Real Time Calculation of the Chip Temperature of Power Modules in PWM Inverters using a 16Bit Microcontroller

T. Reimann, R. " m e r , U. Franke, J. Petzoldt, L. Lorenz *
Ilmenau Technical University, Dept. of Power Electronics, PO BOX 100565 D-98684 Ilmenau, Germany Phone.: [++49] (3677) 691532 ; Fax: [++49] (3677) 691552 E-mail: Tobias.Reimann@E-Technik.TU-Ilmenau.de * Infineon Technologies, St. Martin Str. 76, D-8 1541 Munich, Germany

Abstract: Investigations of the transient chip temperature of IGBT and diode in power modules are presented in this paper. The calculation of chip temperature and power losses occurs on-line in a microcontroller. Advanced practical results achieved in a step down converter are shown at different load cycles and output frequencies with the same average load current. An analysis of resu!ts and errors is shown too.

inverter and exist as information (m, coscp, $ntm,ockr f,,, duty cycle) in the controller. An additional controller is not necessary. A block diagram of the structure shows Fig. 1.

I. INTRODUCTION
The chip temperature is an important limit value for the protection of semiconductors. At present, the thermal protection is realized by using the thermal dependence of forward or blocking currents and by the measurement of the average temperature of the copper layer or head sink by means of thermocouples or semiconductors. These techniques are suited for the measurement of average temperatures only. The load currents of some inverter applications are not constant. Thus, the chip temperature oscillates with the inverter output frequency. The direct measurement of this transient chip temperature in applications is not possible yet. The objective is the on-line calculation of the static and dynamic chip temperature T,(time) in a microcontroller during load cycles and at fimdamental inverter output frequencies f,,,=O ...60Hz. First practical results are shown in [l]. In this paper we present advanced investigations at different load cycles and output frequencies at the same average load current.

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Fig. I : Block diagram of the supervision of the chip temperature and power losses in a microcontroller of a VSI

The basic principle of the calculation of transient power losses and chip temperature consists in the mathematical description of practically measured semiconductor characteristics. The measured points are approximated to polynomial equations by means of a curve fitting program.
A . Pobt'er.Losses The static behaviour (VCEratr VI:) was measured using a Curve-Tracer dependent on load current and chip temperature. The switching losses were determined in a step-down converter. An example of the measured and fitted switching losses of the diode is shown in Fig. 2. These 3-dimensional arrays were filed into tables and saved in the controller. In this way the calculation speed can be optimized.

11. MODELLIXG A model of powci- loss calculation and a thcnnal model of'

determination of thc chip temperature was implemented in a microcontroller. The necessary on-line input parameters (i,,,,,, V,,,.. T,,,,, pi,,l.) are measured and AD-converted in the
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CONCLUSION The on-line calculation of the chip temperature of power modules in voltage source converters using a microcontroller was described in this paper. Further.Electronica'92. the thermal model disregards time constants of the heat sink. Switzerland. L. The temperature peaks are up to 15K higher than the average value (Table I and Fig. published on CD T. J . Masahiro Kimata. temperature) and the discretizations (controller). values of the measured and simulated temperature becomes smaller with increased output frequency. Thus. PCIM 1998. 3.: Thermal Investigations of the Structure of Power Modules. 111. the impedance values were fitted too. The absolute error between simulation and measurement is <4K for both. This error is constant after one minute of inverter run time. The oscillation of the chip temperature with the output frequency of the inverter is shown in Figs. IV. Thermal coupling inside the power module was excluded in this first step and will be taken into consideration for advanced research.. G. published on C D Kriimmer. T.. Petzoldt. V. 2008 at 04:28 from IEEE Xplore. EPE'99. Lukaszewski. Berger. and min. On Line Thermal Model and Thermal Management Strategy of a Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter. Reimann. R. The step down converter (test circuit) was realized with two half bridge modules ( 1200V/75A).: On-line calculation of the chip temperature of power modules in voltage source converters using the microcontroller. pp.5. The waveforms were recorded after one minute. Conf. Restrictions apply.-Proc. New Intelligent Power Multi-Chips Modules With Junction Temperature Detecting Function I A S 98 Proc. . V. Blasko. Errors are caused by tolerances of the sensors (current. Konrad. S . 2: Fitting of the diode switching losses.:The Calculation of Power Dissipation for the IGBT and the Inverse Diode in Circuits with Sinusoidal Output Voltage. The output frequency was changed between 0. Power Loss and Junction Temperature Analysis of Power Semiconductor Devices.Diode \I 200V / 75A ) z=a+blnx+cy+d(lnx)2+ey +fylnx+g(lnx)3+hy3+i~21nx+I~(lnx)2 snusoidal 3 --___ r . 4451154 Srajber.. Kajiwara. the influence of the heating grease has to be investigated. The switching frequency was 1OkHz. 128 Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. published on CD Dewei Xu.=lOA). Sladky. An acceptable error was achieved between simulated and measured results. The difference of the max. . Hoshi.. R. 3. a. Power Electronics. Lukasch. A. thermal coupling between IGBT and diode is negligible and not included in the model yet.. Petzoldt. pp. iload) **e measured points B. R. et. Satoshi Azuma. K. .. Y . The average value of the load current is always the same (i.. Sakurai. Thermal Impedance The basis for the thermal model is the measured thermal impedance Zth (time) between chip surface and base plate. The dynamic behaviour of the infrared-camera restricts the measurable frequency. Lipei Huang. E. R. Lausanne. Furthermore. RESULTS AND ERROR VALIDATION The maximum chip temperature at sinusoidal load current is significantly higher compared to rectangular load current at low output frequencies.al. the on-line calculation of the chip temperature described is a method to protect semiconductors against dangerous temperatures and to investigate aspects of live time and reliability. The heat sink temperature is measured with thermocouples close to the modules so. W. 1 and 3Hz.n g u f a 05 redangular rectangular s~nusotdal sinusoidal snmidal 41 358 35 447 43 29 12 41 26 236 266 24 15 104 49 1 3 o5 1 3 4a 28 29 2Y 295 31 78 6 157 135 34 315 45 41 2T 16 7 9 35 25 28 Fig.. time delays are the consequence. Lorenz. Munich. Finally. minimum and maximum values (Tablel).. REFERENCES Kriimmer. Haiwei Lu. In addition. J . Downloaded on October 17. The chip temperatures were measured on "opened modules" with an infrared camera. The complete and more detailed description of the models is shown in [ 11. The fitted delay elements of the thermal model are reason for this as the exactness of the transient thermal behaviour of the thermal model mainly depends on the exactness of the description of the thermal impedances (Zth Especially the thermal resistance of the thermal grease is a crucial point. This trend expresses the adjustment to the average value by increasing the frequency and is shown in Table I by the simulated and the measured "A" values.w = f CT. 1085-1090 The further investigations of the on-line simulated chip temperatures were done with sinusoidal and rectangular load current waveforms. The realisation and the transfer of the fitted values to the controller is done by means of delay elements. Niimberg.14 clearly. IAS 99. Ryohei tichida.14). Gallagher. voltage. IAS 99. Proc. J.D. Yainaguchi..

