Viewing and Interpretation of Radiographs

Topics Index
1. Back to Module Index 2. Introduction 3. Requirements for Inspecting Radiographs 4. Interpreting Weld iscontinuities !. "urface iscontinuities for Welds #. Internal iscontinuities for Welds $. Interpreting %asting iscontinuities &. %asting iscontinuities '. Reporting iscontinuities 1(. "ummar) * +he Basic "teps in Interpreting a Radiograph 11. %heck ,our -rogress 12. ,our +ask 13. .lossar)

Introduction
+he final stage in radiographic testing is the /ie0ing1 interpretation and reporting the results of a radiographic inspection. 2fter all1 the real purpose of a radiographic inspection is to pro/ide information a3out the accepta3ilit)1 or other0ise1 of the product 3eing tested. 2fter compeleting this task1 )ou should 3e a3le to4

• • •

set up and check the conditions for properl) /ie0ing a radiograph interpret 0eld radiographs for defect in accordance 0ith 2ustralian "tandards interpret casting radiographs in accordance 0ith 2"M5 and 2ustralian "tandards. Back +o +op

Requirements for Inspecting Radiographs
The viewer must include a uniformly illuminated diffusing screen 2"21$$ states that the examination of radiographs shall 3e carried out 63) diffused light in a darkened room7. Most illuminators also include a rheostat that ena3les the 3rightness to 3e ad8usted to accommodate radiographs of /ar)ing densities. In addition1 it must 3e possi3le to mask the /ie0er so that 3right1 direct light is excluded from the e)es of the inspector.
Radiograph viewing illuminator (click photo to enlarge)

A very important requirement is the brightness of the viewer 2"3''& requires the minimum intensit) of light transmitted through a radiograph 3eing examined to 3e 3( candella per square meter 9cd:m2;. +o achie/e this1 the 3rightness of the /ie0ing facilit) must 3e at least that sho0n in the follo0ing ta3le4
Minimum illuminator brightness required for radiograph density Density of Radiograph Minimum Illuminator Brightness cd!m"# 1.! 2.( 2.! 3.( 3.! 11((( 31((( 1(1((( 3(1((( 1((1(((

It follo0s that the upper limit of film densit) is determined 3) the 3rightness of the a/aila3le illuminator. +he a3o/e /alues are the minimum 3rightness to /ie0 film1 3ased on 3( cd:m2 intensit) of transmitted light. +he standard suggests that 1(( cd:m2 is a more reasona3le /alue. +he 3rightness of an illuminator can 3e checked 0ith a photographic light meter 3) follo0ing these steps4 1. "et the film speed indicator to 1(( 2"2 or 2(( 2"2 2. -lace the sensiti/e element of the meter close to the screen of the illuminator 3. Record the <exposure= in hundredths of a second against a camera aperture setting of f1(1 f14.3 or f2( 4. >se the ta3le 3elo0 to relate photographic exposure time to screen 3rightness.
hotographic luminosity meter (click photo to enlarge)

+he follo0ing ta3le pro/ides information on the relationship 3et0een screen 3rightness and the exposure reading o3tained using the a3o/e method.
Relationship between screen brightness and the exposure reading

