# ESc201 :  Introduction to Electronics

Transient Analysis of Capacitive and Inductive  Circuits

Dr. K D K. V V. S Srivastava i t Dept. of Electrical Engineering IIT Kanpur
1

Capacitance
Two sheets of conductors separated by a layer of insulating material – The insulating material is called dielectric. This could be air, polyester, … metal

dielectric

metal t l
2

3

i +

q=C ×v

v(t)

q(t)

C

-

dq i= dt

dv i=C dt

1 v (t ) = C

to

id t + v ( t ) o ∫

t

1 2 w c (t ) = C × vc (t ) 2

For dc or steady state when the voltage does not vary with time A capacitor under dc or steady state acts like an 4 open circuit

i=0

C eq = C 1 + C 2 + C 3

v

1 1 1 1 = + + C eq C 1 C 2 C 3

5

Inductance φ = L×i A time varying flux causes voltage to appear across the device terminals dφ di v = = L× dt dt 6 .

di v = L× dt Henry For dc or steady state when the current does not vary with time v=0 An inductor under dc or steady state acts like a short circuit 7 .

Typical Inductors 8 .

L e q = L1 + L 2 + L 3 1 w L (t ) = L × i 2 (t ) 2 1 1 1 1 = + + L eq L1 L2 L3 9 .

Two important concepts Voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously d vc ic = C dt Instant change in voltage implies infinite current! Current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously di v=L dt Instant change in current implies infinite voltage! 10 .

R=5Ω t= xx L=1H 10V C=10μF R=5Ω What is current through the inductor or voltage across the capacitor ? We can’t give an answer unless we have some knowledge of the past state of the circuit Suppose we are told that circuit has been in this state for a very very long time R Ω R=5 t= xx i 1A i=1A R=5Ω d vc ic = C dt v=L di dt 10V 11 .

Or suppose we are told that circuit was switched at t= xx i=0 t=xx R=5Ω L=1H R=5Ω t= xx L=1H 10V C=10 C 10μF R Ω R=5 10V C=10μF R=5Ω Circuit before switching R=5Ω i=0 L=1H 10V C=10μF R=5Ω Circuits containing inductors or capacitors have a memory 12 .

Example Find voltage and current immediately after closing the switch and in steady state t = 0+ 0 0 Current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously Voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously 13 .

t → ∞ An inductor under dc or steady state acts like a short circuit A capacitor under dc or steady state acts like an open circuit iL (t → ∞ ) = 1 v c (t → ∞ ) = 5 A V14 .

Circuit for t>0 First find voltage VC Circuit for t<0 (0-) + v (0 ) + C = 1m A i X (0 ) = 4K v C (0 + ) = v C (0 − ) 2 v C (0 ) = × 6 = 415 V 3 − .Determine the current IX immediately after switch is opened.

Discharge of a capacitor through a Resistor How long g will it take for capacitor p voltage g to fall to half its initial value? 16 .

iC iR d vc ic = C dt 17 .

First Order Differential Equation dy = −a y dt Solution: y (t ) = K e − at Constant K is often found from the initial condition K = y( (0 ) y ( t ) = y (0 ) e − at 18 .

v C ( t ) = v C (0 ) e + − t RC vC (t ) = vC (0 ) e dy = −a y dt − t RC We know: kno − at v C (0 − ) = V i y ( t ) = y (0 ) e Voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously v C (0 + ) = v C (0 − ) = V i vC (t ) = Vi e − t RC 19 .

018 5τ 0 0067 0.0067 20 .05 05 4τ 0 018 0.Ti Time V(t)/Vi τ 0 368 0.368 2τ 0 135 0.135 3τ .

