Remote sensing stream flow and soil moisture by using reflected GPS Signals

Kadam Sudhir A.#1, Desai K.R.*2 Pawar K.P*3
#

department of Electronics , Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering# Morewadi, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. 1)sudhir.kadam2009@gmail.com 2)kr_deasi1@indiamail.com 3)kuldip_ppawar@yahoo.com

Abstractthis paper, Application and development of a highly integrated GPS receiver with reflected GPS signals for Ground Object Detection and stream flow will be described. First of all, both RHCP and LHCP antennas are employed so that direct and reflected signals can be acquired simultaneously. The direction of arrival of the signals may be along the reflected signal path or even along the line-ofsight of a particular satellite. Unlike most

IntroductionA reflected GPS signal contains information about the reflecting object since the characteristics of the reflected signal varies a lot depending upon the reflecting object [1]. This information of Ground Object detection may be useful for accurate position computation with terrain multipath which is modeled for digital elevation models (DEM) that is accurate to ~ 20 cm [2]. The paper, a new application and development of a highly integrated GPS receiver with reflected GPS signals for Ground Object Detection and visual element function Mapping will be described. Several application

existing GPS reflection experiment, the goal of the study is to exploit the carrier phase, reflectivity of L1/L2 SNR components of the reflected signals and direct signals for stream clam water, disturbed water, dry soil, wet soil, grass, tree, bare soil and concrete road object detection with surface. Keywords: Integrated GPS receiver, Remote sensing of stream flow soil moisture , Antenna setup Position of Ground surface, GPS satellite, LHCP and RHCP antennas.

considerations have been analyzed in order to successfully acquire and track weak, reflected GPS signals from ground surface. First of all, both RHCP and LHCP antennas are employed so that direct and reflected signals can be acquired simultaneously. The direction of arrival of the signals may be along the reflected signal path or even along the line-of-sight of a particular satellite. Unlike most existing GPS reflection experiment, the goal of the study is to exploit the

an instantaneous altitude for reflected point was changed by change of altitude of LHCP receiver position which was affected by troposphere delay item of reflected signal observations in order to response of ground and stream water altitude. [6] 1). reflectivity of L1 & L2 SNR components of the reflected signals and direct signals for stream clam water.carrier phase. almost like as solution of single point position. The velocity estimations for stream flow or ocean tide state is predicted with satellite’s elevation angle and instantaneous change of position for moving water surface at reflected point areas duration step 1 and step 5. The Reflected points with different Prn satellite was enhanced by small different altitude deviation with range between reflected point and earth center the relation on reflected points and receiver position of profile. The proceeds can enhance high accuracy altimetry for stream water level or ocean level at different reflected points between ground surface or water surface. GPS Position Methodology:A modeling process of 6 steps was estimations receiver position searching process and reflected point’s position estimation with digital terrain elevation mapping process. The stream flow is predicted by using Doppler shifts due to surface reflection as a moving surface . 5) Fifth step: Using the digital terrain elevation mapping (DTED level 2) for Taiwan to aid of Dulation Height from output of GPS Receiver’s BESTPOSITION command. the digital terrain elevation data and satellite’s images has been used and mapped with the integrated software. ambiguities with altitude estimation (1 centmeter level) for RHCP and LHCP antenna receiver position. disturbed water and rough bare soil ground object detection with surface. An integer ambiguity resolution algorithm has also been implemented. First step: epoch by epoch to predict the initial position with altitude estimation (meter level) by using 4 or more L1 pseudo-ranges. 2) Second step: Ambiguity Estimation and calculate least square estimation error ε min by using L1. 6) Sixth step: Using Doppler shifts and SNR from observations of reflection signals and direct signals from integrated GPS receiver. 4) Fourth step: Using the resolution of atmospheric delay to aid of the instantaneous integer ambiguities with altitude estimation (1 cent-meter level) for RHCP and LHCP antenna receiver position. Then The Reflectivity is depended on the reflection of SNR、elevation angle and ground object.[4]. During the development and test stage. L2 phase and P2 pseudo range to simulate the floating position with real ambiguity number with altitude estimation (10 center-meter level) 3) Third step: Using ambiguity solution method to enhancing fixed position by integer .