+oo much 3ackground lighting ma) cause reflections off the film1 effecti/el) reducing contrast and making interpretation more difficult. +he person interpreting the radiograph must 3e sure that the qualit) of the radiograph is adequate1 and is in accordance 0ith the requirements of the code or specification1 so that rele/ant discontinuities can 3e detected.3 14. Radiographs should be dried before viewing Wash 0ater on a radiograph has a significant effect on sensiti/it) and increases the difficult) of detecting fine discontinuities. 2 thorough examination is achie/ed 3) carefull) scanning the radiograph from one side to the other1 concentrating on each area of the radiograph as it is /ie0ed.ou must resist the temptation to simpl) 6spot the defect7.3 14. ?urthermore1 the room used as a /ie0ing room should 3e quiet and comforta3le to a/oid unnecessar) distractions. 2lthough each interpreter 0ill differ1 it is recommended that no more than fi/e minutes 3e spent /ie0ing a radiograph. *hec) the quality of the radiograph Before inspection proper can 3egin1 the radiograph is checked for processing and handling artefacts and film densit)1 and the I@I sensiti/it) is determined. Assessing for discontinuities is done methodically .3 2( 2( 2( 2( 2( 1:1(( 1:!(( 1:1((( 1:1(( 1:!(( 1:1((( 1:1(( 1:!(( 1:1((( 1:1!(( 1:2((( &creen brightness cd!m"# '(( A&A 11((( !1((( 1(1((( 21((( 1(1((( 2(1((( 31((( 1!1((( 3(1((( 4!1((( #(1((( "(( A&A 21((( 1(1((( 2(1((( 41((( 2(1((( 4(1((( #1((( 3(1((( #(1((( '(1((( 12(1((( This illuminator must be used in a dar)ened room +here should 3e onl) sufficient 3ackground light to ena3le recording of details on the /ie0ing record. >pon commencing a /ie0ing session1 the interpreter must allo0 sufficient time for his or her e)es to 3ecome ad8usted to the darkened conditions. +o do this properl)1 the interpreter must understand4 • • • the product that has 3een radiographed1 including the t)pe of material the method of fa3rication or casting the t)pe of discontinuities that are likel) to occur . Radiographs are veiwed for short intervals +his practice is follo0ed to pre/ent e)e strain and maximise )our concentration le/el. Be sure to dr) )ou radiographs 3efore /ie0ing. +he results of these preliminar) checks and measurements should 3e recorded on the /ie0ing report.f number $%posure seconds# 1( 1( 1( 14.

Radiographic interpretation is a skill that can onl) 3e mastered through kno0ledge of the material 3eing tested and experience.rinding mark Dammer mark "urface pitting Einear misalignment Root %onca/it) "hrinkage groo/e 5xcessi/e dressing +ool mark +orn surface "patter *ode "C". +hese a33re/iations are listed in 2"4$4'A2((11 6BonA estructi/e +esting *+erminolog) of and 233re/iations for ?usion Weld Imperfections as Re/ealed 3) Radiograph)7.I ">% "M.ou are strongl) ad/ised to o3tain a cop) of this standard from "tandards 2ustralia if )ou are at all in/ol/ed 0ith 0eld radiograph). "MD "-+ DiEo "R% ". escription of each discontinuit) are pro/ided1 plus prints taken from an actual radiograph or a sketch to descri3e discontinuit). #bbreviations for surface imperfections Imperfection 5xcessi/e penetration Incompletel) filled groo/e >ndercut . +his information is generall) contained in specifications or codes1 or sometimes in the customer=s o0n specification for the component. . Weld imperfections are either surface or internal +here are t0o classes of 0eld discontinuities4 • • surface imperfections internal imperfections.• ho0 the radiograph 0as produced. Man) indications produce su3tle lo0 contrast or unsharp images that can 3e difficult to interpret. +he other /er) important criteria that the interpreter must clearl) understand are the acceptance:re8ection criteria for the area or part 3eing inspected. Back +o +op Interpreting !eld "iscontinuities +eld discontinuities are designated by standard abbreviations +here is a standard set of a33re/iations used to descri3e most 0eld discontinuities. "tandard a33re/iations for 0eld discontinuities are listed in the ta3les 3elo0. Material kno0ledge and experience are the most /alua3le aids that an interpreter can dra0 on." "5 "M+ "+" ""- #bbreviations for internal imperfections Imperfection Eongitudinal crack %rater crack *ode FE F% .

