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*' And he prayed unto the Lord, and said, I beseech thee, O Lord, was not this my saying when I was yet in my country? Therefore I hasted to flee unto Tarshish : for I knew that thou art a gracious God and full of compassion, slow to anger and plenteous in mercy, and repentest thee of the evil." — Jonah iv. 2. In this Verse we have, though I am not aware that it has ever been pointed out, the key to the whole book of Jonah ; the secret, the motive, both of his character and of his mission. God had sent the Prophet to Nineveh, to threaten the inhabitants of that wicked city with the doom due to their sins, to warn them that sentence had gone forth against them, and that it was to be executed forthwith. " God does not always pay on Saturdays," says an old proverb ; but sooner or later He pays every man, and every race, the wages they have earned. When the Ninevites were convinced that pay-day had really come at last, that they were about to receive the wages of their iniquity, they repented and turned every one from his evil way. And when they repented of the evil they had done, " God repented of the evil He had said
76 THE SECRET OF JONAH. He would do unto them ;" when they turned from the violence that was in their hands, God turned from his fierce anger against them (Chap, iii., Vers. 9, 10). That is to say, when they were no longer sinners, they were no longer to be treated as sinners. Space for repentance, and for bringing forth fruit meet for repentance,
was accorded them by Him who deals with men according to what they are, as well as according to what they were ; by Him who " sees the future in the instant," and therefore deals with men according to what they will be, as well as according to what they are. Pay-day was postponed that, if they would, they might earn a very different wage to that which they had provoked. For God, if an exact, is also a most generous paymaster, and is ever on the watch to pay men the best wages they can earn : nay, He is a Father as well as a Paymaster, and cannot deal with his children as if they were only labourers serving Him for hire. His grace, as well as their works, must enter into the final account ; and every man's reward will correspond to the Father's love even more closely than to the children's desert. But when, and because, God was no longer angry, Jonah became very angry. That God should " turn away from the evil " He had threatened against Nineveh was itself an evil, and a great evil, to him,^ — so unlike may men of God be to the God whom they serve. Jonah was angry ; and in his anger " he prayed unto the Lord : '* ' The literal rendering of the first clause of Chapter iv. (A. V., *' But it displeased Jonah exceedingly," &c.) is, " But it was evil to Jonah, a great evil."
THE SECRET OF JONAH. yy and in his prayer he let out the secret of his anger, and indeed of the whole story. Now an angry man may certainly do worse than pray. But if his prayer shew that he is angry with God, and angry with Him because God's mercy is wider than his own, because The love of God is broader
Than the measures of man's mind, And the heart of the Eternal Is most wonderfully kind, — can he do much worse than pray such a prayer as that ? Alas, those religious men who would fain cut God down into their own image, and who are angry if they suspect that his thoughts are as high above theirs as the heavens are above the earth, and that the ways of his compassion stretch as far beyond their ways as the East from the West, are the worst foes of religion, and betray a most irreligious spirit. Better be " a pagan suckled in a creed outworn " than a Christian who has not learned that " there's a wideness in God's mercy like the wideness of the sea." Jonah was angry with God not only because God's tnercy was shewn to be wider than his own ; but also and mainly — and here his miserable secret comes out — because he had always known that it would be ! "I beseech thee, O Lord, was not this my saying when I was yet in viy country ? Therefore I fled before unto Tarshish : for / knew that thou art a gracious God and merciful, slow to anger and of great kindness, and repentest thee of the evil." On his own confession, there-
78 THE SECRET OF JONAH. fore, Jonah's reluctance to undertake the mission to which he was called did not spring, as some have supposed, from fear of what the fierce and cruel Assyrians might do to him. Nor did it spring, as others have supposed, from the jealous pride of a Jew unwilling to believe that God cared for any but the elect people. It sprang, rather, from his fear of God's mercy, his knowledge of God's humanity. What he was really afraid of
was that God would be too kind to keep his word. Jonah's character and reputation were at stake, or so he thought. He knew God well enough to anticipate that He would both quicken repentance in the heart of the Ninevites, and forgive their sins so soon as they repented of them. And if they were forgiven, instead of destroyed, why, then, he, Jonah, would be made to look like a fool, — a prophet who could not read the omens, nor forecast the future, nor interpret the Voice which spake within his heart. An unverified prediction — especially on an occasion so public and momentous — would damage his reputation as a seer, and might be fatal to it. And hence he both strove to evade the task on which he was sent ; and when God proved to be as good and gracious as he feared, he grew very angry, so angry as to feel that it would be better for him to die than to live, and to beseech God to take away his life. There is no need, however, to insist that Jonah had no other motive than this. Human nature is so complex that men rarely act from a single motive. And it may be, as Calvin says, that his jealousy for his own reputation as a prophet was blended with jealousy for the
