US008490581B2

(12) Ulllted States Patent
Chhotray et al.
(54) ADVANCED FIRED HEATER UNIT FOR USE
IN REFINERY AND PETRO_CHEMICAL
APPLICATIONS

(10) Patent N0.:
(45) Date of Patent:
4,166,434 A
4,180,128 A *

US 8,490,581 B2
Jul. 23, 2013

9/1979 Jensen et a1.
12/1979 Fallon et al. .................. .. 165/76

5,181,990 A
5,295,822 A *

1/1993 Arisaki et a1.
3/1994 Hemsath ..................... .. 432/146

_

5,687,678 A *

11/1997

Suchomel et a1. .

122/250 R

(75)

Inventorsi San Chhotray, CenIreV111e,VA (US);

6,152,086 A * 11/2000 BrouWer et al. ............ .. 122/249

Thomas M. Rudy, Warrenton, VA (US);
Dennis L. Juedes, Moneta, VA (US); FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

James P.E. Charles Norton, Benson, RidgeWood, W1ndham, NJ NH(US); (US)
(73) Assignees: EXXonMobil Research and

FR
GB

20153139532 2 761 371 :1 A
688297 A

“M998
_ 3/1953

Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (US); TiaX, LLC-, Lexington, MA (US)
(*) Notice; Subject to any disclaimer, the term ofthjs patent is extended or adjusted under 35

(comlnued) OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Ashutosh Garg, Get the Most From Your Fired Heater, Chemical Engineering, Mar 2004, PP 6064*

U_S_C_ 154(1)) by 734 days_
(21) Appl NO . 11/808 973
i
_

International Search Report, PCT/US2007/014163, mailed Dec. 6,
2007.

Written Opinion, PCT/US2007/014163, mailed Dec. 6, 2007.
Australian Patent Of?ce Written Opinion, Form APO/SG/408, 6pgs,
Oct. 19, 2009.

i‘

(22)
(65)

Flled'

Jun‘ 14’ 2007
Prior Publication Data

Australian Patent Of?ce Search Report, Form APO/SG/210, 4pgs,
Oct' 19’ 2009'
Primary Examiner * Gregory A Wilson
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Glenn T. Barrett

US 2008/0115741 A1

May 22, 2008

Related US. Application Data

(60)
(51)
(52)

Provisional application No. 60/813,713, ?led on Jun. 15, 2006'
Int. Cl.
F223 21/02 2006.01

(57) ABSTRACT A ?red heater unit is disclosed having at least one radiant heating section With each of the at least one radiant heating section having a heating element located therein. The unit
includes a convection section 0P erativel y connected to the at

us CL
USPC ..................................... .. 122/250 R; 432/212

least one radiant heating section, Wherein the convection sec
Iion having at least one venically Oriented Convection tube

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search
USPC ............................. .. 122/250 R; 432/176, 212

Each of the at least one convection tube being operatively
Connected to the at least one radiant heating Section Each Of

See application ?le for Complete Search history

(56)

References Cited
US. PATENT DOCUMENTS
2,856,905 A * 10/1958 Bowen, III .................. .. 122/236

the at least one convection tube includes an inner tube having process ?uid ?owing therethrough, Wherein the process ?uid being heated by the at least one radiant heating section, and an

outer tube extending along a predetermined portion of the inner tube, Wherein the outer tube is spaced from the inner
tube to form a ?oW path therebetWeen.
122/356

2,994,307 A *

8/1961 Throckmorton et al.

3,128,756 A

4/1964 Galvin

11 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets

US 8.581 B2 Page 2 FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS GB 745122 * 2/1956 GB JP JP 888069 A 57153102 U 61118146 U 1/1962 9/1982 7/1987 GB GB 745122 A 757 762 A 2/1956 9/1956 JP 63034416 U 2/1988 GB 813959 A 5/1959 * cited by examiner .490.

490.US.581 B2 . Patent Jul. 23. 2013 Sheet 1 of6 US 8.

Patent Jul.581 B2 38 . 2013 Sheet 2 of6 US 8. 23.490.US.

mm? .490. 2013 Sheet 3 of6 US 8. 23.581 B2 “" I 5‘ re: GE m. Patent Jul.US.

