# Remote Control Care Gear Ratios

Get more bite from your car's teeth

This 90T spur gear and 20T pinion equal a 4.5:1 gear ratio. The pinion must turn 4.5 revolutions to turn the spur gear 1 revolution. Gears: every car and truck has 'em (yes, even the belt-driven ones), but not everyone understands them�or knows how to get the most out of them. Let's take a look at gear ratios, gear pitch and gearing your car or truck to win. WHAT IS A �GEAR RATIO�?

Here are two sets of Robinson Racing steel clutch bell/spur-gear combos for the Traxxas T-Maxx 3.3 (top) and Revo 3.3 (bottom). The T-Maxx pair is an 18T/44T combo; the Revo set is a 16T/40T combo. Despite the different tooth counts, the ratios are very close: 2.44:1 and 2.5:1, respectively. Any two gears will have a �ratio.� If your car has a 20-tooth (20T) pinion and a 100-tooth (100T) spur gear, that's a 20:100 ratio; however, we need to go one step further and divide the number of teeth on the spur gear (100) by the number of teeth on the pinion (20). It's easy: 100 � 20 = 5 The gear ratio is 5:1 (say �five to one�), and that means that the pinion must make five revolutions to turn the spur gear one revolution. It's that simple. Once you know the gear ratio

and you get a final drive ratio of 13:1. or 115T:23T combinations. So. and as illustrated previously. For example. The pinion and spur have a 5:1 ratio. just divide the number of teeth on the bottom gear (diff) by the number of teeth on the top gear. let's say this is a 20T pinion and 100T spur gear. the pinion must turn 13 revolutions. 105T:21T. a 5:1 gear ratio could be achieved with a 100T:20T. you can use any combination of tooth counts to get it. an idler gear and a bottom (output) gear that spins the drive axles and incorporates the differential. For example.6:1. 110T:22T. Multiply the two ratios. and the .6:1 ratio. CALCULATING TRANSMISSION & FINAL DRIVE RATIOS TRANSMISSION RATIO Here's an Associated B4/T4 transmission. This is the inside of an Associated TC4's gear-box. the B4's gearbox has a 2. most 1/10-scale cars and trucks use a 3-gear transmission that features a top (input) gear.6 FINAL DRIVE RATIO To keep the math simple. the gearbox shown here has a 20T top gear and 52T diff gear: 52 � 20 = 2. the diff gear has 40 teeth. to drive the rear wheels one complete revolution. Any car with a gearbox has some kind of internal gear reduction. The top gear has 20 teeth and the bottom gear has 52 teeth for a ratio of 2. To determine the transmission ratio.you want.

mark the sidewall of the tire. we get 13:1 for a final drive ratio: 5 x 2.7 inches with each rotation.92.input gear has 16 teeth for a 2. the drive wheels of your car or truck can be thought of as gears in the transmission. OK. 10. In addition to the transmission's internal gear ratio.000rpm for the entire 5-minute race. This ratio shows how many times the pinion must turn to make the transmission's output gear (and with it. If we use a 100T spur gear and 20T pinion gear for a 5:1 ratio and a 2.6:1. just multiply the internal and transmission ratios.000 total revolutions. we have the external gear ratio of the pinion and spur gear to contend with. This distance is called the car's �rollout. you can calculate circumference by multiplying the tire's diameter by pi (3. so we went all this way for a fun fact? No! Now we can see how gearing changes really affect a car. By combining the internal and external ratios. Here's how to measure rollout: STEP 1: MEASURE THE TIRE'S CIRCUMFERENCE The distance traveled by the tire in one rotation is its circumference. and we get 11.92 inch with each revolution of the pinion. The external ratio becomes 4. that's an . That doesn't sound like much.5:1 ratio. Divide 12 inches by 11.8.1 = 10. B4's Hole Shot tire travels 10. This car travels 0.54). but think about it: if the motor spins at an average of 20. Let's say we install a 22T pinion in place of the 20T. and we arrive at a roll-out of 1. Multiply that by a transmission ratio of 2.8:1 for the final drive ratio.7 INCHES Mark.6:1 transmission ratio. the vehicle with larger tires will travel farther with each rotation of the wheels and is effectively geared taller than the small-tire car.000 inches � 12 = 833 feet). that means your car will travel an extra 833 feet (100. Think about it: if you take two identical cars and put small-diameter tires on one and large-diameter tires on another.54:1 (100 � 22 = 4. The math is simple. In a 20-lap race. we arrive at the final drive ratio. Or. 12 � 13 = 0. and the car goes an extra 1/10 inch for every one of those 100.6 = 13 ROLLOUT: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 10.000 x 0. STEP 2: DIVIDE THE CIRCUMFERENCE BY THE FINAL DRIVE RATIO Let's say our example car has a final drive ratio of 13:1 and a wheel circumference of 12 inches. roll and measure.� and it shows the true effect of gearing changes.000 inches.01 inches�that's an increase of 1/10 inch. the car's tires) complete one revolution.1416). To measure it. Although they have tires instead of teeth. roll it until the mark makes a complete rotation and then measure the distance.

