OSI Layers Layered protocol design • Layering model is a solution to the problem of complexity in network protocols • Model suggests

dividing the network protocol into layers, each of which solves part of the network communication problem • These layers have several constraints, which ease the design problem • Network protocol designed to have a protocol or protocols for each layer The ISO 7-layer reference model • International Organization for Standards (IS ! defined a 7-layer reference model as a guide to the design of a network protocol suite • "ayers are named and numbered# reference to $$layer n%% often means the nth layer of the IS &'layer reference model (

1) Physical Layer • • • • • )oncerned with the transmission of bits( *ow many volts for +, how many for ,Number of bits of second to be transmitted( Two way or one'way transmission Standardi.ed protocol dealing with electrical, mechanical and signaling interfaces( HBT 2105 1


it asks for retransmission( (send a control message!( )onsists of two sublayers3 • "ogical "ink )ontrol ("")! defines how data is transferred over the cable and provides data link service to the higher layers( • Medium 6ccess )ontrol (M6)! defines who can use the network when multiple computers are trying to access it simultaneously (i(e( Token passing.art of Internet protocol suite( • 6n I. telephone.rotocol! Internet transport protocol( T). assigns se<uence number and sends them( /eliable transport connections are built on top of 4(0> or I.( In case I. it sends an connection identifier IP (Internet Protocol) • )onnectionless • .TT • Send a call re<uest at the outset to the destination • If destination accepts the connection. 2thernet 7)SM68)9:!( )oncerned with the transmission of packets( )hoose the best path to send a packet ( routing !( It may be complex in a large network (e(g( Internet!( Shortest (distance! route vs( route with least delay( Static (long term average! vs( dynamic (current load! routing( Two protocols are most widely used( $%2& • )onnection riented • . (@niversal 9atagram .rotocol! 3 Internet connectionless transport layer protocol( 6pplication programs that do not need connection'oriented protocol generally use @9. 3 (Transport )ontrol .ation facilities( /arely supported (Internet suite does not!( HBT 2105 2 (2) Data Lin Layer (!) "et#or Layer • • • • • • • • (') Transport Layer • • • • • • • • • • • • • (&) Sessions Layer Fred @JKUAT .• • • • • • • • Many standards have been developed. ?idely used for network8transport layer (@NI4!( @9.8I. lost packets arriving out of order must be reordered( T).ublic networks. synchroni. 2uropean . *andles errors in the physical layer( 5roups bits into frames and ensures their correct delivery( 6dds some bits at the beginning and end of each frame plus the checksum( /eceiver verifies the checksum( If the checksum is not correct.( Aust theoryB Cery few applications use it( 2nhanced version of transport layer( 9ialog control.. pac et can be sent without a connection being established( • 2ach packet is routed to its destination independently( Network layer does not deal with lost messages( Transport layer ensures reliable service( =reaks the message (from sessions layer! into smaller packets. e(g( /S'010 (for serial communication lines!( 2xample 3 4(0.

