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P. Rodriguez, Student Member, IEEE, R. Pindado, Member, IEEE, and J . Pou, Member, IEEE

Absfrocl- This paper presents a three-phase four-wire active power fiter controlled under an energy approach. For active power Pter implementation, a nonconventional converter topology is presented and analyzed. With this topology, and considering harmonics and imbalances in utility voltage and load current, power requirements on the active power filter are studied. From this study, a controller based on the energy state of the system is designed. In this paper, an analytical study and verification by simulation me conducted.

Index Terms-Power

conditioning, Power fiters.

I. INTRODUCTION N three-phase four-wire shunt active power filter applications, ' ' two topologies for current-controlled voltage source inverter are commonly used, namely the four-leg fullbridge (FLFB) topology, and the three-leg split-capacitor (TLSC) topology. These topologies were presented at the beginning of the 90's 111, and numerous publications on their control have appeared ever since [2]-[4]. The FLFB converter shows better controllability thanks to its greater number of semiconductor devices. However, interaction between the legs connected to the utility phases and the leg connected to the neutral conductor makes necessary space-vector based current control in order to achieve suitable reference current tracking. The TLSC converter, having a smaller number of switches, permits each of the three legs to be controlled independently. making its current tracking control simpler than the previous topology. However, in this case the' zero-sequence injected current flows through the dc-bus capacitors. This current gives rise to imbalance in the capacitors voltage sharing, forcing to increase the capacitors rating to constantly ensure that the capacitor voltages have a sufficiently high absolute value. Merging FLFB and TLSC topologies, an altemative topology, shown in Fig.1, can he obtained [ 5 ] . This four-leg splitcapacitor (FLSC) topology solves the cited problems of the previous topologies.

I

L

Fig. 1. Active power filter based in FLSC converter

11.

I

THREE-PHASE FOUR-WIRE ACTNE FILTER AVERAGE MODEL

By means of a simple analysis of one leg in the circuit a generic switchingshown in Fig. 1, and supposing Cl=C2=C, leg can be represented by a state-space average model, in which the state equation is (la) and the output equation is (Ib). In these equations d j E[O ,I] is the duty cycle of the leg, where i=jo,b,c,d). To simplify notation, the variables in these equations represent averaged values over a switching period, that is: iF, vs, E v s ( ,etc.

ci,

~

L

A

Manuscript received August 8, 2003. This work was supported by the Comissionat lnterdepartamental de Recerca i lnnovaeib Tecnolhgica (CIRIT) under theGrant DPl2001-2192. P. Rodriguez is with the Electrical Engineering Depanment, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, S P A N (e-mail: prodriguer@ ee.upc.es). R. Pindado, and J. Pou are with the Electronics Engineering Department, Technical University. of Catalonia, Barcelona, SPAIN (e-mail: pindado@ eel."pc.es, pa"@eel.upc.es).

' '

Based on (Ib), the duty cycle di can be expressed as a function of the leg voltages, obtaining d, = ( v n - vc2)/ vdc, where vdc = vC, - vCz represents the de-bus absolute voltage. Substituting d, expression in current terms of ( I b), and taking into account that the averaged value of leg output voltage is vFi = vs, + L,i,, then the currents in capacitors arc given by (2).

0-7803-7906-3/03/$17.0002003 IEEE.

1061

Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. Downloaded on December 3, 2008 at 09:37 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

