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Remote Control Care Gear Ratios

Get more bite from your car's teeth

This 90T spur gear and 20T pinion equal a 4.5:1 gear ratio. The pinion must turn 4.5 revolutions to turn the spur gear 1 revolution. Gears: every car and truck has 'em (yes, even the belt-driven ones), but not everyone understands them�or knows how to get the most out of them. Let's take a look at gear ratios, gear pitch and gearing your car or truck to win. WHAT IS A �GEAR RATIO�?

Here are two sets of Robinson Racing steel clutch bell/spur-gear combos for the Traxxas T-Maxx 3.3 (top) and Revo 3.3 (bottom). The T-Maxx pair is an 18T/44T combo; the Revo set is a 16T/40T combo. Despite the different tooth counts, the ratios are very close: 2.44:1 and 2.5:1, respectively. Any two gears will have a �ratio.� If your car has a 20-tooth (20T) pinion and a 100-tooth (100T) spur gear, that's a 20:100 ratio; however, we need to go one step further and divide the number of teeth on the spur gear (100) by the number of teeth on the pinion (20). It's easy: 100 � 20 = 5 The gear ratio is 5:1 (say �five to one�), and that means that the pinion must make five revolutions to turn the spur gear one revolution. It's that simple. Once you know the gear ratio

110T:22T. let's say this is a 20T pinion and 100T spur gear. So. to drive the rear wheels one complete revolution. Any car with a gearbox has some kind of internal gear reduction. you can use any combination of tooth counts to get it. most 1/10-scale cars and trucks use a 3-gear transmission that features a top (input) gear.6:1 ratio. just divide the number of teeth on the bottom gear (diff) by the number of teeth on the top gear.6:1. the gearbox shown here has a 20T top gear and 52T diff gear: 52 � 20 = 2. To determine the transmission ratio. The pinion and spur have a 5:1 ratio. the diff gear has 40 teeth. 105T:21T. CALCULATING TRANSMISSION & FINAL DRIVE RATIOS TRANSMISSION RATIO Here's an Associated B4/T4 transmission. and you get a final drive ratio of 13:1. or 115T:23T combinations. For example. The top gear has 20 teeth and the bottom gear has 52 teeth for a ratio of 2. an idler gear and a bottom (output) gear that spins the drive axles and incorporates the differential.you want. the pinion must turn 13 revolutions. and as illustrated previously. For example. Multiply the two ratios. a 5:1 gear ratio could be achieved with a 100T:20T. and the .6 FINAL DRIVE RATIO To keep the math simple. This is the inside of an Associated TC4's gear-box. the B4's gearbox has a 2.

and we get 11. This car travels 0. This distance is called the car's �rollout. Think about it: if you take two identical cars and put small-diameter tires on one and large-diameter tires on another.54:1 (100 � 22 = 4. we have the external gear ratio of the pinion and spur gear to contend with.8:1 for the final drive ratio. and the car goes an extra 1/10 inch for every one of those 100. By combining the internal and external ratios. That doesn't sound like much.000 x 0. OK.000 inches � 12 = 833 feet). the drive wheels of your car or truck can be thought of as gears in the transmission. In a 20-lap race. The external ratio becomes 4. just multiply the internal and transmission ratios.54).� and it shows the true effect of gearing changes.000 total revolutions. Multiply that by a transmission ratio of 2. STEP 2: DIVIDE THE CIRCUMFERENCE BY THE FINAL DRIVE RATIO Let's say our example car has a final drive ratio of 13:1 and a wheel circumference of 12 inches. 12 � 13 = 0. roll it until the mark makes a complete rotation and then measure the distance. Let's say we install a 22T pinion in place of the 20T.92. you can calculate circumference by multiplying the tire's diameter by pi (3.000rpm for the entire 5-minute race. and we arrive at a roll-out of 1. In addition to the transmission's internal gear ratio.1 = 10. 10.000 inches.1416). To measure it. we get 13:1 for a final drive ratio: 5 x 2. B4's Hole Shot tire travels 10.01 inches�that's an increase of 1/10 inch.5:1 ratio. so we went all this way for a fun fact? No! Now we can see how gearing changes really affect a car. the vehicle with larger tires will travel farther with each rotation of the wheels and is effectively geared taller than the small-tire car. This ratio shows how many times the pinion must turn to make the transmission's output gear (and with it. we arrive at the final drive ratio. Although they have tires instead of teeth. that means your car will travel an extra 833 feet (100.6 = 13 ROLLOUT: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 10.7 INCHES Mark. Here's how to measure rollout: STEP 1: MEASURE THE TIRE'S CIRCUMFERENCE The distance traveled by the tire in one rotation is its circumference.92 inch with each revolution of the pinion. roll and measure. The math is simple.6:1.8. If we use a 100T spur gear and 20T pinion gear for a 5:1 ratio and a 2. Or.7 inches with each rotation.input gear has 16 teeth for a 2. that's an . the car's tires) complete one revolution. but think about it: if the motor spins at an average of 20. Divide 12 inches by 11. mark the sidewall of the tire.6:1 transmission ratio.

