Element 6 Describe the general principles of control and basic hierarchy of risk reduction measures that encompass technical

, behavioral and procedural controls? General Principles of Prevention There are some general principles of prevention that can be applied to eliminate hazards and reduce the risk in the workplace. These principles rely on the correct selection of technical, procedural and behavioral controls. 1.Avoid risk: 2.Evaluate risks which cannot be avoided 3.Control hazards at source: 4.Adapt work to suit the individual 5.Adapt to technical progress 6.Replace the dangerous with the non dangerous or less dangerous 7.Develop logical overall prevention policy 8.Give priority to collective protective measures over individual protective measures: 9.Give appropriate information, instruction, training and supervision to employees. Avoid Risks: Where possible Evaluate risks which cannot be avoided: -Through the risk assessment process Control hazards at source: -By going to the source of the problem directly (e.g. if there is noise hazards in the workplace tackle the source of the nose> Adapt work to suit the individual: -By applying good ergonomic principles to job and workplace design (by job rotation) Replace the dangerous with the non dangerous or less dangerous: -By substituting one hazard with something less hazardous e.g. replace a corrosive chemical with one that does the same job but is classified as less irritant and less harmful.

Develop a coherent overall prevention policy: By consistency using the same approach across the whole organization Give priority to collective protective measures over individual protective measures: By creating a workplace that is safe for all rather than relying on measures that only protect one worker at a time e.g. install a guard rail rather than rely on PPE. Why do instruction, training and supervision form a part of safe system?

Give appropriate information, instruction, training and supervision to employee: So that workers have the necessary background information to make correct choices. When selecting control options form these general principles of prevention you should be aware that preventive measure can be categorized as: 1.Technical 2.Procedural 3.Behavioral General Hierarchy of Control The following elements make up the general hierarchy of control: 1.Avoid risks 2.Elimination / substitution 3.Reduce exposure or the time of exposure 4.Isolation / segregation 5.Engineering controls 6.Safe system or work 7.Training and information 8.Personal protective equipment 9.Welfare 10.Monitoring and supervision

Avoid risks Risk avoidance is simply to avoid completely the activity giving rise to the risk Elimination / substitution If a hazard can be eliminated then the risk created by the hazards disappears. For example hazardous substances can sometimes be replaced with materials which do the same job but present no risk to health. Reduce exposure or the time of exposure If the degree to which a worker is exposed to hazard can be reduced then that worker is far less likely to have an accident with that hazard. For example an engineer who spend all day working on machinery with hazardous moving parts is more likely to suffer injury than the engineer who spend only an hour of their working day to exposed to the same hazard. Isolation / segregation Isolation: The aim her to isolate the hazard physically so that nobody is exposed to it e.g. acoustic enclosure of a noisy machine to reduce the noise exposure; guards around moving machinery to prevent contact Segregation: refer to the idea that certain hazards must not be accessible to unauthorized workers e.g.in a workplace with radiation hazard only authorized person should have access only What do engineering controls do?

Engineering controls Engineering control involves use of an engineering solution to prevent exposure to the hazard. Engineering control also refer to the inclusion of safety features that ensure that the item is used incorrect way. For example interlock switches are fitted to moveable guard on machinery to ensure that when guard is open the machine will not work but guard is close it will. Safe system of work Safe system of work procedure helps to eliminate hazards or minimizes the risk associated with them. Training and information Training is instrumental in enabling employees to become competent. Personal protective equipment Equipment or clothing that is worn or held by a worker that protects them from one or more risks to their safety or health. It is duty of employer to: -Supply suitable PPE where risk cannot be controlled by other more effective methods -Ensure that when tow more items of PPE have to be worn together they are compatible -Provide suitable storage for PPE -Provide information instructions and training to workers on the PPE they will wear. -Enforce the use of PPE -Replace or repair damaged or lost items. Welfare Welfare facilities include the provision of toilets, washing facilities, clean drinking water, rest area and clean place for eat meals. Monitoring and supervision Monitoring: For maintain surveillance over something by periodic observation or measurement and inspection to ensure that they are using prescribed safe working method. Supervision: Refers to routine inspection and surveillance or workers but concern direct line management authority to control behavior Define a safe system of work? SAFE SYSTEM OF WORK: A safe system of work is a formal procedure based on a systematic examination of work in order to identify the hazards. It defines safe methods of working which eliminate those hazards or minimize the risks associated with them Responsibilities of Employer: It is the responsibilities of the employer to develop safe systems of work with the involvement of both competent persons and employees who will be carrying out the work. This safe system must be documented.

