# ESc201:  Introduction to Electronics

Basic Circuit Analysis y

Dr. K D K. V V. S Srivastava i t Dept. of Electrical Engineering IIT Kanpur
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Objectives
1. Solve circuits (i.e., find currents and voltages of interest) by y combining g resistances in series and p parallel 2. 3. 4. Apply the voltage-division and current-division principles Solve circuits by the node-voltage technique S Solve circuits by the mesh-current technique

5. Find Thévenin and Norton equivalents q and apply pp y source transformations 6 6. Apply the superposition principle
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Simplification Techniques
As engineers we like to be efficient : achieve the objective with minimum effort.

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Concept of equivalent circuits Two circuits are equivalent if they have the same currentvoltage behavior
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Analysis using REUSE methodology
D not Do t carry out t analysis l i f from scratch t h! Analyze, Remember and Reuse

Example: p we do not carry y out multiplication p from scratch using repeated addition !

3 4 x 3

3 x 4 = 12
4x1=4 Memorize multiplication 4x2=8 table and use it again and 4 x 3 = 12 again 4 x 4 = 16 .................... 4

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You cannot carry out complex multiplication with ease using the first principle

Creative Reuse !

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Develop D l equivalent i l t circuits i it by b combining bi i several l resistors into a single equivalent resistor

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i relation is concerned. .Series Resistances 7 Both circuits are equivalent as far as v vs.

Parallel Resistances 8 .

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Example Use concept p of series and p parallel resistances to simplify p y 10 .

Example Use concept of series and parallel resistances to simplify R eq 2 = R 2 R eq1 R 2 + R eq 1 R e q = { ( R 4 + R 3 ) R 2 } + R1 11 .

Solve for the currents and voltages g in the final equivalent q circuit. Then go back one step and solve for unknown voltages and current.Circuit Analysis Using Series/Parallel Equivalents 1. . Begin by locating a combination of resistances that are in series i or parallel. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit is reduced as far as possible. Repeat step 4 until the required current or voltage in the original 12 circuit is found. 5. Often (but not always) we end up with a single source and d a single i l resistance. ll l Of Often the h place l to start with ih i is the h f farthest h from the source. Redraw the circuit with the equivalent resistance for the combination found in step 1. 2. i t 4. 3.

Example Find Fi d current t in R3 + 60V 1A + 3A 60V 3A - 13 .

i3 and i4 + V2 - R eq1 = R 2 R 3 R 4 S l f Solve for V2 R e q 2 = R1 + R e q 1 S l f Solve for i1 14 .Find all the currents + V2 - Solve for i2.

Voltage division A voltage g applied pp to resistors connected in series will be divided among them 15 .

Example 16 .

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Potential Divider R2 V1 R1 + R 2 18 .

Current Division The total current flowing g into a p parallel combination of resistors will be divided among them 19 .

Example Find vx using g voltage g division and then find is and use it to find i3 using current division 20 .

Use current division rule to find i1 Suppose we want to find i2 also ieq i2 ie q R1 = is R1 + R e q R3 i2 = ie q R 2 + R 3 21 .

yet they are not sufficient to solve all circuits !! 22 .Limitations Although series/parallel equivalents and the current/voltage division principles are very important concepts.

then we can determine the currents using the models of circuit elements Or if we determine the currents currents.Circuit Analysis Goal is to find voltages voltages. currents and power in the circuit If we know voltage and current then power can be easily determined P (t ) = v (t ) × i (t ) If we determine the voltages. then we can determine the voltages using the models of circuit elements 23 .

… then we can determine the currents as well v1 − v 2 = i 2 × R 2 24 . v2.i2 v0 If we determine the voltages g v1.

then we can determine the g as well voltages v1 − v 2 = i 2 × R 2 25 .i1 i2 i4 i3 i5 If we determine all the currents.

the variables used to describe the circuit will be “Node Voltages” – Nodal voltage are the voltages of each node with respect to a pre-selected reference node – Usually the reference node has many branches connected to it – The reference node is also called ground – The node voltages are selected as being positive with respect to the reference node 26 .General Circuit Analysis Method: Nodal Analysis In nodal analysis.

Nodal Analysis will give values of node voltages v1. v2 and v3 with respect to the reference node 27 .

1. Identify and number the nodes 2. Writing KCL Equations in Terms of the Node Voltages Sum of currents leaving a node = 0 28 .

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Circuit Analysis Transformation of circuit into equations Solution of equations 30 .

Circuits with Independent Current Sources N ode 3 : v3 v3 − v 2 + − is = 0 R5 R4 31 .

