Nishant Groha

E.E. 3rd Year
Hindu College of Engineering VT No. – VT1400 Roll No. – 10/EE/2733


This is to certify that NISHANT GROHA (10/E/2733), student of 2010-2014 Batch of Electrical Engineering Branch in 3rd Year of Hindu College of Engineering, Sonipat has successfully completed his industrial training at BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION – NTPC, New Delhi for six weeks from 25th June to 3rd August 2013. He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him.

Training In-Charge Badarpur Thermal Power Station NTPC, Badarpur, New Delhi


 Acknowledgement


 BTPS (Badarpur Thermal Power Station), BADARPUR

 EMD-I (Electrical Maintenance Department - I)

 EMD-II (Electrical Maintenance Department - II)



With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks for permitting me to complete my training here. I extend my heartfelt thanks to Mr Gangadhar Thapa for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I’m extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS / NTPC for their co-operation and guidance that has helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted to them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the training in-charge of Hindu College of Engineering (Sonipat) and all the faculty members of electrical department for their effort of constant co-operation, which have been a significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial training.



000 MW company by 2032. With a current generating capacity of 41. was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. NTPC plans to become a 128. It is emerging as an ‘Integrated Power Major’. 4 . Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of the World’s biggest companies. NTPC is ranked 337th in the ‘2012. India's largest power company.184 MW.NTPC (NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION) ABOUT NTPC. with a significant presence in the entire value chain of power generation business.

which is the mainstay of the company. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation business. ash utilisation and coal mining. Apart from power generation. NTPC is ranked 337th in the ‘2012. Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of the World’s biggest companies. 5 . NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India.OVERVIEW India’s largest power company. one of the only four companies to be awarded this status. NTPC became a Maharatna company in May. 2010. power trading. NTPC has already ventured into consultancy.

25% as offer for sale by Government of India.28. NTPC thus became a listed company in November 2004 with the Government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital. the 6 . By 2032. The capacity will have a diversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal.25% as fresh issue and 5. In February 2010.The total installed capacity of the company is 41. non-fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of NTPC’s portfolio.75% of the total national capacity. In addition under JVs. NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.184 MW (including JVs) with 16 coal based and 7 gas based stations. it contributes 27. Although the company has 17. 7 stations are coal based & another station uses naphtha/LNG as fuel and 2 renewable energy projects. 16% Gas. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of 1. In October 2004.000 MW by the year 2032. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. 11% Nuclear and 17% Renewable Energy Sources(RES) including hydro. located across the country.40% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.

NTPC has been awarded No. Best Workplace in India among large organisations and the best PSU for the year 2010. The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility is deeply ingrained in NTPC's culture.5% through Further Public Offer. 7 . India Chapter in collaboration with The Economic Times.5% to 84. NTPC strives to develop mutual trust with the communities that surround its power stations. At NTPC. The rest is held by Institutional Investors and the Public. Through its expansive CSR initiatives. by the Great Places to Work Institute.1. People before Plant Load Factor is the mantra that guides all HR related policies.Shareholding of Government of India was reduced from 89.

000 MW generation capacity.000 MW company by 2017.5%. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 411th the world. Government of India granted NTPC status of 'Navratna' being one of the nine jewels of India. enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 317th in the world. NTPC becomes third largest by market capitalisation of listed companies. 2012 • NTPC has also set up a plan to achieve a target of 50. • NTPC became a listed company with majority Government ownership of 89. 8 .EVOLUTION • NTPC was set up in 1975 in 100% by the ownership of Government of India. In the last 30 years NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India. 1975 1997 2004 2005 2008 • National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in India. • In1997. 2009 • National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in India. • The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility. 2017 • NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75.

” MISSION “Develop and provide reliable power. powering India’s growth. integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and eco-friendly technologies and contribute to society. related products and services at competitive prices.” Core Values – BE COMMITTED B E C O M M I T T E D Business Ethics Environmentally & Economically Sustainable Customer Focus Organisational & Professional Pride Mutual Respect & Trust Motivating Self & others Innovation & Speed Total Quality for Excellence Transparent & Respected Organisation Enterprising Devoted 9 .VISION “To be the world’s largest and best power producer.


