This section will cover achieving consistency in electrical supply, metal melting, sampling and sampling supplies, electrical

and chemical calibration, and instrumentation so as to achieve the most accurate and repeatable thermal analysis measurements. Thermal analysis (TA) is a method of determining chemistry and microstructure in complex metals by measuring thermal arrests, and energy production during solidification, and sometimes energy production during solid state transformations. The temperatures of multiple arrests and the rate of change in temperature at various points are measured by means of an embedded thermal couple. The thermal couple produces a temperature dependent voltage which is converted to digital format and processed by a Microprocessor or by a personal computer to produce the results. In the production of irons, TA is commonly used to measure arbon !"uivalent, arbon and silicon. #ess common uses include graphite morphology for gray, compacted and ductile irons, the degree of inoculation, the degree of chill, and the degree of pearlite$ferrite in final irons, and the effective magnesium in ductile and compacted graphitic irons. In white irons, where graphite production must be very tightly controlled, TA provides a comparison with production iron vs. %&&' chilled iron. In the production of aluminum alloys, TA is commonly used to measure the degree of inoculation and modification of hypoeutectic(silicon alloys (A)%*, A)+&, A),,, A),etc), and the degree of nucleation of A+&& series and hypereutectic silicon alloys. In the production of opper alloys, TA is commonly used to measure the phosphorus levels for bra.ing alloys, and for high phosphorus copper alloys up to about %,'. In steel production, TA is used to measure low carbon levels in low alloy steels, and to measure correct carbide levels in wear resistant alloys. Applications Thermocouples are most suitable for measuring over a large temperature range, up to %/&& 0 . They are less suitable for applications where smaller temperature differences need to be measured with high accuracy, for example the range &((%&& 0 with &.% 0 accuracy. 1or such applications, thermostats and 2T3s are more suitable. Temperature measurement techni"ues In the ferrous foundries ladle temperature varies above %4&& . At this temperature continuous measurement is difficult. Therefore dip type immersion pyrometer techni"ue is widely used. Immersion pyrometer consist of metal housing, !lectronic Measurement ircuitry (!M ), metal lance, Thermocouple connected to the circuitry by means of compensating cables which passes through the lance. 5hen thermocouple dip into the molten metal, it gives milli(volts output. These milli volts are carried to the !M , where the signal (mv) is amplified and processed to give

Temperature recording is fully dependent on operator s7ill and it can not separate out hot spot temperature and true temperature. 6ea7 #atching8 As the name indicates the techni"ue involves latching of the pea7 temperature and displaying it. :o it is difficult to 7now. 6lateau 3etection. If the Thermocouple comes into contact with the hot spot then this reading is latched by the !M and displayed. This operation is completed in %() sec in case of single dip paper tube thermocouple tips and )(/ sec in case of Multi dip thermocouple tips. The operator can remove the lance to prevent it from melting in the molten metal bath. :o it is not suitable for ferrous foundries. . :teady state response is monitored and confirmed by ta7ing several samples. Thus there is no possibility of hot spot measurement in this techni"ue. Thus temperature at the hot spot is not correct representation of the entire bath temperature.e. In an induction furnace due to its nature hot spots are generated that moves randomly across the molten metal. 6lateau detection techni"ue8 In this techni"ue transient response of sensor and system is ignored.direct digital output. It ensures life of receptacle (connector for tip and lance). . This techni"ue displays correct temperature and ignores incorrect readings by giving error messages. 6ea7 latching. ontinuous trac7ing8 In this techni"ue temperature is displayed continuously as it senses. In case of Immersion 6yrometer. Therefore pea7 latching is not world wide accepted for use in measuring molten metal temperature in induction furnaces.ed by this terminology. 9enerally the temperature at the hot spot is always higher than the molten metal temperature. Transient response phenomenon is very common term in the field of process instrumentation i.nce it fits in its detection criteria the temperature is displayed. how system (including sensor) responds for any sudden change is characteri. The processing of the signal is done by various techni"ues. as we are suddenly inserting thermocouple inside the molten metal bath< its response could be li7e shown in 1ig % or 1ig + as it depends on various factors. :o you do not get stable display of temperature. when to remove lance. ontinuous trac7ing are some of these techni"ues.