Patent Jul.490. 23.US. 2013 Sheet 4 of6 US 8.581 B2 .QI w .

581 B2 152 FIG. 23.490. 5 16 . Patent Jul. 2013 Sheet 5 of6 US 8.US.

.

The conventional ?red heaters require a balanced draft design With a forced draft bloWer and an induced draft bloWer.” BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION convection section having longitudinally ?nned vertical tubes. Thus the ?ue gas ?oW With respect to the process ?uid ?oW in each tube is a combination of alternating co-current and counter-current ?oW in each pass.581 B2 1 ADVANCED FIRED HEATER UNIT FOR USE IN REFINERY AND PETRO-CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION 2 mits the operation of the heater unit With loWer excess 02. Discussion of RelatedArt 25 Utilizing forced draft (only) throughout the heater. As a result. and petro-chemical applications. 30 to loWer fuel ?ring. The unique arrangement is accomplished by locating the convection sec tion betWeen the radiant sections. and at the same time tighter regulatory control on emissions reduction. an estimated 3% loWer NOx and green house gas emissions canbe realized due In petroleum re?neries and petro-chemical plants. The conventional ?red heaters presently in commercial practice contain a radiant section. an air preheater and ultra loW NOx burners. It is contemplated that the entire ?red heater unit may be operated under positive pressure. The ?ue gas shell around each tube is Welded into a tube sheet Which in turn is Welded into a ?ue gas e?iciency such that only a typical maximum achievable heater ef?ciency of is 91-92% is attained. Which typically can not be obtained from other utility sources.US 8. This arrange 35 the tWo radiant cells. No induced draft bloWers are needed. The convection section is located on top of the radiant section. The convection section is vertically oriented and includes at least one vertically oriented convection coil.490.e. As such a potential thermal e?iciency of 95% can be achieved. The ?red heater unit further includes a convection section opera tively connected to the at least one radiant heating section. loW emissions and a compact design. Each radiant heating section includes a heating element. The forced draft bloWer feeds the ambient air to the preheater and then to the heater. Vertical tube 65 orientation With top supported tubes results in loWer mainte nance. The forced cially exists in larger heaters (greater than 100 MBtu/hr). Flue gas from each shell exits into the plenum and ?oWs through a high e?iciency air pre-heater unit and then ducted into the exhaust stack. This reduces heater 45 nally refractory lined metal sleeve forming a ?ue gas shell and thus providing a path for ?ue gas ?oW. ?red heaters are typically employed because these heaters can provide a higher level of heat. The convection section design concept in this invention is unique to ?red heaters as folloWs. 15. as a result of higher ef?ciency. Reductions in e?i ciency result in increases in total NOx and greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally. the 60 ?red heater unit includes at least one radiant heating section. Elimination of induced draft bloWer and associated . The ingress of ambient air has a negative impact on the operation of the heaters. This arrangement enhances heat transfer to the process ?uids. hoWever. It is another aspect of the present invention to provide a This application relates to and claims priority to US. Ambient air from the forced draft bloWer is preheated in the air pre-heater unit and then ducted into the burners located on the heater ?oor. The use of positive pres sure permits forced convective heat transfer Which reduces the necessary size for heating. The forced con vective heat transfer decreases the effective convective heat transfer surface needed to heat the process ?uid. Each tube in the convection section consists of a bare and a seg mented ?nned section With longitudinally ?nned tubes. similar to the ?oW path in a conventional double pipe heat exchanger. loW emis sions ?red heater unit utilizing positive pressure With a ver tically arranged convection section. The reduction in excess 02 results in higher ef?ciency and loWer emissions. ?rst With a bare section and then With a ?nned section Within the ?ue gas shell of each tube. its rising cost. Increases in heater e?iciency Will result in reduced fuel consumption leading to energy savings and a correspond ing reduction in NOx and green house gas emissions. The convection tubes of the convection sec tion have a horizontal orientation. The induced draft bloWer WithdraWs the ?ue gas.713. The ?ue gas from the radiant section enters into the top of the convection section. With an ever increasing demand on fuel. a convection section. Pro visional Patent Application No. The utilization of positive pressure operation per In accordance With aspects of the present invention. This need espe plenum. 55 BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION draft bloWer(s) provides the preheated combustion air ?oW and the required head (typically 25 inches of Water) for the air and ?ue gas ?oW circuit throughout the heater. The utilization of positive pressure operation also permits forced convective heat transfer from the ?ue gas to the process ?uid in the convection section of the heater. the heater can be operated at loWer excess 02 levels of 1-2%. Which are more prone to maintenance problems than the forced draft bloWers. 2006. Which results in a compact furnace design. There is no induced draft bloWer in this invention. Which reduces the unit size. entitled “An Advanced Fired Heater Unit for Use In Re?nery And Petro-Chemical Applications. Which is directed to a ?red heater unit that includes a tWin cell vertical tube box type radiant section With a con vection section of vertical tube orientation located betWeen The conventional ?red heaters utilize preheated air to maximize heater ef?ciency. 2. It is another aspect of the present invention to provide a 1. exchanges heat With the process ?uid inside the tube. Since the heater in accordance With the present invention 20 operates With positive pressure throughout the heater. there is a need for a ?red heater that maximizes 50 heater e?iciency While reducing emissions. Aspects of embodiments of the invention relate to a ?red heater unit With high e?iciency. The tubes have radially extending spaced ?ns. 60/813. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a high e?iciency. These and other aspects can be realized by the present invention. the conventional ?red heater must be operated at 3% or higher excess 02 levels to prevent combustion related instabilities. The ?nned tube section of each tube is encased Within an exter 40 ment. is prone to the ingress of additional ambient air. only forced draft bloWers are necessary. It is an aspect of the present invention to utilize positive pressure (i. It is contemplated that the ?red heater unit in accordance With the present invention Will be used in re?nery ?red heater having a compact construction. above atmospheric) Within the ?red heater unit to prevent the ingress of ambient air. ?led Jun.

