Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow

Emil Johansson

Master Thesis B-EES-0201

Electric Power Systems Department of Electrical Engineering Royal Institute of Technology Sweden

Master Thesis Submitted to the Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Electrical Engineering.

Västerås 2002

Abstract
In this work, it is described how different synchronous machine models are derived; especially those used in the power system simulation software Simpow. There are various ways how to describe the model of a synchronous machine, in the literature the biggest difference is the per unit system used in the models. Other differences are: the definitions of the d- and q-axis, the performance of the dq0transform, and, of course, the number of damper windings modelled in the rotor circuit. In this report, the per unit system used is thoroughly described, so the risk of misunderstanding is minimized. Theoretical foundations have been found for the equations used in the FORTRANcoded synchronous machine models implemented in Simpow. In this thesis, these equations are derived on a general basis, and are thoroughly derived for the models used in Simpow. There is also an explanation of relations between different models. New DSL-coded models have been programmed for the four fundamental frequency models in Simpow. These new models are validated, and have been found to have a close resemblance with the “old” FORTRAN-models.

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......................................................2 4........1.................................................................................................2 1........3 4.....................................4........................................................................ 19 Machine per unit bases ........................................4 Three-phase stator to two-phase global transform .............2 4......... 29 q-axis ..................3...... 29 Conclusions ............................................... 11 Time dependency............................................................ 25 d-axis .......................2.2 4....... 27 Rotor voltages .............................................................................2..................................................................................... 19 Per unit flux linkage equations.............................................................9 Mathematical description ............2 2..........................................................3 3.4 The dq0-transformation ............. 20 dq0-axes flux linkages...........3.................................. 30 Per unit torque equations ...............................................................................................1 Introduction ......2..................2........................4. 27 Field winding .. 22 q-axis ........................................2 4.................Table of Contents 1 1....................... 31 -v- ............................................1 Outline .........1..............................2............................................1 Acknowledgement.3 4...................................3.1 1......................................1...........4 4.......4 4.................2.........................................................2................................1 4..........1 Preface .. 21 d-axis ........... 15 Per unit representation ................................4 2 2.............................2 1.........2 3..1...1 2......3................................................................1....3 Multiple pole machines................1 4.....3 4.................. 24 Conclusions .......... 24 0-axis ...... 29 d-axis ............................................3 1...................... 28 Damper windings ...................2....... 25 q-axis .........................................................................................................1 4................3 4.........................3...................4 Time dependency.............8 Conclusions ....6 Reference systems in Simpow ..........................2.......................................... 14 Reciprocity ........3.....2 1.......... 27 Stator voltages ................ 30 Fundamental frequency models ..2....1 Project description.................................3 Direct and quadrature axis ........................4 4.......6 Two-phase global to local transform.........................................3..............................3 1.........................2.....3 3 3....3 1........... 24 Definition of the transient and sub-transient reactances ............2 2....7 Fundamental frequency models .......3................ 27 Per unit voltage equations...2................................2...2 4...............................1 2..... 20 General description ...........................2...................................4 4 4...1................3...1 4................. 29 Definition of the time constants ........4...............1 1.............2..........7 Instantaneous value models.......................................................................................4............................2.............2.....2 Theory ............1 4...................... 28 Summary of the rotor voltage equations ......... 11 Machine equations ...........6 Final dq0-transform ....................................1............................. 13 The dq0-transformation ......2 4.................3.......3.....4..........1 1....1 2.1 4.............................................3 Physical description...........3 4.......1 3....1 4...................................2 4.3.......................................

...........................................................65 Appendix C...1...........4 5...46 Fundamental frequency model ........................................................1 5.................................................................................4..................6..............75 .........5........................................48 Programming ....................1 5...................3..............40 Equivalent circuit ..............................3 5........6..................................4..............................3.........vi - .......5 5...................4.57 Conclusions.................local per unit transformation ...............71 References ..........................2 4...............5...........3..................................1 5.......................1 5...............................2 5.....................1 5.........2 5......................................37 Description of Type 4.....39 Equivalent circuit 39 Type 3A........1 8...4...........51 Validation .67 Appendix D......................................1 5.........1 5....37 Assumptions for the classical model..............................41 Fundamental frequency model .....................................................57 Appendix A.................................................................38 Instantaneous value model................................3.............................31 Global .....38 Equivalent circuit 39 Fundamental frequency model ......................47 Saturation............................4........................................3 5..............................1........................................3.........3.......3....................2 5................................................33 Transient-/Machine stability ..............................32 Modelling .......43 Fundamental frequency model ..57 Future work ..................45 Equivalent circuit ............................................3........45 Instantaneous value model.............................................33 Initial conditions at steady state ........1 5......................73 List of symbols .42 Type 2A.......................2 5........................................................43 Equivalent circuit ...........5 5 5.....................6 5.....................7 6 7 8 8...........................37 Assumptions in Type 4 ..........43 Instantaneous value model..................................................2 5......2 Models without damper windings....................1 5.............................44 Type 1A.....................................................................................................................................3..................................................................34 Type 4 ...............3..3.............6.............................1.................................................................2.........2 5............................................................................1 5..1.............................................1 5...............40 Instantaneous value model..........59 Appendix B...................5.................53 Conclusions and future work ...............

............................................7 Equivalent d-circuit for Type3A.....11 Flux linkage ............ 44 Figure 5....and for the FORTRAN-coded Type 1A .... 35 Figure 5........................................ in SI units .................... instantaneous value model in per unit .................10 Equivalent dq-circuits for Type1A..............................................3 Equivalent dq0-circuits for Type 4.......vii - . leakage inductance instantaneous value model in SI units ........................................4 Equivalent circuit for Type 4....................................6 Equivalent d-circuit for Type 3A..& 0-sequence circuits........................................................................ instantaneous value model in SI units ........................................................................... 54 .................................... 42 Figure 5....1 Definition of generator quantities and the direct...................................2 Ud for both the DSL.......8 Equivalent q-circuit for Type3A...... 39 Figure 5............................2 Voltage diagram of steady-state equivalent circuit .. 20 Figure 5.......................................................... 3 Figure 2............................... 40 Figure 5.......3 Difference between Ud for the DSL...........2 Schematic view of a two-pole three-phase synchronous machine ...........and FORTRAN-coded Type 1A ..............1 Three magnetically coupled windings........................ fundamental frequency model..................1 Steady-state equivalent circuit............... 40 Figure 5.. 48 Figure 7... 42 Figure 5.............and quadrature axes.......... symmetrical components ...............5 Equivalent negative..........................................1 Power systems used during validation ............ 47 Figure 5.........mmf diagram.................. showing effects of saturation............ 35 Figure 5.............................. leakage inductance instantaneous value model in SI units ................... leakage inductance instantaneous value model in SI units ........ fundamental frequency model in SI units ............. 42 Figure 5................Table of figures Figure 2......................................... 5 Figure 4.......9 Equivalent dq-circuits for Type2A.............................................................. 53 Figure 7.......... 54 Figure 7...........

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give the physicalmathematical description of the machine included in such global reference systems used when simulating power systems. [4] and [5]. if there is time. the power system simulation software developed by ABB. there are four synchronous machine models in the standard library of models. The realised models shall by simulation of a sufficiently number of cases be validated against existing models. dq0transformation. DSL. Further. The contents of the reports are mainly these equations. but other literature should be examined. -1- . realise the four synchronous machine models from Simpow with DSL. The models have regularly been used in power system simulations and have been found to give enough accuracy for most cases. The thesis was carried out at the department of Power Systems Analysis. and. The differences between these models are the representation of the rotor circuits. a fundamental frequency model shall be realised and validated. The realisation of the models is to be based on classical theory of the synchronous machine local reference system (two-axis theory. ABB Utilities. at the Royal Institute of Technology. with references to appropriate literature. 1. and equivalent schemes). 1. The models are coded using FORTRAN in the 1980’s. is a central part of the work. where the parameters that must be given to the model and the variables calculated by the models are listed. The work shall be documented in a technical report. the models have been changed and these changes are only briefly documented. Additional documentation of the models is in the Simpow user’s manual [3]. special models have been made using the Simpow Dynamic Simulation Language. This will give opportunity to notice eventual imperfections. During the years. in Västerås during the autumn 2001. Documentation of the realised models. A clear description shall be made of the theory and of test cases used for validation.1 Introduction Preface 1 Introduction This report is one part of the result of the master thesis work in the Master of Science Electrical Engineering Programme. • • • • 1.2 • • Project description Using available theory and equations.3 Outline This report describes how different synchronous machine models are derived and gives a background to how different models are related. so shall also an instantaneous value model. These are documented in special reports. To start with. The other parts of the work are the code for the programmed machine models and a technical report for ABB. without any reference to the theory behind them. based on equations summarised in the technical reports [1] and [2]. Theoretical foundation exists. For other cases.1 Preface Within Simpow.

these DSL-coded models are validated against the already existing FORTRAN-coded models. after the Lützen-fog has left the kitchen. Lic. Especially I would like to thank: Mr. I have had a lot of help from different people. Mr. and in particularly my mother who probably will be as relieved as I when this work is finished. Mats Leksell and Tech. Mr. I wish to thank him for all the time he has spent with me. my 2nd supervisor from KTH. I wish to thank Professor Lennart Söder. helping me to understand even the most simple of problems. for his comments on my work and the various conversations during Sunday dinner. when I was somewhat confused. especially for the hint towards German literature. –Gott würfelt nicht. Chapter 8 consists of the conclusions drawn during the work and a summary over the work that is still to be done. Lars Lindkvist. I would also like to thank him for his positive thinking: ‘It is never too late to give up. in SI units. Magnus Öhrström. And for his daily cheering comment: ‘Are you finished soon?’ Mr. I would like to thank my family. for their support through all my years of study. At last. I would also like to thank my friend. is described for a general synchronous machine model. Lic. In chapter 3 the derivation of the time independent and reciprocal machine equations. Jonas Persson. Mathias Carlsson. While in chapter 7. 1. twice. In chapter 6. Fredrik Carlsson for their engagement in the start-up phase of my work.4 Acknowledgement During this thesis work. I would also like to thank Mr. Whereas chapter 4 contains the per unit description of these equations. and for giving me the opportunity of attending the Simpow Basic Course. At the Power Systems Analysis department at ABB Utilities I would like to thank everybody for making me feel at home at the department. my 1st supervisor from the Department of Electrical Engineering at KTH.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Chapter 2 describes the basic definitions used in the report. Emil’. Bo Poulsen. who has been most helpful with all my programming difficulties. who has helped and guided me through my work. for his comments on my report. Tech. who is a better source of knowledge than any book I have ever read. and his e-mail-mania that always is a source of joy. a short introduction to the DSL-programming and the DSL-coded models is given. -2- . Tore Petersson. my supervisor from ABB. even though he is busy with the fulfilment of his Technology Licentiate degree. Chapter 5 thoroughly describes the four different machine models used in Simpow. but first and foremost from Mr. even though I haven’t got a Simpow release named after me yet.

global reference axis a ia ua ufd ifd uc ic d ω θ a i1d 1d ub ib i1q fd 1q δ b q c Figure 2. and angle. Fundamental frequency models are normally used when simulating the transient stability of larger power systems. ia. in this report generator definitions are used. To avoid misunderstandings.2 Theory Physical description 2 Theory Throughout the report. The instantaneous value models are used when simulating the detailed behaviour of particular machines. 2.1 Physical description To be able to understand different models of the synchronous machine. δ φ ϕ θ [rad. ω[rad/s]. t[s]. mechanical energy is converted into electrical via electromagnetism. ib and ic. All symbols used in the report are defined in the List of symbols that is attached at the end of this report. speed. the reader is assumed to have a basic knowledge of electrical machines. The exceptions are time. [6] or [7].1.1 Definition of generator quantities and the direct. the properties of the machine must be understood. in a motor it is the other way around. Bold letters are used when referring to a matrix or a vector.e. for further reading see e. Here. There are no differences in the theoretical treatment of motor or generator.g. In Simpow these models are used in the module called Transta. a short description including basic definition is included. In a generator. see Figure 2. i. the electrical frequency of the rotor is the same as the frequency of the stator (the net frequency).1. which in Simpow is made in the Masta module.e.and quadrature axes 2. upper-case letters are used when relating to quantities in SI units and lower-case when relating to per unit values. degree]. An electric machine is used for energy conversion. are defined positive out of the machine.1 Multiple pole machines Synchronous machines are mainly operated at synchronous speed. -3- . i. the stator currents.

3) Where L represents the inductances of the stator circuits. Bühler. This is the most common definition. as well as the rotor to stator mutual inductances.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow The relationship between electrical frequency.2 Direct and quadrature axis Two axes are defined. This effect is especially noticeable in a salient pole machine. For the present modelling work.2) Where l represents the length of the magnetic path. this will cause no position dependency of the rotor inductances [9]. the air gap is not time dependent. currents and flux linkages) are transformed using the dq0transformation. This also implies that the inductances of the stator circuits.1. but also in a round rotor machine. 2. [8]. -4- . the slower it rotates.1. ω. time dependent. see Figure 2. and the quadrature axis.1 The dq0-transformation To be able to get a time independent equation system. i. ω mech = ω pole pairs (2. q-axis.e. the same relation exists between electrical and mechanical degrees or radians.2. ℜ.2. sometimes called the Park. are time dependent.or the Blondel transformation. These axes are following the rotor. That is. the direct axis. is a transformation to rotor coordinates. 2. i. is the number of pole pairs. from the rotor point of view. and is lagging the q-axis by 90 electrical degrees.1) This means that the higher number of poles a machine has. and mechanical. The symmetry makes it possible to model a multiple pole machine as a single pole pair machine. will be rotor position dependent. the structure of the stator will be assumed to be perfectly smooth. see Figure 2. the magnetic north pole. the reluctance of the magnetic path.2 Time dependency Due to the non-uniform air gap. the stator quantities (voltages.e. This transformation. the d-axis is aligned with the magnetic flux vector generated by the field current. has thoroughly described how the dq0-transformation can be divided into two steps. Due to the symmetry of the machine. 2. d-axis. ωmech. [10]. since: L∝ 1 ℜ (2. with evenly distributed windings. and is used by the IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms. This is due to the fact that: ℜ(t ) ∝ l (2.