332 \ 0 1.5Hz...T. =IHz. . T. =3Hz. TI... i.... f. avp.measured and simulated chip temperature.333 0. TH..=IOA. iltldtl . Fig. rectangular load .. rectangular loadcurrent. 3: Diode .332 25 20 15 10 t " k .. TH...S0C load current......665 L 0.measured and simulated chip temperature.. Restrictions apply..666 t _7 L 1.. Fig. fa. rectangular . rectangular T. -3Hz..Tl. 5: Diode .. 2008 at 04:28 from IEEE Xplore.measured and simulated chip temperature. =O..333 0..... 'load I'[ Tj meas Ti ["Cl 45 40 35 30 25 h 45 40 35 30 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 I1-d 20 15 10 5 0 Ibsd 0 0. 6 : IGBT . I....=3I.666 t t [SI 0. rectangular load ... 8: IGBT .. i.. . =33 5°C load current.VI.n =28 5°C current..RY851.999 1. TI.measured and simulated chip temperature.SHz..measured and simulated chip temperature. 20 15 10 5 5 [SI 0.=22 5°C.. foul 40 35 30 25 Fig..665 Fig..=22"C.TI nvy =29"C current.l... Downloaded on October 17. ~ 2 8 ° C current. 1 129 Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia... TI...=IOA.. j1-d APPENDIX A Tjmeas Tjsim 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 t [SI 6 8 10 Fig.=ZS"C.=IOA..=23"C.. i.=IOA.measured and simulated chip temperature. 4: Diode .. f. rectangular load =0. THS=24"C.. . =IHz.. .THs=24..999 0 1.=IOA.=32DC Fig 7 IGBT .=IOA..50C.

i. sinusoidal . 2008 at 04:28 from IEEE Xplore. .=24"C..measured and simulated chip temperature.. f. =30..5"C current. = I Hz...332 1. 13: IGBT .999 1332 0 1. =31.666 t [SI 0. TH. sinusoidal load current.VII.. 14: IGBT . =30.... foul Fig.. sinusoidal load =O. sinusoidal load = IOA.... 12: IGBT . .. 11: Diode . i..333 0...=IOA.measured and simulated chip temperature.. Tla.=24"C.. foul =0.999 1... Wl [AI Ti I"C1 50 50 45 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 5 0 0 0..665 Fig.. L. THS=24'C....& Fig.665 0 0 0. THs=24"C. Downloaded on October 17. T.n.measured and simulated chip temperature.SHz..measured and simulated chip temperature.=IOA. TI.. sinusoidal loadcurrent.. svg r. = ) I T i1-d Fig.5"C loadcurrent.T. i.T..".g.measured and simulated chip temperature. il...5'C.avgstn.5"C 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 I 2 t[ S I 3 4 5 0 I 2 t [s] 3 4 5 Fig I O Diode .... =3 I "C current.T.4 [AI T. f . 9: Diode . .=lOA. i.666 t 0. sinusoidal load 130 Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia.av. Restrictions apply. =IHz.. f..5Hz.333 0..=23. =3Hz.=IOA.. ilcad APPENDIX B TI ["Cl Tj meas I 50 1 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 t [SI 6 8 I Fig..measured and simulated chip temperature. . T.