Project at MREI

Coordinating Professor
Serban Ioan

Students:
Aldea Gabriel Joanta Ioana Nita Cosmin Popescu Radu Tatu Irina

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1.Project Theme
Optimization of a wind turbine to the conditions of the site. The choice between fixed-speed and variable-speed wind turbine. Technical and economical issues

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Table of contents
1.Project Theme……………………………………...……………........2 2.Table of contents…………………………………………………….. .!ind Turbines ……………………………………………………….." .1.#eneralities………………………………………………….." ".$hosen sites…………………………………………………………...% &.$omponents…………………………………………………………..12 '.Optimization………………………………………………………….1( '.1#eneral )iew…………………………………………………1( '.2*imulations……………………………………………………1+ %.$onclusion……………………………………………………………. " (.,iblio-raph.………………………………………………………….. &

force exerted b. the wind on the front of the blade.namic principle1 stall.the bottom surface of the win-. 8nli2e airplane win-s1 wind turbine win-s are almost alwa. !ind turbines capture the 2inetic ener-. !hen the wind stri2es the blade1 the an-le and confi-uration of the blade form a poc2et of low pressure on the downwind side of the blade.ecause of the difference in speed1 the air above the win. !ith a fan electricit. This low pressure suc2s the blade into movement1 causinthe rotor to turn.ecause of the curve of the upper surface of the win-1 the air has to flow faster to -et around the win-.s twisted.wor2 to-ether to ma2e the entire mechanism spin li2e a propeller. .. an.1. of wind with1 in most cases1 two or three blades shaped much li2e airplane propellers. of wind turbines is simple.loo2s li2e an irre-ularl. 4f the blade is desi-ned correctl.wind turbines.but swirls around in a circle above it.the plane to fl. This difference in pressure creates lift perpendicular to the direction of the movin.1 usin. These blades are attached to a tower. 4n aerod. alon. The result of this swirlin. other electric power is distributed. are twisted has to do with another aerod. Power can be distributed to users over the electric -rid in exactl. flatter than the top1 which is more curved.1 lift is stron-er than dra-1 or the slowin. !ith a wind turbine wind is used to produce electricit. shaped teardrop.is the loss of the low pressure " . 6t the same time1 the air flows at a lower speed alon.Generalities: !ind power is the conversion of wind ener-.the bottom surface1 but alon. To achieve lift1 wind turbine desi-ners have borrowed technolo-.3. 3orce is added b.is less dense7 that is1 the air pressure is lower than the pressure of the air below the win-. the same wa.rotor of a wind turbine is connected to a shaft1 which is connected to an electric -enerator. The reason the. !hen an airplane win. !hen a plane flies1 its win-s slice throu-h the air1 creatinwind. The shape is irre-ular because the win-5s bottom is sli-htl. the hi-h pressure on the upward side of the blade. from aircraft desi-ners.is tilted bac21 the wind continues to flow smoothl. is called lift. into a useful form1 such as electricit. is used to ma2e wind.Wind turbines/'0 3.namic theor. The turnin. The process is the opposite of that of a fan.the top surface1 because of the steeper an-le presented to the wind1 the air no lon-er stic2s to the win. The technolo-.. . The most important feature in the operation of wind turbines is lift.1 this propert. 4n cross-section an airplane win. 4n wind turbines lift and dra.air1 allowin. The same principle applies to turbine blades.

6t the precise -eometric center1 the speed of rotation is zero.directions. be created when the blade rotates into the wind.tor?ue. 4t is difficult to mount vertical-axis turbines on towers1 meanin..the entire len-th of the blade.xcessivel. advanta-es of this arran-ement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective.hundreds of feet 9meters: per second.ma. This rotation chan-es the direction at which the wind hits the blade all alon.pes of wind turbines< =orizontal-axis wind turbines 9=6!T: have the main rotor shaft and electrical -enerator at the top of a tower1 and must be pointed into the wind.in. donAt need an additional mechanism for 2eepin.the. Be. T. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from bein. )6!Ts can utilize winds from var.the len-th of the blade until at the tip the blade can be movin. !ith a vertical axis1 the -enerator and -earbox can be placed near the -round1 so the tower doesnAt need to support it1 and it is more accessible for maintenance.the upper surface of the win-. -)ertical-axis wind turbines 9or )6!Ts: have the main rotor shaft arran-ed verticall. . increases alon. This is an advanta-e on sites where the wind direction is hi-hl. variable. hi-h wind speeds can dama-e rotors1 however1 so en-ineers have desi-ned blades that stall when the wind is too stron-1 and the rotor stops spinnin-. !ithout this low pressure1 the plane has no lift and drops li2e a roc2. 8nli2e airplane win-s1 wind turbine blades are constantl. !hen the blade is twisted1 the an-le at which the wind hits the blade is the same at each point1 and stall is eliminated under normal wind conditions. 6dditionall. pointed upwind of the tower. @ownwind machines have been built1 despite the problem of turbulence1 because the. a simple wind vane1 while lar-e turbines -enerall. rotatin-1 and the speed of the rotation differs alon. 4n effect1 the an-le at which the wind hits the blade would be different at each point alon. are & .alon. hi-h winds.its len-th.them in line with the wind1 and because in hi-h winds1 the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. *mall turbines are pointed b. This speed steadil. @ra.pushed into the tower b. use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. >ost have a -earbox1 which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a ?uic2er rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical -enerator.1 the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount. *ince a tower produces turbulence behind it1 the turbine is usuall. @rawbac2s are that some desi-ns produce pulsatin.the blade if the blade were not twisted.

