On the Use of GPS Receivers in Railway Environments
Eduard Bertran, Senior Member, IEEE, and José A. Delgado-Penín, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—This paper presents the electromagnetic interference effects on the performance of locomotive onboard global positioning system (GPS) receivers due to the railway environment. The evaluation of the maximum tolerated interferences around a train is presented by taking into account European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission normative, Mobile Radio for Railway Networks in Europe, and experimental results. These interference levels are used to study the performance of a hardware GPS receiver operating at different modes and considering the possible levels of GPS signal L1 at the earth surface. From the obtained results, it is possible to conclude the reliability of a low-cost GPS receiver for train positioning even if the train equipment has been designed at the threshold of the current normative. Index Terms—Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), global positioning system (GPS), railway normative, train location.



MONG the different kinds of civil transportation systems, vessels were the pioneers in the large-scale usage of global positioning system (GPS) receivers for navigation. More recently and after successful experiences in fleet management and public passenger transport vehicles, the consumer electronics market has given a boost to the use of GPS receivers in cars. Currently, the aeronautics industry worldwide is eager for the safe application of GPS-based systems in air navigation and precision approach and landing. The aeronautics safety requirements promote research in maximum tolerable interference levels during precision approach and landing operations as much as other topics, such as anti-jam design techniques, code vulnerability, or consequences of different interference sources [1], [2]. Because of the importance of the effects of onboard aircraft personal electronic devices to en route navigation systems, the ultrawide-band technology is one of the most studied sources of interferences [3], [4]. Modern railways are supported by automatic train control (ATC) and automatic train protection (ATP) systems. During the last decade, different advanced radio systems for railways have been developed, being the improvement of train safety and the railway industry efficiency common objectives. These
Manuscript received February 11, 2002; revised May 19, 2003 and May 13, 2004. This work was supported in part by the European Commission under Information Society Technologies (IST) project Helinet and by the Spanish Government (MCYT) under project TIC2000-0320-CE. E. Bertran is with the Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Castelldefels 08860, Spain (e-mail: bertran@tsc.upc.es). J. A. Delgado-Penn is with the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona 08034, Spain (e-mail: delpen@tsc.upc.es). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2004.832416

new developments imply the incorporation of high reliability and performance communications systems that are capable of supporting train movement, payload dispatching, maintenance functions, and automatic wayside signaling. The communication systems include dedicated types of messages for ATC, which include train-positioning data. In 1984, the American Association of Railroads and the Railways Association of Canada founded the advanced train control system (ATCS). The ATCS specifications have been designed to document the stated requirements of railroad operational and technical professionals concerning ATCS hardware and software. Its architecture includes a communication segment based on the open systems interconnection (OSI) model, enlarged with some special features for vehicle identification and tracking [5]. Railway networks management algorithms, such as DARYN [6] or RYNSORD [7], have been proposed for the ATCS scenario in order to discharge decisions from the centralized control centers. In Europe, the European Rail Traffic Management System Project (ERTMS) is a control-and-command system for railways approved at the end of 1990, which searches interoperability throughout the European rail networks and has been arranged to unify signaling standards. At the same time, the European Rail Research Institute (ERRI) created a group of railway experts to develop the requirements of the European Traffic Control System (ETCS). In June 1991, the principles of cooperation were agreed upon in order to consider the specifications for industrial developments, being the ERTMS/ETCS group responsible for producing specifications for the new generation of train control systems in terms of interoperability, functionality, and interfaces. The International Union of Railways (UIC) European Integrated Railway Radio Enhanced Network (EIRENE) Project deals with all the equipment involved in radio communications between a radio block center and the onboard equipment [8]. EIRENE has developed the global system for mobile communications—railway (GSM-R) specifications, being the Mobile Radio for Railway Networks in Europe (MORANE) Project, launched in 1995, guided to specify, develop, test, and validate prototypes of the new radio system, always meeting the EIRENE specifications. The GSM-R standard is based on the , global system for mobile communications (GSM) phase enlarged with specific features for the railway industry. The GSM-R system allows the use of GPS data in selective calls and some manufacturers have commercialized dual antennas and proper equipment to use GSM-R and GPS together. The abovementioned systems, as well as other systems developed in other countries, require precise and continuous information on train positions for radio-based traffic control and

