BIOSCI 101

THE UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND
FIRST SEMESTER, 2010 Campus: City

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Essential Biology: From Genomes to Organisms
(Time Allowed: TWO hours) INSTRUCTIONS Multiple Choice Questions: Multiple Choice Questions: • Use the Teleform Sheet. • Use pencils only. Shade the rectangle completely. • Do not cross out mistakes. ERASE them completely. • Complete family name, first name, initial and ID Number. Do not complete your stream. Fill spaces from left to right. • Your code is 26039039. Check this is correct on your teleform. • Failure to enter the version code or other details correctly will mean your MCQ cannot be marked.

Short Answers: Exam Format:

• • •

Print your name and I.D. at the top of EVERY ANSWER PAGE Record your answers in spaces provided. All questions must be attempted. (Total marks = 100) ALL QUESTIONS MUST BE ATTEMPTED.

Multiple Choice Questions: Section A: Evolution Section B: Biochemistry Short Answers: Section C: Section D: Evolution Biochemistry

20 marks 25 marks 30 marks 25 marks

Turn in the teleform answer sheet and short answer sheets (Sections C & D) Retain your Multiple Choice question pages (sections A & B)

VERSION 26039039

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BIOSCI 101

SECTION A

EVOLUTION

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
(20 marks) (Recommended time 30 minutes)

Choose the CORRECT answer from the alternatives provided. Question 1: Question 2: What is the most important missing evidence or observation in Darwin’s theory of 1859? 1.  The source of genetic variation. 2.  Evidence that some organisms became extinct. 3.  Observation that competition exists in populations. 4.  Observation that variation is common in populations. 5.  Evidence of the overproduction of offspring. Even in Darwin’s time, the blending hypothesis was incompatible with observed facts. If the blending hypothesis were true, then what should one expect to observe over the course of generations? 1.  Genetic polymorphisms should increase. 2.  Members of a breeding population should become more uniform in phenotype. 3.  Genetic variation should increase. 4.  Phenotypic polymorphisms should increase. 5.  Neutral variation should decrease.

The following information is required to answer questions 3 and 4. A large population of laboratory animals has been allowed to breed randomly for a number of generations. After several generations, 36% of the animals display a recessive trait (aa), the same percentage as at the beginning of the breeding program. The rest of the animals show the dominant phenotype, with heterozygotes indistinguishable from the homozygous dominants. Question 3: Question 4: What is the estimated frequency of allele a in the gene pool? 1.  0.80 2.  0.18 3.  0.60 4.  0.40 5.  0.70 What proportion of the population is probably heterozygous (Aa) for this trait? 1.  0.72 2.  0.48 3.  0.36 4.  0.60 5.  0.18
CONTINUED

  recombination at fertilisation.  the founder effect.  disruptive selection. when they compete with each other for access to females.  natural selection. 4. 4.  leaves more viable offspring than others of its species. The colouration of the male genitalia is best explained as the result of ________. diversity is understood to be a result of genetic variation. and specifically of ________. 3. disruptive selection 4. 5.  sexual selection. 5. 4.  Recombination can only occur in diploid organisms. When we say that an individual organism has a greater fitness than another individual. Males use their colourful genitalia in dominance displays. 5. 3. intersexual selection 2. 3.  recombination by crossing over in meiosis.  mates more frequently than others of its species. we specifically mean that the organism: 1.  utilises resources more efficiently than other species occupying similar niches.  Diploid organisms are more likely to clone successfully than haploid organisms.  competes for resources more successfully than others of its species. Which of the following is one important evolutionary feature of the diploid condition? 1.  natural selection.  the bottleneck effect.3 - BIOSCI 101 Question 5: Question 6: Question 7: Question 8: Question 9: In modern terminology. Adult male vervet monkeys have red penises and blue scrotums.  translocations and mistakes in meiosis.  sexual recombination.  sexual selection.  mistakes in DNA replication. 5. 2. stabilising selection 3. 2. 3.  Diploid organisms express less of their genetic variability than haploid organisms. intrasexual selection CONTINUED . 2. 1.  mistakes in translation of structural genes.  natural selection.VERSION 26039039 . 2. Sources of variation for evolution include all of the following EXCEPT : 1. intrasexual selection 5.  lives longer than others of its species. The following important concepts of population genetics are due to random events or chance EXCEPT: 1.  The DNA in diploid cells is more resistant to mutation than the DNA in haploid cells.  mutation. 4.  An extra set of genes facilitates the inheritance of characteristics acquired by the previous generation.