Back +o +op $urface "iscontinuities for !elds +he follo0ing images ha/e 3een pro/ided courtes) of 2gfa .3+ 3ut not greater than # mm. It states4 • • Bo planar imperfections 9e. Excessive penetration (SXP) Weld metal protruding through the root of the 0eld.g.as pore %rater pipe Einear porosit) >niform porosit) iffraction mottling +rans/erse crack Eack of side fusion Eack of interArun fusion Inclusion Gxide inclusion %opper inclusion Worm hole Eocalised porosit) 5longated ca/it) Burn through ER EIE I+ . are allo0ed. "ome standards include porosit) charts 0hich are t)picall) illustrations to pro/ide a /isual comparison to help determine the accepta3lilit) of porosit) discontinuities. uniform porosit) clustered porosit) linear porosit). crack or lack fusion defects.Eack of root fusion Incomplete root penetration Einear inclusion +ungsten inclusion . In main 3utt 0elds 9class 1 /essels. 2ppears as a light continuous or more often intermittent1 irregularl) shaped 3and 0ithin the image of the 0eld.e/aert -t) Etd.%-E -> M F+ E" EI IB IG I% WD -.1 slag inclusions can ha/e4 o a maximum length of # mm for thicknesses of up to 1& mm o a maximum length of +:3 for thicknesses 3et0een 1& mm and #( mm o a maximum length of 2( mm for thicknesses greater than #( mm. 5% B+ All radiographs should be interpreted to determine their compliance with a code or standard 2 t)pical standard is 2ustralian "tandard 2"4(3$ 0hich includes acceptance le/els for /arious 0eld imperfections in pressure /essels. +hese reproductions of radiographs sho0 /arious 0eld defects as the) might appear in a radiograph. -orosit) imperfections ma) 3e classified as4 • • • • isolated pores 9maximum diameter (. .

2ppears as a dark area along the centre of the 0eld. Radiograph of Internal (Root) &oncavity (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Incompletely filled groove &.Radiograph of %xcessive enetration (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Root concavity (SRC) "ometimes called suckA3ack.I# 2 continuous or intermittent channel at the top surface of the 0eld and running along the length of the 0eld. Radiograph of %xternal &oncavity (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) . It ma) 3e at the centre of the 0eld1 0here it is sometimes kno0n as external conca/it) or insufficient fill1 or ma) 3e at the edges of the 0eld 0here it is kno0n as incompletel) filled groo/e. 2 shallo0 groo/e in the root of a 3utt 0eld.

of the parent metal. Radiograph of %xternal *ndercut (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) >ndercut can also occur at the root of the 0eld1 although this can easil) 3e confused 0ith lack of root fusion. 2ppears as a dark irregular 3and along the top edge of the 0eld metal.Incompletely (illed )roove Undercut (SUC) 2n irregular groo/e at the top edge 9toe. of a 0eld caused 3) contraction of the 0eld metal1 or 3) 3urning a0a) 9gouging. Radiograph of Internal *ndercut (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) .

Ma) appear as light and dark sides. Radiograph of +inear Misaligment (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Einear misalignment ma) ha/e a linear indication associated 0ith it caused 3) the protruding edge of one of the plates. +his has the appearance of a lack of penetration indication.Linear misalignment (HiLo) 2 planar misalignment of the t0o sides 3eing 0elded. Radiograph of +ack of enetration (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) .

Radiograph of +ongitudinal &rack (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Longitudinal root crack ( L) +his form of crack occurs mostl) in the parent metal ad8acent to the root run of the 0eld. Its detection is dependent on its orientation relati/e to the radiation 3eam. +hese reproductions of radiographs sho0 /arious 0eld defects as the) might appear in a radiograph.Back +o +op Internal "iscontinuities for !elds +he follo0ing images ha/e 3een pro/ided courtes) of 2gfa .e/aert -t) Etd. Radiograph of +ongitudinal Root &rack (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) . It appears as a fine dark line1 mostl) 8agged edges1 sometimes discontinuous. Its detection is dependent on its orientation relati/e to the radiation 3eam. Longitudinal Crack ( L) %racks appear a fine dark lines1 mostl) 8agged edges1 sometimes discontinuous.

!ransverse Crack ( !) 2 trans/erse crack runs across the 0eld 3ead and sometimes into the parent metal. It appears as a fine dark line1 mostl) 8agged edges1 sometimes discontinuous. Its detection is dependent on its orientation relati/e to the radiation 3eam. Radiograph of Transverse &rack (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Lack o" side "usion (LS) 2 lack of union 3et0een the 0eld metal and the parent metal at the side of a 0eld. Its image appears as a straight dark line or 3and1 depending on the orientation of the 3eam of radiation. Radiograph of +ack of $ide !all (usion &rack (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) . Its detection depends on its orientation relati/e to the 3eam orientation1 and sometimes requires an additional exposure 0ith the 3eam aligned parallel to the 0eld preparation face.