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Circuit with Voltage Sources v1 v2 v3 KCL at node 1 v1 − v 3 v1 − v 2 v1 + + =0 R2 R1 ? KCL at node 2 v 2 − v1 = 1 0 v 2 − v 3 v 2 − v1 v2 + + =0 R4 R3 ? 35 .

KCL is applied to the super node Sum of currents leaving a super node is zero v1 − v 3 v 2 − v 3 v1 v2 + + + =0 R2 R1 R3 R4 36 .v1 v2 v3 Node 1 and node 2 are merged together into a super node.

Example v1 − v 3 v2 − v3 v1 + + − 1= 0 R1 R2 R3 37 .

Node-Voltage Analysis with a Dependent Source 38 .

Node-Voltage Analysis with a Dependent Source At Node 1 v1 − v 2 − is − 2 i x = 0 R1 39 .

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Write network equations 2 • First. If the circuit contains dependent sources • Find Fi d expressions i for f the th controlling t lli variables i bl i in t terms of f th the node d voltages • Substitute into the network equations. Use the values found for the node voltages to calculate any other 41 currents or voltages of interest . and obtain equations having only l th the node d voltages lt as unknowns k 4. voltages 2. Put the equations into standard form and solve for the node voltages 5. use KVL to write additional equations 3.Summary: Node-Voltage Analysis 1 Select a reference node and assign variables for the unknown node 1. use KCL to write current equations for nodes and super nodes • Then. if you do not have enough equations because of voltage sources connected between nodes nodes.

Find ia using nodal analysis Choose a reference node wisely 10V 1 Write KCL at nodes and solve the resulting equations v1 v1 − 1 0 10 + + 1 = 0 ⇒ v1 = 10 5 3 1 0 − v1 ia = = 1 .3 3 A 5 42 .

2 1 v1 − v 2 = 1 0 V KCL at super node: v1 v2 −1+ =0 5 10 43 .

Which Whi h should h ld b be th the reference node? 44 .

45 . 2. 3. Mesh analysis y provides another g p general p procedure for analyzing circuits using mesh currents as the circuit variables. A mesh is a loop which does not contain any other loops within it. Mesh analysis applies KVL to find unknown currents.Mesh Analysis 1.

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not measurable directly) I1.Mesh Currents I 1 = i1 I 2 = i2 I 3 = i1 − i 2 i1 and i2 are mesh current (imaginative. I2 and I3 are branch current (real. measurable directly) 47 .

Mesh Currents I2 I3 I 2 = i1 − i3 I 3 = i1 − i 2 48 .

Mesh Currents 49 .

in to the n meshes. …. 3. i2.Mesh Analysis  Steps to determine the mesh currents: 1. Solve the resulting n simultaneous equations mesh currents. Use Ohm’s law to express the voltages in terms of the mesh currents. 2. to get the 50 . Assign mesh currents i1. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes.

Example i3 i1 i2 Mesh-1 Mesh-2 R 3 ( i 2 − i1 ) + v B + R 4 i 2 = 0 51 Mesh-3 .

Example Mesh-1 Mesh-2 52 .

Example Mesh-3 Mesh-4 53 .

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Mesh Currents in Circuits Containing Current Sources 1 5 i1 + 1 0 ( i1 − i 2 ) + ? = 0 55 .

Current source common to 2 mesh i1 + 2 ( i1 − i3 ) + ? = 0 56 .

Super Mesh S Super mesh h Mesh-3 Mesh 3 57 .

Example 58 .

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Identify the super mesh 60 .

Identify the super mesh − 6 + 2 ( i1 − i3 ) + 4 ( i 2 − i3 ) + 8 i 2 = 0 2 i3 + 4 ( i3 − i 2 ) + 2 ( i3 − i1 ) = 0 i1 − i 2 = 3 61 .

2 i1 + 4 i3 + 8 ( i3 − i 4 ) + 6 i 2 = 0 2 i 4 + 1 0 + 8 ( i 4 − i3 ) = 0 i 2 − i1 = 5 i 2 − i3 = 3 I O I O = − i4 62 .

2. or supernodes are more suitable for nodal analysis. 63 .Nodal vs. Mesh Analysis To select the method that results in the smaller number of equations. current sources. voltage sources. If node voltages are required. or supermeshes are more suitable for mesh analysis. it may be expedient to apply nodal analysis. *Networks with parallel-connected elements. *Choose mesh analysis for circuit with fewer meshes than nodes. If branch or mesh currents are required. it may be better to use mesh analysis. meshes. *Networks that contain many series connected elements. For example: 1 Choose nodal analysis for circuit with fewer nodes than 1.

64 .Superposition Principle The superposition principle states that the total response is the sum of the responses to each of the independent sources acting individually.

0V 0A 65 .