5.  prezygotic barriers 5.  geographic isolation 4.  large populations.  ecological isolation 3.  natural selection operates in ways that are beyond the capability of the human mind to comprehend.  sterile offspring Which of the following MUST occur during a period of geographic isolation in order for two sibling species to remain genetically distinct following their geographic reunion in the same home range? 1. The reason the actual forelimbs of these mammals do not seem to be optimally arranged is because: 1.  artificial selection.  reproductive isolation 4. and bats. 3.  the appearance of new species in the midst of old ones.  ecological isolation 3. but will do so given enough time.  postzygotic barriers 2.  cause convergent evolution.  gametic incompatibility 2.  natural selection is generally limited to modifying structures that were present in previous generations and in previous species. 5. A defining characteristic of allopatric speciation is: 1.  geographic isolation.VERSION 26039039 Question 10: . 4.  weaken the intrinsic reproductive barriers between horses and donkeys.4 - BIOSCI 101 Question 11: Question 12: Question 13: Question 14: A proficient engineer can easily design skeletal structures that are more functional than those currently found in the forelimbs of such diverse mammals as horses.  asexually reproducing populations.  result in the extinction of one of the two parental species. the production of sterile mules by interbreeding between female horses and male donkeys should: 1.  temporal isolation Theoretically. we should not doubt that natural selection ultimately produces the best design. 4. 3. phenotype is not merely determined by genotype.  natural selection has not had sufficient time to create the optimal design in each case.  timing of courtship display 5. 2. whales. 5. Which of the following is NOT considered an intrinsic isolating mechanism? 1.  in many cases. 3. CONTINUED . 2.  eventually result in the formation of a single species from the two parental species. but by the environment as well.  reinforce prezygotic and postzygotic barriers between horses and donkeys. 2.  though we may not consider the fit between the current skeletal arrangements and their functions excellent. 4.

What must have happened following the initial colonisation event to account for the current situation? (i) cladogenesis (ii) anagenesis (iii) allopatric speciation (iv) adaptive radiation 1. 4.  It can change the mating behaviour of animals. The origin of a new plant species by hybridisation coupled with nondisjunction is an example of: 1.  It can improve success in island habitats.  behavioural isolation.  allopatric speciation.  genetic drift.  heterochrony.  autopolyploidy.  paedomorphosis.5 - BIOSCI 101                                                                            Question 16: Question 17: Question 18: Question 19: The Galapagos archipelago appeared about 2 million years ago.  3.  2. Which of the following is a way that allopolyploidy can most directly cause speciation? 1.  transitional fossils. 3.  evolution of new species features long periods during which changes are occurring. interspersed with short periods of equilibrium or stasis. 4. 5. CONTINUED .  It can produce heterochrony.  (i). (iii).VERSION 26039039 Question 15: .  sympatric speciation. and (iv) (ii) and (iii) (ii). 2. intermediate between newer species and their parent species. most existing species will branch gradually into new species. A single hypothetical colonisation event introduced a species of finch to one island in the distant past.  natural selection is unimportant as a mechanism of evolution. 3. 4. 2.  5. (iii). and (iv) (i) and (iv) (i) and (iii) A rapid method of speciation that has been important in the history of flowering plants is: 1. 5. 4.  habitat selection.  polyploidy. 3.  4. 2. several islands in the archipelago contain unique species of finches. Today. 5. 5. 3.  It can generate geographic barriers.  given enough time. According to the concept of punctuated equilibrium: 1.  a mutation in the gene controlling the timing of flowering.  a new species accumulates most of its unique features as it comes into existence.  It can overcome hybrid sterility. 2. should be abundant. when submerged volcanoes (seamounts) rose above the ocean’s surface.