THE SECRET OF JONAH. 7^ honour of God, whose honour would seem to be compromised if the word which Jonah had spoken were not fulfilled. It may be — as the last and one of the best commentators on this Book maintains ^ — that it was still further complicated by Jonah's displeasure at the extension of the mercy of God to the Gentiles. But I do not see how we are to escape the conclusion that, whatever other motives we admit, his main sin was a want of pity for his fellows, an egotism so profound as to move him, a sinful man, to reproach God for his grace to man. His attempt to evade the mission on which he was sent, and the reason he assigns for that evasion, his anger against
God for not destroying the Ninevites and for destroying the gourd which sheltered /mn from the heat, all point in one direction and seem to render that conclusion inevitable. Even if that conclusion should be dubious to us, we cannot doubt — for has not he himself told us so ? — that. Jonah was angry with God for the very reason which should most of all have induced him to love Him — because he knew God to be gracious and merciful, slow to anger and of great kindness. But that phrase — " Has not he himself told us so ? " — suggests the only satisfactory reply to a question which cannot but rise in our minds as we read this Scripture, and observe that while the God to whom he prays is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and plenteous in mercy, he who utters the prayer is ungracious and uncompassionate, quick to anger and without. * Archdeacon Perowne in T/te Cambridge Bible for Schools,
So THE SECRET OF JONAH. mercy. For we cannot but ask, How should such a man as this be a man of God at all ? What claim has one so selfish, of a mind so narrow and a heart so cold, to be ranked in the goodly fellowship of the prophets ? And the answer is, " Who told us all we know about him ? who could have told us of all those inward motions -of his soul but he himself? " And if he records his sins for our instruction, must it not be because he has repented of his sins ? If he tells us how God taught him what he needed to know in order that he might become .a true prophet and man of God, may we not be sure that he had learned his lesson, and would fain have us learn it too ? He may have needed to be taught that God cares for the heathen as much as the Jew, and only
^elects the Jew for the sake of the heathen ; just as many now need to learn that God chooses a church out of the world in order that the world may be saved. He may have needed to be taught to rejoice that " there's a wideness in God's mercy like the wideness of the sea " ; just as many still need to learn that God threatens in order that He may not strike, and rebukes in order that He may redeem. Or he may have needed to learn, as many .a dealer in damnation has yet to learn, that the prophet's mission is then most truly fulfilled when his word is a savour of life unto life, and not of death unto death. Probably he needed to learn all these lessons before he ¦could be fully equipped for the prophetic vocation. But, surely, we may hope that he had learned them when he wrote this confession of his errors and transgressions, and told us, for our instruction, by what a poignant dis-
THE SECRET OF JONAH. 8 r cipline he was delivered from them, and brought to serve God with all his heart and to love his neighbour as himself. This Scripture, I have said, was written for our teaching. Have we, then, mastered its main lesson ? Do we believe that God loves all men without distinction of race or creed, and willeth not that any should perish,, but that all should turn to Him ? Do we fully and gladly believe, without any touch of doubt, much less any taint of anger or regret, that his mercy is more than all our sins, more even than the sins of the whole world,, capable of blotting them all out, of taking them all away ? It may be questioned. We have been taught,, indeed, as Jonah was never taught, that God is love. And if anything could persuade us of that supreme fact it would be the revelation of that love in the life, sacrifice, and teaching of Jesus Christ his Son. We profess to believe that revelation. In some sense, I suppose, we
do believe it ; for if we were asked to define God, we should instinctively fall back on St. John's definition,, and reply, " God is love." And yet, do we believe it as we should, whether for ourselves or for the world at large ? You even who have so learned Christ as that you cherish the most generous hopes for the world around you, do you honestly and habitually believe that God has forgiven your sins, and saved you unto life eternal ? Do you never doubt it ? Do you ever do more than '* faintly trust " that it may be true ? Do you never set those sentences in the Gospel which reveal his anger 7