not absolute temperature. the voltages of the individual thermocouple add up.T is more than the rest of the molten metal. But in case of 6#AT!AA 3!T! TI. in the image below. as the actual temperature is less by +&(+. Thermocouples can be connected in series with each other to form a thermopile.T :6.T :6. 1or example.T :6. one of the Dunctions E the cold DunctionE is maintained at a 7nown (reference) temperature.= T! ?=ICA!. It ignores false readings due to furnace hot spot.A2I=9. If you are using ordinary 6!A@ #AT ? I=3I AT.e.T with molten metal in the furnace.#3 6. In such condition you may face the problem of . Thus. degree centigrade. In most applications. it displays this ?. first pea7 temperature is ignored and it ensures 4 constant readings for a period of one second > declares true temperature readings. noise. deg. . so that the temperature at the probe tip can be calculated. time based > pea7 latch temperature indicator fails to identify > measure the true temperature. 6lateau detection techni"ue is recommended > accepted worldwide. and transient response > once it detects steady state temperature i. while the other end is attached to a probe.=ormal trac7 mode. which allows for a larger voltage. In case. if there is a ?. the temperature at ?. flat temperature it will be displayed. ?ow 3oes a Thermocouple Tip 5or7s It is important to note that thermocouples measure the temperature difference between two points. as soon as thermocouple is dipped into molten metal.2 type pyrometer. Another temperature sensor will measure the temperature at this point. the cold Dunction will be at copper trac7s on the circuit board. which may be more by +&(+. where all the hot Dunctions are exposed to the higher temperature and all the cold Dunctions to a lower temperature.T temperature. 1or molten metal temperature measurement only.

suitable for different measuring applications (industrial. They are usually specified for accuracy over a more restricted temperature range than the thermocouple wires. They use "uite different. It generates a voltage proportional to the difference between the hot Dunction and cold Dunction. This is 7nown as cold Dunction compensation.I0 . ?ence. is simply not convenient for most directly connected indicating and control instruments. 3ifferent types of Thermocouple A variety of thermocouples are available. The terms are specific. The characteristic of the thermocouple undergoes a step change when a magnetic material reaches its urie point. and the appropriate correction applied. although not cheap. with special care being ta7en to minimi. The extension cable or compensating cable must be selected to match the thermocouple. are less precise. The combination develops similar outputs to those of the thermocouple. The type @ was specified at a time when metallurgy was nowhere near as advanced as today and conse"uently characteristics vary considerably between examples. the voltage from a 7nown cold Dunction can be simulated.e any temperature gradient between terminals. medical research. but which do not match them "uite as faithfully as extension cables. There is another problem in that one of the constituent metals is magnetic (=ic7el). owing to its popularity. They incorporate into their circuits an artificial cold Dunction using some other thermally sensitive device (such as a thermister or diode) to measure the temperature of the input connections at the instrument. . etc. They are available in the G+&& 0 to H%+&& 0 range. !xtension cable uses wires of nominally the same conductors as used at the thermocouple itself. and is connected in the correct polarity so that the additional voltage is added to the thermocouple voltage. and are usually produced in a convenient form for carrying over long distances ( typically as flexible insulated wiring or multi core cables. :ensitivity is approximately I% JK$0 . relatively low cost alloy conductor materials whose net thermoelectric coefficients are similar to those of the thermocouple in "uestion (over a limited range of temperatures).). These cables are less costly than thermocouple wire. but cheaper.?aving available a 7nown temperature cold Dunction. Type @ ( hromel (=i( r alloy) $ Alumel (=i(Al alloy))8 The Fgeneral purposeF thermocouple. This occurs for this thermocouple at ). ompensating cables on the other hand. scientific. but the operating temperature range of the compensating cable is restricted to 7eep the mismatch errors acceptably small. Asually the thermocouple is attached to the indicating device by a special wire 7nown as the compensating or extension cable. it is available in a wide variety of probes. while useful for laboratory calibrations. compensating for the temperature difference between the hot and cold Dunctions. It is low cost and. They are recommended for best accuracy. food temperature.