  They often involve hydrolysis of macromolecules.  They often produce NADH or FADH2. 4. 3. 5. 3. 2.  protein 4.  starch The phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate: 1.  oxidative phosphorylation 5. 3.  fermentation CONTINUED . 4.  Dogs and wolves belong to the same order.  Dogs and wolves are both members of the family Canidae.  oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA 3.  is an endergonic reaction that takes place because it is coupled to the exergonic hydrolysis of ATP.  Glycolysis is an example of a catabolic pathway.  is an exergonic reaction that is coupled to the endergonic hydrolysis of ATP. Which of the following would yield the most energy per gram when oxidised? 1.  Dogs and wolves have very similar morphologies. Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidised to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water? 1.  They are divergent processes in which a few precursors form a wide variety of polymeric products. 5.  citric acid cycle 4. 4.  fat 5.  glucose 3.6 - BIOSCI 101 Which of the following statements represents the best explanation for the observation that the nuclear DNA of wolves and domestic dogs has a very high degree of homology? 1.  glycogen 2. 5.  is so strongly exergonic that it does not require a catalyst.  Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently. Question 21: Question 22: Question 23: Question 24: Which of the following statements is NOT characteristic of catabolic reactions? 1.  glycolysis 2.  is not an endergonic reaction.  is an exergonic reaction not coupled to any other reaction.VERSION 26039039 Question 20: . 2. 2. SECTION B BIOCHEMISTRY MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (25 marks) (Recommended time 30 minutes) Choose the CORRECT answer from the alternatives provided.  Dogs and wolves are similar because of convergent evolution.  They serve to generate energy.

4.  retained in the pyruvate. 2. The reactions of glycolysis occur in which of the following eukaryotic cell compartments? 1.  catalyses the phosphorylation of glucose to form glucose 6-phosphate in the liver. 4.  NAD+ has more chemical energy than NADH.  electron transport 2.  dehydrogenase 5.  used to phosphorylate fructose to form fructose 6-phosphate.  catalyses the conversion of ADP to ATP.  Both cytoplasm and mitochondria.  NAD+ is reduced by the action of dehydrogenases.  cytoplasm 3.  nucleus 4. forming ATP. 2. 5. cytoplasm and mitochondria.  NAD+ can receive electrons for use in oxidative phosphorylation.  is widely distributed and occurs in most mammalian tissues. 2. hence.  catalyses a readily reversible reaction.  mitochondrion During glycolysis. when glucose is catabolised to pyruvate.  oxidative phosphorylation 4.  has a low Km for glucose and.  glycolysis 5.  kinase All of the following statements about NAD+ are true EXCEPT: 1.  Nucleus.  phosphatase 3. 2.  stored in the NADH produced.  isomerase 4. Which type of enzyme is involved in phosphorylation reactions? 1.VERSION 26039039 .  In the absence of NAD+ . 3. most of the energy of glucose is: 1. CONTINUED .  chemiosmosis 3.7 - BIOSCI 101 Question 25: Question 26: Question 27: Question 28: Question 29: Question 30: Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent? 1. 5.  transferred directly to ATP. 3.  transferred to ADP. 5. is important in the phosphorylation of glucose in the starved state.  carboxylase 2. 3.  NAD+ is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. glycolysis cannot function. 5. 4.  the citric acid cycle Glucokinase: 1.

O2 and ATP. CONTINUED .  It is activated by ADP. 4. 5. 1. however. Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain in animal cells is NOT true? 1. and (iii) is bonded to coenzyme A. FADH2 and CO2.  involves the participation of an oxidation-reduction coenzyme. which is given off as a molecule of CO2.  Four protein complexes are involved in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the final electron acceptor.  involves the participation of an activation-transfer coenzyme.  is catalysed by an enzyme belonging to the dehydrogenase family.  Electrons are carried from Complex I and Complex II to Complex III by the lipid soluble molecule coenzyme Q or ubiquinone.  acetyl CoA. 4.  all of the other options given are correct. 3. (ii) is oxidised to form a two-carbon compound called acetate.  acetyl CoA.8 - BIOSCI 101 Question 31: Question 32: Question 33: Question 34:                                              Question 35: Phosphofructokinase is an important control enzyme.  It is a coordinator of the processes of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.  It is inhibited by ATP. NAD+. 2. 3.  is not a readily reversible reaction. the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolised in the citric acid cycle.  The protein complexes are located in the inner mitochondrial membrane.  Complex II. 3. The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and CO2: 1. 3.  It is activated by citrate. 5. 4. FAD. Which of the following statements concerning this enzyme are NOT true? 1. In the presence of oxygen (O2). 2.  Cyanide is an effective inhibitor of electron transport. 3. 4. Succinate dehydrogenase is located in this complex.  acetyl CoA.  Complex IV.  It is not known where succinate dehydrogenase is located. 5. H+ and CO2.  NADH produced in glycolysis is the principal source of electrons for the electron transport chain. These three steps result in the formation of: 1. ATP and CO2.  Complex III. 2.  It is an allosteric enzyme.VERSION 26039039 .  acetyl CoA. First. 4.  Complex I. 5. 2. 5.  acetyl CoA. H2 and CO2. NADH. the pyruvate (i) loses a carbon. 2.