TECHNOLOGICAL INITIATIVE  Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW.  The company sets aside up to 0. 11 .5% of the profits for R&D.  Launch of Energy Technology Centre -A new initiative for development of technologies with focus on fundamental R&D.  Roadmap developed for adopting Clean Development  Mechanism‘ to help get / earn Certified Emission Reduction PARTNERING GOVERNMENT IN VARIOUS INITIATIVES  Consultant role to modernize and improvise several plants across the country.  Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology.

NTPC made changes in its strategy and diversified in the business adjacencies along the energy value chain. NTPC envisages to have an installed capacity of 128 GW by the year 2032 with a welldiversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal. Disseminate technologies to other players in the sector. In its pursuit of diversification NTPC has developed strategic alliances and joint ventures with leading 12 . DIVERSIFIED GROWTH As per new corporate plan. As such.  Rural Electrification work under Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran. due to changes in the business environment. 16% gas.  Consultant role partnership in excellence programme for improvement of PLF of 15 power stations of SEBs. 11% nuclear energy. by the year 2032. Along with this growth. NTPC will utilize a strategic mix of options to ensure fuel security for its fleet of power stations. Looking at the opportunities coming its way. 9% renewable energy and 8% hydro power based capacity. the coal based capacity will increasingly be based on high-efficient-low-emission technologies such as Supercritical and Ultra-Super-critical. 28% of NTPC’s installed generating capacity will be based on carbon free energy sources. Further.

It is the second largest power trading company in the country. NTPC has also made long strides in developing its Ash Utilization business." has been formed (with 51% stake of NPCIL and 49% stake of NTPC) for development of nuclear power projects in the country. NTPC Hydro Ltd. A wholly owned subsidiary. NTPC entered hydro power business with the 800 MW Koldam hydro project in Himachal Pradesh.000 MW through renewable resources by 2017. Two more projects have also been taken up in Uttarakhand. a JV of NTPC. The Government of India has so far allotted 7 coal blocks to NTPC. ‘National Power Exchange Ltd.' (NVVN).  Hydro Power: In order to give impetus to hydro power growth in the country and to have a balanced portfolio of power generation.  Nuclear Power: A Joint Venture Company "Anushakti Vidhyut Nigam Ltd. including 2 blocks to be developed through joint venture route.  Power Trading: 'NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd. 13 . is setting up hydro projects of capacities up to 250 MW. a wholly owned subsidiary was created for trading power leading to optimal utilization of NTPC’s assets.  Renewable Energy: In order to broad base its fuel mix NTPC has plan of capacity addition of about 1..  Coal Mining: In a major backward integration move to create fuel security.’. NTPC has ventured into coal mining business with an aim to meet about 20% of its coal requirement from its captive mines by 2017.national and international companies. In order to facilitate power trading in the country.

Equipment Manufacturing: Enormous growth in power sector necessitates augmentation of power equipment manufacturing capacity. NTPC has also acquired stake in Transformers and Electricals Kerala Ltd. NTPC has formed JVs with BHEL and Bharat Forge Ltd.   NHPC. NESCL is actively engaged in ‘Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana’ programme for rural electrification. NVVN is engaged in the business of Fly Ash export and sale to domestic customers. 14 . for power plant equipment manufacturing. Power Distribution: ‘NTPC Electric Supply Company Ltd. (TELK) for manufacturing and repair of transformers. Joint ventures with cement companies are being planned to set up cement grinding units in the vicinity of NTPC stations.’ (NESCL). a wholly owned subsidiary of NTPC. Ash Business: NTPC has focused on the utilization of ash generated by its power stations to convert the challenge of ash disposal into an opportunity. PFC and TCS has been formed for operating a Power Exchange. Ash is being used as a raw material input by cement companies and brick manufacturers. was set up for distribution of power.


