Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me ...

Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU

Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction
Introduces the wide range of forms of steel construction for residential accommodation and presents the principal benefits for developers, owner/occupiers, housing associations and tenants.

Contents
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Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement

Introduction Types of client/stakeholders The benefits of steel construction in residential buildings Forms of construction and guidance on their applicability Conclusions

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adaptable and higher quality buildings. Appendix A highlights some of the developments that have taken place in steel construction technology for residential construction in the past two decades. easy. Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU 1. Owner/occupiers.all rights reserved. including single person accommodation and higher density living. Contractors and developers want. pension funds and private. financial benefits. All these different stakeholders have common requirements for high performance construction that is cheap to maintain and has a long life. A wide range of steel technologies may be used in the housing and multi-storey residential sectors and the principal systems are presented below. While it is not appropriate to present any details in a Client Guide. prime residential land has become scarce and new housing is being encouraged on ‘brown’ land (previously used by industry) and on land with poor geotechnical properties. Tenants. including investment companies. the same technologies and benefits may be realised in the housing and residential sectors. There are also important regional and demographical trends that demand different types of housing. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement 2. apartments and larger residential buildings represent between 15 to 50% of homes in individual countries. Types of client/stakeholders There are four basic types of clients/stakeholders directly involved in residential construction: For-profit owners for tenanted occupation. Registered Social Landlords and Housing Associations. low cost construction that enables them to provide better value to their endcustomers. buy-to-rent landlords. Page 2 . Not-for-profit owners for tenanted occupation including local and national government... In many European countries.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me . The housing and residential sector demands more energy efficient. Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright . within this overall market. Importantly. improved quality and reduced environmental impact. Its inherently light construction permits its economic use on ground of low bearing capacity. prefabrication leads to speed of construction. steel construction has achieved a high market share in some other sectors and national markets. fast. Introduction The residential sector accounts for 25% of construction output in the EU. Steel construction is well placed to meet the demands for residential construction.

draught free internal environment and reduced energy bills for the occupant. The following section highlights how steel construction can provide these wide ranging attributes. Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU In addition. Acoustic performance In lightweight steel construction. Durability Tests on existing structures have shown that. or should recognise. its expectation for: Reduced impact from new housing Urban design that encourages the development of stronger local communities.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me . probably with greater housing density than was achieved last century An increasing need for affordable housing. The benefits of steel construction in residential buildings 3. 3. 3. society at large is expressing. finishes do not get damaged during the drying out period. especially for key workers Everyone now recognises.2 For the contractor/developer Factory assembly Light steel panels and modules are assembled in a dry factory environment giving continuity of work and a good working environment for the labour force. Maintenance Dry construction and the use of a framing material with no long term creep or shrinkage movement will minimise cracking and the associated maintenance. the urgent need for a more sustainable built environment. The result is that there are fewer call-backs for remedial work as zero defects are attainable.1 Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright ... through its politicians and planning authorities. Page 3 . Material stability Because material properties are stable and steel members do not shrink or creep.all rights reserved. the presence of a cavity and the isolation achieved by multiple layers of materials and resilient layers provides excellent acoustic performance. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement For the occupier Thermal Performance Modern insulation materials used in warm frame construction produce low U-values and high standards of air-tightness which can result in a warm. when galvanised light steel components are used in warm frame construction. the predicted design life is in excess of 200 years.