6ir flow near the -round and other objects can create turbulent flow1 which can introduce issues of vibration1 includin.II:1 or the enclosure that houses the turbine5s drive train1 includin.noise and bearin. Often1 however1 GGrotor55 is used to refer to the hub and the blades as a sin-le unit.components< E Fotor and blades. The . E . to one1 meanin.power. increase the maintenance or shorten the service life.that the hi-h-speed shaft turns fift. This mechanism can increase the speed of the shafts b. E Hacelle 9nuh-*. component1 because it translates the wind5s 2inetic ener-.lectric e?uipment such as controls1 cables1 and an anemometer 9an-uh>6=-muh-tuhr: 3i-ure 1. =owever1 when a turbine is mounted on a rooftop1 the buildin. into tor?ue 9TOFB:1 or turnin. a factor of as much as fift. E Tower1 or the support for the rotor and drive train.the -earbox1 the . The wind speed is slower at a lower altitude1 so less wind ener-.aw mechanism automaticall.often installed nearer to the base on which the. rest1 such as the -round or a buildin.aw mechanism1 and the electric -enerator. !ind turbine components [8] ' . redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. times faster than the low-speed shaft. 4f the hei-ht of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximatel. 6 wind turbine has the followin.wear which ma. and minimum wind turbulence.rooftop. The rotor is the 2e. senses the direction of the wind and rotates the rotor to 2eep it facin. The rotor is the hub around which the blades are connected. The -earbox connects a low-speed shaft to a hi-h-speed shaft.into the direction of the wind. &CD of the buildin.hei-ht1 this is near the optimum for maximum wind ener-.-enerall. is available for a -iven size turbine.

Therefore we have< % .9fi-.Chosen sites 3irst step is to chose three sites !e chose three sites because we want to see to importance of the chosen site. 3or this we must consider the climate and the -eo-raphical position. 3i-ure 2. *olar radiation in Fomania/10 !ith data obtained from the .uropean $ommunit.1: we chose a hot spot1 a central spot and between them.4.

critical periods 9the months Manuar. and 3ebruar. @ata re-ardin. Mun Mul 6u.: + ' " 2 C Man 3eb >ar 6pr >a. & to % mLs all .climate information for *ulina/&0 ( . !ind power is approximatel.*ep Oct Hov @ec -red line is wind power -blue area is solar radiation 9electricit. produced: 3i-ure .overview of wheatear conditions< Table1. *olar 4rradiation N !ind *peed 3or *ulina Fomania/20 3or this location we have the followin.4:Iocation< *ulina latitude "&J+K "KK1 Ion-itude 2+J %K south east1 Fomania.ear1 with top speed durin.

1. @ata re-ardin.( to . Mun Mul 6u.overview of wheatear conditions< Table2.1 mLs all . !ind power is approximatel.climate information for 3a-aras /&0 + .44:Iocation< 3a-aras Latitudine: 45J85 ! Longitudine: "4J#$ 1 $entral Fomania.*ep Oct Hov @ec -red line is wind power -blue area is solar radiation / 0 3i-ure ". *olar 4rradiation N !ind *peed 3or 3a-aras Fomania/ 0 3or this location we have the followin.ear ( ' " 2 C Man 3eb >ar 6pr >a.

2. to & mLs all . Mun Mul 6u.climate information for 4asi /&0 1C .ear ( ' " 2 C Man 3eb >ar 6pr >a. @ata re-ardin.444:Iocation< 4asi Latitudine: 4%J1% ! Longitudine: "%J&% 1 Horth east Fomania.*ep Oct Hov @ec -red line is wind power -blue area is solar radiation 3i-ure &.overview of wheatear conditions< Table . *olar 4rradiation N !ind *peed 3or 4asi Fomania/"0 3or this location we have the followin. !ind power is approximatel.