Lack o" inter#run "usion (L$) 2 lack of union 3et0een ad8acent 0eld runs in a multiArun 0eld. +ack of Root (usion $ncomplete root penetration (LP) . 2ppears as a straight line or 3and at one or 3oth edges of the 0eld root image. Radiograph of +ack of Inter. It appears as a faint dark line 0ith sharpl) defined edges.run (usion (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Lack o" root "usion (LR) 2 lack of union of the 0eld metal 0ith the parent metal at the root of a 0eld.

2ppears as one or more dark 3ands1 mostl) 0ith irregular edges1 running along a 0eld. +here is often a line of fine porosit) associated 0ith this defect. 2ppears as a dark continuous or intermittent 3and 0ith mostl) straight edges.?ailure of the 0eld metal to extend into the root area of a 8oint. In close square 3utt 8oints it ma) appear as a continuous or 3roken line. 2ppears as mostl) irregular shapes. %aused 3) lines of slag trapped1 generall) 3et0een the 0eld metal and parent metal1 in a multiArun 0eld. Radiograph of Inclusion (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Linear inclusion ($L) 2lso kno0n as a slag line. Radiograph of +inear Inclusion (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) . Radiograph of Incomplete Root enetration (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) $nclusion ($%) "lag or other foreign matter trapped 3et0een 0eld runds or 3et0een the 0eld and the parent metal.

process.+2W. Radiograph of Tungsten Inclusion (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) &as pore (&P) 2 mostl) spherical gas hole in the 0eld metal. 2ppears as small 0hite sharp edged images in the 0eld metal due to the fact that tungsten is much denser than steel or aluminium. 2ppears as one or more circular dark images.!ungsten inclusion ($!) 2n inclusion of tungsten from a tungsten electrode used in the gas tungsten arc 9. Radiograph of $cattered orosity (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) .

2ppears as a cluster of small round indications. Radiograph of Root ass #ligned orosity (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Localised porosity (P&) 2 group of gas pores confined to a small area of a 0eld.Linear porosity (PL) 2 line of mostl) small round images aligned along a 0eld. +hese discontinuities are sometimes elongated1 0here the) are referred to as 60orm holes7. Radiograph of &luster orosity (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) . Bote that this can sometimes indicate a lack of fusion defect 0hich ma) not 3e immediatel) o3/ious.

'urn t(roug( ('!) 2 localised collapse of the 0eld pool lea/ing a hole in the 3ottom of the 0eld run. in +hickness7. Radiograph of -urn Through (&ourtesy #gfa '"T) (click radiograph to enlarge) Back +o +op Interpreting &asting "iscontinuities In the case of castings1 there are t0o /er) different s)stems for interpretation4 1. +hese are sets of radiographs sho0ing particular casting discontinuities at up to fi/e le/els of se/erit). 2. +his standard contains a num3er of reference radiographs sho0ing particular casting discontinuities . 2 t)pical standard is 2"+M 544# 6"tandard Reference Radiographs for "teel %astings up to t0o inches 9!1 mm. 2ustralian standard 2"3!($ The American A&TM# system +his s)stem relies on <reference radiographs=. 2ppears as an irregularl) shaped glo3ular dark area. +he 2merican 92"+M. s)stem.