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there is no uniform set of specifications for railway operations. The incorporation of GPS receivers into modern railway maintenance equipment is becoming usual. locomotives. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. and signaling and telecommunication equipment. the main electromagnetic disturbances of the traction system are considered for different driving levels: dc traction. In order to generalize the conclusion. or availability are disperse. which appeared in 2000 [20]–[25]. 2009 at 06:27 from IEEE Xplore. the results are overlaid on a GIS map to locate the address to which to send the maintenance teams. which considers voltages of 750 V. . A. considering both the normative limits and particular circumstances of concrete locomotives or rail sections. For radio communications and GPS signals interference. and ac traction.BERTRAN AND DELGADO-PENN: USE OF GPS RECEIVERS IN RAILWAY ENVIRONMENTS 1453 for supplementary wayside signaling systems [9]–[11]. ranges from 10 to 50 m being the most common. One of the major difficulties for wide implementation of the train-positioning systems is the inertial navigation systems (INS) cost. For instance. consisting of sensors that are capable of detecting the speed and position of the moving vehicles with enough precision. In EN normative. or the train traction. The different interference levels are globally specified into different frequency ranges according to the disturbances and kind of sensitive devices. passenger and train lighting. which is equipped with geographic information systems (GIS)-based terminals. tracking accuracy. parts 1–5. 1. telecommunications systems signaling. Starting with locomotives built at the threshold of the normative resumed in Section II and considering different traction modes. which considers the most usual industrial frequencies of 50 Hz at 25 kV [or 50/25 kV with autotransformers and low frequency of 16 2/3 Hz at 15 kV (used in Central Europe)]. II. [16]. catenaries. this study of the potential impact of the electromagnetic radiations is made under the guidelines of the main normative for electrical and electronics devices in railways. This means that there is a pollution composed of different kinds of noise. being significantly different according to the kind of railway industry queried or even if the specification is done by these industries or by components’ manufacturers. There are two main alternatives for railway preventive maintenance: 1) utilization of databases fed from railway dedicated measurements and obtained by means of an onboard monitoring system. The main electromagnetic disturbances in a traction system are considered for different alternating current (ac) and direct current (dc) locomotive driving levels and high voltage interferences due to static elements. with the reference noise level being obtained from maximum EMI limits published in the railway normative. Onboard GPS receivers combined with wireless transceivers provide train coordinates to a railway central station. became the EN 50121 (parts 1–5). [14] or railway-maintenance functions [15]. power supply on board.5 and 3 kV. comprised between 30 MHz Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. This integrated system is also useful for additional tasks.5 m. ELECTROMAGNETIC CONTAMINATION IN THE RAILWAY ENVIRONMENT The EMI limits in the railway environment will be considered in this section from three perspectives: 1) the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) normatives. Section IV summarizes and concludes this paper. which stores some railway parameters associated to the geographical coordinates of the location and 2) utilization of information systems to permanently monitor and transmit the condition of each vehicle and railroad sector. such as pantograph arcing and other discharges on the surface of the isolating elements. are also considered. The key normative related to railway equipment considers different sources of interferences and devices sensitive to them. such as the heading/cooler subsystems. This normative [17]–[19] was focused on railway applications and electromagnetic compatibility and. The normative considers the frequency band from 9 kHz to 1 GHz. Restrictions apply. Downloaded on February 27. Section II is an elaborated resumé of the most important normative related to EMI-tolerated levels in the railway. electrical devices. complemented with the MORANE group recommendations and contrasted with some experimental results. integrity. Manufacturer’s measurements are usually focused on particular locomotives. after latter revisions. passenger information systems. This paper provides a compatibility assessment between the electrical railway equipment and the GPS receivers’ operation. the higher subband. This fact improves passengers’ and maintenance workers’ safety as much as railway exploitation costs. due to numerous factors such as rolling stock. accuracy in train position may vary from 100 to 0. onboard power-supply installations. Section III evaluates the capability of a typical GPS receiver to operate with enough SNR. The interference effects generated by railway equipment on the performance of GPS receivers located in the locomotive’s cabin have been barely analyzed. Requirements addressing accuracy. Hence. In the receiver station. decomposed into three subbands. 2) MORANE recommendations. CENELEC approved the European Normative (EN) ENV 50121. Likewise. This updated normative is the most used for European rail industries in EMC/EMI measurements. from continuous wave to pulsed sources. the key parameter will be the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the front-end stage of the receiver. Finally. continuity. The integration of INS with GPS is a reduced-cost alternative that provides high-quality navigation data [12]. taking into account the different operation modes of the receiver and the GPS signal levels on the earth surface. CENELEC standards are below 1 GHz. or position errors are not the objective of this work. whose main objective is to assess the minimum operation capability of a GPS receiver in the contaminated railway environment. and 3) measured data. CENELEC Normative In 1995. One of the main problems when using GPS receivers in railway environments is the multiple electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources. but there is no general normative about the maximum EMI radiation levels permitted for rail equipment in order to assure the correct operation of GPS receivers. Some of these remote monitoring products that monitor in real time and analyze rail and locomotive performances work in combination with a GPS receiver that supplies the coordinates of the measurements and detected faults. computers at the control centers. Acquisition time. such as the real-time mapping of the railroad [13].