but limited in gearing options) and 64-pitch gears (plenty of gearing options. racers had to choose between 32-pitch (durable. or 64-pitch gears. 64-PITCH This is the pitch of choice among on-road racers mainly because of the huge number of available ratios and extra-smooth mesh of the very fine teeth. but the tiny teeth were easily stripped). for example. That seems backwards. however. but it makes sense when you consider how pitch is determined.extra 41. For example: ACTUAL SIZE These are all 20T gears�the only difference is the pitch. Since on-road cars don't have to endure jumps and jolts. small gearing changes can make a big difference. 32-PITCH You don't much find this chunky gear pitch on electric vehicles anymore. that's why 64-pitch gear teeth are finer than 48-pitch.7 feet per lap! As you can see. 64-pitch gears hold up well. the smaller the teeth. Both have 21 teeth. until Rob Robinson developed the �in-between� pitch. certain gear pitches are better suited to certain applications. a 100T-spur/20T-pinion combination is a 5:1 ratio whether you use 32-. To squeeze 64 teeth onto a 1-inch disc. 48-PITCH Robinson Racing deserves credit for popularizing 48-pitch gears in off-road. 48-. The pitch of the gears in your car has no effect on their ratio.4 pitch (more on metric gears in �Understanding Metric Pitch�). a tooth size that permits 48 teeth to encircle a 1-inch disc is said to be 48-pitch. 48-pitch gears offer a good mix of ratio options and durability. . the teeth must be smaller. Pitch refers to the number of teeth that can fit around a 1-inch diameter disc. The off-road standard. but gas cars often use 32-pitch gears to cope with the heavy horsepower their transmissions cope with. Some cars have �1 module� gears�a metric size that works out to 25. the one on the right is �metric 64� pitch. UNDERSTANDING METRIC PITCH The gear on the left is �metric 48� pitch. GEAR PITCH A gear's �pitch� refers to the size of its teeth: the larger the pitch number.

S. Note how much wider the angle between two teeth is on the 16T pinion versus the 28T pinion.5 4. subtract teeth from the pinion or add teeth to the spur gear. To gear down and give your car a numerically higher gear ratio that will make it go less far for each revolution of the pinion (or clutch-bell) gear. slow acceleration and high motor/engine temperatures.5:1 Ratio change = 0. GEARING GOLDEN RULES 1. add teeth to the pinion or subtract teeth from the spur gear.You may have heard of �metric 64-pitch� or �metric 48-pitch�. install a smaller pinion/clutch bell or a larger spur gear.and 64-pitch standards.3-pitch. . 3. The wider angle reduces the efficiency of the gear mesh. The examples below illustrate how much a 2-tooth pinion change affects gearing compared with a 2-tooth spur-gear change: 2-TOOTH INCREASE ON SPUR GEAR    100T spur gear/20T pinion = 5:1 102T spur gear/20T pinion = 5. The greater the tooth count. don't jump up or down more than two teeth at a time on the pinion or clutch bell. If your car suffers poor fuel economy. use it. the better the gear mesh will be. Always use metric pinions with metric spurs. they are not interchangeable. 2.5 pitch. although the pitch is close to U.1 2-TOOTH DECREASE ON PINION GEAR    100T spur gear/20T pinion = 5:1 100T spur gear/18T pinion = 5. both are common in Japanese kits.4 module and are actually 63. you should use a pinion with a minimum of 17 teeth for the best mesh. Ideally. To gear up and give your car a numerically lower gear ratio that will make it go farther for each revolution of the pinion (or clutch-bell) gear. The correct term for the pitch of these gears is �module. Changing the pinion's tooth count has a greater effect than an equal change on the spur gear. If you have the option to use a larger pinion or clutch bell to achieve the gear ratio you need.  Monitor your car's performance when you change gear ratios. 48. When changing gearing.1:1 Ratio change = 0. �metric 64� gears are 0.6-module gears are �metric 48� and are actually 42.� 0. it is almost certainly overgeared.