0G(&G(. . addresses are written as four dot'separated decimal numbers between + and 0>>.rotocol (I. address to it hardware address( "ayer E ' Transport Fred @JKUAT HBT 2105 3 .. packets are addressed using I. usually subnetted like ours. is assigned by the local network administrators.H(E+( The leading . unshielded twisted pairs (@T. file transfer..! is used to map the I. EF'bit address called its 2thernet address or Media 6ccess )ontrol (M6)! address( M6) addresses are usually represented as six colon'separated pairs of hex digits.(() Presentation Layer • • • • • • • • • Aust theoryB Cery few applications use it( )oncerned with the semantics of the bits( 9efine records and fields in them( Sender can tell the receiver of the format( Makes machines with different internal representations to communicate( If implemented.! as its network layer interface( I. e(g(. e(g(. hardware addresses must be used to actually transport data from one host to another( The 6ddress /esolution . ' . and a loopback interface to send packets to itself( 2thernet addresses a host using a uni<ue..rotocol (6/. address( I.rotocol identifies each host with a 10'bit I..hysical layer defines the cable or physical medium itself. thicknet. is responsible for routing. DT. using a network interface( 6 host connected to an 2thernet would have an 2thernet interface to handle connections to the outside world.3ac3F>( This number is uni<ue and is associated with a particular 2thernet device( *osts with multiple network interfaces should use the same M6) address on each( The data link layer%s protocol'specific header specifies the M6) address of the packet%s source and destination( ?hen a packet is sent to all hosts (broadcast!. the first two bytes represents the network portion of the I.!( 6ll media are functionally e<uivalent( The main difference is in convenience and cost of installation and maintenance( )onverters from one media to another operate at this level( "ayer 0 ' 9ata "ink 9ata "ink layer defines the format of data on the network( 6 network data frame.'1 bytes of the I. F3+30+3. includes checksum. into smaller packets and host receiving the packet will have to reassemble the fragmented datagram( The Internetwork . and the host portion of the I. larger than MT@. connecting remote terminals. *TT. the best layer for cryptography( )ollection of miscellaneous protocols for high level applications 2lectronic mail. source and destination address. and data( The largest packet that can be sent through a data link layer defines the Maximum Transmission @nit (MT@!( The data link layer handles the physical and logical connections to the packet%s destination. and the third and fourth bytes identify the subnet and host respectively( 2ven though I. etc( (7) )pplication Layer ISO*OSI "et#or +odel The standard model for networking protocols and distributed applications is the International Standard rgani. is assigned by InterNI) /egistration Services. etc( 2(g( SMT. directing datagrams from one network to another( The network layer may have to break large datagrams. e(g(.hysical . locally by nocIindiana(edu( Dor large sites. under the contract to the National Science Doundation. a special M6) address (ff3ff3ff3ff3ff3ff! is used( "ayer 1 ' Network NDS uses Internetwork .. identify the network and the remaining bytes identifies the host on that network( The network portion of the I. Telnet. thinnet. aka packet.ation%s pen System Interconnect (IS 8 SI! model( It defines seven network layers( "ayer . addresses.

addressing and routing( T). ftp. uses I. T). falls within this layer( "ayer E ' 6pplication 2nd'user applications reside at this layer( )ommonly used applications include NDS. protocol has been used by most @nix workstation vendors( T). keeps track of the packet delivery order and the packets that must be resent( Maintaining this information for each connection makes T). protocols at the network layer( "ayer 1 ' Transport *andles communication among programs on a network( T).rovides network services to the end'users( Mail. ftp.8I.8I. and I)M.)! for its session protocol( /. but with less error checking( NDS is built on top of @9. telnet. Transmission )ontrol .Transport layer subdivides user'buffer into network'buffer si.8I.!. arp. sits at the transport layer( /eliability and speed are the primary difference between these two protocols( T). 9NS. 9NS.# TDT.ed datagrams and enforces desired transmission control( Two transport protocols. establishes connections between two hosts on the network through %sockets% which are determined by the I.8I.#/" 5IN# HBT 2105 4 Protocols .nction • • "et#or .( "ogin sessions uses T).( "ayer H ' . or @9. whereas NDS and broadcast use @9. ' "ink This layer defines the network hardware and device drivers( "ayer 0 ' Network This layer is used for basic communication.rotocol (T). a stateful protocol( @9. and @9. model are as follows( "ayer . is designed around a simple four'layer scheme( It does omit some features found under the SI model( 6lso it combines the features of some adJacent SI layers and splits other layers apart( The four network layers defined by T).rocedure )all (/. talk. NIS. ntp and traceroute( OSI +odel Layers Layer )pplication /ser Interface Fred @JKUAT -. rlogin.resentation 2xternal 9ata /epresentation (49/! sits at the presentation level( It converts local representation of data to its canonical form and vice versa( The canonical uses a standard byte ordering and structure packing convention.P*IP "et#or +odel 6lthough the SI model is widely used and often cited as the standard.rotocol (@9.# to run over the network allows access to network services that SNM.! and @ser 9atagram . address and port number( T). because of its speed and statelessness( Statelessness simplifies the crash recovery( "ayer > ' Session The session protocol defines the format of the data sent over the connections( The NDS uses the /emote .) may be built on either T). NDS are examples of network applications( T.# 0ate#ay used for applications specifically written = T. independent of the host( "ayer & ' 6pplication .omponents 9NS# DT. on the other hand provides a low overhead transmission service.