Besides. = . the average model of the active filter is readily obtained by connecting four averaged switching-legs and the rest of the circuit components. keeping in mind that v g 0 . the 1062 Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. and pF3/is the instantaneous active power developed by the filter. .nt=pim5 +pJy. pims.~. the dc-bus dferenfial voltage. that the dc-bus differential voltage lineally depends on the injected current in the dc-bus midpoint. if iFd= -( iFa + iFb t iFc) then the dc-bus voltage imbalance will be eliminated. easily made from the estimation of the energy stored in dc-bus. icl) dr Equation (6) evidences. 1 will be obtained by summing the terms shown in (2) for the different legs. although the condition iLd '* + f F '*b + i F '' c IS ' imposed ' for the reference currents. Therefore.. For this reason. At this point. the active power filter could be represented by means of the block diagram shown in Fig. . the four-wire model can be depicted by the state equations shown in (3)._-_-----r I ' Fig. the converter cannot always meet the dynamic requirements imposed by the reference phase currents.( v c 2 i .. this does not imply that this equality is always true for the instantaneous currents.) (2a) 1 lcz =-(-Vc&.)] (5b) i=o. In this situation. but rather.iFo+ pF3(t L. Vd' I -vs.c. Therefore. as logic.. Downloaded on December 3. This expression evidences that the energy stored in the dcbus does not depend on the current injected in the dc-bus midpoint. from sensing voltage imbalance in the capacitors. Considering these additional power losses. equal zero. ENERGY STORED I N THE DC-BUS Taking into account (5). and it shows a linear relationship between energy variation in the dc-bus and power terms associated to the filter..i. 2. an appropriate controller. Energy behanour of APF P O W R REQUERIMENTS ON THE ACTIVE POWER FILTER =-( ) In order to establish characteristics of the controller based on the energy stored in the dc-bus. 1 Avc = - c I(.L.( 7 ) should be modified to obtain that i=o.iFjF<) (2b) Once the average model of the switching-leg is justified. the reference current for phase d can be modified in order to reach zero imbalanct:. it is worth noting that. it is necessary to know the power developed by the converter in an active filtering application. For this reason. DIFFERENTRL v C f ( 0 ) = -yCZ(o) and taking into account (51.d VOLTAGE IN THE DC-BUS 111. will be given by (6). should be used so that. 2. the controller dedicated to eliminate variations in the &-bus will be studied. + Expression (8) is extremely simple.. in the circuit shown in Fig. Expression for current flowing through capacitors in Fig. v. additional power consumptions will appear in different components of the active power filter mainly due to conduction and switching losses. where p. and later on. Avc.b. In this sense. 2008 at 09:37 from IEEE Xplore. pF3+ and the instantaneous power associated to the coupling inductances of the legs. In a later section.c.. Restrictions apply. it only depends on the instantaneous active power developed by the filter. pLF.. I . x(iFjiF. t?om an energy approach. and assuming that the fourth leg is operative in the converter. presented in [6]. power requirements associated to a generic load will be characterized. In a real implementation..d -vc.iF. since the instantaneous sum of the current ripples of the four legs is not . vd' + Vai. im will not be zero and instantaneous imbalance appears in the dc-bus voltage sharing.[7]. These expressions are shown in (5).. the dc-bus energy variation. From (I). +LF. it seems logical to think that the control of ihe dc-bus absolute voltage will be.b. I v . where im is the injected current in the dc-bus midpoint.