However. At 1 GHz. 53. VOL. EXPRESSED IN DIFFERENT UNITS the equipment must be compliant with the old normative IEC 1000-4-2 and IEC 1000-4-3 [32]–[34]. Downloaded on February 27. Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. measured in vertical polarity. IEC normative for communication. the equipment will be capable of withstanding the effects of electric fields restricted to 20 V/m at the frequency range from 10 kHz to 3 GHz. SEPTEMBER 2004 TABLE I RESUMÉ OF THE CENELEC NORMATIVE IN THE HIGHER FREQUENCY BAND TABLE II MORANE MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED LEVELS FOR ELECTRIC FIELDS TABLE III MORANE MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED LEVELS FOR MAGNETIC FIELDS and 1 GHz.1454 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. Notice that values in Table II are compliant with normative EN 55022. also depends on the kind of traction and varies from 60 to 75 dB V/m. . the MORANE group specifies some limitations for the railway telecommunications equipment. 70 dB V/m for 15 kV ac traction. and 75 dB V/m for 25 kV ac traction. is the most interesting. In the telecommunication equipment ports [26]. [30]. Experimental Values The previous limits from the key normative and MORANE recommendations are compliant with experimental values published in different works and journals. The International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR) has proposed a new quasi-peak (QP) limit for stationary test of 50 dB V/m at 1 GHz. The EMC regarding locomotive and the rest of the train units is specified in Part 3 of EN 50121. MORANE Recommendations In [31]. IEC Normative IEC and CENELEC limits for EMI acceptance have similar values. [29]. C. Maximum disturbance levels recommended for electrical fields are shown in Table II. A consequence of the relationship between the normative of both institutions has been the publication (with slight modifications) of the EN 50121 normative as the IEC 62236 series [28]. Consider that induced overvoltages in wiring and electrostatic protection for TABLE IV MAXIMUM EMI LEVELS. this value can be expanded to a maximum value of 50 V/m. which is the international version of the European standard. 2009 at 06:27 from IEEE Xplore. the maximum value due to disturbances is also bounded to 47 dB V/m for frequencies between 230 MHz and 1 GHz. Inside this band. D. the normative specifies a measurement bandwidth of 120 kHz. while for magnetic fields see Table III. NO. 5. the permitted maximum interference levels of the electrical field are 60 dB V/m for 750 V dc traction. Restrictions apply. Besides. Power lines’ radiation limit. At a frequency of 1 GHz the maximum radiation tolerated level is between 50 dB V/m (traction at 750 V dc) and 65 dB V/m (traction at 25 kV ac) for stopped trains and for low-speed units (around 20 km/h in urban trains and 50 km/h in the main line). B. In some countries. signaling. it simply indicates that the measured rail equipments have been designed according to the normative. [27]. more restrictive than those in the industrial normative EN 55011 that limits the emission up to 40 dB V/m between 30 and 230 MHz and up to 47 dB V/m between 230 MHz and 1 GHz. This fact is not surprising. Table I shows typical values proposed by CENELEC in the range of 30 MHz–1 GHz band (from measurements carried out in 1996 and published in the old ENV document [17]). and processing systems is compiled in IEC 62 280 series (parts 1 and 2). several particular results have interest when determining the EMI sources in the GPS band.