The heated air Within the radiant heating section 14 travels upWardly. The plenum is operatively coupled to a preheater unit such that the ?ue gas adjacent the convection heating section in accordance With the present invention. a ?rst outer tube extends along a predetermined section 14 of the heater unit 10. 6 is schematic vieW of one radiant heating section such that ?ue gas traveling through the ?oW path exits the ?oW path though the second open end into the plenum. The com apparent When taken in conjunction With the detailed descrip tion and appended draWings. The heating elements 141 further heat the preheated air. Which supplies ambient air to an air through the heater unit. In accordance With the present invention. Each of the vertical tubes preferably includes an internal tube surrounded by lon gitudinally extending ?ns. Each ?n extends the length of the outer tube. 1. Located Within each radiant heating section 14 is at least one heating element 141. The ?rst and second radiant heating sections heat the process ?uids as the process ?uid ?oWs through the convection unit. The ?rst open end of the ?oW path is operatively connected to the at least one radiant heating section. 1 is a side perspective vieW of an advanced ?red heater unit in accordance With an embodiment of the present inven tion. only a forced draft bloWer is needed to supply ambient air and move the same illustrated in FIG. ?ue gas from the at least one radiant heating section enters the ?oW path through the ?rst open end. 1 in accordance With an embodiment of the present invention. Located on one side of the radiant heating section 14 is a portion of the ?rst vertically extending section. With this arrangement. The ?ue gas acts to further heat the process ?uid contained Within the inner tube. The forced draft bloWer unit 11 supplies the ambient air to air preheater unit 12 under positive pressure. and 30 FIG.US 8. FIG. The heating elements 141 are preferably ultra loW NOx burners Which have been commer 55 cially proven in multiple applications comprising of varying heater siZe. 2 is a schematic diagram of a tWin cell vertical tube preferably includes a refractory layer surrounding the outer tube. and a second outer tube extends along a predetermined portion of the sec ond vertically extending section. The radiant heating section 14 is surrounded by tubing 142 60 containing the process ?uid. 1. a second vertically extend ing section. The ductWork 13 supplies the preheated air to the radiant heating section 14. It is preferable that a pair of radiant heating sections . the heater unit operates under positive pressure. The air then travels through ductWork 13. as shoWn in FIG. The con vection heating section 15 is oriented adjacent to the radiant heating section 14. These and other aspects of the invention Will become portion of the inner tube. the ?red heater unit includes a ?rst radiant heating section and a second radiant heating section. The reduction and/or elimination of fouling helps maintain design e?iciency and loWer maintenance costs. The second open end is operatively connected to a plenum box type radiant section of the advanced ?red heater unit of FIG. Which is then fed to the at least one radiant heating section. A ?red heater unit 10 is 40 draft bloWer supplies ambient air to the preheater unit. service and duty. Each inner tube may include a ?rst vertically extending section. The tube and the ?ns are sur rounded by a refractory lined metal sleeve. The forced The present invention Will noW be described in greater detail in accordance With the ?gures. Each convection tube also includes an outer tube extending along a predetermined through the ?oW path exits the ?oW path though the second open end. In accordance With another aspect of the present invention. A portion of each con vection tube is operatively connected to the at least one radi 4 end and a second open end. 45 The forced draft bloWer unit 11 operates to maintain the ?red heater unit 1 0 under positive pressure to prevent the ingress of ambient air. The outer tube The invention Will noW be described in conjunction With the accompanying draWings in Which: FIG. the ?oW path has a ?rst open end and a second open end. 20 FIG. such that the radiant heating section 14 and the convection heating section 15 are operatively con nected. The process ?uid ?oWs through the ?rst vertically extending section into the connecting section and then into the second vertically extending section. Each of the second open ends is opera tively connected to a plenum such that ?ue gas traveling cess ?uid ?oWing therethrough. 4 is a partial perspective vieW of a convection tube illustrating the inner tube and the ?ns. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In accordance With another aspect of the present invention. It is contemplated that each heating element 141 is a burner or other suitable heat source. each of the at least one convection tube includes an inner tube having pro path is operatively connected to the ?rst and second radiant heating sections such that the ?ue gas in each of the ?rst and second radiant heating sections enters the ?oW path through the ?rst open ends. 35 exiting the ?oW path travels through the plenum to the pre heater unit Where the ?ue gas preheats the incoming ambient air. The ambient air travels through the air preheater unit 12 as illustrated in FIG. In accordance With an aspect of the present invention. 25 FIG. The outer tube is spaced from the inner tube to form a ?oW path therebetWeen. It is contemplated that each convection tube may have a preheater unit 12.581 B2 3 ducting. FIG. The process ?uid is heated by the at least one radiant heating section. The ?oW path may include at least one radially extending ?n located therein Which extends outWardly from the inner tube toWard the outer tube. The ?rst and second heating sections are located on opposing sides of the convection unit such that the convection unit is located therebetWeen. 2. the ?red heater unit includes a forced draft bloWer. A ?oW path is located betWeen the inner tube and the ?rst outer tube and the inner tube and the second outer tube. In accordance With the present invention. Each ?rst open end of the ?oW ant heating section. and a connecting section connecting the ?rst vertically extending section to the second vertically extend ing section.490. As such. 3 is a partial perspective vieW of the convection sec tion tubes. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS bination of the forced convection and Wider spacing betWeen the ?ns practically eliminates fouling of the ?nned tubes. Preferably. The ductWork 13 is connected to at least one radiant heating 50 generally U-shaped inner tube. Each of the vertically extending section may include an outer tube extending along a predetermined portion of the vertically extending section. Each ?oW path has a ?rst open 65 vertically arranged convection heating section 15. add to a lower cost design. The ?red heater unit 10 includes a forced draft bloWer unit 11. 5 is a perspective vieW illustrating the convection heating section according to an embodiment of the present invention.