2 Theory Time dependency θ d ω a i1d a) synchronous machine with the threephase stator windings a ia ua ufd ifd c uc ic 1d ub ib q θ d ω uβ α i1d 1d i1q fd 1q b i1q fd 1q α iα uα ufd ifd b) synchronous machine with the threephase stator windings transformed to the two-phase global reference system iβ q θ d ω id d 1d c) synchronous machine with the twophase global reference windings transformed to the two-phase local reference system α ud i1d ufd ifd i1q uq iq q fd 1q Figure 2.2 Schematic view of a two-pole three-phase synchronous machine -5- .

and q-axis quantities are described as: [ ] U q = [− U α sin θ + U β cosθ ] U d = U α cosθ + U β sin θ (2. indices d and q.4) Where k is an arbitrary transformation constant and a = e− j 2π 3 (2.4 becomes: Uα = Uβ = 2 3 [U a − 12 U b − 12 U c ] [U b − U c ] (2.11) 2.2.1.7) (2. U !" = 2 3 [U a ] (2. Separating the real and imaginary parts.5) + aU b + a 2U c If k is chosen as k = 2 3 . During symmetrical conditions.12) (2.2. indices a. the time dependency is extracted from the equation system. a peak value invariant transformation is obtained. which makes the transform power invariant. these two steps gives. a third-axis is added to the two-phase system. to a two-phase global reference system.13) To get a complete degree of freedom. indices α and β . see Figure 2.2b.6) Now Uα and Uβ in equation 2.15) -6- . U dq = U d + jU q = U !" e − jθ (2. a common choice is k = 2 3 .1.1. the d. U0 = 1 3 [U a + U b + U c ] (2. after some trigonometric calculations: Ud = Uq [U cosθ + U cos(θ − π ) + U cos(θ + π )] = − [U sin θ + U sin(θ − π ) + U sin(θ + π )] 2 3 a b 2 3 c 2 3 2 3 a b 2 3 c 2 3 (2. the d-axis of the rotor.2.1 Three-phase stator to two-phase global transform Assuming that the global reference axis coincides with the a-axis of the machine. the 0-sequence quantities are equal to zero. the 0-axis. 2. The two-phase global reference quantities are transformed to the local rotor coordinate system.8) 1 3 Other choices of k can be made. index 0. i. the final dq0-transformation looks like: cos(θ ) cos(θ − 2 π ) cos(θ + 2 π ) Ua Ud 3 3 2 2 2 − sin(θ ) − sin(θ − 3 π ) − sin(θ + 3 π ) U b Uq = 3 1 1 1 U0 Uc 2 2 2 (2.14) Now. the first step is a transformation of the three-phase stator quantities.1. U !" = U " + jU ! = k U a + aU b + a 2U c [ ] (2. b and c. Different advantages and disadvantages with these transformations are described in [9].9) Here θ is the electrical displacement angle between the real-axis of the global reference frame and the real axis of the local system.2 Two-phase global to local transform In the second step.2c.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow 2. see Figure 2.10) (2. see Figure 2.e.3 Final dq0-transform Together.

As described in the previous sub-chapter. Ψd.9).2 Theory Reference systems in Simpow or shorter: U dq0 = BU S (2. Ikd. Ψfd. US are the three-phase stator voltages. Ψkd. In Simpow the global reference system is defined in different ways depending on whether a fundamental frequency model or an instantaneous value model is made. Iq. Udq0. B is the transformation matrix. The models described in this report are transforming the voltages from the global to the local system. the reference frame is a complex plane rotating with the system frequency ωn [rad/sec]. 2.3. Now. This changes the transformation equation (2. they are transformed back to the global reference system. Tm. Ikq. these quantities belong to a common global reference system. where they are used when calculating the machine characteristic variables: δ or θ. which all will be discussed in this report. In the network. Therefore. ω. Id. I dq0 = BI S # dq0 = B# S (2. the transformation of the voltages from the global.3 Reference systems in Simpow Every synchronous machine has its own local reference system.18).20) This is valid when θ is the electrical displacement angle between the real-axis of the global reference frame and the real axis of the local system. Ifd. are the stator voltages in the local rotor reference system. Te. Ψkq.19) 2. but the same is valid for the stator currents and flux linkages.18) The inverse transform is given by: cos(θ ) U S = cos(θ − cos(θ + 2π) 3 2π) 3 − sin(θ ) − sin(θ − − sin(θ + 2π) 3 2π) 3 1 1 U dq0 = B −\$U dq0 1 (2. are calculated. Id. P and Q. the dq0-transformation has been defined for the stator voltages. After the currents out of the machine. see Equations (2.to a local reference system looks like: U dq = U d + jU q = U !" e − jθ (2. here the electrical displacement angle δ is measured between the real-axis of the reference frame and the q-axis of the rotor. transformations have to be made between these reference systems in every node where a synchronous machine is connected.17) (2.17) and (2.21) -7- . in which its armature currents and voltages are expressed. to: U dq = U !" e π − j (δ − ) 2 (2.1 Fundamental frequency models For a fundamental frequency model. Ψq. Iq.16) Where.

calculated in a powerflow. δref is the internal load angle of the reference machine at time t = 0. [4].26) φref is the reference machine-node voltage angle. and the d.and q-axis quantities are described as: U d = U α cosθ + U β sin θ [ ] U q = [− U α sin θ + U β cosθ ] (2. the electrical displacement angle δ is defined as Equation (2. calculated in a power-flow δit0 is the internal load angle of the machine at time t=0 δdev is the integrated deviation angle.25) In Simpow. and is calculated as: -8- . the electrical displacement angle θ is defined as Equation (2.3. δrefdev is the integrated deviation angle of the reference machine.9).and β -quantities looks like: U α = U d sin δ + U q cos δ [ ] U β = [− U d cos δ + U q sin δ ] δ = φit 0 + δ it 0 + δ dev (2. [4].29) For the inverse transform.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow and the d.28) (2. (2.e.and q-axis quantities are described as: U d = U α sin δ − U β cos δ [ ] U q = [U α cos δ + U β sin δ ] (2. θ = δ − (φ ref + δ ref + δ refdev ) (2. i.and β -quantities looks like: U α = U d cosθ − U q sin θ [ ] U β = [U d sin θ + U q cosθ ] (2.23) For the inverse transform.32) Where δ is defined in Equation (2. the α.27) ω is the angular frequency of the machine 2. This means that no changes are made in the transformation equation (2. between the real-axis of the global reference frame and the real axis of the local system.32). and is calculated as: t δ dev = (ω − ω n )dt 0 (2. the reference frame is the dq-axes of a reference machine rotating with the angular frequency ωref. Here the electrical displacement angle θ is measured between the d-axis of the reference machine and the d-axis of the present machine.30) (2.22) (2.26).31) In Simpow.26) Where φit0 is the machine-node voltage angle.2 Instantaneous value models For an instantaneous value model. the α.24) (2.

and is measured between the d-axis of the reference machine and the d-axis of the present machine. This matter will be further discussed in chapter 4.34) (2.36) (2.4.3 Conclusions In Simpow. the equations in the dq0transformation can be treated in this way. It should be noted that there are often different per unit systems for the machine and for the system. the only difference between the fundamental frequency models and the instant value models is how the reference angle is calculated.33) ωref is the angular frequency of the reference machine. and is measured between the real-axis of the reference frame and the q-axis of the rotor. 2. only the angle θ will be used. when transforming between the global and local reference systems. Therefore. in the dq0-transformation. δ is the electrical displacement angle for a fundamental frequency model.35) and the local to global transformation looks like: [ ] [ ] U β = [− U d cos δ + U q sin δ ] = [U d sin θ + U q cos θ ] Uα = U d sin δ + U q cos δ = U d cos θ − U q sin θ (2. this must be taken under consideration. This is why.37) Where θ is the electrical displacement angle for an instantaneous value model. Even though θ does not have to be equal to δ -π/2. -9- . the global to local transformation looks like: U d = Uα sin δ − U β cos δ = U α cos θ + U β sin θ [ ] [ ] U q = [U α cos δ + U β sin δ ] = [− Uα sin θ + U β cos θ ] (2. in the following equations.2 Theory Reference systems in Simpow t δ refdev = (ω ref − ω n )dt 0 (2.3.

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11 - . in mechanical radians per second.6) (3. the flux linkage. U is the voltage matrix of the machine.3) = Mm − Me Where Ψ is the flux linkage matrix of the machine. with one field winding. a general description of the mathematical theory of the synchronous machine models is made. k damper windings in the d-axis and m damper windings in the q-axis.3 Mathematical description Machine equations 3 Mathematical description In this chapter. inductance. ωmech is the rotor speed. For a general machine.1) (3. current. voltage and resistance matrices look like: # = #a #b #c # f − Laa − Lab − Lac L= Laf Lakd Lamq I = Ia [ # kd Laf Lbf Lcf Lf L fkd 0 I mq # mq ]T = [# S Lamq Lbmq Lcmq 0 0 Lmq I R ]T U R ]T # R ]T (3.2) (3. Mm is the mechanical torque applied on the machine axis.1 Machine equations The performance of a machine can be described by the machine equations (bold letters are used when referring to matrices or vectors). 3.5) [ Ib ]T = [I S (3. R is the resistance matrix of the machine. L is the inductance matrix of the machine. That is. I is the current matrix of the machine. J is the combined moment of inertia of machine and turbine/load. # = L⋅ I U = −R ⋅ I + J d ω dt mech d# dt (3. Me is the electrical torque produced/consumed by the machine. while for the fundamental frequency models some changes have to be made.4) − Lab − Lbb − Lbc Lbf Lbkd Lbmq Ic If − Lac − Lbc − Lcc Lcf Lckd Lcmq I kd Lakd Lbkd Lckd L fk Lkd 0 = − LSS L% SR LSR LRR (3.7) U = Ua Ub Uc U f [ 0 0 T = [U S ] . These changes are discussed in chapter 1. the equations derived in this chapter are valid for the instantaneous value models.

Ic and IS are the currents in the stator windings a. Ib.9) Where the indices are: a. in electrical radians per second LSS is containing the stator self and mutual inductances LSR is containing the stator to rotor mutual inductances LSRT is containing the rotor to stator mutual inductances LRR is containing the rotor self and mutual inductances As described in chapter 2. Uc and US are the voltages over the stator windings a.2. Me can be described as: Me = 3 ω mech Im{# S * I S } 2 ω (3. Ikd. mq and R are referring to the two-phase rotor related quantities f is referring to field winding related quantities kd is referring to quantities related to the k damper windings of the d-axis mq is referring to quantities related to the m damper windings of the q-axis Thus. Ψmq are the flux linkages of the rotor windings f. Index k and m refers to the k and the m damper windings of the d. Ψc and ΨS are the flux linkages of the stator windings a. kd and mq If. Ψb. kd and mq Uf. Ub. Ψkd.resp.12 - . Ukd. c and S are referring to the three phase stator related quantities f. if there are 1 damper winding in the d-axis and 2 damper windings in the qaxis. kd and mq Ra is the armature resistance Rf is the resistance of the field winding Rkd is the resistance of the d-axis damper windings Rmq is the resistance of the q-axis damper windings ω is the rotor speed. kd.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Ra 0 0 R= 0 0 0 0 Ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 − Rf 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 − Rmq RS − RR = (3. Imq are the currents in the rotor windings f.8) − Rkd 0 In addition. b and c Ua. the vector IR and the matrix LRR would look like: IR = I f [ I kd I mq ]T = [I f Id I1q I 2q ]T . Ψa. b and c ΨS* is the complex conjugate of the stator flux linkages Ia. b. the q-axis.g. the matrixes LSS and LSR are time dependent. E. Umq are the voltages over the rotor windings f. b and c Ψf.

are assumed to have the same maximum value. and are called: Laf. Laa0. θ is the electrical displacement angle for the machine. These can be divided into one constant term. see Equation (3. a 60-degree phase displacement will occur.10) Where Laa0 is the constant term of the self-inductances of the stator. These inductances can be divided into one constant term.2 Time dependency The self-inductances of the stator windings. Laa = Laa 0 + n >1 Laan cos(nθ ) ≈ Laa 0 + Laa 2 cos 2θ (3. Lbf. are assumed to be independent of which stator winding that is in question. Laa.11) Where Lab0 is the constant term of the mutual inductances between the stator windings. Laf. The terms with higher order harmonics can often be neglected [9]. Ldkd and Lqmq. Lakd. The time dependent matrixes LSS and LSR can now be described as: . Laa2 is the maximum value of the term that is dependent of the second order harmonic. Laa. The maximum value of the mutual inductances between the stator and the rotor. Lbmq and Lcmq. Laan is the maximum value of the term that is dependent of the nth order harmonic. Lckd.3 Mathematical description Time dependency Lkd = 0 0 = Lmq LRR L1d 0 0 0 L1q L12 q 0 L12 q L2 q 3. Lakd and Lamq. In the same way. Due to the distribution of the windings. Lab. Lab = Lba = − Lab 0 + Lab 2 cos(2θ + π ) = − Lab 0 − Lab 2 cos 2(θ − π ) 3 3 (3. Lbb and Lcc. and one term dependent of the second order harmonics [9]. local stator windings d and q.12) (3.10). Laf = Ldf cos θ Lakd = Ldkd cos θ Lamq = Lqmq sin θ (3. and one term dependent of the second and higher order harmonics. Lbkd. Lcf. dq0 transformed. Lab0.13) (3. the mutual inductances between the stator windings. are assumed to have the same maximum value. Lamq. Lac and Lbc. Lab2 is the maximum value of the term that is dependent of the second order harmonic. These are dependent of the fundamental frequency. with a 90-degree lead of the mutual inductances between the stator and the q-axis windings of the rotor [9].14) Where Ldf. Lab. are the mutual inductances between the rotor windings and the fictive.13 - .