*ince we use onl. we will consider1 for example1 the consumers that are found in a home. 3i-ure '. one wind turbine we will chose onl. @ail. consumption 11 .profile with the total installed power is +. Profile of ener-. That is wh.12!hLd1 and 1. a limited set of consumers. 2! pea2. Therefore we have the fallowin.

5. the turbine and the batteries9namel. and costs. modif. the batteries number:. !e onl. !e will use the same components an all three chosen sites. can we produce in different locations and what can we do to improve efficienc.components< 12 . *ince we are interested in the optimization of the wind turbine for all situation we will have the same converter and same loads. !e will use the fallowin.Co&'onents !e will chose different components9turbines: in order to see how much ener-.

-.Wind (urbines: )*&or+ .%"&O 1 .1/+W 0ind turbine [#] Price< 1".

5 +W 0ind turbine[8] Price<O&12+C.CC 1" .)*&or+ .-.

1CW )2C)L.S34C5.1/+W [1"] Price<O2'1 '2 1& .

1CW )2C)L.63-C5 7 %+W[13] Price<O211C&& 1' .

cle lead-acid batter.)ision '3>2CC@ 6bsorbent -lass mat 96#>: sealed deep-c. /1'0/1%0 1% .1atter8< . price< ( +O/1&0 Con9erter: -a re-ular B! converter< 1.&CCO.

6s mentioned before we can chose between two t.components< elements for ener-.asicall.. stora-e elements 9batteries:1 converters1 volta-e re-ulators and consumers.ation '.the software =omer< The optimization model for distributed power. usuall. in order to ensure no failure -*econd situation< reduce number of batteries to a minimum accepted -Third situation< use a different turbine and adjust number of batteries 1( . have the followin.stem we need to chose the elements that are best fit for our situation. all s.1#eneral view 4n order to optimize a wind turbine considerin. Therefore dependinan the available funds we will be able to produce a limited amount of ener-. 4f we use a wind turbine that produces alternatin.$. On the other hand if we have a wind turbine that produces direct current an dc to ac converter is re?uired because most consumers re?uire alternatin. blows in the same direction then the horizontal-axis wind turbine is recommended1 but since we need maxim efficienc. -eneration9P)1 wind turbine or both:1 ener-. *ince we use renewable ener-.1 ener-.pes of wind turbine the horizontal-axis wind turbines 9=6!T: vertical-axis wind turbines 9or )6!Ts:. . 4f in our chosen site the wind usuall.the condition an the site we have to consider costs and ener-.:'ti&i.current or direct current. it is better that we use the vertical-axis wind turbine.. advanta-es of this arran-ement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective.current. !e will present different situation where we will have hi-h cost but enou-h ener-. !ind turbines can produce alternatin. stora-e is ver. 6ll simulations were made usin. to ensure no failure and situations where we reduce the costs but we will produce less ener-.stems that use renewable ener-.current we will need to use an ac to dc converter and also an volta-e re-ulator in order to be able to safel. production. The Be. important. This aspect also brin-s extra costs. !e will present three situations for each location< -3irst situation< produce enou-h ener-. char-e the batteries. 4n order to have an efficient s.

atter.&mLs.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! .xmor2 3@-1C2! .$.stem architecture< !ind turbine< . 1+ . *. !e have to store the surplus and to do this we need man. 6nnual wind speed is '."Si&ulations $hosen location *ulina latitude "&J+K "KK1 Ion-itude 2+J %K south east1 Fomania. batteries.or the first situation 0e ha9e: The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is< The turbine output is< The colors shows the amount of ener-. the turbine produces.

4n order to obtain the result shown above we have to use ' strin-s of batteries92" batteries:. but at hi-her cost. 6s we can see we can produce the necessar. state of char-e< The -raph above shows conditions of batteries. 6s a batter. ener-. 2C . (his 0ould lead to a total <ost of = 3$!381.atter. ban2 we use strin-s of " batteries per strin-s..

s full. state of char-e< 6s we can see our batteries are not alwa. " batteries in use. 21 .. -eneration.batter. ban2 to a minimum accepted we would obtain the fallowin. lowerin.the batter.Se<ond situation: redu<e the batter8 ban+: . char-ed so we can5t assure the proper ener-. 1ut this <o&'ro&ise redu<e our <ost to = 1#!$/1. !e now have onl.

xmor2 3@-& 2! wind *.xmor2 3@-& 2! wind . $hosen wind turbine< .< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &2! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is< !ith the batter.stem architecture< !ind turbine< . state of char-e< >sing a turbine that is best fit for our <ondition 0e redu<ed our s8ste& <ost fro& = 3$!381 to = 1/!14$ 22 .atter.(hird situation: use a different 0ind turbine.