2008 at 09:37 from IEEE Xplore. in form of sinusoidal positive sequence currents. Downloaded on December 3. and the mean value of the energy stored in the dc-bus will be constant. whole imaginary power associated with the load and the source. is: PE.J. it is firstly considered an unbalanced linear load with connection to the neutral.C + W + . load current can be expressed as: sin(ot t J0. by means of zero sequence currents. Logically. utility voltages will be supposed unbalanced. the necessary currents. correspond to the rms voltage of positive. sin(2ott j. and it consumes. Restrictions apply. Tacking into account that characterization of load power requirements is the objective of this study.!:+[o]t-=[]. As (15) shows. -&I)+ V. this imaginary power developed by the filter will not generate variation of energy stored in the dc-bus. . FF =-PLO.& . sinusoidal at fundamental frequency and in phase with the positive sequence voltage of the utility. ' * I [ 0 (14) . negative and zero sequence components. load voltage in a-p-0 reference frame can be expressed as To generate the active power given by (12).) (10) .L. The filter also supplies. equipments and conductors generates negative effects on the correct operation conditions of these systems. In this case.I-[d. If the load is nonlinear. 1063 Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. qF =qLtF. . the active power filter will inject. the mean value of instantaneous active power supplied by the source is given by (12). cos(#. It is shown in (15) that the active filter is supplying the whole load zero sequence power. However. utility voltages present positive. in the form of positive and negative sequence currents. LCOS(4"I .. intemal power losses of the active filter will be intentionally neglected. [ 11 P L O & + P L O . To generalize this study. transmission and distribution systems. in the form of sinusoidal positive and negative sequence currents. the active power filter should assure that current drawn from the source is balanced. Moreover. purely active positive sequence currents in the source side should be: 0 0 (9) With these currents. a net transfer of energy will not exist in the filter.cos(o1 t J+. Therefore. voltage imbalance in the point of common coupling between the load and the utility is generally due to voltage drops across the impedance of the generation.]+[$ = In (14).) - Consequently.cos(wt t #*. the filter would make a net transfer of energy to the load. V. the load currents will contain harmonic components of higher frequency in addition to the components at fundamental frequency. the oscillating real power of the load.Consequently. AZ* = 0 . Therefore.. = p".) where V. the filter develops. For the study of power. t 0 0 cos(o1 + J.+.. p F o= jiLo+2Lo.:I=[ . if minimization of voltage imbalance in the point of common coupling is adopted as an objective. .(PL + P ' d A cos(2ot+ h. besides the currents at fundamental frequency.( = P L + P L O = 3[V*J+.. the mean value of instantaneous active power consumed by the load. oscillatory terms at 2 0 frequency appear as a consequence of interaction between the positive sequence current and the negative sequence voltage in the source side. Also.) [E\=[. that is. I] (11) 1 where pLo and p L are the zero sequence power and real power consumed by the load. to compensate these [. Finally.. Therefore.components of this power that should be contributed by the active filter will be evaluated. the oscillating real power of the source. in the form of positive sequence sinusoidal currents.. unbalanced currents circulation through machines. instantaneous powers developed by the active power filter are calculated by subtracting the powers supplied by the source from the powers consumed by the load. P F O (15) Pso h o aF -Fs. Therefore. .. the mean value of instantaneous active power supplied by the source must coincide with the mean value of instantaneous active power consumed by the load. PL. These oscillations at double frequency of utility frequency will appear in the energy stored in the dc-bus. and V. the filter is requesting. respectively.. the whole instantaneous powers supplied by the source should be: . )+ V 0 . a mean value of real power equal to the mean value of zero sequence power supplied to the load. If the mean value of this power were different from zero. Consequently. negative and zero sequences respectively.+ 4 J .6.