thereby minimising waste. POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS While deciding the appropriate technology for its projects. NTPC brought out a comprehensive document entitled NTPC Environment Policy and Environment Management System.Since its inception NTPC has been at the forefront of Environment management. NTPC integrates many environmental provisions into the plant design. optimum utilisation of equipment. As a result of pursuing these practices. maximising ash utilisation and ensuring a green belt all-round the plant for maintaining ecological balance. adoption of latest technologies and continual environment improvement. ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT. In November 1995. Amongst the guiding principles adopted in the document is the company’s pro-active approach to environment. all NTPC power stations have been certified for ISO 14001 & OHSAS 18001 by reputed national and international certifying agencies. occupational health and safety areas. The organisation has pursued the Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001 and the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment System OHSAS 18001 at its different establishments. In order to ensure that NTPC complies with all the stipulated environment norms. following state-of-the-art pollution control systems / devices have been installed to control air and water pollution: 16 . The policy also envisages efficient utilisation of resources. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SYSTEMS NTPC has actively gone for adoption of the best international practices on environment.

Afforestation & Energy Plantations 17 .            Electrostatic Precipitators Flue Gas Stacks Low-NOX Burners Neutralisation Pits Coal Settling Pits / Oil Settling Pits DE & DS Systems Cooling Tower Ash Dykes & Ash Disposal Systems Ash Water Recycling System Dry Ash Extraction System (DAES) Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management System Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities Environmental Institutional Set-up Following are the additional measures taken by NTPC in the area of Environment Management:  Environment Management During Operation Phase  Monitoring of Environmental Parameters  On-Line Data Base Management  Environment Review  Up gradation & Retrofitting of Pollution Control Systems  Resources Conservation  Waste Management  Municipal Waste Management  Hazardous Waste Management  Bio-Medical Waste Management  Land Use / Bio-diversity  Reclamation of Abandoned Ash ponds  Green Belts.

U. It was the first central sector power plant conceived in India.BTPS (BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION) Badarpur Thermal Power Station is located at Badarpur area in NCT Delhi. It is situated in south east corner of Delhi on Mathura Road near Faridabad. within the Badarpur Thermal power plant (BTPS) complex. It was originally conceived to provide power to neighbouring states of Haryana..P. and 18 . Punjab. Government of India was established at Badarpur in 1974. in 1965. The power plant is one of the coal based power plants of NTPC. Rajasthan. POWER PLANT The Badarpur Thermal Power Station has an installed capacity of 705 MW. Jammu and Kashmir. The National Power Training Institute (NPTI) for North India Region under Ministry of Power.

while 210 MW units have directly fired boiler. It supplies power to Delhi city.Delhi. The coal for the plant is derived from the Jharia Coal Fields. This was constructed under ownership of Central Electric Authority. later it was transferred to NTPC. It is one of the oldest plants in operation. 19 . Instrumentation of unit 5 is provided by M/S Instrumentation Ltd. But since year 1987 Delhi has become its sole beneficiary. Kota is of Kent design. Both turbine and boilers have been supplied by BHEL. The boilers of Unit 4 and 5 are designed by combustion engineering (USA). It was owned and conceived by Central Electric Authority. The boiler of Stage-I units are of Czech design. Its 100 MW units capacity have been reduced to 95 MW. All the turbines are of Russian Design. Its construction was started in year 1968. These units have indirectly fired boiler. and the First unit was commissioned in 26 July 1973. The instrumentation of the stage I units and unit 4 are of The Russian design.

which is an irrigation canal from Yamuna River. Apart from poor quality. there were many units tripping owing to poor quality. the water of Yamuna is highly polluted. adversely affect life of condenser tubes. resulting in frequent tube leakages. Badarpur Thermal Power Station (BTPS) has little automation.In 1978 the management of the plant was transferred to NTPC. like aging. poor quantity and quality of cooling water etc. This dirty water from tube leakage gets mixed into feed water cycle causes numerous problems. from CEA. The performance of the plant increased significantly and steadily after take over by NTPC till 2006. The quality of the coal supplied has degraded considerably. The coal for the plant is fetched from far away. Due to rising water pollution. At worst times. With new splurge in no of power plant. Its performance is deteriorating due to various reasons. that makes the total fuel cost double of coal cost at coalmine. coupled with low efficiency due to aging and old design makes electricity of the plant costlier. the distribution company does not purchase full power from 20 . This factor. It receives cooling water from Agra Canal. like mills and their performance also goes down. but now the plant is facing various issues. and silica deposition on turbine blades. This polluted water when goes into condenser. like frequent boiler tube leakages. Being an old plant. The poor coal quality also put burdens on equipment. the quantity of water supply is also erratic due to lack of co-ordination between NTPC and UP irrigation which manages Agra Canal.