. Which exits the con vection heating section 15 into the plenum 16 travels to the air at least one radiant heating section. The ?ue gas. 1. It is intended from the radiant heating sections 1411 and 14b into the ?oW that all matter contained in the accompanying speci?cation path 154. the convection heating sect1on 15. Which heats the ?ns 155. Wherein each of the at least one radiant heating section having a heating ele ment located therein for heating ?ue gas entering the radiant heating section. The increase is more signi?cant When com outer refractory layer 156. Wherein the air preheater unit is operatively connected to the at least one radiant heating section. ?red heater unit is maintained under positive pressure. TABLE 1 NOx Emissions CO2 Emissions Lb/MBTU Ef?ciency Heater Type LHV % Heat Fired MBTU/hr (LHV/HHV) LB/MBTU (HHV) and Tons/Yr (HHV) and kTons/Yr Conventional ?red heater Conventional ?red heater With 83 92 120/132 108/118 0.Lower excess 02 formed therebetWeen.025/12. A ?rst opening 157 is located at an spirit and scope of the invention as de?ned in the claims upper end of the outer tube 153 to permit the ?oW of ?ue gas Without departing from such spirit and scope. With such an arrangement. . and a plurality of vertically extending radiant tubes having process ?uid ?oWing 65 preheater unit 12. With such an draft bloWer unit. prevent fouling Within the ?oW path 154. As shoWn in FIG. is directed into the con vection heating section 15 to heat the process ?uids passing through the convection heating section 15. . the plenum 16 is connected to the air preheater unit 12. t1on heat1ng sect1on 15 1ncludes a plurality of vert1cally oneméd Com/Te?on he. Prior to entry of the ?ue gas What is claimed is: into the ?oW path 154.3 preheat As previously mentioned. The outer tube 153 may contain an air pre-heater.anng seqlon 15 1S posmoned between 10 of process ?uid into another vertical section for a pass through extend1ng tubes 151. the second opening 158 is located Within the plenum 16. Each vertical section of the inner tube 152 Will include an outer tube 153 that extends along a predeter mined length of the inner tube 152 in the manner described above. Con nection portions can be formed on the upper and loWer ends of the vertical sections of the inner tube 152 to redirect the ?oW . The convection heating section 15 Will noW be described in greater detail in connection With FIGS. It is preferable that the outer tube Vecnon heanng sect1on 15' _ _ _ _ 153 does not extend along the entire length of the inner tube 152 for reasons that Will become apparent. It is further contemplated heating sections 1411 and 14b are operatively connected to the convection heating section 15. This results in the heating of the a forced draft bloWer unit for supplying ambient air to the inner tube 152. The outer tube 153 is spaced from the inner tube 152 such that a ?oW path 154 is AS a result of forced fira? ‘leslgn W1t_h pQslllve pressllre throughout the heater 11ml 10’ alr lngrefss 15 ehmlnated Whlch thus allows lower excess 02 Operatlon. Where the ?ue gas preheats the entering ambient air before exiting through stack 17. therethrough spaced from the heating element. After the ?ue gas travels through the ?oW path 154. pared to a conventional heater Without a pre-heater.581 B2 5 14a and 14b are provided. The convec. The heat conductive As shoWn in Table 1 beloW. . An outer tube 153 extends along a predetermined 15 moi‘? than 9116 procéss ?uld can be heated by a Smgle 6011' length of the inner tube 152. the ?ue an air preheater unit operatively connected to the forced gas exits the ?oW path 154 through opening 158.025/13 126/71. _ _ _ includes an inner tube 152 through which the process ?uid ity of separate 1nner tubes~ 152. Which could be a 3% reduction in NOx and greenhouse gas emissions When formed by deposits on the ?ns 155 from the ?ue gas passing 25 compared to a 100 MBtu/hr conventional heater utiliZing an through the ?oW path 154. Both radiant 6 It is contemplated that the inner tube 152 Will make mul tiple passes through the convection heating section 15 to heat the process ?uids. 2. and many different embodiments of the arrangement. Each vert1cally extending tube 151 . . 2 and 3. The heated ?oW gas ?oWs into the ?oW path 154 shall be interpreted as illustrative only and not in a limiting passing over the ?ns 155. Which is produced When the ambient air is heated by the heating elements 141. . 60 arrangement. . as shown in FIG. that each convect1on heating sect1on 15 may include a plural . is then transferred from the ?ns 155 to the process ?uids located Within the inner tube 152.490. the ?ue gas contacts the upper exposed 1.with 511011 811 described herein. . it is estimated that the present ?ns 155 are suf?ciently spaced Within the ?oW path 154 to invention provides a 3% increase in heater thermal e?iciency. A plurality of radially extending ?ns 20 results in a correspondingly higher ef?eieney and lower NOX 155 extend outWardly from the inner tube 152 toWards the and green house gas emissions.5 0. .5 126/64. 1. The vertically the pair of rad1ant heat1ng sections 1411 and 14b. A ?red heater unit comprising: portion of the inner tube 152.0 air preheat Advanced Fired Heater With air 95 105/115 0.6 126/62. outer tube 153 Within the ?oW path 154. The heat is then transferred to the process ?uid 55 ?red heater unit under positive pressure such that the ?oWing through the inner tube 152. the heated ?ue gas. the outer tube 153 does not Various modi?cations can be made in the invention as eXtend the entire length Of the inner ‘tube 152. ?oWs. With such an arrangement. The outer tube 153 is connected to or extends into a plenum 16 located beloW the convection heating section 15. . The heat 50 sense. openings 157 and 158 are formed at opposing 45 device and method can be made While remaining Within the ends of the ?oW path 154. . as shoWn in FIG.020/11. such that each vertical section of the inner tube 152 includes a corresponding ?oW path formed therearound.US 8.