would be: VI. 5 are shown in (25). Moreover. currents for the active filter from calculation of the mean value of active power consumed by the load. 5.. is the oscillating real power associated to the source. the block diagram shown in Fig. but also distorted. Therefore.. 3 shows a block diagram dedicated to obtaining reference. Downloaded on December 3. Awd' (s)= G(s)HI'F(s)=-5 3 # (23) In Aw. Restrictions apply.. and 5. Fig. by using (IS). = C.(s) = 0 .Ps(s)] . which originate oscillations of higher frequency in the energy stored in the dc-bus. S(S) V+L Fig.s +0 H ( s )= '(' ') . and H(s) is constituted by a notch filter in cascade with a low pass filter tuned to q.v c I . the instantaneous active power developed by the active filter.v c 2 ) 2 = cv.harmonics. Then new high-frequency components will appear in the real.pNC.U + VQJ. 4. 3. 1 ' oh --10. If the utility voltage was not only unbalanced.(s) . being as the fundamental utility frequency. -5s = FL3( -PIs> (17) HPF(s)=(l-LPF(s))= (s t 0/)2 (22) where pIL3. -so")]. the transfer function ofthe low-pass filter is: Fig. 3. the algorithm used to estimate energy variation in the dc-hus taking into account an initial value adopted as a reference would be: where Vdcc. therefore. = . a suitable controller must be Lf' VL 0 designed to avoid this steady state error in the dc-bus energy The proposed dc-bus energy controller is shown in Fig. --4 If the controller of dc-bus .&)+ en. unitary damping factor has been chosen to avoid over-peak in the step response of filter.. = C. From this study of powers.. energy variation in dc-bus can be expressed as + V. Control diagram of energy variation in the dc-bus Cut-off frequency of this filter has been chosen taking into account that the minimum frequency of the oscillations in the load active power can become equal to 2ws. (21) where n indicates the harmonic order. Algorithm implementation for filter reference c m n l s determination In Fig.is the oscillating active power consumed by the load. 2008 at 09:37 from IEEE Xplore.efl is the dc-bus vcsltage reference. In this case. C(s) is a proportional controller with a gain equal to k. the situation would not differ excessively from that one previously studied. response' is = -2 / 0 ."L. In Fig.differential voltage is operative.) = PF + P F O = PILO +PI. If it is considered that en.=2rrg.0 I -2. 4 1 2 (19) where C . AW. 5 . 5 . and its transfer function is: 0 . then the following transfer function is obtained: s t 20. additional oscillating terms of power appear as a consequence of interaction between voltages and currents of different frequency and/or sequence.(S) = G(s)[HPF(s). CONTROLLER OF IX-BUS ENERGY VARIATION is possible to accept that vC.(s). j & .0. (24) Characteristic transfer functions of the system depicted by means of Fig. From Fig. . Note that noncompensated intemal power losses have been included in this diagram. Energy requirements for APF 1064 Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia.. steady state value of step. cos(@-. it and therefore energy stored in the dc-bus can be calculated by: w d= I c( VCI .is given as follow: PP34 where s ( s t 20.. imaginary and zero sequence powers shown in (IS). (23). . cos(d0.P. Fig. and mean value of instantaneous active power that should be supplied by the source. in the form of purely active positive sequence currents. Therefore. 4. . 4 represents energey solicitation on the active power filter..

1065 Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. the transfer function shown in (25a) should have unitary gain at this frequency.. From (ZO). To avoid this problem. the H(s) block is added to the control loop. proportional gain is limited to k = q . 0 . AW.[ H ( S ) C ( S ) ~ ( ~ ) + F . 7. real structure of high-pass filter has been considered. If now these powers are kept in mind.. the dc-bus voltage does not decrease below a limit value. ( S ) ] .(s)-&(s) = 0 bas been considered. ~ 5 k=rg-=2. q = 2 100 ~ and tr=& =I have been considered.~ ~ ( s ~ ] As Fig. . D(s)=s-is a derivative block. dp.ID" So far <. Fig.(I+ Since the whole oscillatory active power of the load at w 2 q should be developed by the active filter.[H ~ F ( s ) P . . This would imply incorrect compensation for this component of instantaneous active power of the load by the active filter. 8 permits to obtain the following transfer function: I - Fig. the appropriate value for the capacitors is given by: 4AP. . an analysis of the diagram in Fig.(s)= 1 .(s) and F.10.for the dc-bus capacitors. 8 shows.G(s)C(s)H(s) . and supposing that the H(s) block has not been included in the controller. Analysis of diagram shown in Fig. fixing as a design condition that when a certain step appears in the average value of active power consumed by the load.(s). Fig. ( s ) + ~ ~ . since it follows an identical evolution versus variations of the powers that affect the energetic state of the filter. and a new variable for the effective power that modifies dc-bus energy has been defined as PF(d. 7 shows temporal evolution of the dc-bus energy variation when a unitary step appears in the instantaneous active power consumed by the load. . ( s ) . . it is possible to determine the appropriate value AW. Downloaded on December 3.LPF(s) =. 2008 at 09:37 from IEEE Xplore.. active power consumed by the load at w2a3 would be slightly lagged respect to active power supplied by the active filter.C(S) . With this value fork. The values ~ 2 . Thereby.. a second control loop is added to the system. Step response of the closed-loop system Expression (29) denotes that dc-bus energy variation is completely controlled. (30) where F. In this diagram. to achieve a unique transfer function that relates dc-bus energy variation with all powers terms shown in (28). 8 it is obtained that: L1(=p ' (S) H(s)C(s)+D(s)LPF(s) An analytical study of (25h) permits to obtain a very accurate approximate expression for the minimum value of the waveform plotted in Fig.(s) I . Analysing the control diagram shown in Fig. 8 shows real structure of control diagram of dc-bus energy variation. Restrictions apply.(s) are defined in (3 1) m). 7. 5 allows obtaining expression (28) for dc-bus energy variation.n. LPF(s) is the low-pass filter shown in (IS). This expression is shown in (26). Then.