INSTALLED CAPACITY STAGE UNIT INSTALLED NUMBER CAPACITY (MW) FIRST 1 95 FIRST 2 95 FIRST 3 95 SECOND 4 210 SECOND 5 210 DATE OF STATUS COMMISSIONING July. as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. Non-nuclear thermal 21 . Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. Almost all coal. geothermal. 1974 March. Power plants burning coal. Kothari. turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. General Manager.it. 1981 Running Running Running Running Running INTRODUCTION A thermal power station is a power plant in which the primemover is steam driven. 1973 August. K. or natural gas are often called fossil-fuel power plants. nuclear. The waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to raise steam. Some biomass-fuel thermal power plants have appeared also. solar thermal electric and waste incineration plants. the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated. in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. this is known as a Rankine cycle. Water is heated. 1975 December. fuel oil. After it passes through the turbine. Presently the management is headed by Mr N. 1978 December. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel source.

There are three large steel 22 . Coal is transported to Bowl mills by Coal Feeders. where it is ground to powder form. Commercial electric utility power stations are usually constructed on a large scale and designed for continuous operation. The coal is pulverized in the Bowl Mill. which do not use co-generation.power plants. Large companies or institutions may have their own power plants to supply heating or electricity to their facilities. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. This coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. COAL TO ELECTRICITY: BASICS COAL TO STEAM Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This table is rotated with the help of a motor. are sometimes referred to as conventional power plants. particularly fossil-fuel plants. Electric power plants typically use three-phase electrical generators to produce alternating current (AC) electric power at a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

Fan. 23 . Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. Water from the drum passes through down corners and goes to the bottom ring header. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixtures from P. Fan takes atmospheric air. P. Due to heat and density difference. When there is no coal.A. Coal is crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and rotating table. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is separated from water. Fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. the water rises up in the water wall tubes. Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum.A. these rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up between the rollers and thus forces the rollers to rotate.rollers. Atmospheric air from the F.D. which are spaced 120° apart. part of which is sent to AirPreheaters for heating while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control.

Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to superheaters for super heating. These flue gases emit there heat energy to various super heaters in the pent house and finally [ass through air-preheaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere. Electrostatic precipitator consists of metal plates. Ash particles are attracted on to these plates. which are electrically charged. Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by induced draft fan. The superheaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540°C) and finally it goes to turbine. which maintains balance draft in the furnace (-5 to -10 mm of wcl) with forced draft fan. Regular mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulated ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal. 24 .

The stationary and moving blades together constitute a ‘stage’ of turbine and in practice many stages are necessary. operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used (this depends upon the speed of the turbine and the amount of the electricity required from the generator). The second ring turns the shafts as a result of the force of steam. The steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed into mechanical energy. so that the cylinder contains a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them.STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER From the boiler. the steam is taken to the low pressure cylinders. Here it passes through another series of stationary and moving blades. each of which enters at the centre flowing outwards in opposite directions through the row of turbine blades through an 25 . Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the turbine. where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylinder wall. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. Stop valve and control valves are located in a steam chest and a governor. The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a further pipe to the intermediate pressure cylinder. a steam pipe conveys the steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which can automatically regulate the supply of steam in case of emergency) and through control valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. driven from the main turbine shaft. Finally.

arrangement called the ‘double flow’ to the extremities of the cylinder. regenerative feed water heating and reheats. Because of this expansion the blades are much larger and longer towards the low pressure ends of the turbine. the shaft of the generator. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop. which is coupled to that of the turbine. MECHANICAL TO ELECTRICAL POWER As the blades of turbine rotate. which usually uses water. It is a close cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. also rotates. The Rankine cycle is a cycle that converts heat into work. This cycle generates about 90% of all electric 26 . which causes induced electricity to be produced. BASIC POWER PLANT CYCLE A simplified diagram of a thermal power plant The Thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour + liquid) phase cycle. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine. It results in rotation of the coil of the generator. its temperature and pressure falls and it expands. The cycle used is Rankine Cycle modified to include superheating of steam.

