y

- Ls) . in8 -


urc angle as shown in Fig. 3 to

Richard T. fri,edman
IS a

obtain the required tooth Ihickness.Q

b2 = - GZ [anA - GH h3:::: tip 2Y -lanA tip 2X s = 2 (b2 - b3) co.fJ


principal em:irlfN .dlll Nichols )lin'raft

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RIDE CE M 8 E'R 1995