5.A. Power Delivey. Bum. IEEE. vol.15 s. Liang and G. no.pp.D. “Four-wire Current-Regulated PWM Voltage Converter. . With this approach. ... . 538-544. Prasad. 2008 at 09:37 from IEEE Xplore. 1998. . Malesani. . SIMULATION RESULTS For simulation numoses. IEEEIECON. Induslriol Eleelronics.. no. .” IEEE Trans. ~ 0... 9.2 . . . -- . Industrial Electronics. no. [6] in ~ i I 1./ 7 - iid -(iia +jib -20 0 . . pp. pp. pp. 0..25 0. V. Green.29~. Restrictions apply. Power Elecrronics. Q.-C. . . L. Downloaded on December 3. hplementation of APF controller VII. Verdelha. 1998. .” in Proe. and power to current means of transformation is given by: -10 . 2939. 2002.APEC.1 This definitive control diagram has been implemented as Fig.” IEEE Zions. 5. vol.. Hence. 314-326 [I] Fig. . D. so operation conditions of the filter can be assured for :sudden variations in load power. -cOntml Schemes for Equalization of Capacitor Voltages in Neutral Clamped Shunt Compensator. Fig. Oct. &. Oct.. 520-525. . . . corroborate the previous analysis. Weiss. vol. . . 1066 Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. [4] R.it can be concluded that proposed controller provides an effective method for reference currents calculation based on energy state of the active power filter. Mattavelli. P. “H‘ Control of the Neutral Point in 3-phase 4-Wire DC-AC Converters. . Lec. 722-729. Boston. vol. .H. . “Active Filtering Currents in Three-phase. ~ simulated . .” IEEE Tram.. and. 829-836. CONCLUSION From the study presented.. May 2002. Zhong. T. . Sevilla. REFERENCES C.” in Prae. IO. . I I . . the dc-bus capacitors are rated according to dynamic response of the system. . 10 shows.Expression (30) leads to the definitive control diagram shown in Fig. . ..2. 17. another 2 kW nonlinear load is also connected. (21 S . at f=O. Definitive dc-bus energy controller 0 dW&. .. M. Marques. Nwr. Proper sinusoidal currents on the source side and a minimum value of dc-bus energy variation according to that expected from ( 2 6 ) are obtained. . Simvlaled waveforms VIII. 9. vol... 2. 761-770. PLJ 6) S(S) -2 ’ . unbalanced utilitv voltaee has been balanced resistive load is connected to the utility Later.. 45. Mohan.. . . I._1 . ~ .bus energy control and load current conditioning are perfectly achieved.3 t kl Fig.K.C. -.” IEEE Tram. 0. Feb. 1. Zhang. SPAIN. USA pp. and G. Four-Wire Systems with ThreePhasse and Single-phase Non-Linear Laads.ashi ~ and ~ Ghosh. . . . ‘Comparison of Current Control Techniques for Active filter Applications. DO. . 18. The reference current for leg d is obtained by = + iic). .C. [3] P. ‘ThreeDimensional Space Vector Modulation for Four-Leg Voltage-Source Converters. no. April 2003. . Quinn and N. . 1992.15 0. 4. 45. .05 0. Boroyevich and F. M ~ A.pp. . 3.1 - ~~ _ .

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