16) 3. q and 0 indices reefers to the fictive d-. In the voltage equations.18) As defined earlier.3 The dq0-transformation In section 2. The transformation and its inversion are repeated here for convenience. the following expressions are reached after some reduction of trigonometric terms.21) Where Ld = Laa 0 + Lab 0 + 3 L 2 aa 2 Lq = Laa 0 + Lab 0 − 3 L 2 aa 2 L0 = Laa 0 − 2 Lab 0 (3. q. the dq0-transformation is described.17) − sin(θ ) cos(θ ) 1 −\$ 2π) 1 U U S = cos(θ − 2 − − π θ ) sin( dq0 = B U dq0 3 3 cos(θ + 2 π ) − sin(θ + 2 π) 1 3 3 (3.and 0-windings respectively.24) Ld.19) −# q d # U dq0 = − RS I dq0 + dt #d ω + dq0 0 Me = 3 ω mech (# q I d − # d I q ) 2 ω (3. q.1. Lq and L0. and is a consequence of the transformation from a stationary to a rotating reference frame.22) (3. # dq0 #d − Ld = #q = 0 #0 0 0 − Lq 0 0 0 − L0 Ldf 0 0 Ldkd 0 0 0 Lqmq 0 I dq0 IR (3. U dq0 π ) cos(θ + 2 π) cos(θ ) cos(θ − 2 3 3 2 2 2 = − sin(θ ) − sin(θ − 3 π ) − sin(θ + 3 π ) U S = BU S 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 (3. the index dq0 reefers to the stator quantities in the local rotor reference system.20) (3. are the self-inductances of the fictive d-. i.15) LSR Ldf cos(θ ) cos(θ ) sin(θ ) 2 2 2 = cos(θ − 3 π ) cos(θ − 3 π ) sin(θ − 3 π ) Ldkd cos(θ + 2 π ) cos(θ + 2 π ) sin(θ + 2 π ) − Lqmq 3 3 3 (3. . These speed voltages are the dominant components in the voltage equations.and 0windings.e.23) (3.2.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Laa 0 = − Lab 0 − Lab 0 − Lab 0 Laa 0 − Lab 0 − Lab 0 − Lab 0 + Laa 0 LSS Laa 2 cos(2θ ) π ) − Lab 2 cos(2θ − 1 π) − Lab 2 cos(2θ + 1 3 3 1 2 + − Lab 2 cos(2θ + 3 π ) Laa 2 cos(2θ − 3 π ) − Lab 2 cos(2θ − π ) π L θ π Laa 2 cos(2θ + 2 π) − Lab 2 cos(2θ − 1 − − ) cos( 2 ) ab 2 3 3 (3. Inserting the transformed components into the expressions for the stator variables. the d. the last term is called the speed voltage.14 - .

the mutual inductance coefficients between rotor and stator are non-reciprocal. is equal to the time derivative of the angle θ. are called the transformer voltages.g.25) (3. #d − Ld #q 0 #0 0 = 3 #f − 2 Ldf 3 # kd −2 Ldkd # mq 0 0 − Lq 0 0 0 3 −2 Lqmq 0 0 − L0 0 0 0 Ldf 0 0 Lf L fkd 0 −∂# f ∂I d Ldkd 0 0 L fkd Lkd 0 0 Lqkq 0 0 0 Lmq Id Iq I0 If I kd I mq (3. 3. but ∂I f =3 L .30) Ldkd ´= 3 2 Ldkd Lqmq = 3 2 Lqmq the reciprocal rotor self inductances and resistances as: . [9]. Defining the reciprocal stator-rotor mutual inductances as: Ldf ´= 3 2 Ldf (3.15 - . it makes the simulation faster. An essential condition for the 2 df existence of a static equivalent circuit is the reciprocity of the mutual inductances [11].26) It is obvious that the dq0-transformation results in an equation system where all the inductances are independent of the rotor position.g. and can often be dt dt neglected during transient conditions [9]. see e. i.e. This makes the equations easier to solve.29) (3. here the latter is chosen. The speed of the machine. In the rotor flux linkage equations.28) (3. [11]. ω.3 Mathematical description Reciprocity The terms d d ψ d and ψ q . either by using a reciprocal per unit system. or by simply changing the rotor currents by a factor 2 3 .27) For example ∂# d = Ldf . The problem can be solved in different ways. This difficulty arises because a peak value invariant dq0-transformation was chosen. It could easily have been avoided.4 Reciprocity Although the dq0-transformation results in constant inductances. the transformed currents substitute the stator currents and the following relations are calculated for the rotor windings. #f −3 L 2 df 3 # R = # kd = − 2 Ldkd # mq 0 U R = RR I R + d# R dt 0 0 3 Lqmq −2 0 Lf 0 L fkd 0 0 L fkd Lkd 0 0 0 Lmq IF IR (3. for example by choosing a power invariant transformation. see e.

why henceforth this will also be the case in this report. are equal.43) .37) (3. La = L\$d = L\$q (3.39) Inserting these reciprocal quantities.16 - . and are often called Ll.41) #q # mq [ ] [( Lmq − L&mq ) + L&mq ] Lqmq (3. i.36) R f ´= 3 2 R f Rkd ´= 3 2 Rkd Rmq ´= 3 2 Rmq and the reciprocal rotor currents as: I f ´= 2 3 I f I kd ´= 2 3 I kd I mq ´= 2 3 I mq (3. Lεd. the rotor self inductances and resistances or the rotor currents. the primes in Equation (3. the flux linkage equations can be rewritten as: #d #f # kd − [( Ld − L\$ d ) + L\$ d ] = − Ldf − Ldkd = − ( Lq − L\$q ) + L\$q − Lqmq [(L Ldf f − L\$ f ) + Lε f L fkd ] Ldkd Id If I kd [( Lkd − L&k d ) + L&k d ] Iq I mq L fkd (3.42) Where Lεd is the leakage inductance of the d-winding Lεf is the leakage inductance of the field winding Lεkd is the leakage inductance of the damper windings in the d-axis Lεq is the leakage inductance of the q-winding Lεmq is the leakage inductance of the damper windings in the q-axis The leakage inductances of the d. gives: #d #q #0 #f # kd # mq 0 0 0 0 − Lq 0 0 − L0 = 0 0 − Ldf ´ 0 0 − Ldkd ´ 0 − Ldmq ´ 0 − Ld Ldf ´ Ldkd ´ 0 Id 0 0 Ldkq ´ I q 0 0 0 I0 0 L f ´ L fkd ´ If´ L fkd ´ Lkd ´ 0 I kd ´ 0 0 Lmq ´ I mq ´ (3.34) (3.35) (3.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow L f ´= 3 2 L f L fkd ´= 3 2 L fkd L fmq ´= 3 2 L fmq (3. Dividing the matrix into the d-axis and the q-axis flux linkages.40) It is now obvious that the mutual inductance coefficients between rotor and stator are reciprocal.and q-windings.33) (3. Since there is no reason to use the non-reciprocal values of the stator-rotor mutual inductances.32) (3.38) (3. and including the effects of the leakage inductances.40) will be omitted in the following calculations of this report.31) (3. and Lεq. in the flux linkage Equation (3. but in Simpow.27).e. they are called La.

as: − Ldq0dq0 # dq0 = L% #R dq0R U dq0 R = a UR 0 0 − RR Ldq0R LRR I dq0 IR −# q I dq0 d # dq0 + #d ω + IR dt # R 0 The changes from the original equations. which is expressed as: J d dt ω mech = M m − M e (3. If redefining the matrixes used earlier. do not affect the torque equation more than the change from stator quantities to dq0 quantities [10].52) .Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Laq is the mutual inductance between the rotor and the stator circuits in the q-axis.51) with Me = 3 ω mech (# d I q − # q I q ) 2 ω (3. the equations can be described in a shorter manor.18 - . with the new reciprocal quantities.

Sn is the nominal power of the machine. 4.6) (4.4) (4.5) (4.1) 2 3 I Sbase = Sn U n (4. therefore it is important to clearly describe how the per unit system used is defined.8) ω base = ω n = 2πf n # Sbase = U Sbase %n S Sbase = S n = 3 U I 2 Sbase Sbase Z Sbase = LSbase = U Sbase I Sbase # Sbase I Sbase ω Smechbase = M Sbase = H= ω mech ωn ω Sn = 3U I 2 Sbase Sbase ω mechbase ω mechω n ω= 3# I 2 Sbase Sbase ω mech ω (4. .3) (4.4 Per unit representation Machine per unit bases 4 Per unit representation When dealing with power systems.9) (4. different per unit systems are used. For synchronous machines.2) (4. quantities are often presented in per unit values. ωn is the system frequency in [rad/s] fn is the system frequency in [Hz] ωmech is the mechanical frequency in [mech.10) 2 1 Jω Smechbase 2 Sn Where Un is the nominal phase-phase RMS voltage of the machine.19 - .1 Machine per unit bases The following per unit bases are used in the machine per unit system: U Sbase = 2 U 3 n (4. rad/s] ω is the electrical frequency in [rad/s] ωbase is the system base frequency ωSmechbase is the mechanical base frequency of the machine H is the per unit inertia constant.7) (4.

[13]. the quantities are often presented in per unit.20 - .12) (4. the following per unit system is used by Bühler.1.1 Per unit flux linkage equations General description When three windings are magnetically coupled as in Figure 4.14) Where .1 Three magnetically coupled windings To simplify calculations.2 4.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow 4.2. [10]. and Laible. the flux linkage in each of them can be described as: # 1 = L1 I1 + L12 I 2 + L13 I 3 # 2 = L2 I 2 + L12 I1 + L23 I 3 # 3 = L3 I 3 + L13 I1 + L23 I 2 (4.11) (4. ψ1 ψ2 ψ3 I1n # 1n I = L12 1n # 2n I L13 1n # 3n L1 I 2n # 1n I L2 2 n # 2n I L23 2 n # 3n L12 I 3n # 1n I L23 3n # 2n I L3 3n # 3n L13 i1 x1 1 1 1 i1 i2 = (1 − σ 12 ) x1 (1 − σ 13 ) x1 i3 µ3 µ 2 i2 1 i3 (4.13) Where Ψi is the flux linkage in winding i Li is the self-inductance in winding i Lij is the mutual inductance between winding i and j Ii is the current flowing through winding i I1 U1 dΨ 1 dt L1 L12 I2 U2 dΨ 2 dt L2 L31 L23 I3 U3 dΨ 3 dt L3 Figure 4.

the flux linkages can be described using Equation (4. the flux linkages matrix can be formulated.2.43) I1qbase = I 2 qbase = # Sbase # Sbase I Sbase = = Lq1q Laq x aq # Sbase # Sbase I Sbase = = Lq 2 q Laq x aq x1q xaq # Sbase (4. are deleted. that are corresponding to the windings that are not included.44) (4.49) 4. if the rows and columns of the matrix.47) # 1qbase = L1q I1qbase = # 2 qbase = L2 q I 2 qbase = x2q xaq # Sbase 4.2.38). .2.42) 1 = xaq LSbase 1 LSbase 1 LSbase = x1q = x2 q (4.2.41) where l q = Lq Laq L1q L2 q I Sbase I 1 = ω n Lq Sbase = Lq = xq # Sbase U Sbase LSbase (4.46) (4.24 - .Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow 4.3 Conclusions Rearranging the equations into the stator dq0 quantities and the rotor f. the flux linkages of the q-axis can be described as: # qbase ψq I qbase ψ 1q = − Lq1q # 1qbase ψ 2q I qbase − Lq 2 q # 2 qbase − Lq I qbase Lq1q L1q I1qbase # qbase I1qbase Lq 2 q L1q 2 q L2 q I 2 qbase # qbase I 2 qbase # 1qbase I 2 qbase iq i2 q − − xq 2 xaq 1 1 − xaq x2 q 1 xaq x1q 1 iq i1q i2 q L1q 2 q # 1qbase I1qbase # 2 qbase i1q = − x1q 2 xaq # 2 qbase x2 q (4. kd. see Equation (4.38). mq quantities.and/or q-axes. therefore the per unit value flux linkage of the zero axis is equal to ψ 0 = x0i0 (4. For a model with fewer windings in the d.2.2 q-axis In the same way as for the d-axis.48) where l0 = L0 I Sbase 1 = L0 = x0 # Sbase LSbase (4.3 0-axis In the zero axis.45) (4. there is only one winding.

27 - .1 Per unit voltage equations Stator voltages In chapter 3.4.3. instead of the transient reactance [3].3. the subtransient and the transient reactances of the q-axis damper windings are described as: xq ´´= xq − x2 q + x1q − 2 xaq x1q x2 q − 2 xaq 2 xaq 2 xaq (4. [13]. 4. the sub-transient reactance is used in Equation (4.63) Inserting this into the subtransient reactance equation.2 q-axis In the same way.65) Using the per unit bases for the machine. Therefore.4. gives the definition of the second damper winding reactance.66) Dividing both sides with USbase. in SI units.63). and during the transient period. the current through the second winding has decayed to zero.4 Per unit representation Per unit voltage equations x1d = xad − ( xd ´− xa )( xd ´´− xa ) xd ´− xd ´´ (4. gives the stator voltages in per unit. the stator voltages.2 Rotor voltages In chapter 3.61) xq ´= xq − x1q (4. are described as: U dq0 = − RS I dq0 + d # dq0 dt −# q + #d ω 0 (4.4. in SI units. are described as: . x2q as: x2 q = xaq − ( xq ´− xa )( xq ´´− xa ) xq ´− xq ´´ (4.67) 4.62) The reactance of the first damper winding.3 4. the rotor voltages.60) 4.2.64) For a model with only one damper winding in the q-axis. as: udq0 = −rS i dq0 + ω 1 base d dt ' dq0 −ψ q ω + ψd ω base 0 (4. the stator voltages can be described as: udq0U Sbase = −rS Z Sbase i dq0 I Sbase + d dt −ψ q ' dq0# Sbase + ψ d # Sbaseω 0 (4. is now defined as: x1q = 2 xaq x q − xq ´ (4. x&q. both damper windings are active. For the subtransient period. the reactances of the q-axis damper windings can be defined.