What is the difference between technical, procedural and behavioral controls? Technical, procedural and behavioral controls: As safe system of work will involve all the elements of control that we identified earlier in the general hierarchy of control 1.Technical or engineering control 2.Procedural control 3.Behavioral control Technical or engineering control: Applied directly to the hazard in order to minimize the risk, this may involve fencing or barriers of different kinds to isolate workers from hazard. Procedural control: The way, in which work should be carried out in relation to the hazards, They specify the exact tasks involved their sequence and the safety actions and checks which have to taken. Behavioral Control: How the individual worker acts in relation to the hazard e.g. good housekeeping or using PPE Development of a safe system of work: Safe system of work usually developed using the process of task analysis, which involves breaking work down into a series of steps so that hazards can be identified and risk controlled at each step using technical, procedural and behavioral controls. Once developed, safe systems must be implemented and monitored to ensure continued effectiveness. Describe what factors should be considered when developing and implementing a safe system of work? When developing a safe system of work it is important to consider that 1.PEOPLE: Who is the SSW for what level of competence or technical ability should they have? 2.EQUIPMENT: What equipment will be worked on? What safety equipment will be required? 3.MATERIALS: what materials will be used or handled the work? Who will waste dispose of? 4.ENVIRONMENT: in what type of environment will the work take place? Useful acronym SREDIM can be used to identify the hazard associated with every step of work 1.Select the task to b analyzed 2.Record the steps or stages of the task 3.Evaluate the risk associated with each step 4.Develop the safe working method 5.Implement the safe working method 6.Monitor to ensure it is effective. Explain the role and function of a permit to work system? Or What is permit to work?

Permit to work system: A permit to work system is formal documented safety procedure forming part of a safe system of work which ensures that all necessary actions are taken before during and after particularly high risk work. A permit system formalizes the control of high risk work to ensure that all the risks have been identified all the precaution put in place and that appropriate information has been communicated to all relevant parties. What are the key elements of typical permit? There are four main sections to a permit to work: 1.Issue 2. Receipt 3. Clearance / return to service 4. Cancellation 5. Extension

Explain the need of emergency procedures and the arrangements for contracting emergency services? Or What is the main objective of an emergency procedure? Emergency Procedures: Importance of developing emergency procedures: An organization should develop emergency procedures to deal with foreseeable incidents such as: Fire, bomb threat, spillage of a hazardous chemical , release of a toxic gas, outbreak of disease, severe weather or flooding and multiple casualty accident. Emergency procedures: These procedures should cover the internal arrangements for dealing with the foreseeable incidents which will include; 1.Procedure to follow 2.Provision of suitable equipment 3.Nomination of responsible staff 4.Provision of training and information 5.Drills and exercises 6.Contracting the emergency services Procedure to follow In the event of a fire normal practice for worker to exit the building and go to assembly area but in bomb threat this will be opposite person has to go inside the building and away from the windows Provision of suitable equipment If there is a fire suitable fire extinguisher are available and proper PPE wear by the person involve in firefighting Nomination of responsible staff In case of fire there need for fire wardens and fire marshal who will tell to occupant of building about safety instruction in case of fire.

Provision of training and information. Workers will only know what to do in case of emergency if they have training and information. Drills and exercises Emergency procedure should be practiced to ensure that people are familiar with action they might be expected in case of emergency Contracting the emergency services (first Aid) Describe the requirements for and effective e provision of first aid in the workplace? First Aid Requirements: An employer must make appropriate first aid provision for his employees. This will include: -First aid facilities -Equipment -Appropriately trained personnel. What factors might need to be considered when determining the first aid provision for a workplace? To determine what first aid provision to make an employer will have to undertake an assessment which should consider various factors such as: -The general risk level of the workplace -The hazards present in the workplace -Accident history -The presence of vulnerable persons -The number of workers in the workplace. -Work patterns and shift systems of workers -The geographic location of the workplace -The spread of the workplace