# DIGITAL ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS LAB MANUAL

Submitted To:

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Sir Amir
Group members : Ammara Tanveer Huma Asif Javed Samrah Imtiaz Mahnoor Shafiq 2011-EE-304 2011-EE-307 2011-EE-312 2011-EE-313

Aim:
To design the Schmitt trigger circuit using IC 741 .

Apparatus required:
S no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Equipment/Component name IC 741 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Multimeter Resistor capacitor Regular power supply Specifications/Value refer (0 – 20MHz) 10kΩ 0.1 μf, 0.01 μf (0 -30V),1A Quantity 1 1 1 3 1 1

Theory:
The circuit shows an inverting comparator with positive feedback. This circuit converts arbitrary wave forms to a square wave or pulse. The circuit is known as the Schmitt trigger (or) squaring circuit. The input voltage Vin changes the state of the output Vo every time it exceeds certain voltage levels called the upper threshold voltage Vut and lower threshold voltage Vlt. When Vo= - Vsat, the voltage across R1 is referred to as lower threshold voltage, Vlt. When Vo=+Vsat, the voltage across R1 is referred to as upper threshold voltage Vut. The comparator with positive feedback is said to exhibit hysteresis, a dead band condition. The Triggering or Threshold voltages are obtained by the voltage divider R 1-R2. Suppose the output voltage is +Vsat. Now the Voltage across R2 is Vut. Which is equal to +VsatR2/(R1+R2). When the input Voltage exceeds the voltage across resistor R2, output goes to -Vsat. Now the voltage across R2 is Vlt. Which is equal to -VsatR2/(R1+R2). When the input voltage goes lower than this voltage, output goes to +V.

Characteristics of the Schmitt trigger:
Assume that input voltage vin is greater than the + β Vsat, and output voltage vOUT is at its negative extreme (point 1). The voltage across R2 in the figure is a negative quantity. As a result, vin must be reduced to this negative voltage level (point 2 on the characteristics) before the output switches positively (point 3). If the input voltage is made more negative than the – β Vsat, the output remains at + +VOUT (points 3 to 4). For the output to go negative once again, vin must be increased to the + β Vsat level (point 5 on the characteristics). In figure, the trip points are defined as the two input voltages where the output changes states. The upper trip point (abbreviated UTP) has a value UTP = β Vsat and the lower trip point has a value LTP = – β Vsat The difference between the trip points is the hysteresis H and is given as H = + β Vsat – (-β Vsat) = 2 β Vsat The hysteresis is caused due to positive feedback. If there were no positive feedbac k, β would equal zero and the hysteresis would disappear, because the trip points would both equal zero. Hysteresis is desirable in a Schmitt trigger because it prevents noise form causing false triggering. To design a Schmitt trigger, potential divider current I2 is once again selected to be very much larger than the opamp input bias current. Then the resistor R2 is calculated from equation R2 = UTP/I2 and R1 is determined from R1 = (VOUT – UTP) / I2

Circuit Diagrams:

Design:
Vutp = [R1/(R1+R2 )](+Vsat) Vltp = [R1/(R1+R2 )](-Vsat) Vhy = Vutp – Vltp =[R1/(R1+R2)] [+Vsat – (-Vsat)]

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig. 2. Apply an arbitrary waveform (sine/triangular) of peak voltage greater than UTP to the input of a Schmitt trigger. 3. Observe the output at pin6 of the IC 741 Schmitt trigger circuit by varying the input and note down the readings as shown in Table 1 and Table 2 4. Find the upper and lower threshold voltages (Vutp, Vltp) from the output wave form.

Supply Voltage = 12 V R = 10k R1 = 10k Threshold Level = 7.500V Upper trigger level 7.500V Lower trigger level -7.500V

Precautions:
  Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Results:
UTP and LTP of the Schmitt trigger are obtained by using IC 741 as shown in Table .

Inferences:
Schmitt trigger produces square waveform from a given signal.

Wave forms:

Aim:
To generate a pulse using monostable multivibrator and to generate Symmetrical square waveforms using IC 555 Timer .