2 Damper windings The damper winding voltages can be described as: 0 = Rkd ikd I kdbase + 0 = Rmq i mq I mqbase d ' kd # kdbase dt d + ' mq# mqbase dt (4.28 - .72) Dividing both sides of Equation (4.65) with Ufbase.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow U R = RR I R + d# R dt (4.76) gives . gives: # fbase U fbase = # fbase R f I fbase = Lf Rf =τ f (4. (4.70) Defining Ufbase as: U fbase = R f I fbase (4.3.75) and # mqbase Rmq I mqbase = Lmq Rmq = ( mq (4.69) 4. Ψfbase = LfIfbase.2.73) where τf is the time constant of the field winding 4.35) to define: # kdbase L = kd = ( kd Rkd I kdbase Rkd (4.71) Using this and the Equation (4. the per unit field voltage is described as: u f = if +τ f d ψf dt (4.68) Separating the system into equations: U f = Rf I f + d #f dt d 0 = Rkd I kd + # kd dt d 0 = Rmq I mq + # mq dt (4.2.27).3.28). and using the Equations (4.34) and (4.1 Field winding The field winding voltage can be written as: u f U fbase = R f i f I fbase + d ψ f # fbase dt (4.74) Dividing the equations with RkdIkdbase and RmqImqbase respectively.

4 Per unit representation
Per unit voltage equations
0 = i kd + ( kd 0 = i mq d ' kd dt d + ( mq ' mq dt

(4.77)

where

τkd are the time constants for the damper windings in the d-axis τmq are the time constants for the damper windings in the q-axis
4.3.2.3 Summary of the rotor voltage equations From the sections 4.3.2.1 and 4.3.2.2, the per unit rotor voltages are summarised as:
uf if τf ψf d 0 = ikd + ( kd ' kd dt 0 i mq ( mq ' mq

(4.78)

or shorter
uR = i R + ( R
d dt

'R

(4.79)

4.3.3

Conclusions
For a machine with one field winding, one damper winding in the d-axis and two damper windings in the q-axis, the per unit voltage equations derived in sections 4.3.1 and 4.3.2, are assembled as:
ud − ra uq 0 u0 0 uf = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 id ψd −ψ q ω base 1 iq ψ ψd q ω base 1 i0 ψ0 0 ω base d ω if + τ f ψf + 0 dt ω base i1d ψ 1d 0 τ 1d i1q ψ 1q 0 τ 1q i2 q ψ 2q 0 τ 2q

(4.80)

Where ra is the armature resistance.

τf is the time constant of the field winding. τ&d is the time constant of the first d-damper winding. τ&q is the time constant of the 1st q-damper winding. τ2q is the time constant of the 2nd q-damper winding.

4.3.4

Definition of the time constants
To be able to define time constants of the windings in the d- and q-axis, the transient- and open circuit time constants of the d- and q-axis are introduced. In Simpow, the following definitions are used for the time constants of the windings in the d- and q-axis.

4.3.4.1 d-axis In Laible, [13], the time constants of the d-axis are defined as: - 29 -

Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow

τ f = τ d 0 ´−τ 1d
τ 1d = τ d 0 ´´ τ d 0 ´´ = σ f 1d 1 − xad x f x1d

(4.81) (4.82)

where

τd0´ is the transient open circuit time constant of the d-axis. τd0´´ is the subtransient open circuit time constant of the d-axis. σf&d is the decrement factor of winding &d relative winding f.
This definition is approximate, and is only valid when τf
L >> 1d , which mostly is the case [13]. Rf R1d Lf

>> τ&d, i.e. when

In the case with no damper winding is modelled in the d-axis, τ f = τ d 0´ . 4.3.4.2 q-axis Analogously, in the q-axis, the time constants are defined as:
τ 1q = τ q 0 ´−τ 2 q

(4.83)
τ q 0 ´´ xaq 1− x1q x2 q

τ 2q =

τ q 0 ´´ = σ 1q 2 q

(4.84)

where

τq0´ is the transient open circuit time constant of the q-axis. τq0´´ is the subtransient open circuit time constant of the q-axis. σf&q2q is the decrement factor of winding 2q relative winding &q
This definition is approximate, and is only valid when τ&q >> τ2q, i.e. when
L1q R1q >> L2 q R2 q

.

In the case with only one damper winding modelled in the q-axis, τ 1q = τ q 0 ´´ .

4.4
J

Per unit torque equations
In chapter 3.4, the torque is described, in SI units, as:
d ω dt mech

= Mm − Me

(4.85)

with
Me = 3 ω mech (# d I q − # q I q ) 2 ω

(4.86)

Using the same per unit bases for the machine as the previous sub-chapter, with the additional bases:

- 30 -

4 Per unit representation
Per unit torque equations
ω Smechbase =
M base H=

ω mech ωn ω 3U 3# I Sn Sbase I Sbase = = 2 ω = 2 Sbase Sbase ω ω Smechbase ω mechω n ω mech

(4.87)

2 1 Jω Smechbase 2 Sn

Where H is the per unit inertia constant. The torque can be written as:
2 HS n d ω Smechbase 2 ω Smechbase dt

ω = (mm − me ) M base ωn

(4.88)

Dividing both sides with Mbase, gives the torque in per unit, as:
2H
d dt

ω = mm − me ωn ω −ωn = ωn

(4.89)

In the above equation,
d dt

ω = ωn

d dt

d dt

∆ω 1 = ωn ωn

d dt

∆ω =

1 ωn

dθ dt

(4.90)

where

∆ω is the rotor speed deviation θ is the deviation angle of the rotor
The per unit electrical torque, me, is now:
me = ψ d i q − ψ q id

(4.91)

4.4.1

Fundamental frequency models
For the fundamental frequency models, an extra term must be added to the electrical torque, the negative-sequence breaking torque, me2, [9]. That is, for the transient stability simulations, the per unit electrical torque is changed to:
2 me = (ψ d iq − ψ q id ) + me 2 = (ψ d iq − ψ q id ) + (r2 − ra )i2

(4.92)

where r2 is the negative sequence resistance. ra is the armature resistance. i2 is the negative sequence current.

4.4.2

Models without damper windings
The damping torque is linearly dependent of the speed deviations of the machine [12], and is the result of an electrical effect. I.e. if an excess torque changes the speed of the machine, this relative movement generates currents in the rotor circuits. Losses caused by these currents will strive to counteract the change in motion [15]. When no damper windings are modelled, no currents will occur in the rotor circuits, i.e. no electrical damping torque will be included in the model. To obtain damping in the simpler models without rotor damper circuits, a substitute for the electrical damping torque must be implemented in the torque equation [9]. This damping torque is called md, and is defined as:

- 31 -

Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow md = D ⋅ ∆ω [p.u.] ωn

(4.93)

where D is the damping factor. In these cases, the per unit torque equation is described as:
2H
d dt

ω = mm − me − md ωn

(4.94)

4.5

Global - local per unit transformation
At the node where the machine is connected to the net, the quantities are described using system per unit bases. A per unit transformation constant is therefore needed when performing a global-local transformation in per unit. In Simpow, the global voltages are transformed to the local system, and the local currents are transformed to the global system, why the transformation constants CU and CI are defined as:
CU = CI = U node base Un S nU node base U n S netw base

where Unodebase is the nominal phase-phase voltage for the machinenode Snetwbase is the 3-phase network power base The transformation constants are used in the transformation equations in the following manner: for the global to local transformation:
U d = U α sin δ − U β cos δ CU = U α cos θ + U β sin θ CU

[ ] [ ] U q = [U α cos δ + U β sin δ ]CU = [− U α sin θ + U β cos θ ]CU

(4.95) (4.96)

and the local to global transformation looks like:
I α = I d sin δ + I q cos δ C I = I d cos θ − I q sin θ C I

[ ] [ ] I β = [− I d cos δ + I q sin δ ]C I = [I d sin θ + I q cos θ ]C I

(4.97) (4.98)

Where

θ is the electrical displacement angle for an instantaneous value model. δ is the electrical displacement angle for a fundamental frequency model.
For the fundamental frequency models, transforms are made between the global dq-system and the local dq0-system. For the instantaneous value models, transforms are made between the global positive-, negative- and 0-sequence systems and the local dq0-system.

- 32 -

Type 2A. one field winding.33 - . • • The negative and zero sequences are modelled as two impedance circuits. the zero axis voltage and flux linkage equations. a list of them is shown below. The machine models discussed in the following sub-chapters are of order 5. Type 3A.5 Modelling Transient-/Machine stability 5 Modelling Within Simpow. the negative-sequence 2 . u0 = −ra i0 + neglected. Type 4. Type 2. are ω n dt The models are only used for the positive sequence quantities. At last. For transient stability simulations. these models are named the synchronous machine models Type 4. and continuing with the more and more advanced models.e. this simulation mode is called Masta. there are four different synchronous machine models in the standard library. i. 5 and 6. 3. but without saturation Model with constant voltage behind transient reactance In this chapter. Model with four rotor windings including saturation. one field winding. referred to the instantaneous value order. d d ψ d and ψ q . one d-axis and one q-axis damper windings As Type 2. are neglected. but without saturation Model with three rotor windings including saturation. For the fundamental frequency models. . In Simpow. two d-axis and one q-axis damper windings As Type 1. When also the zero axis voltage equation is neglected. the fundamental frequency models will have three state variables less than the instantaneous value models. 6. the fundamental frequency models are of order 2. breaking torque: me 2 = (r2 − ra )i2 With the transformer voltages neglected. fundamental frequency models are used.1 Transient-/Machine stability When the machine stability of a power system is being simulated. Type 3. instantaneous value models of the power system components are used. and instantaneous value models are discussed. In Simpow. Type 3A. but without saturation Model with one rotor windings including saturation. first the differences between the fundamental frequency. the stator voltage equations only contains fundamental frequency components. the four different synchronous machine models are discussed. then the initial conditions for the machine models are described. i. this mode is in Simpow called Transta. starting the simplest model. 2A and 1A. The electrical torque is modelled with an extra term. the following changes are made: • • The transformer voltages. x2 and r0. Type 4. 5.e. and appear as algebraic equations. 8 and 9. Type 1A. Type 2 and Type & respectively. with the resistance and reactance: r2. dt dt 1 d ψ 0 and ψ 0 = − x0i0 . Type 1. x0 respectively. Type 3. 1 field winding As Type 3.

i. pt0. ω = ωn. Obviously. the currents in the damper windings are zero. i1d0 = i1d0 = i1d0.4) Now. the initial conditions are calculated. At steady state. is referring to the initial moment of time.reactive power out from the generator node. This was expected.2) x1q 2 xaq x2 q The initial node voltage is defined as ut0 = ud 0 + ju q 0 (5.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow 5. ψ&d0.2). This changes the flux linkage equation (4. The machine is assumed to run under symmetrical conditions. xd = xq.e. all time derivatives are zero. i. From the load-flow calculation. the initial node voltage and angle. ud0.46) to: − xd 0 − xd 0 0 − − 2 xaq 1 0 1 xad x1d 0 0 id 0 iq 0 if 0 ψd0 ψ q0 2 xad ψ f0 = − x1d ψ 1d 0 ψ 1q 0 0 ψ 2q0 0 0 x2 − ad xf (5.ψ0 = u0 =i0 =0. and from Equation (5. ψ&q0. This gives the final equation for the node voltage as: ut0 = −i t0 (ra + jxd ) − ju f 0 (5.80). gives: ut0 = −ra id 0 − ω ω ψ q 0 + j (−ra iq 0 + ψ d 0 ) ωn ωn (5. i.5) Rearranging. uq0.2 Initial conditions at steady state At time zero. ut0 can be written as: ut0 = −ra id 0 − (− xd iq 0 ) + j (−ra iq 0 + (− xd id 0 − i f 0 )) (5. With these considerations in mind.e.6) where . are known.e.1). ψq0. saliency is included.3) Inserting the voltages from Equation (5. since the damper windings only affect the machine during unstable conditions. will be changed to: ud 0 uq 0 0 uf0 = 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 id 0 iq 0 i00 − ψ q0 1 0 0 0 if 0 0 1 0 0 i1d 0 0 0 1 0 i1q 0 0 0 0 1 i2 q 0 ψ d0 0 + 0 0 0 0 ω ωn (5. and if0. When deriving the stator circuit quantities. it0 = id0 + jiq0. ψf0. qt0. uf0 = if0. ut0 and φi. but when deriving the rotor circuit quantities. and the active. and introducing the initial steady-state current out from the generator to the node. ψ2q0. 0.1) Where the extra index. the machine is assumed to run at synchronous speed. see Equation (4.34 - . saliency is neglected. id0 and iq0. ψd0. the voltage equations derived in the previous chapters.1). and with the flux linkages from Equation (5.