and if the vector is parallel to the direction of transmission polarization. wavelength 24.42 MHz (wavelength 19.Integrated GPS receiver Antenna setup:Multipath is one of the error sources in GPS measurement.60 MHz.45 cm) carries the P code and is only used by receivers which are designed for PPS (precision positioning code). it is called horizontal improve response time and increase productivity . GPS receivers use the L1 frequency with 1575. If the electrical field vector is perpendicular to the direction of transmission it is called vertical polarization. The L2 frequency only LHCP GPS antennas are not used for normal GPS observation. The polarization of the signal is defined by the direction of the electrical field vector. if the signal is reflected twice. it is hard to find LHCP GPS antenna. GPS signal which is an electromagnetic wave consists of electrical and magnetic fields.66 GHz (1227. Each GPS satellite transmits two carrier signals in the microwave range designated as L1 and L2 (frequencies located in the L-Band between 1000 and 2000 MHz).05 cm).52 GHz to 1. .odd number of reflections would be LHCP even number of reflections would be RHCP. The L1 frequency carries the navigation data as well as the SPS code (standard positioning code). designed for the frequency range 1. order to minimize the error due to multipath signal characteristics. We have used low profile antennas with right hand and left hand circular polarization . The GPS signal is Right Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). but a single reflection will be Left Hand Circular Polarization (LHCP). it would be RHCP.

and L1&L2 reflectivity on GPS reflected footprint. reflected signals from different directions can be observed. since mean value of RHCP’s altitude and LHCP’s altitude start and product the mean of ground altitude. The each instantaneous moving surface should be exploited by each reflected GPS carrier phase and reflected point. GPS L1/L2 Band receivers are two type receivers are used . reflected GPS signal contains information about the reflecting object since the characteristics of the reflected signal varies a lot depending upon the reflecting object.Antenna setup during data collection:Instrument is mounted on a 6. . Two antennas are placed above a stream. RHCP antenna connect to the other one receiver's RF P-N connector. using N-P connector to combine reflected signals with three LHCP antenna connect to one receiver's RF P-N connector. only one RHCP antenna is used to receive the direct GPS signals.meterlength of steel pipe. the new refection point XYZ will be located and accumulated projection line with time. Doppler shifts due to surface reflection as a moving surface on river. soil moisture detection:soil moisture classified by volumetric content of saturated water for soil. one RHCP and three LHCP antennas are placed orthogonally on the Water Level Estimation & soil moisture detection Water Level Estimation:When each Range of Reflection points and earth center are same value in the same stream flow surface area. A reflected point is described for stream flow Surface with slope of line of sight between satellite and RHCP/LHCP receiver position. The RHCP and LHCP fixed position cause different altitude for observation point when the mean of ground altitude is subject to estimated ground or stream altitude of reflected area per each satellite. stream surface so that the .5.

Lat . . Lat.016 m/s(for PRN 11). stream flow surface reflected points instantaneous rate of altitude ground H and range Dground conduct the mean velocity of ocean tide are predicted as among 0. Z d ) points was resembled and described by Matlab Tool.112~0.yis. Reflected receiver position :(Lon.627 m/s (for PRN 8). the stream flow velocity can be roughly estimated by computing .012~0.418~0. the reflection point as a function of time and processing satellites for LHCP receiver. Stream flow and Doppler shifts with each reflected trajectory stream surface with slope LOS -RHCP position between satellite and RHCP/LHCP receiver position. z si) satellite i: ID of Doppler shift change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other. coordinate and the 3-D geometry LOS between Receiver position reflected GPS signals. stream flow ground object can be identified at each epoch. Direct receiver position :(Lo n. Lat. Yr. 2)A reflected point is described for mean of Velocity Estimation for Stream flow:The Comparison of stream flow by using Doppler shifts. Hti)LHCP  (Xr. Satellites osition:Lon. H)s  (Xis . Zr ) no. 0.176 m/s(for PRN 27) and 0. Yd. H ) RHCP  (X d.Ground Height Estimation and Surface Roughness:1) mean value of RHCP altitude and LHCP altitude start and product the ground altitude.

May 2008. No. 29.Katzberg"Terrain L2 Reflectivity" 1st Colloquium Scientific and Fundamental ability and results of further employing stream soil moisture. Application:the GPS Reflectivity model in estimating the stream flow rapidly & accuracy in flood. T. NO. 19-aprilestimating stream classification and stream water level. Young L. ESC 2007. models of landcover. IEEE the Galileo Programme. Let. Scott T. a new application and development of a highly integrated GPS receiver with reflected GPS signals for stream flow and soil moisture Aspects of Moisture Classification Using GPS Surface-Reflected Signals". France GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS.Precise ion Aircraft Ocean Altimetry Using GPS future research is the optional choice of flood or flood plain Reflections.L. 10. MATLAB software supply.. Grant. S.. 2) Lowe.“ IEEE Geophysics. 1 May 2007. .. 4. The Authors issue that is the subject for "Five. This paper can guarantee optimum performance in receiver position for MATLAB. Goad and Kai Borre RECPOS Least-squares searching for boundary. the velocity of stream flow from that flood flow can calculateddetect peak of stream flood ... we also conclude remote sensing resolution References:1)Michael S.Conclusions:we conclude that to calculate accurate stream flow & soil moisture using GPS signal . Acton and Stephen J. Res. Zuffada C. LaBrecque J. VOL.cm . 3) Clyde C. Vol. 1 JANUARY 2010. Chao Y.. Toulouse. In this paper. Kroger P.E.