  cellular ATP stores à  muscle glycogen à blood glucose à  fatty acids à  creatine phosphate.  a linear chain glucose polymer that can be processed at both ends to release glucose. 3.  cellular ATP stores à creatine phosphate à  muscle glycogen à blood glucose à  fatty acids.  utilised for low intensity muscle work. 5. 4. 2.  Hexokinase is more active in liver than in skeletal muscle.  Insulin stimulates the liver to take up glucose from the blood.  Glycogen synthesis uses ADP-glucose.  Dropping blood glucose triggers pancreatic α-cells to secrete insulin. 4. 5. 4. Which statement is TRUE? 1. 3. 2.  muscle glycogen à blood glucose à  fatty acids à cellular ATP stores à  creatine phosphate. 2.  creatine phosphate à  muscle glycogen à blood glucose à fatty acids à cellular ATP stores.  Pancreatic β-cells are stimulated to secrete insulin by elevated blood glucose levels. 3.  Insulin stimulates growth. 4.  Insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis. 5.  Glucokinase is more active in skeletal muscle than the liver. 3.  Reducing ends of glycogen polymers can attach to glycogenin.  Glucagon stimulates liver glycogen breakdown.  creatine phosphate à blood glucose à muscle glycogen à fatty acids à cellular ATP stores. 2.  hydrophobic.  Glucose 6-phosphatase is unique to the skeletal muscle.  Branches in glycogen polymers are formed by α1-6 glycosidic linkages.  Glucokinase has a lower affinity than hexokinase for glucose.  rapidly cleaved to maintain blood glucose levels.  easily taken up by the brain. 4. 2. What is the general order of predominant fuel use in hard working skeletal muscles as they work to exhaustion? 1. Which statement is NOT true? 1.9 - BIOSCI 101 Question 36: Question 37: Question 38: Question 39: Question 40: Which statement is INCORRECT? 1. 5. 5.  Glycogen is only oxidised from the reducing ends of branched polymers.VERSION 26039039 . Liver glycogen is an important fuel storage source because it is: 1. 3. CONTINUED .  Glycogen is stored in the liver.

  phosphofructokinase.  Two glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate molecules are used to make one ribulose 1. 3. QUESTION/ANSWER SHEETS FOLLOW CONTINUED Question 45: . 2. glucose 6-phosphatase 4. 5.5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCo) binds CO2.VERSION 26039039 Question 41: Question 42: Question 43: Question 44: .  H2O à  P680 à  plastocyanin à  cytochrome complex à  plastoquinone à P700 à  Ferredoxin à NADP+ reductase à NADP+ 4.  Glucagon stimulates muscles to store glucose.  glucose 6-phosphatase. 4. pyruvate carboxylase. Inside a light exposed chloroplast electrons flow along which pathway? 1.  Epinephrine stimulates glycogen breakdown by activating adenylate kinase. which one contains the distinctive enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway? 1. pyruvate dehydrogenase.  Normal blood glucose is around 80 grams/decilitre. pyruvate carboxylase. lactate dehydrogenase.  NADPH transfers electrons to the Calvin cycle. glucose 6-phosphatase 5. pyruvate kinase 3.  When chlorophyll absorbs light it becomes excited and gains an electron.  The Calvin cycle produces oxygen.10 - BIOSCI 101 Of the following lists.  Lactate is not a substrate for gluconeogenesis. 4.  H2O à P700 à  plastocyanin à  cytochrome complex à  plastoquinone à  P680 à  Ferredoxin à NADP+ reductase à NADP+ What statement is NOT true for the Calvin cycle? 1.  Six CO2 molecules are required to make one glucose molecule.  H2O à P700 à  plastocyanin à  Ferredoxin à  plastoquinone à  P680 à cytochrome complex à NADP+ reductase à NADP+ 2.  Photosystem I is before Photosystem II in the light reaction of photosynthesis.  The product of the Calvin cycle is glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. 2. 3. 4. fructose 1.  pyruvate carboxylase.  glucose 6-phosphatase. pyruvate carboxylase.  glucose 6-phosphatase. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.  H2O à  P680 à plastoquinone à  cytochrome complex à plastocyanin à P700 à Ferredoxin à NADP+ reductase à NADP+ 3. Which statement is TRUE of photosynthesis? 1.  NADP+ à P700 à  plastocyanin à  Ferredoxin à  plastoquinone à  P680 à cytochrome complex à NADP+ reductase à  H2O 5. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.5-bisphosphate molecule. 2. 5.  Ribulose 1.  Chlorophyll a absorbs visible light most strongly at 520 nm. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase Which statement is TRUE? 1. pyruvate carboxylase.  The cytochrome complex moves four protons into the thylakoid space. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.6-bisphosphatase. 3.  Mammalian red blood cells have mitochondria. 5.