The Rankine cycle is the fundamental thermodynamic underpinning of the steam engine. One of the principal advantages the Rankine cycle holds over others is that during the compression stage relatively little 27 . This gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. Without the pressure reaching super critical levels for the working fluid. the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small: turbine entry temperatures are typically 565°C (the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. The Rankine cycle most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power generation plants generate power.power used throughout the world. This low turbine entry temperature (compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle in combined-cycle gas turbine power stations.

 Whether reheat is used or not. the working fluid being in its liquid phase at this point. The input energy required can be easily calculated using steam tables. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapour. Nonetheless.  Regenerative feed water heating.  Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. generating power.  Initial steam temperature. FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL CYCLE EFFICIENCY Thermal cycle efficiency is affected by following:  Initial steam pressure. have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500°C.work is required to drive the pump. The benefit of this is lost somewhat due to the lower heat addition temperature. and some 28 . the efficiencies of actual large steam cycles and large modern gas turbines are fairly well matched.  Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapour expands through a turbine. and if used reheat pressure and temperature. the work required by the pump consumes only 1% to 3% of the turbine power and contributes to a much higher efficiency for a real cycle. By condensing the fluid. Gas turbines.  Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour. THERE ARE FOUR PROCESSES IN THE RANKINE CYCLE.  Condenser pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. for instance.

entropy of steam doesn’t change during this process. Ideally this process is isentropic i.  Process 4-1: The wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure to become saturated liquid. 29 .e.condensation may occur. but in actual case there is increase in entropy of steam due to irreversibility and hence work extracted from turbine is less than the work in ideal case. The output in this process can be easily calculated using the Enthalpy-entropy chart or the steam tables.

Steam has the advantage that. Steam power station is most suitable where coal is available in abundance. steam turbines etc. Thermal electrical power generation is one of the major methods. recorded by thermal sector so far.The average all India Plant load factor (P. 30 . it can be raised from water which is available in abundance it does not react much with the materials of the equipment of power plant and is stable at the temperature required in the plant Steam is used to drive steam engines.L.) of thermal power plants in 1987-88 has be worked out to be 56.F.F. For a thermal power plant the range of pressure may vary from 10 kg/cm2 to super critical pressures and the range of temperature may be from 250°C to 650°C.ESSENTIALS OF STEAM POWER PLANT EQUIPMENT Steam is an important medium of producing mechanical energy.4% which is the highest P.L. Out of total power developed in India about 60% is thermal.

Coal delivery ii. Covered storage vii. I. In plant handling viii. II. rotary car dumpers. Weighing and measuring ix. the unloading may be done by car shakes. Rotary car dumpers although costly are quite efficient for unloading closed wagons. grab buckets and coal accelerators. In case the coal is brought by railway wagons. Unloading iii. Feeding the coal into furnace. Outdoor storage vi. 31 . The various steps involved in coal handling are as follows: i. Preparation iv. Coal is easily handled if the lift trucks with scoop are used. Transfer v.Coal delivery equipment is one of the major components of plant cost. COAL DELIVERY: The coal from supply points is delivered by ships or boats to power stations situated near to sea or river whereas coal is supplied by rail or trucks to the power stations which are situated away from sea or river. If coal is delivered by trucks. cranes. The transportation of coal by trucks is used if the railway facilities are not available. there is no need of unloading device as the trucks may dump the coal to the outdoor storage. UNLOADING: The type of equipment to be used for unloading the coal received at the power station depends on how coal is received at the power station. ships or boats.