The results conclude that at around 1 GHz a stopped train does not present significant radiation and that harmonics from the switching wave produced in the locomotive IGBT’s drivers are insignificant at GPS bands. • 63 dB V/m: MORANE recommendation limit at 1 m. using a measurement bandwidth of 120 kHz. This kind of interference has a spectral density bounded to 100 MHz. In the Electrical System Compatibility for Advanced Rail Vehicles (ESCARV) project [35]. such as [37].BERTRAN AND DELGADO-PENN: USE OF GPS RECEIVERS IN RAILWAY ENVIRONMENTS 1455 Fig. In these translations. both in full traction and in full braking. ON. some measurements of the pantograph arcing effects have been carried out under the old normative ENV 50 121. Canada. 1. The measured value at a distance of 10 m was always under 40 dB V/m. corresponded to a locomotive with two additional wagons driven by catenaries of 1500 V dc. it does not affect the GPS bands. 2009 at 06:27 from IEEE Xplore. The power line’s influence measurements. Therefore. therefore. the pantograph arcing has negligible effects near the GPS band. Nortel Networks. 50 Hz. During low-traffic activity. Over 5 MHz. and we assumed plane waves with a wave impedance of antenna matched to the receiver impedance of 50 . GPS receiver block diagram. the maximum EMI values obtained from the previous paragraphs are translated to dB V. but new peaks of 60 dB V/m appear around 3 MHz. the maximum EMI was produced in the 1–2-MHz band. Downloaded on February 27. the values were close to 70 dB V/m. E. The same conclusion is obtained from chopper equipment tests published in different papers of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. • 47 dB V/m: CENELEC general limit for telecommunication systems. presented some experimental results in [36]. • 75 dB V/m: worst case in CENELEC and IEC documentation at 1 GHz (limit of the frequency range in EN 50121 and IEC 62236). the EMI in the previous band remains unaltered. We complemented these published experimental values with our measurements over recently commercialized locomotives and the obtained results showed similar EMI levels. At 6 m. being the traction-driver system based on insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). The results from transient measurements show a maximum peak value of 11 mV in the voltage induced by the pantograph arcing over the train roof. Restrictions apply. Hence. with values comprising between 70 and 78 dB V/m. the maximum EMI values correspond to the following: • 78 dB V/m: maximum value from experimentation (measured at 6 m). Maximum Values In Table IV. In these experiments. and dBW for further comparisons with the GPS signal. The antenna factor used for conversions is 28 dB. the radiated emissions. . tested in two train stations in Sweden and England. In hightraffic situations. when the field is measured near a train driven at 25 kV ac. the interference values are negligible because it is mainly due to drivers for electrical machinery. measured according to normative ENV 50 121-2. dBm. Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. showed values around 40 dB V/m at a distance of 10 m from the train.