Current source is open circuited circuited. iT = i1 + i 2 v T = v1 + v 2 . Circuit with only current source active.Example-1 Circuit with only voltage source active. Voltage source is open circuited.

5 v1 = 15 = 5V 15 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 20 v2 = 5 × ⎜ 2 × ⎟ = V ⎝ 15 ⎠ 3 vT = v1 + v2 iT = i1 + i2 20 35 vT = v1 + v2 = 5 + = V 3 3 67 .

Example-2 iT = i1 + i 2 v T = v1 + v 2 .

Example-3 10V is discarded by short circuit 2A is discarded by open circuit .

Thévenin Equivalent Circuits Any circuit Any circuit 70 .

Thévenin Equivalent Circuits 71 .

We can apply Thevenin’s theorem to any part of the circuit Rt1 Vt1 Rt2 Vt2 72 .

Thévenin Equivalent Circuits Any circuit Any circuit What is Vt ? + voc - + voc 73 Vt = voc .

Thévenin Equivalent Circuits Any circuit Any circuit What is Rt ? isc Vt voc Rt = = isc i sc isc 74 .

1 5 A R1 voc Rt = = 3 3 .3 3Ω i sc 75 .Examples + voc - Vt = voc R2 Vt = × 15 = 5 R 2 + R1 i sc vs = = 0 .

Vt = 5 R t = 3 3 .3 Ω 76 .

Currents and voltages in the circuit are only due to Independent Sources 77 .

Finding the Thévenin Resistance Directly Suppose we make all independent sources zero in the circuit Circuit with no Independent sources Rt 78 .

Turn -A voltage source becomes a short circuit -A current source becomes an open circuit 2.Finding the Thévenin Resistance Directly Circuit with no Independent sources Rt 1 Turn off independent sources in the original network: 1. Compute the resistance between the terminals 79 .

0V 0A 80 .

R eq 5 × 20 = = 4Ω 5 + 20 81 .

Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below

VOC
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20 = Vt = × 10 = 8 20 + 5

10 20 20 = = . 35 5 + (1 0 || 2 0 ) 2 0 + 1 0

voc 8 × 35 Rt = = = 14 i sc 20 82

Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below

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Find Thevenin resistance for each of the circuits shown below

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Circuit with dependent Sources IZ Rt = ? VZ VZ Rt = IZ 85 .

Norton’s equivalent Any circuit Any circuit 86 .

Norton’s equivalent Any circuit Any circuit How do we find IN ? i sc i sc I n = i sc 87 .

Norton’s equivalent Any circuit Any circuit How do we find RN ? + Voc - + Voc voc Rt = isc voc = I n × Rt 88 .

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Norton’s equivalent Rt = 6.15 6 15 Ω 92 .

Examples Solve for Rt 93 .

v o c = 6V Rt = 3Ω i = 1 . Hence find i. find the equivalent circuit to the left of the terminals in the circuit shown below.5 A 94 .Using Thevenin’s theorem.

Use Superposition v o c = 6V V oc = V oc1 + V oc 2 = 6 V o c1 4 = × 12 = 3 4 + 12 V oc 2 6 ⎞ ⎛ =4×⎜2× ⎟=3 6 + 10 ⎠ ⎝ 95 .

Source Transformation Vt In = Rt Vt = I n × Rt 96 .

Example .

Use source transformation to solve for the indicated currents 98 .

Maximum Power Transfer for dc circuits R I VS RL What value of RL will give rise to maximum load power ? VS I= R + RL PL = I 2 R L = V S2 × RL (R + RL )2 ∂ PL =0 ∂RL RL = R PL m a x V S2 = 4 RL 99 .

2 5 m W R L = 1 0 K ⇒ PL = 2 m W RL 5V R L = 0 .1KΩ R L = 1 K ⇒ PL = 6 .2 K ⇒ PL = 3 .4 7 m W Maximum power is delivered to the load when RL = R 100 .

General Case Resistors and Sources Rt RL Vt RL Maximum p power is delivered to the load when RL = Rt 101 .

…. Write KCL for each node such that Sum of currents leaving a node is zero. in to the n meshes meshes. . Choose a reference node 3. g n simultaneous Solve the resulting equations to get the mesh currents. Identify and number the nodes 2. Assign mesh currents i1. Nodal Analysis: 1. ero Super node 2. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes. Use Ohm’s law to express the voltages in terms of the mesh currents. 3. i2. Source Transformation Vt = voc Rt = voc isc Vt = I n × Rt In = Vt Rt Thevenin & Norton I n = i sc The superposition principle states that the total response is the sum of the responses to each of the independent sources102acting individually.Summary Series/Parallel resistances Voltage division Current division Mesh Analysis  1.