1 Steady-state equivalent circuit From the steady-state equivalent circuit. a voltage diagram is drawn.2 Voltage diagram of steady-state equivalent circuit ud 0 = ut 0 sin δ i uq 0 = ut 0 cos δ i (5. behind an impedance. and the dqvoltages. qt0 uf0∠δi +φi ~ Figure 5. and the Equations (5. see Figure 5.11) With the initial power. q uf0 uq0 xdit0 xdit0sin(ϕ) δi ϕ it0 ut0 rait0 rait0sin(ϕ) ud0 rait0cos(ϕ) xdit0cos(ϕ) d Figure 5.7) (5.7-5. Using the steady-state equivalent circuit.11) are stated.2.5 Modelling Initial conditions at steady state uf0 is the initial steady-state field voltage The initial steady-state model can thus be viewed as the initial field voltage.1. δi.10) The initial field winding voltage is derived using the Pythagorean theorem. can be calculated [9]. out from the generator into the node.8) Where sinδi and cosδi can be described as: sin δ i = cos δ i = xd it 0 cos ϕ i − ra it 0 sin ϕ i uf0 ut 0 + ra it 0 cos ϕ i + xd it 0 sin ϕ i uf0 (5. the internal load angle.35 - . ut0∠φi ra xd it0 pt0. u f 0 = (ut 0 + ra it 0 cos ϕ i + xd it 0 sin ϕ i ) 2 + ( xd it 0 cos ϕ i − ra it 0 sin ϕ i ) 2 (5. uf0. ud and uq. see Figure 5. ra + jxd. defined as: .9) (5.

uq0. the flux linkages.and qaxis. (5.13) (5.15) u d 0 = ut 0 xd pt 0 q − ra t 0 ut 0 ut 0 uf0 pt 0 q + xd t 0 ut 0 ut 0 uf0 (5.36 - .16) u q 0 = ut 0 ut 0 + ra (5.17) (5. and the internal load angle.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow pt 0 + jqt 0 = ut 0it∗0 = (u d 0 + ju q 0 )(id 0 − jiq 0 ) (5. and all other variables can be calculated from these. with the magneto motive forces of the d.17) are the initial settings of the machine. separated from the first two rows: − xa ψ d0 0 ψ q0 0 ψ f0 = ψ 1d 0 0 ψ 1q 0 0 ψ 2q 0 0 Wd 0 Wq 0 id 0 iq 0 if 0 xad Wd 0 xf x + ad Wd 0 x1d xad Wq 0 x1q xaq Wq 0 x2 q 0 − xa 0 0 0 0 0 0 x 1 − ad xf 0 0 0 (5. can be written as: u f 0 = ut 0 1 + pt 0 ut20 2 q + t20 ut 0 2 (r 2 a 2 + xd + 2 ra ) q pt 0 + xq t20 2 ut 0 ut 0 (5. uf0.14) The initial field voltage. are described as: ψ d0 0 uq 0 ω ω = n + n ψ q0 ω − ud 0 ω − ra ra id 0 0 iq 0 Equation (5. ud0.20) . Wd0 and Wq0.1). as: id 0 = ud 0 iq 0 = u q 0 pt 0 ut20 + uq 0 qt 0 ut20 pt 0 q − ud 0 t20 2 ut 0 ut 0 (5.18) δ i = arctan( ud 0 ) uq0 Equations (5. The initial values of the currents id0 and iq0 can be derived from the power equation.19) From Equation (5.12) this gives the real and imaginary power as: pt 0 = ut 0it 0 cos ϕ i qt 0 = ut 0it 0 sin ϕ i (5.12). the dq-voltages.2) can be rearranged. δi. ψd0 and ψq0.14)-(5.

The shaft mechanical power remains constant.22).5 Modelling Type 4 From row 1 and 2 in (5. ψf0. i.1 Assumptions for the classical model For a typical classical model. The armature resistance. stability will likely occur if any or all of the above factors are taken under consideration. 5. the following assumptions are made: 1. the machine is modelled as a constant voltage behind a transient reactance.16) and (5. 4. equations (5. in most cases. However. the more accurate models.1 Classical Model” IEEE Brown Book [9]. 3. However.e. Armature resistance. see section “5. is included. i. If the system is stable when these assumptions are made. 5. and can be used for transient stability studies. The initial state can only be obtained after an iteration procedure by means of equations (5. can be neglected.20) from magneto motive forces to saturation functions. so the unknown flux linkages.17) gives start values for ud0 and uq0. The magneto motive forces expressed as a function of currents. 5.21) Without saturation.e. 2.22) The concept of saturation is discussed in chapter 5. ψ&d0. since in these models there is a more adequate representation of the electrical damping [15]. The effect from other damper circuits is neglected. Wd0 and Wq0 are extracted. Ra. Type & and 2.9.21). 7. this is generally called the classical model. Damping is non-existent. Ra.1 Classical Model” in Kundur [9].3.16) and (5. 5. with the following remarks for the last three points in the list above 5. with the change in Equation (5. In the case when saturation is included.2 Assumptions in Type 4 In Type 4. change Wd and Wq to fd(Wd)and fq(Wq). are to prefer. .20). is a modified classical model. equations (5.18) – (5. The flux linkages of the field winding and of the first q-damper winding are constant.3. the same assumptions are made as for the classical model. In section “4. Transient saliency is ignored. can be calculated. The Type 4 model in Simpow. the following additional assumptions are made: 6. are: Wd 0 = i f 0 − id 0 xad Wq 0 = −iq 0 xaq (5. as can be found in the literature.3. 2 2 ut20 = u d + uq (5.3 Type 4 In classical theory.3. The constant voltage and reactance are not affected by speed variations.18) – (5. but the default value is set to zero.37 - .3. if the system would be unstable with the assumptions made.7. and the other variables can be calculated as in equations (5. xd´ = xq´. ψ&q0 and ψ2q0.17) gives the final value of ud0 and uq0. the system may in fact be stable [9].

• • Saliency is included. the shaft mechanical power is constant. Here ε is a positive constant. due to a mathematical constraint in Simpow.4. D.3 Description of Type 4 Type 4 is a model with neither a field winding nor any damper windings. so that xd´ < xd.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow 6. D.g. 7. Beside these remarks. the term τ f but is included to show the resemblance with higher order models. Together.24). ε = &0-6.3. ψq.e. xd and xq. i. i.2). ∆ω and δ.24) d∆ω = mm − me − md dt (5. With xd = xq and xd´ = xd .e. by the means of the damping coefficient. (5. using the Type 4 model. the user should specify the quantities: Sn. but the default value is set to zero. x&d = ∞.38 - . xd´. as stated in chapter 4. see Equation (5.e. the Type 4 instantaneous value model is a 5th order model. Therefore. will for the instantaneous value Type 4 model be changed to: ψd − xd ´ 0 ψq − xq 0 = ψ0 0 0 ψ f0 0 0 ud − ra uq 0 = u0 0 uf0 0 2H 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 − x0 0 ψ f0 0 id 0 0 iq + 0 0 i0 2 xad − id 0 1 if 0 xf (5.26) d ψ f 0 is equal to zero. the only way to obtain damping in this model. H. 5. to include the damping coefficient. e. is to include the substitute electrical damping torque md. It is obvious to see that there are five state variables for this model.2. Damping is included in the model.3.25) (5. Both a synchronous and a transient reactance are modelled in the d-axis.3.ε. but if no turbine is connected. 5. ψd.23) 0 0 − ra 0 1 ψd −ψ q 0 id ωn 1 ψd 0 iq d ψq + + ωn 1 0 i0 0 dt ψ 0 ωn ψ f0 1 if 0 0 τf (5. i. With the exception that there is no d-damper winding. if xq is given a value that differs from xd. A turbine can be connected to the model. these changes make the Type 4 a little different from the typical classical model. ψ0.1 Instantaneous value model With these considerations in mind. dt d δ = ∆ω dt In the field winding voltage equation. the constant field winding flux linkage is calculated as in the steady-state model. . Un. To obtain a classical model in Simpow. as defined in the previous section. if xd is given a value that differs from xd´. the machine equations derived in chapter 1.

can now be viewed as in Figure 5. the same equivalent 0-circuit.2.3. the term τ f but is included to show the resemblance with higher order models.28). Where u = ud + juq and i = id + jiq.and 0-axis equivalent circuits for the instantaneous value Type 4 model.1.1 Equivalent circuit The d-.39 - . q. dt In the field winding voltage equation. an equivalent circuit can be drawn for the positive sequence quantities of this fundamental frequency model. 5.3. hence.3.3.e. stated in chapter 5.26). 5.23)-(5. see Figure 5. As stated earlier.3.31) d ψ f 0 is equal to zero.27) = − ra 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 id 0 −ψ q d 0 iq + τ f 0 + ψd dt 1 if 0 0 ψ f0 (5.5 Modelling Type 4 5.4.29) (5.3 Equivalent dq0-circuits for Type 4. i. instantaneous value model in per unit All models discussed in this chapter will have the same 0-sequence model.3. Thus.30) d δ = ∆ω dt with me = ψ q id − ψ d iq + me 2 (5. (5. it is only viewed here.2 Fundamental frequency model Implementing in Equations (5. the changes between the instantaneous value model and the fundamental frequency model. this model has only two state variables: ∆ω and δ. id ra ud d ψ d dt xd´ uq ψq + iq ra d ψ q dt xq u0 ωψd + i0 r0 dψ 0 dt x0 Figure 5.28) 2H d∆ω = mm − me − md dt (5. the latter model is derived as: − xd ´ 0 0 id ψd ψ f0 − xq 0 iq + 0 ψq = 0 2 x ad 0 0 1 if 0 ψ f0 − id 0 xf ud uq uf0 (5. .1 Equivalent circuit If xd´ = xd = xq.3. the Type 4 fundamental frequency model is of order 2.1.

will look like: . fundamental frequency model in SI units All models discussed in this chapter have the same model for the unsymmetrical components. speed variations are included in the model. In this way. is to include the substitute electrical damping torque md. x0 respectively. a field winding can be included.& 0-sequence circuits. the instantaneous value Type 3A model. x2 and r0. In chapter 5. is changed to be dependent of the d-axis current and of the changing field winding current. i. hence. In addition to these changes.1 Instantaneous value model Implementing this in the machine equations for the Type 4 model. This model is a simplification of Type 3. the effects of the saturation are described. where the saturation effect is included.4 Equivalent circuit for Type 4. the time variations of the direct axis reactance will be considered.e.5. this also makes the d-axis flux linkage to be dependent of the field winding current. the only way to obtain damping in this model. the same equivalent negative.e.4. they are only viewed here. - 5.4 Type 3A In this chapter. the synchronous machine model Type 3A is described. i2 r2 u2 x2 u0 i0 r0 x0 Figure 5.40 - .and 0-sequence components are modelled as two impedance circuits with the resistance and reactance: r2. i. Thus. in Type 4.and 0-sequence circuits.5 Equivalent negative. the constant field winding flux linkage. 5. see Figure 5. symmetrical components For the fundamental frequency models.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow i ra u xd + uf0 Figure 5. Still. To improve the classical model. the negative. no damper windings are included in the model.7. fundamental frequency model.

35) d δ = ∆ω dt There are one more state variable for this model than for the Type 4 model. The q-axis is modelled in the same way as Type 4.32) 0 id 0 iq 0 i0 1 if − ra 0 + τf ψd −ψ q ψ ψd ω d q + 0 ωn dt ψ 0 ψf 0 (5. This latter circuit is often easier to understand. Therefore the self-inductance can be described as the sum of the mutual inductance and the leakage inductance. Ψd Ψq Ψ0 Ψf Ud Uq U0 Uf = = − Ld 0 0 − Lad − Ra 0 0 0 0 − Lq 0 0 0 − Ra 0 0 0 0 − L0 0 0 0 − Ra 0 Lad 0 0 Lf 0 0 0 Rf Id Iq I0 If Id Iq I0 If − Ψq Ψ Ψd d q ω + + 0 dt Ψ0 Ψf 0 Ψd (5. ψf. i.36) (5.37).4. the mutual inductance can be described as the difference between the self-inductance and the leakage inductance. and it is easy to declare the equations of the circuit. see Equations (5.6.5 Modelling Type 3A − xd ψd 0 ψq = 0 ψ0 2 xad − ψf xf ud uq u0 uf 2H = − ra 0 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 − xq 0 0 0 0 0 0 − x0 0 1 id 0 iq 0 i0 1 if 1 ωn 1 ωn 1 ωn (5. As described in chapter 3. without showing the leakage inductance in the flux linkage equations. the Type 3A instantaneous value model is a 6th order model. and the flux linkage equations can be described as: Ψd Ψq Ψ0 Ψf = − ( Lad + La ) 0 0 − Lad 0 − Lq 0 0 0 0 − L0 0 Lad 0 0 Id Iq I0 (5. the flux linkage and voltage equations are also stated in SI-units.34) (5.38) ( Lad + Lεf ) I f The d-axis equivalent circuit can be described either as in Figure 5.8.3. An equivalent circuit for the qaxis is viewed in Figure 5.e. or by using the leakage inductance as in Figure 5.36) and (5. . therefore the following models will be described this way.1 Equivalent circuit To be able to draw an equivalent circuit.41 - .37) Where the upper-case letters are used when relating to quantities in SI units. see Figure 5.33) d ∆ω = mm − me − md dt (5. 5.4.1.7. with the difference that the speed variations are included.

see Equations (5.41) (5. the fundamental frequency model is derived.8 Equivalent q-circuit for Type3A.42 - .2 Fundamental frequency model From the set of equations for the instantaneous value model.6 Equivalent d-circuit for Type 3A.42) d δ = ∆ω dt with .35).1. 5. and implementing the changes stated in chapter 5.40) d ∆ω = mm − me − md dt (5. in SI units The equivalent 0-circuit for Type 3A is viewed in Figure 5. leakage inductance instantaneous value model in SI units Iq Ra Uq ωΨd + - d Ψ q dt Lq Figure 5.4.3. instantaneous value model in SI units Id Ra Ud ωΨq + La dΨ d dt dΨ ad dt Lad Id-If Lε f Rf If Uf Figure 5.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Id Ra Ud dΨ d dt ωΨq + Rf Lad Ld Lf If Uf Figure 5.32)(5.39) d dt 0 0 −ψ q + ψd 0 ψf ω ωn (5. ψd − xd ψq = 0 ψf x2 − ad xf ud uq = uf 2H − ra 0 0 0 − xq 0 0 − ra 0 1 id 0 iq 1 0 id 0 iq + τ f 1 if if (5.7 Equivalent d-circuit for Type3A.