If the maximum length allo0ed is 12( mm or greater1 the casting is radiographicall) accepta3le1 other0ise the casting is not accepta3le. +he total length or area of shrinkage 0ithin the /ie0ing area must not exceed limits set for the particular class of casting. If the radiograph sho0s a discontinuit) of greater se/erit) than the reference radiograph1 the casting shall 3e re8ected7 . ?or shrinkage discontinuities1 the maximum length and:or 0idth of the discontinuit) is measured. ?or gas defects 9porosit). If t0o or more areas are detected in the /ie0ing area1 the lengths or areas are summed. +he standards states 60here a particular se/erit) is called for1 and the radiograph 3eing e/aluated is equal to or 3etter than the reference radiograph1 the casting shall 3e indicated as 3eing radiographicall) accepta3le. and are used to compare 0ith !HI $H areas of radiographs of actual castings.at different le/els of se/erit). +he radiographs are each !HI $H 912$ mm I 1$& mm. The Australian standard +he 2ustralian standard for radiograph) of steel castings is 2"3!($1 6BonA destructi/e testing * Radiograph) of steel castings and classification of qualit)7. and inclusions1 the standard assigns a <se/erit) index= depending on the diameter or siJe of the discontinuit).e &everity Inde%es Discontinuities ! # 1 ! 12 12 2' Total of severity inde% numbers/ If the specification for maximum se/erit) indexes for this casting is 2' or greater1 the casting is radiographicall) accepta3le. and the acceptance or other0ise of the casting is 3ased on these measurements. Example) +he follo0ing porosit) discontinuities 0ere detected in the /ie0ing area for a particular casting4 orosity discontinuities detected for a particular casting Discontinuity Diameter d mm# dK2 2KdK4 1( K d K 1! 1 2 12 &everity Inde% -umber -umber of &imilar Total of Individual &i. +hese discontinuities are categorised as gas porosit)1 shrinkage etc. +otal length is 12( mm. 2cceptance is 3ased on percei/ed se/erit) of the particular discontinuit). ?or gas porosit)1 inclusions and shrinkage discontinuities1 the standard defines a /ie0ing area that /aries from 3( mm I 3( mm to 1(( mm I 1(( mm1 depending on casting thickness. Example) +0o areas of macroAshrinkage are detected in the /ie0ing area of a casting1 one measuring 1(( mm long and one measuring 2( mm long. If the specification for maximum se/erit) indexes for the casting is less than 2'1 the casting is not accepta3le. Back +o +op . +his standard adopts a totall) different approach in that discontinuities must 3e quantified 9measured. +he total of the se/erit) indexes in the /ie0ing area must not exceed a particular limit1 determined 3) the class of the casting.

2ppears as dark areas 0ith a smooth outline 0hich ma) 3e circular or elongated in shape. Micro0porosity +his is a /er) fine1 3ut often extensi/e1 discontinuit) caused 3) e/olution of gas 0here3) /er) fine gas pores form around grain 3oundaries or 3et0een dendrite arms. in. 2ppears in a radiograph as 0idel) distri3uted small dark rounded images.&asting "iscontinuities +he follo0ing images sho0 /arious casting discontinuities as the) might appear in a radiograph. +he) present a some0hat mottled effect in a radiograph. Micro. )as .oles (click radiograph to enlarge) .hole orosity (click radiograph to enlarge) &as (oles Rounded ca/ities generall) greater than 1 mm diameter A the) can 3e quite large A and often more randoml) dispersed through the casting due to gas e/ol/ed from the metal during solidification or from the mould or core.porosity (click radiograph to enlarge) Pin#(ole porosity "mall rounded ca/ities1 t)picall) less than 1 mm diameter1 caused 3) e/olution of gas during solidification of the molten metal. "ometimes occurs 8ust 3elo0 the surface of the casting1 0here it is kno0n as su3Acutaneous pinhole porosit). Mainl) effects nonAferrous metals such as magnesium and aluminium.

*orm(oles +u3eAlike ca/ities similar to gas holes1 generall) located 8ust 3elo0 the surface of a casting. $hrinkage cavity in casting feeder head (click radiograph to enlarge) . #irlock (click radiograph to enlarge) S(rinkage cavity 2 discrete ca/it) caused 3) contraction of the metal during solidification.enerall) rougher edges to the image and an irregular A often tapered A shape. 2ppears as a generall) smooth and often irregularl) shaped image. %aused 3) progressi/e expansion of entrapped superheated steam from moisture in a mould or core. . !ormholes (click radiograph to enlarge) +irlock 2 large ca/it) formed 3) air entrapped in the mould during pouring of the metal.

ilamentary s(rinkage 2 fine to course form of shrinkage in 0hich the ca/ities are 3ranching1 interconnected and extensi/e.. 2ppears as one or more dark1 8agged1 lines. Dot tears tend to 3e a planar t)pe of discontinuit)1 so detection 3) radiograph) ma) depend on the plane of the crack relati/e to the direction of the radiation 3eam. (ilamentary $hrinkage (click radiograph to enlarge) Hot tear 2 discontinuit) caused 3) fracture of the metal during its contraction as it cools during the earl) stages after solidification.ot Tear (click radiograph to enlarge) Stress crack . 2ppears as a net0ork of 3ranched irregular shapes. .