sizers driers and magnetic separators. At some distance a supporting roller is provided at the centre. The initial cost of the system is not high and power consumption is also low. the preparation (sizing) of coal can be achieved by crushers. The Old Coal Handling Plant at BTPS 32 . It is used in medium and large power plants. up of rubber or canvas. PREPARATION: When the coal delivered is in the form of big lumps and it is not of proper size. This conveyor is preferred than other types. The belt is made.III. IV. Belt conveyor is suitable for the transfer of coal over long distances. Average speed of belt conveyors varies between 200-300 rpm. breakers. The inclination at which coal can be successfully elevated by belt conveyor is about 20. TRANSFER: After preparation coal is transferred to the dead storage by means of the following system : BELT CONVEYOR: It consists of an endless belt moving over a pair of end drums (rollers).

UNDER WATER STORAGE: The possibility of slow oxidation and spontaneous combustion can be completely eliminated by storing the coal under water. The sealing of stored pile is desirable in order to avoid the oxidation of coal after packing an air tight layer of coal. COAL STORAGE The coal is stored by the following methods: i. The pile top should be given a slope in the direction in which the rain may be drained off.  Large quantities of coal can be discharged quickly and continuously. Asphalt.  It requires less power as compared to other types of systems. STOCKING THE COAL IN HEAT: The coal is piled on the ground up to 10-12 m height. 33 . Coal should be stored at a site located on solid ground. ii.  Material can be transported on moderates inclines.ADVANTAGES OF BELT CONVEYOR  Its operation is smooth and clean. fine coal dust and bituminous coating are the materials commonly used for this purpose.

It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. and the furnace with its steam generating 34 . Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2. The generator includes the economizer. screw conveyors. to transfer the coal. forming a large fireball at the centre. STEAM GENERATOR/BOILER The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft. free of standing water preferably on high ground not subjected to flooding. IN PLANT HANDLING: From the dead storage the coal is brought to covered storage (Live storage) (bins or bunkers). the steam drum. bucket elevators etc. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps.200 psi (22.000 °F (540 °C) to prepare it for the turbine. well drained. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns. (40 m) tall. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace.iii. and the chemical dosing equipment. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 °F (370 °C) and 3. That circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. (15 m) on a side and 130 ft.1MPa). In plant handling may include the equipment such as belt conveyors. pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. Here the steam is superheated to 1.

air preheater (APH). 35 . boiler furnace.tubes and the superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. induced draft (ID) fan. On some units of about 60 MW. fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack. redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan. For units over about 210 MW capacities. APH. two boilers per unit may instead be provided. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan.

As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls. 36 . The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically).BOILER FURNACE AND STEAM DRUM Once water is inside the boiler or steam generator. the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. the steam/vapour once again enters the steam drum. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. The steam separators and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated.

The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes.This process is known as natural circulation. water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial start-up. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. soot blowers. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns. Nuclear plants also 37 .

separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces. FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM In coal-fired power stations. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder.boil water to raise steam. rotating drum grinders. In such cases. FUEL FIRING AND IGNITE SYSTEM From the pulverized coal bin. or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion. The pulverisers may be ball mills. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. the furnace temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural 38 . either directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger. the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The oil is usually heated to about 100°C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles.

injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and. fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law. and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace.gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide for that purpose). first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion. AIR PATH External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. At the furnace outlet and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan. 39 .

Generally. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. BOTTOM ASH COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL At the bottom of every boiler. 40 . The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace.AUXILIARY SYSTEMS FLY ASH COLLECTION Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace.

Hopper Assembly in BTPS 41 .

Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the 42 .BOILER MAKE-UP WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND STORAGE Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler. continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. anion and mixed bed exchangers. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a WTP plant. Thus. WATER DEMINERALISING TREATMENT PLANT (DM) A DM plant generally consists of cation. For this.

a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. Oil lubrication is provided to further 43 . DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. large diameter shaft.e. with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself. However. For this purpose. such as PVC. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy. being very pure. the vacuum side). The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. in which the shaft rotates. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated. The bearing shells. Sometimes. becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation. ELECTRIC GENERATOR The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water. the shaft has a number of bearings.chemical composition of pure water. The DM water.