CONTINUED .11 - BIOSCI 101 THERE ARE NO QUESTIONS ON THIS PAGE.VERSION 26039039 .

...VERSION 26039039 QUESTION/ANSWER SHEET FIRST NAME: ........ ID NO: 46 47 ....... Darwin... 46.......... Plato. Socrates.. Lyall....................... Haldane...................... Aristotle.... Fitzroy... FAMILY NAME: .. Weinberg..... Wallace CONCEPT (a) Essentialism (b) Teleology (c) Natural selection (d) Transformationism (e) Gradualism (f) Binomial nomenclature (g) Catastrophism (h) Biological species concept (i) Laws of inheritance (j) Exponential increase in populations marks Person(s) 5 CONTINUED .. Galileo.. Lamarck........ Who is most closely associated with these concepts? (5 marks total) Select name(s) from the following list and enter the name next to the appropriate concept.. Hutton.12 - BIOSCI 101 . 48 49 Total FOR OFFICIAL USE SECTION C EVOLUTION SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (30 marks) (Recommended time 30 minutes) NOTE: Answer ALL questions.. Cuvier........ Linnaeus........................ Malthus......... Mendel....... Mayr....

. character ___________________ Which species has diverged the most from the ancestral species A? (1 mark) ________________________________________________________________ (d) Which species has diverged the least from the ancestral species A? (1 mark) ________________________________________________________________ (1 mark) marks (e) What species is the common ancestor of I and K? ________________________________________________________________ (1 mark) (f) What character is likely the result of Convergent Evolution? 8 ________________________________________________________________ CONTINUED .13 - BIOSCI 101 The cladogram below represents the phylogenetic relationships among six extant species and five ancestral species (and an outgroup). (2 marks) (b) Label the two Families (as #I and or #II) in the diagram and identify the character that defines each Family (2 marks) Family #I. (8 marks total) This cladogram represents a single Order defined by the character #1. (a) Circle the groups of species most likely to be included in each of the two Families. The numbered horizontal bars indicate the evolution of characters present in the taxa above the bar. character ___________________ (c) Family #II.VERSION 26039039 47. Within this Order are two (and only two) monophyletic Families.

......... Intermediate adults are relatively rare...14 - BIOSCI 101 ... Force (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Male humpback whales on the winter breeding grounds sing an elaborate song that seems to attract females....... there were no albino individuals in this population....VERSION 26039039 QUESTION/ANSWER SHEET FIRST NAME: 48... An albino calf is observed in a large... Subsequent monitoring showed that diversity was restored. The pair is very successful at raising young and the colony grows over the first generation.... ID NO: .. marks (i) Two populations of kiwi became isolated by a busy motorway and genetic monitoring indicated that diversity was being lost in both populations.......... (h) A single breeding pair of takahe.. however. (g) Genetic samples collected from the critically endangered Maui’s dolphin of the North Island show far lower diversity than samples collected from the more abundant Hector’s dolphin of the South Island.. Only male beaked whales have emergent teeth (in the form of tusks) and only males are covered with scars from these tusks. A nocturnal species of moth found in sympatry with bats (Microchiroptera) is sensitive to high frequency sound. 9 CONTINUED ...... The adults of a certain species of land snail are found as either a light cream color or a solid brown color.... is translocated to an island sanctuary...... A related species of moth that is diurnal is not sensitive to high frequency sound. unexploited population of whales.................. ........ FAMILY NAME: ................... During the subsequent generations. In the table below list the most likely force resulting in the observed pattern or change to a population..... (1 mark each) SCENARIO There are five unrelated species of ‘anteaters’ that have evolved independently in different parts of the world........... Prior to this sighting................ a New Zealand endemic bird.... A series of tunnels were constructed to allow kiwis to disperse under the road......... the number of chicks that survives to fledging declines....