. thus producing the IF signal (e. in low-end dBW receivers the noise average power level is (noise power spectral density level of 201. hence the bandwidth of the final stage of IF filtering will be MHz. thus heaving a signal-to-noise spectral density . VOL. bandwidth 1. Most low-cost commercial receivers use 2-MHz bandwidths at the IF stage (Fig. the SNR at the receiver front end.5 dBW. 5. In this study. III. better performance can be achieved if the receiver processes more than just the main lobe. the noise average power level in a 50-Hz bandwidth is 184. It is convenient to normalize the obtained SNR values for C/A code detection at the intermediate frequency (IF) stage to a 1-Hz bandwidth. This fact implies an SNR gain of 46. center frequencies around 4 MHz in receivers based on multistage architectures or ranging from 20 to 100 MHz in single-stage down-conversion architectures). Using decibels. 2) because this is the side of the main lobe of the signal transmitted by the satellite (first-null bandwidth of the C/A-code spectrum). due to the spread-spectrum transmission The value of the of the GPS signals is defined by (1) where chip time 1 ms /1023 0. The noise average power in the IF bandwidth can be approximated by (2) where is the Boltzmann’s constant (1. the capability of a GPS receiver to operate with enough SNR when it is working at the maximum permissible EMI levels is evaluated. the SNR is dB. the bandwidth is further reduced to 50 Hz for navigation code baseband processing. so high-performance receivers typically use sampling in bandwidths ranging from 4 to 20 MHz. we assume a low-cost receiver scenario. after decorrelation and despreading by correlation of the binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulated data with the code locally generated in the receiver [delay-lock loop (DLL)]. with 513 K being a typical value when both antenna noise temperature and receiver noise factor are considered. Restrictions apply. The front-end stage of the receiver (Fig. According to the GPS standard positioning service signal specification document [38] in the remainder of this paper. IF signal structure (C/A code only). thus facilitating more accuracy in the decorrelation stages (early and late correlation functions) [39]. 1) involves filtering. 43 dB. 2009 at 06:27 from IEEE Xplore. data time 1/50 Hz. . 53. However. Recalling (2).02 dB.5 dB at 90 of the SNR is increased to elevation and to dB at 40 of elevation.3806 ) and is the effective noise temperature (in Kelvin). NO. but most of the power is concentrated within a 1-MHz bandwidth). at both 90 and 40 of elevation. we assume a maximum value of 153 dBW for the received L1 C/A signal (1575. So. EVALUATION OF THE CAPABILITY OF A GPS RECEIVER IN FRONT OF MAXIMUM EMI LEVELS In this section. Hence. In the following.9775 s. the GPS processing gain ( ). This value can be obThe resulting value is tained more accurately from evaluation of the different bandwidth reductions in the GPS receivers.g. Once tracking the signal. 2. this parameter is defined by dB-Hz resulting in the values (3) dB-Hz at dB-Hz at Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. At 40 of vation is dBW dBW 14.1456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. Therefore.49 dBW/Hz) in a 2-MHz bandwidth and the SNR for the C/A code at 90 of eledBW dBW .52 elevation.023 MHz (GPS C/A signals are spread over 2 MHz. 24. it is assumed that a 12-channel coarse acquisition (C/A) code and L1-band GPS receiver and different operation modes of the receiver and GPS signal levels on the earth surface are considered. Downloaded on February 27. SEPTEMBER 2004 Fig. which is independent of the bandwidth of the receiver. and the level of the L1 C/A signal on the earth surface will be the basic parameters. and down conversion. amplification.42 MHz) at 40 of elevation angle and a minimum value of 160 dBW at 90 of elevation.

receivers based on a hardware correlator Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. the tracking error is (SNR around 0.” facturers). The “after-first-fix acquisition. This last situation. .or narrow-band) are bounded down to 40 dB over the received GPS signal level.” “warm start. With the C/A-code chip being approximately 293 m.001 chip at high to a 0.1 chip.1 dB or a code such that the jammer-to-signal ratio 43. these EMI margins include the most usual value from experimentation (40 dB V/m) and TABLE V INTERFERENCE LEVELS TOLERABLE BY A GPS RECEIVER TABLE VI USUAL THRESHOLDS OF GPS HARDWARE RECEIVERS FOR DIFFERENT OPERATION MODES TABLE VII MAXIMUM EMI VALUES (B = 2 MHz) it is very close to the CENELEC limit for telecommunication equipments in the railway environment (47 dB V/m). Receivers with a 28 dB at 2-MHz bandwidth) present its tracking er(SNR dB-Hz rors on the lower end of the range.BERTRAN AND DELGADO-PENN: USE OF GPS RECEIVERS IN RAILWAY ENVIRONMENTS 1457 These values are inside the usual for the different kinds of GPS value receivers. If the L1 signal level is over 153 dBW.” and “tracking