STATINS – HMG-CoA reductase (or 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase or HMGCR) is the ratecontrolling enzyme (EC 1.1.1.

88) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol. Competitive inhibitors of the reductase induce the expression of LDL receptors in the liver, which in turn increases the catabolism of plasma LDL and lowers the plasma concentration of cholesterol, an important determinant of atherosclerosis.[1] This enzyme is thus the target of the widely available cholesterol-lowering drugs known collectively as the statins. HMG-CoA reductase is anchored in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and was long regarded as having seven transmembrane domains, with the active site located in a long carboxyl terminal domain in the cytosol. More recent evidence shows it to contain eight transmembrane domains.[2] The enzyme commission designation is EC 1.1.1.34 for the NADPH-dependent enzyme, whereas 1.1.1.88 links to an NADH-dependent enzyme. In humans, the gene for HMG-CoA reductase is located on the long arm of the fifth chromosome (5q13.3-14).[3] Related enzymes having the same function are also present in other animals, plants and bacteria. RENAL SYSTEM        3 major areas –cortex medulla, pelvis Receive 20 to 25% TC under resting conditions averaging > 1L per minute Normal GFR is 125 ml/min Renal artery branch from the abdominal aorta at the level of L2 Renal acids are H+, ammonium (NH4), phosphate and sulfate buffers. Renal base is predominantly HCO3- Because of the HC03 filtered load, reabsorption of HC03 Is the primary task of the tubule segments. Urinary acid secretion is determined by plasma CO2 levels.

FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEY      Controls fluid and electrolyte balance Controls of acid-base balance Excrete end products of body metabolism Secrete renin & erythropoietin Manufacture & activation of vitamin D.

Renin angiotensin aldosterone system

to angiotensin I> ACE in the lungs converts A I to A II > A II stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone. therefore dec.Decreased BP> INC renin secretion> renin converts angiotensinogen. . acts on kidneys to increase Na absorption. a protein secreted from the liver. urine output and blood volume.