the subtransient state.5 Type 2A In this chapter. i.49). the Type 2A instantaneous value model is an 8th order model. This model is normally used for water turbine generators. because damper windings are included in the model.43 - .46) (5. i. ψ&d and ψ&q. .1 Equivalent circuit To be able to draw an equivalent circuit. 5. the flux linkage and voltage equations are also stated in SI-units.5 Modelling Type 2A me = ψ q id − ψ d iq + me 2 (5.e.47) d δ = ∆ω dt There are two more state variables for this model than for the Type 3A model. the Type 3A fundamental frequency model is of order 3. and the saliency of the rotor will be considered. Further improvements are made if damper windings in the d. There is no additional damping torque.47).44) x1q 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 id 0 0 0 iq 0 0 0 i0 1 0 0 if 0 1 0 i1d 0 0 1 i1q + τf τ 1d τ 1q ψd −ψ q ψq ψd 0 d ψ0 ω + ψ 0 ωn dt f ψ 1d 0 ψ 1q 0 (5. 5. Thus.5.and q-axis are included in the model.1 Instantaneous value model Implementing this in the machine equations for the Type 3A model. the effects of the saturation are described.43) In the same manner as for the instantaneous value model.7. This model is a simplification of Type 2. the instantaneous value Type 2A model. In chapter 5. 5.1. the synchronous machine model Type 2A is described.44)-(5. see Equations (5.45) d∆ω = mm − me dt (5. it is verified that this model has one more state variable than the Type 4 model.48 and 5. salient pole machines. the fast changing conditions. In the case of one damper winding in each axis. − xd 0 ψd 0 ψq 2 xad − ψ0 xf = ψf 2 xad − ψ 1d x1d ψ 1q 0 ud uq u0 uf 0 0 2H = − ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 0 − xq 0 0 0 − 2 xaq 0 0 − x0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 xad x1d 0 1 0 0 xad xf 1 0 0 1 0 0 id iq i0 if 0 i1d i1q 1 1 ωn 1 ωn 1 ωn (5.5. where the saturation effect is included. i.e. will look like Equations (5.e.

Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Ψd Ψq Ψ0 Ψf Ψ1d Ψ1q Ud Uq U0 Uf U1d U 1q = = − Ld 0 0 − Lad − Lad 0 − Ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 − Lq 0 0 0 − Laq 0 − Ra 0 0 0 0 0 0 − Ra 0 0 0 0 0 − L0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rf 0 0 Lad 0 0 Lf Lad 0 0 0 0 0 R1d 0 Lad 0 0 Lad L1d 0 0 Laq 0 0 0 L1q 0 0 0 0 0 R1q Id Iq I0 If I1d I1q Id Iq I0 If I1d I1q + Ψd Ψq d Ψ0 + dt Ψ f Ψ1d Ψ1q − Ψq Ψd 0 0 0 0 (5. see Equations (5. 5.44 - . using the leakage inductances.50–5.43).9.1. leakage inductance instantaneous value model in SI units The equivalent 0-circuit for Type 2A is viewed in Figure 5. in Figure 5.3. see Equations (5. The equivalent d-and q-circuits for the instantaneous value model is viewed.48) ω (5. . the fundamental frequency model is derived.54). and implementing the changes stated in chapter 5.9 Equivalent dq-circuits for Type2A.49) Where the upper-case letters are used when relating to quantities in SI units. Id Ra Ud dΨ d dt ωΨq + La dΨ ad dt Ifd Id-If-I1d L1d Lad R1d I1d Ufd Lfd Rfd Iq Ra Uq ωΨd + La dΨ q dt dΨ aq dt Iq-I1q Lε1q Laq R1q I1q Figure 5.40– 5.2 Fundamental frequency model From the set of equations for the instantaneous value model.5.

5. it is verified that this model has two more state variables than the Type 3A model. Thus.45 - .52) (5.53) d δ = ∆ω dt with me = ψ q id − ψ d iq + me 2 (5.7. the accuracy in modelling solid iron rotor generators will be increased. In chapter 5.50) x1q d ψf + 1 0 0 if + τ f dt τ 1d ψ 1d 0 1 0 i1d 0 0 1 i1q 0 0 0 id 0 0 0 iq τ 1q ψ 1q ψd 0 0 0 ω ωn (5.54) In the same manner as for the instantaneous value model.5 Modelling Type 1A − xd 0 ψd x2 − ad ψq xf ψf = 2 xad − ψ 1d x1d ψ 1q 0 ud uq uf = 0 0 2H − ra 0 0 0 0 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 − xq 0 0 − 2 xaq 1 0 1 xad x1d 0 1 0 xad xf 1 0 0 1 id if 0 i1d i1q 1 0 0 0 0 −ψ q 0 iq (5. [9]. the effects of the saturation are described. 5. Solid iron rotor is often used in large steam turbine generators. If one extra damper winding is added in the q-axis. this further increases the accuracy in the models. This model is called Type1 in Simpow. the synchronous machine model Type 1A is described.6. and provides multiple paths for circulating eddy currents. the Type 2A fundamental frequency model is of order 5. Additional damper windings may be included both in the d.and q-axis.6 Type 1A In this chapter. where the saturation effect is included. This model is a simplification of Type 1.51) d∆ω = mm − me dt (5. [1] and [12].1 Instantaneous value model The extra q-damper winding changes the equations from the instantaneous value model Type 2 to: . see [4] and [5].

leakage inductance instantaneous value model in SI units The equivalent 0-circuit for Type 1A is viewed in Figure 5.10 Equivalent dq-circuits for Type1A. Id Ra Ud dΨ d dt ωΨq + La Id-If-I1d L1d Lad R1d I1d Ufd Lfd Rfd Ifd dΨ ad dt Iq Ra Uq ωΨd + La dΨ q dt dΨ aq dt Laq R1q Iq-I1q L1q I1q R2q L2q I2q Figure 5.5. 5.3.10.1. see Figure 5.64) d δ = ∆ω dt with .63) (5. the fundamental frequency model is derived.5 Modelling Type 1A The equivalent circuits for the instantaneous value model can be viewed using the leakage inductances.61) x1q 2 xaq x2 q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 τf d ψf 1 0 0 0 if + τ 1d dt ψ 1d 0 1 0 0 i1d τ 1q ψ 1q 0 0 1 0 i1q 0 0 0 1 i2 q τ 2q ψ 2q ψd 0 + 0 0 0 ω ωn (5.61 . − xd 0 0 − xq 0 0 − − 0 − ra 0 0 0 0 2 xaq 1 0 1 xad x1d 0 0 1 0 xad xf 1 0 0 id iq 0 1 0 0 1 xaq x2 q 0 0 0 1 0 0 xaq x1q 1 0 0 −ψ q id iq if i1d i1q i2 q ψd x2 − ad xf ψq 2 ψf xad = − x1d ψ 1d ψ 1q 0 ψ 2q 0 ud uq uf 0 0 0 2H = − ra 0 0 0 0 0 (5. This model is in Simpow referred to as synchronous machine model Type &A.62) d∆ω = mm − me dt (5.47 - .6.65. see Equations 5.2 Fundamental frequency model Implementing the changes stated in chapter 5.

or by using a self-designed saturation table with corresponding values of the magneto motive force. i. between the flux linkage and the magneto motive force.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow me = ψ q id − ψ d iq + me 2 (5. There are different opinions which of the models that is the most realistic.and q-axis. either quadratic or exponential saturation can be modelled. the flux linkage equations will include the saturation function. As the field current exceeds a certain level.u. 5.e. i. In Simpow. W. however. the flux linkages will be smaller for a model where saturation is included than for a model where saturation is not taken under consideration. PSS/E.u. In the previous chapters. the power system simulation software. When this level is exceeded. . models of Type1A-3A are described.mmf diagram.] Figure 5. the Type &A fundamental frequency model is of order 6. the differences in the outcome are relatively small [18]. Thus.g. An example of this effect can be seen in Figure 5.] f(W)=W f(W) 1 0 0 1 2 W [p.48 - . models were the saturation effect is excluded. showing effects of saturation There are several different ways to model this saturation effect.11 Flux linkage . it is verified that this model has one more state variable than the Type 2A model. 2 ψ [p.e. Due to the non-linearity.65) In the same manner as for the instantaneous value model. f(W). the saturation function can be modelled as a linear relation between the saturation factor and the flux linkage.7 Saturation Models of Type 1-3 are modelled both with and without consideration of the saturation in the d.11. S(ψ). as described in Equation (5. S(ψ). While in e. and the saturation function. a non-linear relationship occurs between the flux linkage and the current [9].66). as plotted in the figure above.

66) will be the same as the flux linkage equations described in sections 5. corresponding to the windings that are not included.66) Where Wd = i f + i1d − id xad Wq = i1q + i2 q − iq xaq (5. fd(Wd).4-5. It can also be seen that there are no forces acting in the 0-axis direction.67) Wd.5 Modelling Saturation − xa 0 − xa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 − x0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 x 1 − ad xf 0 0 0 1− 0 0 0 0 xad x1d 0 0 1− 0 0 0 0 0 xaq x1q 0 1− 0 0 0 0 0 0 xaq x2 q id iq i0 if i1d i1q i2 q f d (Wd ) f q (Wq ) 0 xad f d (Wd ) xf + xad f (W ) d d x1d xaq f q (Wq ) x1q xaq f q (Wq ) x2 q ψd ψq ψ0 ψf = ψ 1d ψ 1q ψ 1q 0 0 0 0 0 0 (5. are to be neglected. In the manner that Equation (5. . For the models with fewer windings. is a leakage flux depending on the leakage reactance and the current.66) is written. Wq are the magneto motive forces in the d-axis and q-axis. it is easy to realise that the difference between the flux linkage and the mmf. fq(Wq) are the saturation functions for the d-axis and q-axis. then no saturation is included. and the Equation (5.49 - . If fd(Wd) = Wd and fq(Wq)= Wq.6. the rows and columns of the matrix.

Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow .50 - .

)THEN TMX=TM/WR ELSE TMX=TM ENDIF DSL-code: If statement from the Type 3.).D/DT.WR. I. the machine equations derive the characteristics of the machine. synchronous machine model. an example of such a component is a regulator. it is possible to choose if the output. system specific data is sent to the DSL-file. which in return gives the machine response. which in this report has been called mm.0.51 - . When a DSL-file is used when modelling a synchronous machine. since it is a far too complicated matter to be detailed described in this report.WR. In Simpow. TM.WR DSL-code: Expression from the Type 3. WR: (TMX+TE)=2.1.AND.EQ. i. Where ISP has the value 0. has to be calculated as: IF(ISP. TMX.0. (ISP.6 Programming Saturation 6 Programming Dr. The first part of this expression. has the same meaning as (ISP=1 & WR≠0). defines WR as the variable to be derived from the torque equation: (TMX+TE)=2. from the turbine is mechanical power or mechanical torque. a short description of the DSL-programming is made. TMX. When a power system is simulated in Simpow.NE. the following definitions has been made: TMX is the per unit value of the mechanical torque applied on the machine axis. has developed the Dynamic Simulation Language used in Simpow.AND. When calling the DSL-file. etc. which in this report has been called ω/ωn.1. In this chapter.*H*. H is the per unit inertia constant. TE is the per unit value of the electrical torque. and the value 1.e. and is one of the model specific data of the synchronous machine. which in this report has been called me and has the opposite sign. An example of how these equations are defined in the DSL-code.NE. Here. model specific data of the component has to be given by the user.*H*. Here the if-statement. synchronous machine model.D/DT. rated power. . d/dt in this report. at ABB Utilities department Power Systems Analysis. synchronous machine model.WR DSL-code: Torque equation from the Type 3.g. if the output from the turbine is mechanical torque. the mechanical torque of the synchronous machine. that has to be given by the user. e. is the Laplace-operator. is equal to .e.EQ. is given below. Kjell Anerud. a DSL-file can be used when modelling different components of the system.D/DT. why the mechanical torque. if the output from the turbine is mechanical power. rated voltage. WR is the per unit value of the machine rotor speed. Inside the DSL-file.

if the output from the turbine is mechanical torque. or if the machine is at standstill. and of the content of the DSLfiles developed during this thesis. Otherwise.dsl.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow TM. modelling the different synchronous machines described in the previous chapters. where the ‘A’ stands for that no saturation is included in these models.dsl. to get the real per unit value of the machine in question. see the Simpow manual. MT must be divided by the pole pair number of the machine. Further comments can be seen in the code in the different programmes. and are containing the fundamental frequency models of the same Type as the name of the files.dsl and Type4.52 - . which can be plotted by the user. For a more detailed description of the Dynamic Simulation Language used in Simpow. In this case it is called MT and is on the per unit base Sn/ωn. These are named: Type1A.dsl. Type2A. The mechanical torque of the synchronous machine is also an output variable from the machine. . This was a short description of the structure of DSL. Type3A. [3]. i. Four different DSL-files have been created.e. TMX is equal to the fraction TM/WR.

see Figure 7.1 Power systems used during validation In Simpow it is possible to include numerous independent power systems in the same run. During simulations. Various outputs can be viewed from the models. In this way. To view the differences between the DSL. the old FORTRAN models have stood as the reference. Figure 7. A small power system has been used for this purpose.and the FORTRAN-coded Type 1A model. various outputs have been compared. therefore two mirrored power systems have been simulated.and FORTRAN-coded models. a FORTRAN-coded model is used.7 Validation Saturation 7 Validation When trying to validate the DSL coded machine models. In Figure 7. both symmetrical and unsymmetrical conditions of the system are monitored.1. the only difference is the machine model. . a list of variables that can be plotted for the existing synchronous machine models is attached in and in Appendix A. and in the other. the direct axis voltage is plotted for both the DSL. a DSL-coded machine model is used. In one of the systems. consisting of: a synchronous machine. a three-phase to ground fault and a onephase to ground fault. two different disturbances has been added to the system. specific data for the system and for the models has been used.53 - . these in data files can be viewed in Appendix B. During the simulations. All characteristics of the systems are the same.2. a line and a swing-bus.