Charging a capacitor d vc ic = C dt Application of KCL at the indicated node gives 21 .

dx = − a1 x + a 2 dt S l ti Solution: x (t ) = K 1 + K 2 e − a1 t x (∞ ) = K 1 x (t ) = x (∞ ) + K 2 e Use initial condition: − a1 t x (0 ) = x ( ∞ ) + K 2 − a1 t 22 x ( t ) = x ( ∞ ) + { x (0 ) − x ( ∞ )} e .

dx = − a1 x + a 2 dt x (t ) = x (∞ ) + { x ( (0 ) − x ( ∞ )} e − a1 t 1 a1 = RC t − RC 23 v C ( t ) = v C ( ∞ ) + { v C ( 0 ) − v C ( ∞ )} e + .

t=0 R v C ( t ) = v C ( ∞ ) + { v C (0 + ) − v C ( ∞ )} e + vC - − t RC VS C W h a t is v C ( ∞ ) ? A capacitor under dc or steady state acts like an open circuit W h a t is v C (0 + ) ? vC (∞ ) = V S R + + vC(0 ) 24 VS C .

t=0 R v C ( t ) = v C ( ∞ ) + { v C (0 + ) − v C ( ∞ )} e + vC - − t RC VS C v C (0 ) = v C (0 ) + − We use the fact that voltage across a capacitor cannot change i t tl instantly If the capacitor does not have any initial charge. then v C (0 ) = v C (0 ) = 0 vC (∞ ) = V S t − RC + − v C ( t ) = V S (1 − e τ = RC ) 25 .

632 .865 3τ .Time τ 2τ 0.993 26 V(t)/Vi 0.982 5τ 0.95 4τ 0.

dx = − a1 x + a 2 dt di v=L dt x ( t ) = x ( ∞ ) + { x (0 ) − x ( ∞ )} e R − t L − a1 t i ( t ) = i ( ∞ ) + {i ( (0 ) − i ( ∞ )} e e − t τ 27 L T im e C o n s ta n t : τ = R .

W h a t is i ( ∞ ) ? Inductor in steady state is like a short circuit t=0 R + vL - R VS L VS i VS i(∞ ) = R VS VS i (t ) = + { i (0 ) − } e R R − R t L We also note that inductor current cannot change instantly 28 .

Current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously i (0 + ) = i (0 − ) t=0 R + vL - If L i (0 ) = i (0 ) = 0 − t + − VS VS i (t ) = × (1 − e R τ ) 29 .

What about voltage across the Inductor? VS i (t ) = × (1 − e R − t τ ) − t di L v=L = VS × e dt R τ 30 .

what is the y delay y time? relay 80 mA iL t 31 .Electromechanical Relay th current t needed d d to t operate t If the the relay is 50 mA.

RC Circuit τ = RC = 2 ms Input voltage 32 .

63V 33 . vc (t ) = 1 − e t − 2 + vc (2) = 1 − e 2 − 2 = 0.RC Circuit vc (t ) = vc (∞) + vc (0 ) − vc (∞) e [ τ = RC = 2 ms + ] − t τ vc (∞) = 1V . vc (0 ) = 0.

2 ≤ t ≤ 4 = 0.63e ( t −2 ) − 2 + vc (4) = 0. vc (0 ) = 0.RC Circuit τ = RC = 2 ms − t v (t ) = v (∞) + [v (0 ) − v (∞)] e + c c c c τ vc (∞) = 0.23V time t is in ms 34 . vc (t ) = 0.63V .63 e 2 − 2 .

72 0.731 0.23 0.63 0.265 0.269 0.RC Circuit t (ms) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 vc(t) (V) 0 0.269 τ = RC = 2 ms 35 .73 0.

RC Circuit – Steady State Vmax vc(tB) vc(tA) Vmin i tA tB vc(tC) tC 36 .

vc (t ) = vc (∞) + vc (0 + ) − vc (∞) e [ ] − t τ vc (t ) = Vmax + [vc (t A ) − Vmax ] e − (t − t A ) τ t A ≤ t ≤ tB t B ≤ t ≤ tC vc (t ) = Vmin + [vc (t B ) − Vmin ] e − (t − t B ) τ Vmax vc(tB) vc(tA) vc(tC) Vmin tA tB tC 37 .

vc (t B ) = Vmax + [vc (t A ) − Vmax ] e vc (tC ) = Vmin + [vc (t B ) − Vmin ] e ( t B −t A ) − τ − (t C − t B ) τ = vc (t A ) T (t B − t A ) = (t C − t B ) = 2 tA 38 Determine vc(tA) and vc(tB) in terms of Vmax and V min tB tC .