Apparatus required:
Sr no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Equipment/Component name IC 555 Resistors Resistors Capacitors Diode Regular power supply Cathode ray oscilloscope Specifications/Value See datasheet 100k 100k 100μf , 0.01μf 1N4148 (0 – 30V),1A (0 – 20MHz) Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Theory: Monostable operation:
A Monostable Multivibrator, often called a one-shot Multivibrator, is a pulse-generating circuit in which the duration of the pulse is determined by the RC network connected externally to the 555 timer. In a stable or standby mode the output of the circuit is approximately Zero or at logic-low level. When an external trigger pulse is obtained, the output is forced to go high . The time the output remains high is determined by the external RC network connected to the timer. At the end of the timing interval, the output automatically reverts back to its logiclow stable state. The output stays low until the trigger pulse is again applied. Then the cycle repeats. The Monostable circuit has only one stable state (output low), hence the name monostable. Normally the output of the Monostable Multivibrator is low. When the power supply VCC is connected, the external timing capacitor ‘C” charges towards VCC with a time constant (RA+RB) C. During this time, pin 3 is high (≈VCC) as Reset R=0, Set S=1 and this combination makes Q=0 which has unclamped the timing capacitor ‘C’.

Astable operation:
When the capacitor voltage equals 2/3 VCC, the UC triggers the control flip flop on that Q=1. It makes Q1 ON and capacitor ‘C’ starts discharging towards ground through RB and transistor Q1 with a time constant RBC. Current also flows into Q1 through RA. Resistors RA and RB must be large enough to limit this current and prevent damage to the discharge transistor Q1. The minimum value of RA is approximately equal to VCC/0.2 where 0.2A is the maximum current through the ON transistor Q1. During the discharge of the timing capacitor C, as it reaches VCC/3, the LC is triggered and at this stage S=1, R=0 which turns Q=0. Now Q=0 unclamps the external timing capacitor C. The capacitor C is thus periodically charged and discharged between 2/3 VCC and 1/3 VCC respectively. The length of time that the output remains HIGH is the time for the capacitor to charge from 1/3 VCC to 2/3 VCC. The capacitor voltage for a low pass RC circuit subjected to a step input of VCC volts is given by VC = VCC (1- e-t/RC) Total time period T = 0.69 (RA + 2 RB) C f= 1/T = 1.44/ (RA + 2RB) C

Circuit Diagrams:

Design: Monostable operation:
Consider VCC = 5V, for given tp Output pulse width tp = 1.1 *RA*C Assume C in the order of microfarads & Find RA .

Astable operation:
Formula: f= 1/T = 1.44/ (RA+2RB) C Duty cycle, D= tc/T = RA + RB/(RA+2RB)

Model calculations: Monostable operation:
If C=100 μf , RA = 10k then tp = 1.1 sec

Astable operation:
Given f=50 KHz and c=0.1μF, D=67% 50 KHz = 1.44/ (RA+2RB) x 0.1x10-6 and 0.67 = RA+RB/ RA+2RB Solving both the above equations, we obtain RA & RB as RA = 98.12k RB = 95.24k Given f=10 KHz and c=470 pF, D=67% 10 KHz = 1.44/ (RA+2RB) x 470x10-12 and 0.67 = RA+RB/ RA+2RB Solving both the above equations, we obtain RA & RB as RA = 104.39 K RB = 101.32 K

Procedure: Monostable operation:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram as shown in Fig 1. 2. Apply Negative triggering pulses at pin 2 of frequency 1 KHz as shown in Fig 3(a). 3. Observe the output waveform and capacitor voltage as shown in Fig 3 (b)and (c) and measure the pulse duration 4. Theoretically calculate the pulse duration as Thigh=1.1.*Ra*C 5. Compare it with experimental values.

Astable operation: Symmetrical square waveform generator:
1. Connect the diode OA79 as shown in fig (ii) to get D=0.5 or 50%. 2. Choose Ra=Rb = 10K_ and C=0.1μF 3. Observe the o/p waveform as shown in Fig 4(c), measure frequency of oscillations and the duty cycle and then sketch the o/p waveform.

Waveforms: Monostable operation:

Result:
The input and output waveforms of 555 timer monostable multivibrator are observed as shown in Fig 3(a), (b), (c).

Inferences:
Output pulse width depends only on external components RA and C connected to IC555. Unsymmetrical square wave of required duty cycle and symmetrical square waveform can be generated.