82 THE SECRET OF JONAH, against all iniquity over against those which reveal the mercy that " frees all faults " and forgives all transgressions, and strike a balance between them which yields at least as much warrant for your fears as for your hopes ? Do you never treat the love of God as though it were simply one of his attributes, instead of the very substance of his being, and play off his other attributes against it ? Do you never argue, " God is love, but then He is just ; and if his love move Him to forgive, his justice compels Him to condemn me," instead of arguing, " God is love, and therefore his justice must be consistent with his love, or therefore his love must be a true and just love " ? Do you never argue, " God is omniscient and sees all my sins, sees sins even where I fail to detect them" ; instead of arguing, "God /i- love, and therefore his love must be an omniscient love, able to foresee all my errors, to pardon all my faults, to guard and save me in all my ways " ? Do you never argue, " If God is my Father, He is also the almighty Ruler and Judge of the universe ; and though as a Father He might forgive
my trespasses, as a Ruler He must punish me for them ;" instead of arguing, " God is love, and because He is the almighty Ruler of the universe, his love must be universal and almighty, able to cope with all my sins, and to convert the very punishments of sin into a discipline of holiness " ? Do you believe that the mercy of God is wide as the world ? Do you cherish the hope that He will prove Himself to be gracious and full of compassion, slow to anger and plenteous in mercy to all men, to heathen as
THE SECRET OF JONAH. Z^
well as to Hebrew, to Christian and to those who never heard the name of Christ ? Then you have no more right to despair of and condemn yourselves than you have to condemn or despair of the world. You are part of the world. The world is made up of such as you. There are many in it who do not crave forgiveness and strive for amendment as you do. How, then, can the mercy which is for all, and upon all, be withheld from you ? or why should it fail to deliver you out of the hand of your iniquities and to cleanse you from all unrighteousness ? But there are others who, if they never doubt God's mercy for themselves, utterly disbelieve that that Mercy, in any efficient sense, embraces the whole world. There are even those among us who grow angry with as many as pity the Ninevites and sinners of the world, if at least they believe and teach that God pities them more, and more effectually, than they do, and will repent Him of the evil He has said that He would do. Like Jonah, they may be jealous .for the honour of God, but they are also jealous for their own standing as saints or their own
reputation as prophets and teachers. Nay, they are angry without even Jonah's excuse for anger ; for they cannot say that they always knew God to be better than they would have Him be. They have never thought nobly of God, but have rather conceived of Him as altogether such an one as themselves. No hope, however "large," should be unwelcome to a merciful man who believes in a God infinitely more merciful than himself. Even though he be unable to entertain it, it
84 THE SECRET OF JONAH, should not make him angry. And yet how many speak as if they would suffer myriads of their fellows to perish rather than have their sense of security impaired, or be compelled to reconsider their conception of the Father of all mercies, the God of all grace ! They are better than they know, even as God is better than they believe. Nothing would shock them more than to see their predictions fulfilled. It is because they do not see, that they believe as they do. It did not take the destruction of Nineveh to convince Jonah how foolish and wicked he had been. The destruction of a single gourd, a few hours' exposure to the burning heat of the sun, sufficed to teach him his lesson. And some faint touch of the misery to which we so easily condemn our fellows may be the means by which we shall be rebuked for our lack of thought and pity for them, and be taught to rejoice that the grace and mercy of God are so much wider than our own. For, my brethren, we should miss the very moral of this story were we to conclude that we are merciful, simply because we trust in a larger Mercy than some of our neighbours. There is a taint of Jonah's selfish jealousy in us all, of his indifference to the fate of others so that our comfort, our salvation, our security be
assured. The better we are, and the better we know ourselves, the more eager shall we be to modify Jonah's prayer, and to cry, " I beseech Thee, O Lord, 7?mke me to know that Thou art a gracious God and full of compassion, slow to anger and plenteous in mercy, and repentest Thee of the evil." None of 0217" neighbours
THE SECRET OF JONAH.
can be more sinful than were the Ninevites. Against none of them can the doom of destruction have been more absolutely pronounced. And if God should answer our prayer, we may be able both to believe, and to rejoice in the belief, that when they see destruction coming upon them, or when the Voice of God for the first time really reaches them, or when some prophet is sent them, whether in this world or in the world to come, God may touch their hearts with repentance, and ** repent of the evil He had said He would do unto them, and do it not." 1. 68 FREE BOOKS http://www.scribd.com/doc/21800308/Free-Christian-Books 2. ALL WRITINGS http://www.scribd.com/glennpease/documents?page=1000