and for the FORTRAN-coded Type 1A during and after a three-phase fault at the generator node The maximum difference between the models are about 0.) 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 x 10 -4 Difference in Ud between DSL and FORTRAN-models 0 5 10 15 20 Time (s) 25 30 35 40 Figure 7.7 0.3 Difference between Ud for the DSL.4 0.1.54 - .8 0.and FORTRAN-coded Type 1A during and after a three-phase fault at the generator node Obviously..00045 p.u. the differences between the voltages are plotted in Figure 7.1 0 Voltage (p.6 0. no apparent difference can be seen.u.3 0. voltages and speed are assembled.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Ud for both DSL.3. a rather small difference. this creates a maximum deviation of about 0. .2 0.2 Ud for both the DSL.5 0.and FORTRAN-models 0. 4 3 2 1 Voltage (p.u.) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (s) 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. hence. therefore.065 %. the differences of the currents. In Table 7.

and obviously.000000) (-36. they do not have any significant difference. Therefore.000000) (-2.000000) (-0.186307.011586) (0.00044 0. the conclusion drawn is that there is a strong resemblance between the models.189616.00000) (-36. and in Appendix D a block diagram of the model is viewed.065739.428085.428097. the eigenvalues are assembled for the different machine models. 0. 0. 0.000000) Type3A (-0.016390) (-0. -1. 0.and for the FORTRAN-coded Type 1A for a three-phase fault at the generator node In Table 7.00085 0.000000) (-38.189615.051662.718 0.32% 0.0032 0.065731.00000) (-22. 1.016390) (-0.777 0. 0.011586) Table 7.010864) (-0.186307. 0. Type1A λ1-A λ1-B λ2-A λ2-B λ3-A λ3-B λ4-A λ4-B λ5-A λ5-B λ6-A λ6-B (-0.120430.016390) (-0.000162 B: minimum value while maximum difference 0.011586) (0.051662. 0. 0.186307.186307.2. 1. 0.145103. 1.1 Assembly of differences between the DSL.998 C=A/B: maximum deviation 1. -1. -1.021520) (-0.000000) (-38.021520) (-0.429890.607 0.145103.189615.2 Eigenvalues of the power system.016390) (-36.010864) (-0.000000) (-22. 0.55 - . 1. 0.7 Validation Saturation A: maximum difference id iq ud uq ω 0. -1.000000) (-36.227016. -1. 0.21% 0. -1.120430. 0. -1. 1. 0. .000000) (-36.000000) (-0.000000) Type4 (0.051660.010864) (-0.021520) (-0.189616.429901.000000) (-36.227020.4123 0.000000) (-2.06% 0.02% ωn Table 7. 1. 1.53% 0. it is obvious that the differences between the DSLwritten models and the FORTRAN models are small.00000) Type2A (-0. In Appendix C the DSL-file for the machine model Type 1A is attached.021520) (-0.428085.120430. 1.010293 0.010864) (-0. although further simulations should be made to fully state the validity of the DSL-models. for the different machine models From the tables and the plots. 0. 0.120430.428078.011586) (0. The indices A and B refer to the corresponding eigenvalues of the DSL and FORTRAN models.051660. -1.

Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow .56 - .

• • It is unnecessary to use the simple and less correct models. although he has a different reference system. V1D. including thoroughly derivation of the equations with references to different sources in the literature.for frequency dependent resistance. implemented in the already existing models. The synchronous machine models have been documented and explained in detail in this technical report. see the Simpow users manual [3] Including the following parameters. have been found in Bühler. NCON. CNODE . Although further validation is needed. Type & and 2. V2Q. SE1D. F0. TAB.1 • Conclusions and future work Conclusions The following conclusions are made: It has been found that the equations summarised in the technical reports [1] and [2]. • • • • Further validation of the DSL models. References to [1] and [2]. VREG. QTAB. Realisation of the instantaneous value models in DSL. and without noticeable extension of the simulation time. TURB. load and breaker associated with the machine. and Laible. have theoretical foundations. With today’s computers. the simulations made show a strong resemblance with the already existing FORTRAN models. SE2D. TET0.for control of the machine from another node.8 Conclusions and future work Conclusions 8 8. just to save computer time. 8.57 - . describing the underlying equations of the synchronous machine models in Simpow.for generation/consumption of only a part of the power at the node. Apart from this. could be used with extended reliability. regarding the parameters: DTAB. turbines. [13]. [10]. The four synchronous machine fundamental frequency models from Simpow have successfully been realised with DSL. PF. SE1Q. U0 . Type 3 and 4. SE1 and SE2.2 • Future work In future work. V2. V2D. a recommended source of information is Kundur [9]. after a vast literature research. QF . LOAD. Updating the Simpow user manual. FREEZE . in a simulation. Possibly.for freezing the state of the machine when it is disconnected. REXP . 1BREAKER . SE2Q. V1.for modelling of a machine not connected to the system.identification numbers for the regulator. • . XTURB. the more accurate models. validation of the FORTRAN models. the following paragraphs could be considered: Including saturation in the DSL-coded models. see also the Simpow users manual [3].

Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow .58 - .

i. in kA RMS The machine MVA rating.e. 2A. i. the following parameters are used: S netw = The network three-phase base power in MVA. Furthermore. In usual cases where the machine is connected to a step-up transformer and with respect to facilitate interpreting simulation results of some variables it is recommended to choose UB equal to the kV rating UN of the machine. the specified UB value in Optpow/Nodes.e. Unetw = Inetw = Sn = Snetw / ( 3 Unetw ).59 - . Dynpost: Synchronous machines Variables which can be plotted for the synchronous machine models of type 1.e. 3. reference is made to the type descriptions in the Dynpow part of the SIMPOW manual.u. the specified SN value in Optpow/General The machine node phase-to-phase base voltage. by Tore Petersson September 25.P. in kV RMS.) base values in the succeeding subsections.e. for type 4 no field-circuit variable can be plotted. 3A and 4 General information For synchronous machine models of type 1 and 1A all the listed variables can be plotted. Sn / ( 3 Un ) .e. the specified UN value in Dynpow/Synchronous machines Un = In = The machine kA RMS rating. i. Per unit base values In defining the per unit (p.Appendix A Appendix A List of variables that can be plotted for the existing synchronous machine models. 2. the specified SN value in Dynpow/Synchronous machines The machine kV RMS rating. the damping-circuit variables available are dependent on the type. i. i. 2001/ T. 1A. For the other models listed above.

One p. The physical rotor speed in p.u.u. The torque variables MT. base value Sn / ω n MNm is referred to the equivalent two-pole machine model used. on ω n as referred to the equivalent two-pole machine model used. i. on base Unetw / U= UN = U0 = UA.m. base values of the rotor currents and of the p. i.u. meaning that stator currents and powers are positive out of the machine. . IQ1 and IQ2 are defined in the same way as for the field current IF.u.u. The p. MEN and the speed variable SPEED The p. in el. The physical torque values in p. is the same but then on base ω mech n . in mech. FIQ. Positive torque and speed directions are that of normal rotor rotation. Transta and Masta. Sign conventions Generator or source sign convention is used.u. rated voltage.u.u. MEP. FIF. ME. are the same but then on base Sn /ω mech n MNm.u.” plot variables WD and WQ and the magnetic flux linkages FID.u.UC = Positive-sequence voltage Negative-sequence voltage Zero-sequence voltage Phase voltages 3 kV RMS (or in kV RMS) : . The plot variables are divided into three groups: Transta only.u.60 - . rad/s The nominal angular rotor speed of the machine considered. FIDD. rad/s.One p.u. base values of the “m. on the air-gap line at opencircuit rated speed steady-state conditions. The p. base values of the field-circuit plot variables IF and UF are defined as follows: . Masta only.u. field voltage is the corresponding field voltage at the field winding temperature to consider ( usually 75 or 100 degrees centigrade). rad/s ω mech n = The above listed synchronous machine models use a so-called non-reciprocal rotor p. Transta Magnitude of stator voltages. stator voltage. in p.e. system.e.UB.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow ωn= The nominal angular frequency of the machine and the power system.f.u. usually 2π50 or 2π60 el. base values of the inductances. field current is the field current which would theoretically be required to produce one p. Similarly SPEED is expressed in p. FIQ1. base values of the damper circuit currents IDD. The p. FIQ2 are determined by the p.

u. in p.u. ZB. U0I = Real and imaginary components of positive-sequence stator voltage Real and imaginary components of negative-sequence stator voltage Real and imaginary components of zero-sequence stator voltage Stator current components.u. on base In kA RMS (or in kA RMS) : I= IN = I0 = IA. UI = UNR. on base In kA RMS (or kA RMS) and referred to the common (global) real-imaginary reference frame: IR. RB.u.IB. in p. in p. in p. UNI = U0R.Appendix A Magnitude of stator currents.u. RC = XA. XC = Impedance (magnitude) Resistance Reactance 3 In ) Ohm ( or in Ohm): . II = INR. ZC = RA. XB. on base Sn MVA (or in MW) Positive-sequence reactive power output. on base Unetw / 3 kV RMS (or kV RMS) and referred to the common (global) real-imaginary reference frame: UR.IC = P= Q= Positive-sequence current Negative-sequence current Zero-sequence current Phase currents Positive-sequence active power output. in p.u.u. on Unetw / ( Per phase impedance values ZA. INI = I0R. on base Sn MVA (or in Mvar) Electromagnetic torque produced by positive-sequence stator currents.61 - .u. I0I = Real and imaginary components of positive-sequence stator current Real and imaginary components of negative-sequence stator current Real and imaginary components of zero-sequence stator current Equivalent impedance values as determined by the ratio of voltage phasor to current phasor (U/I) in p. on base Sn /ω n MNm Electromagnetic torque produced by negative-sequence stator currents. in p. for instance for analysis of relay protection matters: Stator voltage components. in p. on base Sn /ω n MNm MEP = MEN = Additional variables available for special purposes.

in p. negative and zero-sequence impedance (magnitude) Positive. see General information above. in p. (For p.u. in p.u. calculated as uq id .u. base value. Transta and Masta IF = UF = Field current.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Sequence impedances Z.u. IC = 2 In kA (or in kA) : 2 2 2 id + iq + i0 Current . on base I= IZ = IA. in p.u. calculated as “Zero-sequence” current (i0) Phase currents P= Q= Instantaneous active power output.) Mechanical torque. base value. on base Sn MVA (or in MW ) Instantaneous “Reactive power” output.u. on base ω n Rotor angle . calculated as ud id + uq iq + 2u0 u0. negative and zero-sequence resistance Positive. on base U= UZ = UA.u. in el. negative and zero-sequence reactance Masta Stator voltages.ud iq . in p. Z0 = R.u.u.u. It is a meaningful quantity only for steady-state balanced conditions. XN. radians (VAR) TETA is the difference angle between the q-axis of the machine considered and the q-axis of the reference machine as specified in Dynpow/General MT = ME = SPEED = TETA = . UB. R0 = X. on base Sn /ω n MNm Total electromagnetic torque. UC = 2 / 3 Unetw kV (or in kV): 2 2 2 ud + uq + u0 Voltage.u (For p. ZN. in p. IB.) Field voltage. in p.degrees (KVAR) or el. calculated as “Zero-sequence” voltage (u0) Phase voltages Stator Currents. see General information above.62 - . X0 = Positive. RN. on base Sn / ω n MNm Rotor speed. in p. in p. on base Sn MVA (or in Mvar).

Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow .64 - .

88 END END Q=666 FI=0 .OPTPOW ** GENERAL SN=2220 END NODES BUS1 UB=24 BUS2 UB=24 END LINES BUS1 BUS2 TYPE=11 X=0.Appendix B Appendix B Simpow test case files Optpow (Load flow) file evaluation of dsl models compared to fortran models ** DSL-FORTRAN.65 - .65 END POWER CONTROL BUS1 TYPE=NODE RTYP=PQ P=1998 Q=666 BUS2 TYPE=NODE RTYP=SW U=23.65 END POWER BUS11 TYPE=NODE RTYP=PQ P=1998 BUS12 TYPE=NODE RTYP=SW U=23.88 FI=0 END NODES BUS11 UB=24 BUS12 UB=24 END LINES BUS11 BUS12 TYPE=11 X=0.