But this small amount of shaft deflection would be enough to cause vibrations and damage the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted. only detectable by monitoring eccentricity meters. Therefore. thus making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. When it stops completely. the shaft is not permitted to come to a complete stop by a mechanism known as "turning gear" or "barring gear" that automatically takes over to rotate the unit at a pre-set low 44 . BARRING GEAR OR TURNING GEAR Barring gear is the term used for the mechanism provided for rotation of the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed (about one revolution per minute) after unit stoppages for any reason. The shaft therefore warps or bends by millionths of inches. This deflection is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing. there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long.e. the turbine starts slowing or "coasting down". Once the unit is "tripped" (i..reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated. the turbine steam inlet valve is closed).

where the vapour pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure. 45 . or oncethrough water from a river. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. If the unit is shut down for major maintenance. the condenser generally works under vacuum. unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. CONDENSER The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer. For best efficiency. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100°C. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. then the barring gear must be kept in service until the temperatures of the casings and bearings are sufficiently low.speed. the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. lake or ocean. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere.

FEEDWATER HEATER A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feed-water heater is shown ahead. In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler, the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapour to liquid. The heat content (btu) in the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feed-water heater. The feed-water heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine. Preheating the feed-water reduces the irreversibility‘s involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed-water is introduced back into the steam cycle.


SUPERHEATER As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler. The areas known as superheater and reheater. The steam vapour picks up energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high pressure turbine.


DEAERATOR A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to avoid corrosion of the metal. Generally, power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feed-water. A deaerator typically includes a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feed-water storage tank.


There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from one manufacturer to another. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional tray deaerator. If operated properly, most deaerator manufacturers will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm³/L). AUXILIARY SYSTEMS IN ELETRIC GENERATOR OIL SYSTEM An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the startup of the steam turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbines main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a pre-set speed of the turbine during start-ups, a pump


Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. This system requires special handling during start-up. with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. GENERATOR HEAT DISSIPATION The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates.75kV and water is conductive. larger units generally require special cooling arrangements.driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system. in an oil-sealed casing. is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. Demineralised water of low conductivity is used. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 15. Hydrogen gas cooling. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The generator also uses water cooling. 50 . While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet.

OTHER SYSTEMS MONITORING AND ALARM SYSTEM Most of the power plant‘s operational controls are automatic. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. Thus. generating at 10. 51 .5 kV in smaller units to 15. In smaller units. a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 10.5 kV bus system. the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. manual intervention may be required. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminium channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. However. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 220 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid.75 kV in larger units. Thus.5kV.GENERATOR HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM The generator voltage ranges from 10. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminium bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. at times. the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range.

52 . when needed. This is essential for safe.BATTERY SUPPLIED EMERGENCY LIGHTING & COMMUNICATION A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power. communication systems. to essential items such as the power plant's control systems. damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation. turbine lube oil pumps. and emergency lighting.


2 in no. HT/LT MOTORS TURBINE & BOILER SIDE Boiler Side Motors: For Units 1. 2 in no. ID Fans 2.EMD-I (Electrical Maintenance Division I) It is responsible for the maintenance of: 1. 2. 3 in no. 3 in no. PC Feeders 10. DM Make Up Pump 9. 54 . Furnikets 2 in no. Ball Mill Fans 6. RC Feeders 7. 3 1. FD Fans 3. 3 in no. 4 in no. Worm Conveyor 11. 2 in no. 1 in no. 5 in no. Mill Fans 5. Slag Crushers 8. PA Fans 4. 4 in no.