2. it is becoming more popular. The cooling curve of a small .+ JK$0 . slightly lower than a Type @.I) 0 ). Type 2 (6latinum $6latinum with 4' 2hodium)8 :uited for high temperature measurements up to %-&& 0 . #ow sensitivity (%& JK$0 ) and high cost ma7es them unsuitable for general purpose use. L types cannot be used above 4-& 0 as an abrupt magnetic transformation causes permanent de(calibration. :. Type B (6latinum(2hodium$6t(2h)8 :uited for high temperature measurements up to %/&& 0 .Type ! ( hromel $ onstantan ( u(=i alloy))8 Type ! has a high output (-/ JK$0 ) which ma7es it well suited to low temperature (cryogenic) use. Type : (6latinum $6latinum with %&' 2hodium)8 :uited for high temperature measurements up to %-&& 0 . Type : thermocouples are regularly used in the electric arc furnace process to accurately measure the steel temperature before tapping. 2. Another property is that it is non(magnetic. They are the most stable of all thermocouples. Type L (Iron $ onstantan)8 #imited range (GI& to H4. immersible. :ensitivity is about )* JK$0 at *&&0 . and the negative conductor is made of constantan. Type LMs have a sensitivity of N. Type T thermocouples have a sensitivity of N I) JK$0 . Type = (=icrosil (=i( r(:i alloy) $ =isil (=i(:i alloy))8 ?igh stability and resistance to high temperature oxidation ma7es type = suitable for high temperature measurements without the cost of platinum (B. 2 and @ thermocouples are used extensively in the steel and iron industry to monitor temperatures and chemistry throughout the steel ma7ing process. :) types.ften used as a differential measurement since only copper wire touches the probes. The main application is with old e"uipment that cannot accept modern thermocouples. 3esigned to be an improved type @.& 0 range. Type T ( opper $ onstantan)8 :uited for measurements in the G+&& to ). and :) have a correspondingly lower resolution. Type B. 3isposable. but due to their low sensitivity (approximately %& JK$0 ) they are usually only used for high temperature measurement (O)&& 0 ). They can withstand temperatures above %+&& 0 . The positive conductor is made of copper. and : are all noble metal thermocouples and exhibit similar characteristics.& 0 ) ma7es type L less popular than type @. #ow sensitivity (%& JK$0 ) and high cost ma7es them unsuitable for general purpose use. 3ue to its high stability type : is used as the standard of calibration for the melting point of gold (%&-I. Anusually type B thermocouples (due to the shape of their temperature(voltage curve) give the same output at & 0 and I+ 0 . 2. =ote that thermocouples with low sensitivity (B. . Thermocouples are usually selected to ensure that the measuring e"uipment does not limit the range of temperatures that can be measured. Thermocouple types B.& 0 . This ma7es them useless below .

volts when using @ type thermocouple. That is.% degree which can be improved through software filtering to about &. The spectrometer reported the silicon as being within range.nce the iron has been heated above this temperature. :ampler consistency :ome types of analysis depend on measuring the cooling rates of the sample. #ong runs of thermocouple wire mean more susceptibility to pic7ing up electromagnetic energy. it can be cooled down to lower temperatures and still successfully measured as all the silicon is now in solution. The power pic7up shoes of an overhead crane were arcing between rail segments in one foundry causing a pic7up of energy e"uivalent to %& degrees of temperature. #i7ewise arbon floating on the surface of the furnace can create a arbon rich layer if the furnace is not powered on. . :ample cups that are filled to less than % cm or %$) inch below the top are suspect. As a general rule. lear a clean spot on the surface. The thermocouple needs to be in the center of heat of the metal mass.&%/ volts when using : or 2 type thermocouple and &. Metal onsistency Thermal Analysis loo7s at the transitions between li"uid and solid metal. degrees . =eutral lines typically have as much as P volt of induced energy in them.& 1 or %I&& before it is sampled.& to &. 2unning a shielded thermocouple wire solved the problem. while they may promote nucleation. :ilicon arbide dissolves over time and cannot be measured by TA until it is dissolved. they were sent bac7 to the cupola for re(melting rather than try to machine them with undissolved silicon carbide in the iron. The raw precision is generally listed at &. !lectrical 9rounding The TA instrument is measuring &. iron should be heated above +. To achieve this degree. and the holding furnace was almost empty when the TA and the chill wedges showed low silicon.&. can throw off the hemistry Analysis. and wash the sample spoon clean of any remains left geometric center of cup due to rapid cooling in the base of the cup. This point is slightly above the . .ne foundry was adding I' silicon carbide to a cupola that was feeding into a %& ton holding furnace. Andissolved crystals.. 9enerally try to not sample through a carbon or slag layer. and when the castings turned out hard at sha7eout. To measure the effect of any element in the metal.& to &..&.steel sample can be analy. The cupola bed was low. These rates and even the arrest points can be influenced by how full the sample cup is. :imilar problems exist with arbon and :ilicon arbide additions.ed and used to estimate the carbon content of molten steel. that element must be dissolved in the li"uid. the electrical noise in the lines can be e"ual to or greater than the signal we are trying to measure. This allows the silicon to go into solution. it is important to have a good ground for reference. It was suspected that the silicon carbide had not finished dissolving.