in code only” have low variance among the different manufacturers of hardware GPS receivers (e. On the other hand and according to [41]. interference.1 dB is greater than the previous results. The affects the precision of GPS observations. Effects on the Different Modes of Operation of the Receiver threshold values for a C/A code L1-band GPS The receiver are presented in Table VI. According to Section II. According to those values. B. In [2]. the errors thus range from 0. However. This means that with a received signal power level of 160 dBW. However.9 dB or for a narrow-band jammer of band jammer of 34. With 40 dB at 2-MHz bandwidth). the tracking PLL of approximately 25 dB-Hz for a widethreshold is at a 37.1 a receiver threshold of 17 dB-Hz is stated in [2] (at dB). This value corresponds to an EMI value of 45 dB V/m. implies position errors of 30 m. Restrictions apply.. it is shown that the root-mean-square (rms) codetracking error due to broad-band noise ranges from an approximately 0. So. 46. Comparing both restrictions (DLL and PLL). assuming a wide-band jammer in the L1 C/A is 46. 40 dB at 2-MHz bandwhich indicate an operative SNR width.9 dB. a typical GPS C/Acode receiver can tolerate a narrow-band interference of approximately 40 dB stronger than the GPS direct signal. A. and multipath are highly dependent upon receiver architecture and bandwidth. Maximum Interference Levels at the Antenna Output of a Typical GPS Receiver In [39]. only an interference of 120 dBW is tolerable when GPS signals are received at the minimum GPS signal level 160 dBW). we assume in the following that a low-cost GPS receiver may work correctly even if the disturbances (either broad.3 parameter higher than 35 dB-Hz to 30 m.1 chip for low for a DLL tracking loop bandwidth set to 4 Hz. so the previous position error must be considered carefully. then suppose that a tolerable train-positioning error in the range of 20–40 m for railway maintenance or train location. thus being a key parameter for GPS receiver performance analysis [40]. These thresholds for different operation modes have been obtained from datasheets of different manufacturers (both receiver and chip-set manuthreshold for “cold start. according to [39]. typically from 35 to 55 dB-Hz [39].g. the interference need only be higher than 1 pW to disable the signal reception. Downloaded on February 27. the interference levels that a GPS receiver can admit for different signal levels at the Earth’s surface are presented in Table V. This last result of 46. 2009 at 06:27 from IEEE Xplore. sensitivity to thermal noise. By using this value. it is shown that a tracking threshold for the DLL is dB-Hz because of the code-loopapproximately tracking jitter. In the same narrow-band jammer producing a reference and assuming a Costas-type phase-locked loop (PLL) discriminator in the frequency synthesizer. very much more restrictive than in railroads ones. this result has been obtained for avionics applications.1 dB. then interferences up to 52 dB V/m can be tolerated.

the objective is to study the capability of realtime low-cost GPS receivers. [43]. 2009 at 06:27 from IEEE Xplore. SEPTEMBER 2004 TABLE VIII ACQUISITION AND TRACKING CAPACITY OF A LOCOMOTIVE-PLACED GPS RECEIVER chip). 53. . software GPS receivers that are capable of providing real-time capabilities are expensive due to the need for an adequate high-speed processor for promptly implementing the correlation processing functions [45]. Most of the time. Therefore. The software GPS receivers implement all the receiver functions in microprocessors that processes sampled IF data. The warm start of the receiver is allowable at L1 levels over 152 dBW and the “tracking in code only” requires signals over 168 dBW. NO. but datasheets show more disperse values in the threshold for the “tracking in code and carrier” operation mode. the received signal regarding the receiver-generated replica [47]. only hardware receivers will be considered. The microprocessor of software receivers has a limited capability to provide real-time operation because of the required computation load. Downloaded on February 27. Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. using a standard correlator [46] spacing one-code chip. The maximum values of the railway EMI for correct operation of the different modes of the GPS receiver are shown in Table VII. The threshold values listed in Table VI correspond to conventional hardware GPS receivers based on DLL and PLL to track C/A code and. except for the radio-frequency (RF) front ends [42]. VOL. 5. They have advantages for weak signal acquisition [44] and recently commercialized software for increasing the threshold of GPS receivers allows values of approximately 16 dB-Hz in the “tracking in code and carrier” mode. the railway EMI is under 41 dB V/m 124 dBW). the cold start of the receivers is feasible for L1 C/A signal levels over 147 dBW.1458 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. In this work. Hence. Hence. Restrictions apply.