. For example: ACTUAL SIZE These are all 20T gears�the only difference is the pitch.7 feet per lap! As you can see. Some cars have �1 module� gears�a metric size that works out to 25. 32-PITCH You don't much find this chunky gear pitch on electric vehicles anymore. Pitch refers to the number of teeth that can fit around a 1-inch diameter disc. 48-pitch gears offer a good mix of ratio options and durability. the smaller the teeth. certain gear pitches are better suited to certain applications. the one on the right is �metric 64� pitch. 64-PITCH This is the pitch of choice among on-road racers mainly because of the huge number of available ratios and extra-smooth mesh of the very fine teeth.extra 41. Since on-road cars don't have to endure jumps and jolts. for example. a 100T-spur/20T-pinion combination is a 5:1 ratio whether you use 32-. To squeeze 64 teeth onto a 1-inch disc. but it makes sense when you consider how pitch is determined. but gas cars often use 32-pitch gears to cope with the heavy horsepower their transmissions cope with. That seems backwards. small gearing changes can make a big difference. a tooth size that permits 48 teeth to encircle a 1-inch disc is said to be 48-pitch. racers had to choose between 32-pitch (durable. however. 48-. or 64-pitch gears. until Rob Robinson developed the �in-between� pitch. GEAR PITCH A gear's �pitch� refers to the size of its teeth: the larger the pitch number. but the tiny teeth were easily stripped).4 pitch (more on metric gears in �Understanding Metric Pitch�). 64-pitch gears hold up well. that's why 64-pitch gear teeth are finer than 48-pitch. UNDERSTANDING METRIC PITCH The gear on the left is �metric 48� pitch. The off-road standard. The pitch of the gears in your car has no effect on their ratio. the teeth must be smaller. but limited in gearing options) and 64-pitch gears (plenty of gearing options. 48-PITCH Robinson Racing deserves credit for popularizing 48-pitch gears in off-road. Both have 21 teeth.

The greater the tooth count. 2. The wider angle reduces the efficiency of the gear mesh.5 pitch.  Monitor your car's performance when you change gear ratios. 3.4 module and are actually 63. slow acceleration and high motor/engine temperatures.and 64-pitch standards.� 0.3-pitch. add teeth to the pinion or subtract teeth from the spur gear. . Ideally. use it. Always use metric pinions with metric spurs. GEARING GOLDEN RULES 1. you should use a pinion with a minimum of 17 teeth for the best mesh.1:1 Ratio change = 0. To gear down and give your car a numerically higher gear ratio that will make it go less far for each revolution of the pinion (or clutch-bell) gear.S. �metric 64� gears are 0.5:1 Ratio change = 0.1 2-TOOTH DECREASE ON PINION GEAR    100T spur gear/20T pinion = 5:1 100T spur gear/18T pinion = 5. Changing the pinion's tooth count has a greater effect than an equal change on the spur gear. The correct term for the pitch of these gears is �module. they are not interchangeable. If you have the option to use a larger pinion or clutch bell to achieve the gear ratio you need. 48. Note how much wider the angle between two teeth is on the 16T pinion versus the 28T pinion. If your car suffers poor fuel economy.You may have heard of �metric 64-pitch� or �metric 48-pitch�. To gear up and give your car a numerically lower gear ratio that will make it go farther for each revolution of the pinion (or clutch-bell) gear.5 4. the better the gear mesh will be.6-module gears are �metric 48� and are actually 42. install a smaller pinion/clutch bell or a larger spur gear. it is almost certainly overgeared. When changing gearing. both are common in Japanese kits. although the pitch is close to U. subtract teeth from the pinion or add teeth to the spur gear. don't jump up or down more than two teeth at a time on the pinion or clutch bell. The examples below illustrate how much a 2-tooth pinion change affects gearing compared with a 2-tooth spur-gear change: 2-TOOTH INCREASE ON SPUR GEAR    100T spur gear/20T pinion = 5:1 102T spur gear/20T pinion = 5.