*.$hosen wind turbine .stem would not produce the necessar. 2 .stem architecture< !ind turbine< .$! .P$.P$.I-*-1C2! .I-* wind turbine. state of char-e< ?n order to ha9e a 0or+ing s8ste& 0e should use 3 strings of batteries 0hi<h 0ould lead to a total <ost of = 3%!#3/ and it is possible that durin.atter. electric ener-.atter.!$ .some periods the s.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &2! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is< Turbine output is< .

P$.atter.!$ .P$.I-F-%2! .$! .I-F wind turbine. *.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &2! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is< Turbine output < .$hosen wind turbine .atteries state of char-e< (his s8ste& <osts = "#!"$% 2" .stem architecture< !ind turbine< .

3or the location *ulina usin.atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O %1+ C.P$.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 1+1'C1.atter.xmor2 3@-&2! .pes of wind turbines from 2 different manufactures we obtained the fallowin.xmor2 2& . 6s we can see for this location the turbine from . for the next location 4 will use in m.$! .I-F-%2! .xmor2 has lower price and better results1 that is wh.$! .atter.xmor2 3@-1C2! .s. the turbines from .stem architecture< !ind turbine< . *.P$.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 1C11"' *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< .stem costs< *. simulation onl.stem architecture< !ind turbine< ." t.atter.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 2+12'% *.I-*-1C2! .stem architecture< !ind turbine< .

(otal <ost is = 11$!#"5 2' .$hosen location< 3a-aras Latitude: 45J85 ! Longitude: "4J#$ 1 $entral Fomania.atter.xmor2 3@-1C2! .stem architecture< !ind turbine< .or the first situation 0e ha9e: The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is< Turbine output< .< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! .atteries state of char-e< (his s8ste& uses 3/ strings of batteries. *.

(otal <ost of s8ste& = 43!/#3 2% .Se<ond situation: redu<e the batter8 ban+: .batter.. ban2 to a minimum accepted we would obtain the fallowin.the batter. lowerin. state of char-e< !e use ( strin-s of batteries9 2 batteries:.

stem uses % strin-s of batteries92( batteries:.(hird situation: use a different 0ind turbine $hosen turbine< .xmor2 3@-&2! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is< Turbine output< . state of char-e< This s. (otal <ost: = 3/!"8" 2( .atter.

3or the location 3a-aras usin.2 t.xmor2 3@-1C2! .s.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O " 1C+ .xmor2 3@-&2! .stem architecture< !ind turbine< . *.stem architecture< !ind turbine< .< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O C12(2 2+ .atter.atter.pes of wind turbines we obtained the fallowin.stem costs< *.

xmor2 3@-1CB! -.or the first situation 0e ha9e: The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is< Turbine output< . state of char-e< (his s8ste& uses 14 strings of batteries35$ batteries5.stem architecture< -!ind turbine< . 8sin.atter.atter. (otal <ost: = $3!""# C .$hosen location< 4asi Latitude: 4%J1% ! Longitude: "%J&% 1 Horth east Fomania.the s.< )ision'3>2CC@ -$onverter< &B! .

. ban2 to a minimum accepted we would obtain the fallowin. lowerin.the batter.Se<ond situation: redu<e the batter8 ban+: . (otal <ost = "$!313 1 .stem uses strin-s912 batteries:. state of char-e< This s.batter.

xmor2 3@-&B! The avera-e electrical production for the chosen location is< Turbine output< .stem uses strin-s of batteries912 batteries:.atter. state of char-e< This s.(hird situation: <hange 0ind turbine $hosen turbine< . (otal <ost: = 1$!858 2 .

stem architecture< !ind turbine< .atter.pes of wind turbines we obtained the fallowin.3or the location 4asi usin.stem architecture< !ind turbine< .s.< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 1'1(&( .xmor2 3@-&2! .2 t.atter.xmor2 3@-1C2! .< )ision'3>2CC@ $onverter< &B! Price < O 2'1 1 *.stem costs< *.

%. The most expensive is not automaticall. batteries also increase costs.1 we have to see what wind power is available and chose the turbine that obtains the best output for us. Too man. char-e for an entire . Our batteries don5t have to be full. we have to chose the wind turbine that is best fit for our location.Con<lusions 4n order to have an reliable s.stem that supplies enou-h electric ener-.as the. " .ear as lon. provide enou-h electric ener-. the best1 neither the ones that could produce -reat amounts of ener-. when re?uired.

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