+he presence of rust on the chaplet or chill 0ill generall) gi/e rise to porosit) around the chaplet or chill. &old $hut (click radiograph to enlarge) Un"used c(aplet-un"used c(ill %haplets and chills are metal inserts placed in a mould for /arious casting purposes.2 sharper1 more 0ell defined fracture of the metal that forms generall) during the later stages of cooling from solidification. *nfused &haplet . 2gain1 hot tears tend to 3e planar so detection 0ill depend upon the /ie0point of the radiograph. If the liquid metal fails to fuse to these de/ices1 a planar discontinuit) ma) result. It is often detected /isuall). Mostl) a surface discontinuit)1 radiographicall) it appears as a smooth dark line. +he) can also form 0hen the casting is cold or during su3sequent heat treatment. $tress &rack (click radiograph to enlarge) Cold s(ut 2 discontinuit) formed 0hen a stream of liquid metal1 as it flo0s through a mould1 fails to fuse 0ith other metal in the mould. Ma) appear as a slightl) 8agged or a smooth dark line. Being a 3asicall) planar t)pe of discontinuit)1 its detection 3) radiograph) ma) depend on the plane of the discontinuit) relati/e to the direction of the radiation 3eam.

$nclusion "and from a mould1 and slag or dross from a ladle of metal1 can 3e 0ashed into the stream of metal as it enters and flo0s through a mould1 and 3ecome trapped in the metal as it solidifies. Do0e/er1 the outcome is the same A this discontinuit) is generall) not accepta3le. +his is descri3ed in 2"4$4'1 6BonA estructi/e +esting A +erminolog) of and 233re/iations for ?usion Weld Imperfections as Re/ealed 3) Radiograph)7. Inclusion (click radiograph to enlarge) Segregation +his discontinuit) comprises particular components of the metal composition that ha/e different solidification temperatures and so tend to 3e dri/en 3) solidif)ing metal and segregate at particular areas1 particularl) the central Jones1 of a casting. Ma) appear as light or dark areas in a radiograph1 or e/en as 3anded light and dark areas. +he code comprises of4 . Back +o +op Reporting "iscontinuities All discontinuities are recorded on the viewing report In the case of 0elds1 there is an accepted con/ention for the recording of discontinuit) indications. It ma) appear as a light or dark irregularl) shaped image in a radiograph1 and ma) 3e difficult to distinguish from a /oid.

2.1 starting 4& mm from the reference mark and extending o/er a distance of 1&( mm. Lerif) that radiographic co/erage is complete for the particular part. tested details of surface imperfections and other artefacts noted in the radiograph t)pe of I@I and calculated sensiti/it) film densit) range achie/ed a statement of compliance or nonAcompliance 0ith the acceptance criteria date and place of testing identification of the radiographer and interpreter report num3er and date. of the start of the discontinuit) from the reference mark of the lo0est num3er on the radiograph letters1 using standard a33re/iations1 to denote the t)pe of discontinuit) a num3er to denote the length of the discontinuit) 9mm.1: 2"3!($.• • • • a num3er to indicate the distance from the horiJontal of /ertical distance 9mm. -repare a test report indicating the nature1 extent1 and disposition of all significant indications found on the radiographs. Back +o +op $ummary / The -asic $teps in Interpreting a Radiograph 1. 4. o/er 0hich the particular imperfection extends each code is separated 3) a dash 9 A . 5/aluate the internal discontinuities to the applica3le standards and accept1 re8ect1 or hold the part for further re/ie0. 2"21$$. Mark the locations on the part of an) nonAcompl)ing discontinuities. $. &. '. Record as <complies= or <does not compl)= on the /ie0ing record. 1(. 3. Lerif) that the image qualit) indicators are correct and properl) used and that the proper image qualit) le/el 0as achie/ed. Lerif) that the radiograph corresponds to the part 3eing examined. . Lisuall) check the surfaces of the part for surface discontinuities or contours that match the appearance of the discontinuit) on the radiograph. and designation of test method details of the area9s. %heck for film artifacts and indications of surface phenomena and record an) on the /ie0ing record #. Retake an) indications that cannot 3e resol/ed as an artifact or discontinuit). Dence 4&A-EA1&( indicates linear porosit) 9-E.. The outcome of the viewing and interpretation is recorded in a report 2 t)pical /ie0ing report should include the follo0ing information4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • name of the test la3orator) identification of the component product standard details of the material tested1 including 0elding processes if rele/ant the num3er of the test method standard 9eg. !. Lerif) that the film densities meet requirements of the standard.