Wherein the burner is an ultra loW NOx burner. The ?red heater unit according to claim 1. and a second outer tube extending along a predetermined por 30 prising: at least one radially extending ?n extending outWardly Within the ?oW path from the inner tube toWard the outer tube. 5. 7. The ?red heater unit according to claim 1. Wherein each of the least one convection tube further comprising: a refractory layer surrounding the outer tube. Wherein each of the at least one radially extending ?n extending the length of the outer tube. Wherein ?ue gas from the ?rst and second radiant heating sections enters each ?oW path through the ?rst open upper end from the at least one radiant heating section. Wherein the ?oW path having a ?rst open upper end and a second open loWer end. 3. Wherein each vertically extending section of the inner tube is laterally spaced and substantially par allel to the vertically extending radiant tubes. Wherein the ?rst open upper end of the vertical ?oW path is operatively connected to the at least one radiant heating section. Wherein the convection section having a plural 8 the convection unit such that the convection unit is located therebetWeen. 4. Wherein the at least one radiant heating section includes a ?rst radiant heat ing section located on one side of the convection unit and a tion of the second vertically extending section. 8. 2. The ?red heater unit according to claim 1. 11. Wherein each tively couple to one of the radiant tubes and having process ?uid ?oWing therethrough. further com a ?rst outer tube extending along a predetermined portion of the ?rst vertically extending section. The ?red heater unit according to claim 1. 9. The ?red heater unit according to claim 5. The ?red heater unit according to claim 1. The ?red heater unit according to claim 8.490. The ?red heater unit according to claim 6. * * * * * second radiant heating section located on an opposite side of . Wherein each convection tube being operatively con nected to the at least one radiant heating section.581 B2 7 a convection section operatively connected and laterally positioned With respect to the at least one radiant heating section. 10. 6. Wherein ?ue gas from such that ?ue gas traveling through the ?oW path exits the ?oW path through the second open end. Whereby the ?ue gas exiting the ?oW path travels through the plenum to the air preheater unit to preheat the ambient air.US 8. Wherein the plenum is operatively coupled to the air preheater unit. Wherein each convection tube having an inner tube opera tion and the second radiant heating section. and at least one outer tube extending along a predetermined portion of the inner tube. further com prising: at least one radially extending ?n extending outWardly Within the ?oW path from the inner tube toWard the outer tube. Whereby process ?uid ?oWs through the ?rst vertically extending section into the connecting section and then into the second vertically extending section. The ?red heater unit according to claim 5. Wherein each inner tube having more than one vertically extending section such that each inner tube making more than one pass through the convection section. Wherein the at least one outer tube comprising: radiant heating section enters the ?oW path through the ?rst open upper end from the at least one radiant heating section and travels in a doWnWardly direction through the vertical ?oW path to the second open loWer end. The ?red heater unit according to claim 10. and a connecting section connecting the ?rst vertically extend ing section to the second vertically extending section. Wherein the second open loWer end is operatively connected to a plenum 20 tWeen. and each outer tube being spaced from the inner tube to form a vertical ?oW path therebe inner tube comprising: a ?rst vertically extending section. a second vertically extending section. Wherein the ?rst open upper end of each ?oW path is operatively connected to the ?rst radiant heating sec ity of parallel vertically oriented convection tubes. Wherein each vertically extending section having an outer tube associated thereWith. Wherein the heating element is a burner. Wherein the each of the at least one radially extend ing ?n extending the length of the outer tube.