The phylogenetic tree above (Figure 3) represents one of the current hypotheses about the pattern and timing of human evolution and related outgroups. indicate the most likely time point (node) or interval (branch) for the origin of the following characters or events in the evolution of hominins using the labeled nodes as reference points (for example. Referring to this tree.VERSION 26039039 .15 - BIOSCI 101 Figure 3 49. at node A or between nodes B and C). (8 marks total) (a) the first upright walking ape ____________________________________ (b) tool use ___________________________________________________ (c) the first migration of Homo out of Africa __________________________ (d) symbolic representations ______________________________________ (e) migration of modern humans from Africa _________________________ (f) What species is represented by node I? ___________________________ (g) What is the approximate date of node G?__________________________ (h) What species is represented by F? ________________________________ (i) What is the approximate date of node A? __________________________ marks 8 CONTINUED .

. (Do NOT label the diagram)..16 - BIOSCI 101 ...... name the metabolic pathways............... ID NO: 50 .......... 50................. 51 52 53 54 Total FOR OFFICIAL USE SECTION D BIOCHEMISTRY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (25 marks) (Recommended time 30 minutes) NOTE: Answer ALL questions.................. The above schematic is an overview of cellular respiration... (5 marks total) A: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) B: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) C: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) D: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) E: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) F: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) G: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) H: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) I: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) J: _____________________________________________________________(1/2 mark) CONTINUED marks 5 ................................ molecules and processes labelled A-J............................. FAMILY NAME: ......VERSION 26039039 QUESTION/ANSWER SHEET FIRST NAME: .... In the spaces provided below........

Five phases have been allocated to describe the processes of how the body derives and allocates glucose.5 Major fuel(s) used by the brain 2. identifying the origin(s) of blood glucose and the fuel(s) used by the brain during the five phases.17 - BIOSCI 101 51. Note: there may be more than one origin of glucose and more than one fuel used by the brain in each phase.VERSION 26039039 . The following question relates to glucose homeostasis in humans. (5 marks total) During starvation blood glucose levels are maintained through a range of mechanisms.5 marks 5 CONTINUED . Complete the table below. Phase 1 ~0-4 hrs Origin(s) of blood glucose Phase 2 ~5-16 hrs Phase 3 ~16-36 hrs Phase 4 ~2-24 days Phase 5 beyond 24 days 2.

..................................... 52. FAMILY NAME: ...................VERSION 26039039 QUESTION/ANSWER SHEET FIRST NAME: .............. (a) Identify the cellular compartments labelled A-D in these organelles: A: _____________________________________________________ (1/2 mark) B: _____________________________________________________ (1/2 mark) C: _____________________________________________________ (1/2 mark) D: _____________________________________________________ (1/2 mark) (b) Explain..... in three to four sentences......................... ID NO: ....18 - BIOSCI 101 ............... The above schematic is a comparison of chemiosmosis in mitochondria and chloroplasts... how electron transport is coupled to oxidative phosphorylation in plant and animal cells (3 marks) 2 3 Total marks CONTINUED 5 .........................

(1 mark) (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) marks 5 CONTINUED .VERSION 26039039 . and these are then rearranged and cleaved to produce six molecules of ______________________. Molecules containing six carbon atoms are then formed. In theory the energetic inputs to produce the two molecules used to make glucose equates to ____molecules of ATP and ____molecules of NADPH. The reactions have historically been referred to as the ______________________of photosynthesis. which are generated by a complex pathway with the final reaction steps catalysed by the enzymes ___________________ and ______________________. The Calvin cycle is dependent on upstream light reactions that supply ATP and NADPH. (5 marks total) The Calvin cycle occurs in the __________ of chloroplasts.19 - BIOSCI 101 53: The following question relates to the Calvin cycle. Only one of these three carbon molecules is extracted for each set of three CO2 molecules consumed. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word(s) or numbers to complete the paragraph. respectively. This step is catalysed by ______________________. Two of these molecules are required to combine to make glucose. while the remaining five molecules continue in the Calvin cycle. These energy-rich molecules are then used to fix carbon into simple carbohydrates by the stepwise addition of three atmospheric CO2 molecules into three molecules of ____________________ in the carbon fixation phase of the Calvin cycle. a product of the Calvin cycle which is also an intermediate of the______________________ pathway. a highly abundant enzyme in the biosphere.

FAMILY NAME: .....................................VERSION 26039039 ................................................. Diagrams with explanatory notes are acceptable.... (5 marks total) 54: Write short notes on ONE (1) of the following topics.. Please circle question attempted: a or b marks 5 .................... EITHER: (a) The transport of glucose across the cell membrane and its retention in the cell OR: (b) Lactate production under anaerobic conditions and the Cori cycle Write your answer in the box provided below...................20 - BIOSCI 101 QUESTION/ANSWER SHEET FIRST NAME: ...... ID NO: ..........