3. Radiographic /ie0ing should 3e carried out in a4 a. 2n inclusion measuring 1! mm long in a !( mm thick 0eld should 3e classified as4 a. d. totall) darkened room 3.Back +o +op &heck 0our rogress 1. IEA!4A1(( 3. !. 3( cd:m2 3. after the dr)ing phase 2ns0er4 d A Radiographs should 3e dried 3efore /ie0ing. 2 product code for a 0eld states 6linear inclusions *maximum length +:3 in an) 1(+ length7. 31((( cd:m2 2ns0er4 d A +o /ie0 radiographic film of densit) 2. !4AIEA1(( d. When /ie0ing a 0eld1 a linear inclusion 9code IE. immediatel) after the fixing phase c. 2. intensit) through a radiographic film should 3e4 at least 3( cd:m2 at least 1( cd:m2 at least 1(( cd:m2 3right enough to see the image of the I@I 2ns0er4 a A Eight intensit) through a radiographic film should 3e at least 3( cd:m2 3.(1 an illuminator of light intensit) 31((( cd:m2 is needed. Radiographs should 3e /ie0ed4 a. immediatel) after the de/elopment phase 3. refer to customer . +he light a. +he minimum 3rightness of an illuminator to /ie0 radiographic film of densit) 2. c. darkened room 0ith sufficient indirect 3ackground light to ena3le details to 3e recorded 2ns0er4 c A Radiographic /ie0ing should 3e carried out in adarkened room 0ith sufficient indirect 3ackground list to ena3le details to 3e recorded. complies 3. 3rightl) lit room c. 11((( cd:m2 d. !4AIEA1!4 c. immediatel) after the 0ashing phase d. IEA!4A1!4 2ns0er4 c A !4AIEA1(( #. located !4 mm from the left hand indicator and extending o/er a length 1(( mm should 3e recorded on the /ie0ing record as4 a. does not compl) c. 4. 1(( cd:m2 c.( is4 a.

and designation of test method N details of the area9s.1: 2"3!($. If the casting is #( mm thick class 31 the maximum se/erit) index for gas holes is 33. 1. complies 3. Back +o +op 0our Task In this task1 )ou 0ill identifi) some defects from radiographs.2ns0er4 a A complies $. 2ns0er4 %hoose an) fi/e of the follo0ing4 N name of the test la3orator) N identification of the componentO product standard N details of the material tested 9including 0elding processes if rele/ant. refer to customer 2ns0er4 3 A does not compl) &. 2"21$$. N the num3er of the test method standard 9eg. tested N details of surface imperfections and other artefacts noted in the radiograph N t)pe of I@I and calculated sensiti/it) N film densit) range achie/ed N a statement of compliance or nonAcompliance 0ith the acceptance criteria N date and place of testing N identification of the radiographer and interpreter N report num3er and date. What are the 0eld defects present in the follo0ing radiographsP . Radiographs of weld defects (click radiograph to enlarge) . Click here to open the answer sheet for this task. 2 casting sho0s 3 gas pores se/erit) index M 11 ! gas pores se/erit) index M 31 and 2 gas pores se/erit) index M &. Bame fi/e items that must 3e included on a /ie0ing report.ou ma) click on each radiograph to examine it more closel). +he a3o/e casting should 3e classified as4 a. does not compl) c.

e. 3. 2. . d. Radiographs of casting defects (click radiograph to enlarge) a.a. c. What are the casting defects present in the follo0ing casting radiographsP .ou ma) click on each radiograph to examine it more closel). 3.

e. Back +o +op .c. d.