03 TQ0B=0.SPE/I:1/.ICON.TD0P. ISP/I:0/.RA.SN.TM. ISP/I:0/.003 XD 1.XDP. XA.UF.W.81 XQ 1.SPE/I:1/.D/0/.TM0.25 TQ0P=1 TD0B=0.RA.UF0.R2.TQ0B.76 XDP 0.1 0.TD0B. R0.SN. R0.XQ.TM0. R0.XT/0/.X2) TYPE4(BUS.8 R2=0. U0.P0.Q0.RA.65 XDB=0.W. R0.UF.Q0.2 fortrangen BUS11 TYPE=1A SN 2220 UN 24 H 3.XQB.25 TQ0P=1 TD0B=0.XA.8 R2=0.D/0/.00005 !!!! HMAX 0.3 XA 0.Q0. one line and one swingbus ** CONTROL DATA TETL=1000 TEND 90 xtrace 1 DDSL=3 !!!! HMIN 0.XDB.2 X0=0.UN.03 X2=0.23 XQB=0.UF) _CONSTANT_TORQUE(TM0. U0.TETR.W.TM0.1 INST CONNECT !AT 0.03 TQ0B=0.07 R0=0.X0.TM. U0.03 X2=0.XQ.15 INST DISCONNECT !AT 0.D/0/.66 - .XA.XD.VC.XQ.TM.XDP.XT/0/.XQ.65 XDB=0.15 INST DISCONNECT AT AT AT AT END END 0.TD0P.TM0.TQ0P.5 RA 0.2 X0=0.UF0.76 XDP 0. each containing: !one synchronous machine.TETR.15 INST INST INST INST CONNECT CONNECT DISCONNECT DISCONNECT FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT F1 F11 F1 F11 FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT F2 F12 F2 F12 .3 XA 0.XDP.RA.X2) _CONSTANT_FIELD(UF0.UF.UF0.VC.FI0.81 XQ 1.UN.FI0.5 RA 0.XD.TETR.ICON.H.X0.D/0/.H.003 XD 1.SPE/I:1/.15 0.TM.P0.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow Dynpow (Dynamic simulation) file !evaluation of dsl models compared to fortran models !two separate systems.XDP.R2.UF0.XT/0/.UF.XQB. XDB.X2) TYPE3A(BUS.H.XD.W.UN.16 TD0P 8 XQP=0.VC.P0.X0.16 TD0P 8 XQP=0.R2.23 XQB=0.FI0.ICON.1 0.XT/0/.R2.0005 END GENERAL NREF 2 FN 60 60 REF BUS2 BUS12 END NODES BUS2 TYPE 1 BUS12 TYPE 1 END SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE dslgen BUS1 TYPE=DSL/TYPE1A/ SN 2220 UN 24 H 3.X0.SN.RT/0/.2 END DSL-TYPES TYPE1A(BUS.RT/0/.X2) TYPE2A(BUS.1 INST CONNECT !AT 0.07 R0=0.TD0B.Q0.TM) END FAULT F1 NODE=BUS1 TYPE=3PSG F2 NODE=BUS1 TYPE=1PSG F11 NODE=BUS11 TYPE=3PSG F12 NODE=BUS11 TYPE=1PSG END RUN INSTRUCTION !AT 0.RT/0/.SN.P0.VC.H.FI0. U0.XD.TETR.TQ0B. ISP/I:0/.ICON. ISP/I:0/.UN.TD0P.RT/0/. XQP.

R2.B2/*/.TD0P.XAD/*/.TQ0P.XRF/*/.W0/*/ REAL SIGMAFD/*/.XDP.PSIQ1.QQ.WQ IF (ISP.H.67 - .PSIQ2.XDB REAL U2.IQ1.P0.IQ.XQ2/*/. B0=0.FI STATE TETA.X2) EXTERNAL SN.IQ1.TD0P.XQB.XQP EXTERNAL XDB. if mech=mechanical power (in DSL_TYPE: TM) TM=MECH/SPEED ELSE !i.PX.XD. & XQP.R2.ISP.X2 INTEGER ICON.TD0B.WD.e.Q0.G00.XQ.XD.FI0.XL.IN2.EQ.TE.D/DT.UDX/*/.XDD/*/.X0.D.IQ1.COST.MECH0.+(PX**2+QX**2)*FAC1+2.TQ0B.XL.ICON.Appendix C Appendix C DSL-file for synchronous machine model Type 1A.XQP.UF.UF.UD.XQ.R0.IQ2.WD.UPIM.IQ2 STATE TETAI.ID.XD.X0.EQ.XQ1/*/.B00.RL.TE2 REAL TETA.TD/*/.UF EXTERNAL MECH.PSIDD.RT.H.XDB.IBASE/*/.UN.X2 AC NODE1 AC_CURRENT I/NODE1/ REAL RA/*/.IDD.SPEED. ELSE G2=R2/QQ B2=-X2/QQ ENDIF QQ=R0*R0+X0*X0 IF(QQ.XL.0)THEN G2=0.RT.1) THEN !i.VC.XT.and two q-axis damperwindings PROCESS TYPE1A(NODE1.SN.TE2.B1. & U0. !model with one field winding and one d.TQ0B.PSIF.0)THEN G0=0.MECH0/*/.XT.TETR. ELSE G0=R0/QQ B0=-X0/QQ ENDIF !armature resistance and leakage reactance RA=RL+RT XA=XL+XT !reactance definitions XAD=XD-XA XAQ=XQ-XA XRF=XAD**2/(XD-XDP) UB=UBASE(NODE1) !machine node base voltage UBASE=UB/UN !global-local voltage transformation factor W0=.P0.FWQ.G0/*/.ID.XQ.IDD.UN.ISP.IF.XDP.PSIQ.EQ.WQ.TQ0P.FI.XA/*/.IQL/IQ/.PSID.IQ2.SPEED.SINT.UF0/*/.H.IDD.SPE EXTERNAL R0.UF0.TD0B.TETAI. B2=0.UB/*/.UN.FI0(NODE1) IBASE=UBASE*SN/PBASE !global-local current transformation factor SPEED=1 !definitions of the initial conditions FAC1=RA**2+XQ**2 U2=U0**2 PX=P0/U2 QX=Q0/U2 FAC2=1.TE.D.PSIQ2 REAL UD.G1.MECH.FI0.TETR.WQ PLOT IDL/ID/.TQ0B EXTERNAL U0.TF/*/.D.FAC2 REAL SN.RL.e.RT.XQB.XT.WD.UQ.R2.XAQ/*/.FAC1.TD0P.*(PX**2+QX**2) FAC2=SQRT(FAC2) !first initial voltage and current IF(START00)THEN .XQB.B0/*/.UQ.Q0.IQ.TQ1/*/.SPEED.X0. if mech=mechanical torque (in DSL_TYPE: TM) TM=MECH ENDIF IF (START) THEN !negative and zero sequences QQ=R2*R2+X2*X2 IF(QQ.UQX/*/ REAL G2/*/.TQ0P.FI0.IQ. & ISP.SPE.PSIF.TQ2/*/ REAL UPRE.QX.RF/*/ REAL UBASE/*/.PSIDD.TD0B.P0.MECH REAL R0.SPE REAL VC.FWD.RL.SPEED.PSIQ1.TETA PLOT ID.TETR.SIGMAQ1Q2/*/.XDP.ICON/0/.TM REAL U0.Q0.

torque TE2=-(R2-RA)*IN2 !electrical torque TE=IQ*PSID-ID*PSIQ+TE2 !deviation angle TETA: (SPEED-1)*W0-.TETA=0 !machine speed SPEED: TM-TE-.PSIQ2 IDD: PSIDD=IDD*(1-XAD/XDD)+XAD/XDD*FWD IQ1: PSIQ1=IQ1*(1-XAQ/XQ1)+XAQ/XQ1*FWQ IQ2: PSIQ2=IQ2*(1-XAQ/XQ2)+XAQ/XQ2*FWQ ENDIF !end if(start) !posistive sequence VC=SQRT(UPRE**2+UPIM**2) IPRE(I)=ID*SINT+IQ*COST IPIM(I)=IQ*SINT-ID*COST IPRE(NODE1)=IPRE(I)*IBASE IPIM(NODE1)=IPIM(I)*IBASE !neg.1) THEN PSIQ=-(UD+ID*RA)/SPEED PSID=(UQ+IQ*RA)/SPEED ELSE PSIQ=-(UD+ID*RA) PSID=(UQ+IQ*RA) ENDIF !field winding current IF=(PSIF-(PSID+XA*ID)*XAD/XRF)/(1-XAD/XRF) !negative & zero sequence G1=UBASE*G2 B1=UBASE*B2 G00=UBASE*G0 B00=UBASE*B0 INRE(I)=(-UNRE(NODE1)*G1+UNIM(NODE1)*B1) INIM(I)=(-UNIM(NODE1)*G1-UNRE(NODE1)*B1) I0RE(I)=(-U0RE(NODE1)*G00+U0IM(NODE1)*B00) I0IM(I)=(-U0IM(NODE1)*G00-U0RE(NODE1)*B00) IN2=INRE(I)**2+INIM(I)**2 !negative seq. & zero seq.Appendix C SINT=SIN(TETA) COST=COS(TETA) !coordinate transformation UD=UPRE*SINT-UPIM*COST UQ=UPRE*COST+UPIM*SINT !flux linkages (with and without speed included in the model) IF (SPE. IF(.D/DT.PSIDD PSIQ1: 0=IQ1+TQ1*.NOT.D/DT.D/DT.D/DT.69 - .PSIQ1 PSIQ2: 0=IQ2+TQ2*.EQ.D/DT.PSIF*TF=0 !mmf in the d resp q axis FWD=PSID+ID*XA FWQ=PSIQ+IQ*XA !no saturation WD=FWD WQ=FWQ !currents of d-and q-axis ID: IF+IDD-ID*XAD-WD=0 IQ: IQ1+IQ2-IQ*XAQ-WQ=0 ! damper winding voltage and flux linkage equations for TYPE 1A PSIDD: 0=IDD+TD*.D/DT.START)THEN INRE(NODE1)=INRE(I)*IBASE INIM(NODE1)=INIM(I)*IBASE I0RE(NODE1)=I0RE(I)*IBASE I0IM(NODE1)=I0IM(I)*IBASE ENDIF END .SPEED*2*H-D*(SPEED -1)=0 !field winding flux linkage PSIF: UF-IF-.

70 - .Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow .

71 - .Appendix D Appendix D Block diagram for synchronous machine model Type &A. by Jonas Persson. .

72 - .Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow .

Anderson. Transient Phenomena in Electrical Machines. et. 352-355. P. June 1933. Fouad. Binder 1. Power Systems Analysis department ABB Utitlities. Tore Petersson. Power System Stability and Control. ABB Power Systems. Electric Machinery 5th ed.. private discussion December 2001 Västerås. P. 1984. pp.. Vol. IEEE Std 399-1980 IEEE Brown Book.H. SIMPOW Synchronous machine model Type SP& Mathematical description. Park. Elsevier.Band &:Grundlagen. al. Kundur. Persson. 1951. John Wiley & Sons. ABB Power Systems. Synchronous Machines Theory And Performance. ASEA. AIEE Trans. Two-Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines-Part II. Iowa State University Press. IEEE Standard 100-1996. P. Sen. ASEA. Die Theorie der Synchronmaschine im nichtstationären Betrieb. Senior Specialist. A. Springer. Einfürung in die Theorie geregelter Drehstromantriebe. Petersson. Dynpow. 1999. Recommended Practice for Power System Analysis. 1990. Bühler. .73 - . R. SIMPOW Synchronous machine model Type ST33 Mathematical description. Laible. McGraw-Hill.. Transta.K. 44-49. H.References References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] Johansson.A. Power System Control and Stability &st ed. T. K-E.Transient Stability Program. 1977. Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics 2nd ed. 1999. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms 6th ed. 1977.. 1997. K-E. 1977. 1952. Petersson. 1981. February 2001. Johansson. Wiley. 1999. Birkhäuser. C. T. J.. Kovács. A. Fitzgerald.Dynamic Power System Simulation. 52. SIMPOW Power System Simulation & Analysis Software Users Manual Release &0.M. Conversion of PSS/E-files to SIMPOW-format focusing on dynamic models. McGraw-Hill. Concordia. Th.. pp.C. P. 1994. ABB Power Systems.E.

74 - .Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow .

where instantaneous models are simulated per unit system. developed by ABB Le Système International d’Unités. where fundamental frequency models are simulated the zero axis of the rotor reference system zero sequence extra index at time zero positive sequence negative sequence phase α.75 - . quadrature. Developed by Kjell Anerud direct-. unified.u. the Royal Institute of Technology module of Simpow. inductance.g. adopted by the Eleventh General Conference on Weights and Measures.List of symbols List of symbols Abbreviations DSL dq0-axis dq0-transforme FORTRAN IEEE KTH Masta p. Developed by Jim Backus Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. of the two-phase global reference system phase β. synchronous machine models. of the three-phase system armature (leakage) resistance. for a universal. self-consistent system of measurement units based on the MKS (meter-kilogram-second) system module of Simpow.and zero axis following the rotation of the rotor of a machine transformation from three-phase stator quantities to rotor quantities FORmula TRANslation. unit-less system. system Simpow SI-units Dynamic Simulation Language used in Simpow when programming e. of the three-phase system the direct axis of the rotor reference system the dq0-transformed three-phase stator reference system per unit bases for the network per unit bases for the machine node index for nominal quantities of the synchronous machine the quadrature axis of the rotor reference system the three-phase rotor reference system the three-phase stator reference system per unit bases for the synchronous machine system generator node quantities Transta Sub-indices 0 0 0 1 2 α β ε a a b c d dq0 netw base node base n q R S Sbase t Super-indices ´´ subtransient . Inc Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. held in Paris in 1960. the first high-level computer language. often used in power systems analysis Power system simulation software. reactance phase b. of the two-phase global reference system leakage inductance phase a. of the three-phase system phase c.

rad/s rotor speed deviation mechanical speed flux linkage.q R. SI-units voltage. SI-units resp p. imaginary power. Transta resp.z transient complex conjugate electrical displacement angle. SI-units resp p. SI-units resp p. reactive power.p Q. torque. Masta translation or screening factor decrement factor time constant frequency.u. SI-units resp p.u.u. m P. u W X. ψ ℜ CI CU D f f H I. SI-units resp p.u.u. SI-units resp p. impedance. frequency. SI-units resp p. active power. SI-units inductance.u.u. SI-units resp p.u. SI-units resp p.l M.r S U. Hz saturation function per unit inertia constant current.u.u.x Z. reluctance current transformation constant voltage transformation constant damping factor.u. SI-units resp p. magneto motive force reactance. i J L.θ µ σ τ ω ∆ω ωmech Ψ. moment of inertia.Detailed Description of Synchronous Machine Models Used in Simpow ´ * Symbols δ. p.76 - . . resistance.