Light steel framing. steel frame construction was the choice for the first four finalists to be announced. where the steel elements are cold formed from galvanised steel strip 1. in the recent government competition to encourage affordable housing in the UK. 3.. Light steel joists have long span capabilities and this leads to fewer load bearing walls and foundations. Inspired architecture can both reduce impacts from new construction and ensure urban planning that juxtaposes buildings in a way that encourages the creation of local building. room sizes have been limited by the span of timber joists in traditional construction. In the context of affordable housing.0 mm thick. Material use can be optimised and hence waste can be kept to a minimum. Because large panels or modules are manufactured in factories. less deliveries are required to the site and hence there is less disruption to the area around the site. Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright . They can. where the steel elements are conventional hot rolled sections.3 For society: sustainable construction that meets society’s current needs There is a wide range of potential solutions in steel construction for residential accommodation. and must be used creatively to meet the breadth of our emerging needs. Hot rolled skeletal frames. it is noteworthy that. Light steel joists are long span and this can result in less foundations and adaptable internal partition layouts. There are also specific benefits for sustainability and quality: Off-site fabrication provides a safer working environment than the construction site.. it also eliminates the risks of moisture related problems such as the growth of moulds and fungus. Dry construction The use of dry construction materials improves the speed of construction by eliminating curing times and allowing continuous access.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me . Factory working facilitates accurate and quality workmanship. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement 4.all rights reserved. with load bearing walls made from studs. Forms of construction and guidance on their applicability There are two different approaches to modern steel construction for residential accommodation. Any steel waste is recovered and recycled. Page 4 . reduced defects improve durability. Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU Long-span floors Historically.5 to 2.

where high value areas (kitchen and bathroom) are typically formed from volumetric units (sometimes referred to as pods) and the rest of the structure formed from some form of framing system. components such as mechanical and electrical services infrastructures are being developed. Individual elements are delivered to site and assembled in-situ Hybrid systems A combination of volumetric. Figure 4.. closed panel systems typically include more factory based fabrication such as lining materials and insulation and may even include cladding. The principal systems are summarised below: Volumetric systems The most factory-based form of production. services.1. doors and windows. Page 5 . requiring a very limited amount of installation work on site. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement These are similar to open panel systems in that the structural elements of the building are delivered to the site in flat panels. insulation. panelised and stick systems.all rights reserved. Closed panel systems Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright . in the right circumstances. Foundation systems and cassette panels are typical examples. volumetric systems involve three dimensional modules that can be used in isolation or in multiples to form the structure of the building. Stick built construction This is the simplest form of construction.1 Light steel framing The individual steel elements are assembled into structural systems.2 shows a building using open panels under construction. These are usually manufactured off-site and may well be delivered to site requiring a minimum of assembly and completion. Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU 4. Non-structural components Non-structural elements that are assembled off site. Open panel systems are typically delivered to the site purely as a structural element with services. Although currently less common than structural elements. with significant assembly work being carried out off site. achieve substantial savings in cost. internal finishes. These reduce site construction times substantially and. However. cladding and internal finishes installed in situ. Sub-assemblies Major building elements that are manufactured off site but do not form the primary structure of the building. A typical structural module is shown in Figure 4.. These modules can be pre-finished in the factory to include all fixtures and fittings. Open panel systems The two dimensional structural frames for the building are assembled in the factory.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me .

5 to 3.7 to 1..all rights reserved.5 kN/m2 Figure 4.2 Hot rolled frames Here standard approaches to multi-storey construction are adopted using systems that are most suited to the plan arrangements for apartments.2 Light steel framing 4.0 kN/m2 Figure 4.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me .5 kN/m 2 Figure 4.0 to 1.5 to 3.1 Modular construction Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright . Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU Span range (module width) Building height: Self weight 2..6 m 4 to 9 storeys 1. Typical systems are shown below: Span range Building height: Self weight 6 to 15 m 3 to 20 storeys 2.3 Composite construction using steel decking Page 6 . Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement Span range Building height: Self weight 3 to 5 m 2 to 4 storeys 0.

Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me .5 Integrated asymmetric beams supporting precast concrete slabs Span range Building height: Self weight 5 to 9 m 3 to 20 storeys 3 to 4 kN/m2 Figure 4.. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement Span range Building height: Self weight 5 to 9 m 3 to 10 storeys 4 to 5 kN/m2 Figure 4.6 Integrated asymmetric beams supporting dep metal decking with composite slabs Page 7 . Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU Span range Building height: Self weight 5 to 9 m 3 to 10 storeys 4 to 5 kN/m2 Figure 4.4 Downstand steel beams supporting precast concrete slabs Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright .all rights reserved..

displacing more traditional materials. They can readily accommodate diverse architectural styles.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me . Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement Page 8 . thermal and acoustic performance and are sustainable. value and structural.. The technologies provide quality.. Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright . Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU 5. These technologies are now mature and are being used successfully in some major national markets. demonstrate the potential for growth throughout Europe and beyond.all rights reserved. These markets are intensely competitive and these successes. Conclusions The steel construction sector has invested substantially in developing a wide range of well engineered solutions for all forms of residential construction.

several steel companies undertook a major initiative to develop the effective use of light gauge. connection methods.V. External cladding systems were frequently flimsy. Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Métallique.. Germany.all rights reserved. There was no separate vapour barrier and significant water ingress occurred on exposed sites. using light steel walls and floors with a high level of thermal insulation. A. a range of surveys in the UK (by the Building Research Establishment) identified relatively few homes with serious deterioration. No attention was paid to acoustic performance.1 A difficult history Along with the USA. France. The target markets were broad and included residential construction. holding down systems. A private family house was constructed using hot rolled steel sections and block work infills. A habitable basement was included and the internal space is entirely adaptable. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement Robust Technology In the mid to late 1980s. Finland and the United Kingdom. a consortium of The Steel Construction Institute. Germany. In 1994. elemental and system design methods.3 Demonstration Projects Demonstration projects were crucial to the launch of this technology. However. Studiengesellschaft Stahlanwendung e. typically 25 mm or 50 mm of mineral wool. In consultation with leading industry figures. Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Métallique. A five-storey apartment building was constructed in the centre of Rheims.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me . using a composite steel-concrete form and light steel infill walls. While they were successful at alleviating short-term housing need./3L and Rautaruukki Oyj attracted major funding from the European Coal and Steel Community to carry out the following demonstration projects in France. Technical development also addressed overall building stability.. An outstanding low energy house with a steel frame was constructed for the Ebbw Vale Garden Park in 1992. The ungalvanized steel frames were generally exposed to temperature fluctuation and therefore prone to condensation and corrosion. a comprehensive programme of testing work was conducted in its laboratories with underpinning research and design development at the Steel Construction Institute. Page 9 . Despite all these faults. and the UK developed several steel framed housing systems after both the World Wars. A series of one and two storey houses and a three storey apartment building was constructed for the annual Housing Fair near Tampere. Insulation was either non-existent or inadequate if present. Finland. Potential corrosion issues were resolved by rigorously adopting ‘warm frame’ principles with all steel elements being contained within the insulation envelope and elimination of any potential cold bridges. galvanised steel sections in modern construction. They created a significant psychological barrier to be overcome in any new market development. A. Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU Appendix A. the houses were architecturally unattractive and were not popular with either occupiers or funding agencies.2 Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright . most of them suffered from significant design faults. Twenty years’ investment in a robust light gauge technology A. they included painted steel panels and render on expanded metal mesh. modern cladding systems and acoustic attenuation. Swedish Institute of Steel Construction and associated universities.

Collectively. a two bedroom apartment. Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright .. these demonstration projects showed the wide range of solutions and technologies that steel may offer residential construction.all rights reserved. three study bedrooms and an occupied roof space. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement Page 10 . It consisted of a four bedroom house.. Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU A light steel frame student residence was constructed at Oxford.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me .

Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by: Page 11 . France 3.. Sweden Created on 24 February 2009 This material is copyright . UK 2. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Company SCI SCI Date G W Owens G K Raven G W Owens A Bureau B Uppfeldt C Müller J Chica G W Owens SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI 18/4/06 18/4/06 11/4/06 18/4/06 18/4/06 13/7/06 4. Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction SP030a-EN-EU Quality Record RESOURCE TITLE Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1.Client guide: The benefits of steel for residential construction Discuss me ..all rights reserved. Germany 5.