June 1995. S. [25] Railway Applications—Electromagnetic Compatibility—Part 5: Emission and Immunity of Fixed Power Supply Installations and Apparatus. and U. pp. Winter. [22] Railway Applications—Electromagnetic Compatibility—Part 3-1: Rolling Stock—Train and Complete Vehicle. M. T.. [24] Railway Applications—Electromagnetic Compatibility—Part 4: Emission and Immunity of the Signalling and Telecommunications Apparatus.” Office Eng. Veh. “Wireless communications based system to monitor performance of rail vehicles. Jan. [19] Rolling Stock—Rolling Stock Apparatus. Veh. CENELEC Standard ENV 50 121-3-2. Keller. Bates. Nejikovsky and E.” IEC1000 ser.. A. 8. 39. MORANE Technical Specification Release 2000. Ward. 2002. Restrictions apply. K. “DARYN—A distributed decision-making algorithm for railway networks: Modeling and simulation.” in Proc. IEEE. [6] R. W. 1993. A. 87. as well as the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. 1995. 2000. 01-43. 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Dr. where he became an Assistant Professor in 1972. He has collaborated in different national and European research projects and networks and conducts research activities embedding control and communications aspects. Betz.” presented at the 15th Int. 13. P.1460 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. He received the Third Millennium Medal from the IEEE in 2000.” in IEEE Int. 2001. NO. Sept. His research interests include control.Sc. Portland. Delgado-Penín (S’69–M’72–SM’89) received the M. Madrid. OR. 3. where he joined the Department of Signal Theory and Communications (TSC) in 1987 and is currently a Full Professor. From 1968 to 1970. “A complete if software GPS receiver: A tutorial about the details. “A software receiver for weak signals. 5. signal processing. Cheng.Sc. Butsch. degree in telecommunications engineering and the Ph.mitre. Tsui. pp. VOL. 40–51. “Open source software for learning about GPS. [43] K. under a fellowship from the European Space Research Organization (ESA).S. respectively. 2002.” in Proc. Spain. Navigation. degree in telecommunications engineering and the Ph. Authorized licensed use limited to: Pedro Garcia De Madinabeitia. Eduard Bertran (SM’02) received the M. Microwave Symp. 2001. Session B4: Antenna Technology. (2001) Effect of Partial-Band Interference on Receiver Estimation of C=N : Theory. [46] F. pp. Krumvieda. May 20–25.org/work/tech_papers/tech_papers_01/betz_rt_java/ José A. 2002. Brown. Tech. and circuit theory. pp. 209–236. Gerein and A. pp. he was with Politecnico di Torino. “Effects of RF Interference on GPS Satellite Signal Receiver Tracking. [45] N. Kelley. Salt Lake City. M. and J. UT. His main research interests lie in the areas of digital wireless communications systems and broadband systems. C.ION GPS’01. an Associate Professor in 1974.” in Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications. ch. He was Head of the Department of Signal Theory and Communications (TSC) from 1997 to 2000. Sept. [42] C. . degree from the Technical University of Madrid (UPM). in 1968 and 1973. vol. Spain. Thomas. in 1979 and 1985. Downloaded on February 27. degree from the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC). no. [47] J. and P. He became a Lecturer with UPC in 1980. Italy. UT. Kober.. J. “Radiofrequency interference and GPS: A growing concern. W. 2001. Norwood. Salt Lake City. vol. Barcelona. Cloman. B. 1996. He has been the Head of Studies of the TSC Department and an Associate Dean in different telecommunications schools. Lin and J. 789–829. 2139–2142. Sept. respectively. Olson. 53. Axelrad. and Professor in 1984. SEPTEMBER 2004 [41] P. W. “Modular GPS software radio architecture. J. [Online]. 10. Barnes. 2009 at 06:27 from IEEE Xplore.D. Turin. The MITRE Corporation. Delgado-Penín is acting as Chair of the IEEE Spain Section and served as a Member of the Technical Program Committees of several international conferences.” presented at the Proc. Available: http://www.” GPS World. MA: Artech House. Ward. 6. [44] D. Restrictions apply. E. Y. He is with the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC). He spent the next two years at UPM as an acting Assistant Professor. Meeting Satellite Division U. Inst. Madhani. Dig.D. ION GPS’01.