e'mail.. /6/. expanding graphics commands. data compression sets standards for different systems to provide seamless communication from multiple protocol stacks not always implemented in a network protocol 0ate#ay establishes. packets# the transport layer of the receiving computer reassembles the message from packets MtrainM is a good analogy KL the data is divided into identical units provides error'checking to guarantee error'free data delivery.• • • Presentation Translation • • • • • Session 2syncs and sessions2 • • • • • Transport pac ets3 flo# control 4 error-handling • • • • • • Fred @JKUAT support applications# SMT.) (identification! so only the designated parties can participate in the session provides synchroni.)# 6D.# 0ate#ay S. Net=I S'based applications 0ate#ay Translates from application to network 1edirector format and vice'versa all different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform format that the rest of the SI model can understand responsible for protocol conversion. the session would connect and re'connect if there was an interruption# recogni.# directly support user applications handles network access.ipes across the network Mail Slots responsible for name recognition /.# SM= error recovery 2xample apps are file transfer. maintains and ends sessions Net=I S Names . with on losses or duplications provides acknowledgment of successful HBT 2105 5 .ter between parties across the network Net=2@I divides streams of data into chunks or 6T..e names in sessions and register names in history additional connection below the session T).4 )d5anced .a6le layer N?"ink Tester manages the flow control of data Net=I S 8 7ro.# MIM2# NDS# DIN52/# directly represents the services that T2"N2T# N). 6/.ation services by planning check points in the data stream KL if session fails.data encryption 8 decryption. flow control and 6. character conversion.. only data after the most recent checkpoint need be transmitted manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long 2xamples are interactive login and file transfer connections.

ontrol ISD" 1o.hysical layer into data frames Tester control for delivery to the Network layer • manages responsible for error'free transfer of link frames to other computer via the . the network layer reassembles the data think of this layer stamping the addresses on each train car 7ridge turns packets into raw bits ..hysical control "ayer and this layer defines the methods used to defines transmit and receive data on the network( S6. the network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units( 6t the receiving end.# SD. SI Model to connect the NI) to the wiring.++.ter I)M.+. the devices use F+0(.6 Network and .# /6/. and at Logical Lin S#itch the receiving end turns bits into packets( .s It consists of the wiring.ting • • • • • Data Lin data frames to 6its • • • • • transmissions# re<uests retransmission if some packets donNt arrive error'free provides flow control and error'handling translates logical network address and IP# 6/. such as packet switching.ter • error handles data frames between the correctio Intelligent 8. data 92)net congestion and routing if router canNt send data frame as large as the source computer sends.# -rame 1elay computername KKL M6) address! IP$ De5ice responsible for N?"ink )T+ S#itch • addressing Net=2@I )d5anced .a6le flow from the . the receiving end packages raw data )d5anced .hysical layers n and "I. 7ro. the F+0(0 "ogical "ink signaling involved to transmit 8 receive )ontrol Fred @JKUAT HBT 2105 6 .ter names to their physical address (e(g( I5M.a6le • determining routes for sending SI Tester • managing network problems 99.# /I.# 1o."et#or addressing3 ro.

riority 1epeater transmits raw bit stream over physical I222 F+0 I222 F+0(0 +.. TD1 how cable is attached to NI) Oscilloscope defines techni<ues to transfer bit stream )mplifier to cable Fred @JKUAT HBT 2105 7 .0 9emand .ltiple9er cable IS 0.6s defines cables.data and the ability to detect signaling errors on the network media Physical hard#are3 ra# 6it stream • • • • +edia )ccess .ontrol • communi cates with the adapter card • controls the type of media being used3 F+0(1 )SM68)9 (2thernet! F+0(E Token =us (6/)net! F+0(> Token /ing F+0(.+ 8. and physical IS9N • Passi5e aspects • )cti5e defines NI) attachments to hardware. cards.