1 ms − 0.3 = 5 + [− 2.ESc201: Eexpt_3_RC vc (t B ) = Vmax + [vc (t A ) − Vmax ] e 2.1 ms ( t B −t A ) − τ τ Determining: τ 39 .3 − 5] e τ = 0.

How do we solve more complex circuits containing a single inductor or a capacitor? 40 .

Method for circuits containing a single capacitor or inductor Circuit for t > 0 Linear Circuit C Linear Circuit L Rt Rt Vt C Vt L x ( t ) = x ( ∞ ) + { x (0 + ) − x ( ∞ )} e − t τ Where x is capacitor voltage or inductor current L τ = o r R eq C R eq Req=Rt 41 Circuit .

Example-1 Circuit for t > 0 i ( t ) = i ( ∞ ) + { i (0 ) − i ( ∞ )} × e L τ = R2 + − t τ Steady y state Solution: i (t → ∞ ) = 0 i ( t ) = i (0 ) × e + − t τ 42 .

Initial condition Circuit for t < 0 VS i (0 ) = i (0 ) = R1 + − VS i (t ) = e R1 − R2 t L 43 .

Circuit for t < 0 v (0 + ) = 1 0 44 V .Determine the capacitor voltage as a function of time.

5 Ω 25 V v (∞ ) = 4 45 .Circuit for t > 0 Determine the Thevenin equivalent. as seen by the capacitor: Equivalent resistance We next find voltage g long g after closing the switch R e q = 2 6 = 1 .

5 = 0 .Final Solution: v ( t ) = v ( ∞ ) + { v (0 + ) − v ( ∞ )} e − t τ v (0 ) = 1 0 + V 25 V v (∞ ) = 4 τ = C × R eq 1 = × 1 .5 s 3 2 5 1 5 −2 t V v (t ) = + e 4 4 46 .

How do we find voltages and currents elsewhere in the circuit? Linear Circuit C + vC - Linear Circuit L iL Linear Circuit vC(t) Linear Circuit i(t) 47 .

5 5 sec R eq 48 .Find current in 8Ω resistor as a function of time after the switch is opened i (t ) = 2 × e i(t) −2 t A ⎛ 8 ⎞ i (t = 0 ) = 5 A × ⎜ ⎟ = 2A ⎝ 12 + 8 ⎠ − No current will flow in 5 Ω resistance for t < 0 For t > 0 R e q = (1 2 + 8 ) || 5 = 4 Ω L τ = = 0 .

4 × e − 2 t 5 + 20 A 49 .i (t ) = 2 × e −2 t A i(t) () 5 i8 = i ( t ) × = 0 .

Can we solve this 2 capacitor problem using our present approach? t=0 R1 R2 + vC2=? C2 VS C1 R3 Linear Circuit C + vC Circuit for t > 0 50 .

Can we solve this 2 capacitor problem using our present approach? t=0 R1 R2 + vC2=? C2 VS C1 R3 R2 Circuit for t > 0 + vC2=? - C2 R3 v c 2 (0 ) = v c 2 (0 ) − t + − v c 2 ( t ) = v c 2 ( ∞ ) + { v c 2 (0 ) − v c 2 ( ∞ )} e + 51 τ .

v c 2 (0 ) = v c 2 (0 ) R1 R2 + vC2(0) C2 + − VS C1 R3 R1 R2 + vC2(0) - VS R3 52 .

because circuit for t > 0 has two capacitances As long as the circuit has single capacitor or inductor for the time interval for which the analysis is being carried out.Will our approach work here? t=0 R1 R2 + vC2=? C2 VS C1 R3 No. out the stated approach will work fine. 53 .

What happens when there is more than one storage element? t=0 R1 R2 C2 VS i1 C1 i2 V S = i1 R 1 + v C 1 ( (1) ) v C 1 = i2 R 2 + v c 2 ( 2 ) d v1 i1 − i 2 = C 1 (3) dt dv2 i2 = C 2 (4) dt d 2vc 2 d vc 2 R1 R 2 C 1C 2 + ( R1C 1 + R1C 2 + R 2 C 2 ) + vc 2 = 54 V S 2 dt dt .