in iron. In actuality we generally find the silicon factor to vary between +. the wire is in tension. we calculate chemistry from two data points and try to solve for arbon and :ilicon. Both the calibrator and the metal pins$rails of the cup stand need to be at room temperature to avoid errors. and then no further calibration is done until there is an assignable cause (damage or replacement of components) or the time period is expired for the calibration (usually . or come in contact with the metal. brea7s. Instrument calculation consistency Thermal analysis is limited by some mathematical constraints called the degrees of freedom. This usually means that the thermal couple can melt. It is best if proper care is ta7en in the calibration. manganese and chromium remain relatively consistent or that the change in those elements is insignificant. :amplers can also fail. it has to be assumed that phosphorus. ( hromium$ *. This sensor is embedded inside of the instrument and can be fooled. The @ type of thermal couple is subDect to melting when :ampling molten iron. 3eming pointed out that this can be a maDor source of error. :ince Iron is generally much hotter than that. or chromium.I& 1 or %)*& . Actually arbon. :ilicon. 9eneral practice is to determine the best silicon e"uation for each maDor metal type. The "uart. The T melts at +. A maDor metal type would be those that had significantly different levels of manganese. The wire will pull away from one side of the cup about P centimeters. If the calibrator was stored in an air conditioned (summer) or heated (winter) office. Manganese is the usual culprit when the silicon analysis varies. 3ue to the connection with the cup stand. 6hosphorus. so it . 6eople who calibrate too often end up ta7ing shortcuts and introduce errors into the calibration by not letting the calibrator and or stand heads come to room temperature8 an operation that can ta7e up to )& minutes depending on the instrument. we depend on a certain amount of temperature loss in transferring the sample . 1irst the calibrator has an internal temperature sensor that corrects for differences between room temperature and the melting point of ice. Manganese and hromium all affect the arrest points. or the melting point is reached. phosphorus.) depending on iron type. and in temperature loss to the cup before the thermocouple reaches its max. To calculate silicon. tube style cup can fail if the "uart. and can pull apart if the Doint softens enough. arbon analysis agrees with combustion analysis to within the typical error of combustion analysis.!. degrees .months). the cold Dunction sensor can be off by %& to %.. Q arbon H :ilicon$) H 6hosphorus$+ H Manganese$.geometric center of cup due to rapid cooling in the base of the cup. and TA proves the point. This will typically terminate the analysis. The twisted thermal couple has good mechanical bonding and will only fail if the ceramic tube crac7s or the core wash over the T is thin or missing. and ). The handboo7 e"uation is . alibration consistency Many foundries ma7e life hard for themselves by over calibration. or if the wire softens enough. Typically for example.

is hard to tell which one is more correct. This was an improvement on the fluidity spiral which could be affected by temperature or wetness of the mold. It might be daunting to some to see all the sources of error possible. That is not so.&)' carbon and &. is determined by the #i"uidus temperature.' for combustion carbon and &.&). it is possible for most foundries to benefit from the use of TA. In the old days the #i"uidus temperature was used to measure the fluidity of the metal (lower temperature implied more fluidity).&+' for spectrometer silicon.!. :ome people confuse the issue by thin7ing that by using the spectrometer chemistry in a formula that they can calculate the . and therefore what the #i"uidus temperature should be. arbon !"uivalent analysis is defined by the TA measurement. The actual measurement of the #i"uidus is exact. and a good lab. But with good engineering. This compares with lab results of &. But generally a standard error of &. . In practice the amount of error varies from foundry to foundry. onclusion Mathematically the standard error of a system is the s"uare root of the sum of the s"uares of all the errors.!. The calculations using chemistry are approximant.&)' silicon can be obtained if these guidelines are followed. That is . a good instrument.