4. 2 in no. from where it is send to furnace. 5.4.P. 7.5 and 1 whereas the latter supplies coal to units 4 and V. 3 1.P) The old coal handling plant caters to the need of units 2. 2 in no. 2 in no. 2. 6 in no. 8. This motor turns the wagon by 135 degrees and coal falls directly on the conveyor through vibrators. 6 in no. COAL HANDLING PLANT (C. 2 in no. MAJOR COMPONENTS 1) WAGON TIPPLER: Wagons from the coal yard come to the tippler and are emptied here. 2 in no.For Stage Units 1. Tippler has raised lower system which enables is to switch off motor when required 55 . ID Fans FD Fans PA Fans Bowl Mills RC Feeders Clinker Grinder Scrapper Seal Air Fans Hydrazine & Phosphorous Dozing 2 in no.O. 2. 3. The process is performed by a slip –ring motor of rating: 55 KW.C. 2. 6. 1480 RPM. 415V.H. 2 in no. 9. supplies coal to second and third stages in the advent coal to usable form to (crushed) form its raw form and send it to bunkers.H.3.

The conveyors are 1m wide.till is wagon back to its original position. Conveyors are made of rubber and move with a speed of 250-300m/min. The conveyor belt has a switch after every 25-30 m on both sides so stop the belt in case of emergency. Wagon Tippler at BTPS 2) CONVEYOR: There are 14 conveyors in the plant. which in turn tilts the conveyor. Estimate of the weight of the conveyor is made through hydraulic weighing machine. The max angular elevation of 56 . The motor lowers the hanging balancing weights. Motors employed for conveyors has a capacity of 150 HP. 3 cm thick and made of chemically treated vulcanized rubber. They are numbered so that their function can be easily demarcated. Conveyors have a capacity of carrying coal at the rate of 400 tons per hour. Few conveyors are double belt. this is done for important conveyors so that if a belt develops any problem the process is not stalled. It is titled by weight balancing principle.

if belt is not moving and the motor is on the motor may burn.e. When coal is dropped to the crusher hoots. To achieve this objective. The capacity of this device is around 50 kg. 57 . It has a magnet and a belt and the belt is moving. the separator drops metal pieces ahead of coal. but practically only 300-400 tons coal is transferred. i. no metal pieces should go along with coal.. 4) METAL SEPARATOR: As the belt takes coal to the crusher.conveyor is designed such as never to exceed half of the angle of response and comes out to be around 20 degrees. we use metal separators. Conveyor Belt carrying Coal in BTPS 3) ZERO SPEED SWITCH: It is safety device for motors. The CHP is supposed to transfer 600 tons of coal/hr. the pieces are thrown away. So to protect this switch checks the speed of the belt and switches off the motor when speed is zero..

The quantity of raw coal fed in mill can be controlled by speed control of aviator drive controlling damper and aviator change. larger particles are sent to crusher. the coal gets crushed. 3. Crusher is designed to crush the pieces to 20 mm size i. 6) ROTATORY BREAKER: OCHP employs mesh type of filters and allows particles of 20mm size to go directly to RC bunker. NCHP uses a technique that crushes the larger of harder substance like metal impurities easing the load on the magnetic separators. 2) RC FEEDER: It transports pre crust coal from raw coal bunker to mill. The Drying and grinding option takes place simultaneously inside the mill. These are 3 in no. practically considered as the optimum size of transfer via conveyor. Large particles are broken by impact and full grinding is done by attraction. the depth of bunkers is 10m. MILLING SYSTEM 1) RC BUNKER: Raw coal is fed directly to these bunkers. per boiler. 58 . Due to impact of ball on coal and attraction as per the particles move over each other as well as over the Armor lines.5) CRUSHER: Both the plants use TATA crushers powered by BHEL. 3) BALL MILL: The ball mill crushes the raw coal to a certain height and then allows it to fall down. 606 KV. This leads to frequent clogging.e. Motors. The crusher is of ring type and motor ratings are 400 HP. 4 & ½ tons of coal are fed in 1 hr.

a) ID Fans: Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney. 8) MILL FANS: They are of 3 types: Six in all and are in running condition all the time. There are 4 turnikets per boiler. 7) WORM CONVEYOR: It is equipment used to distribute the pulverized coal from bunker of one system to bunker of other system. 5) CYCLONE SEPARATORS: It separates the pulverized coal from carrying medium.      Type-radical Speed-1490 rpm Rating-300 KW Voltage-6. Large particles are then transferred to the ball mill. It can be operated in both directions.  Type-axial  Speed-990 rpm 59 . The pulverized coal along with the carrying medium strikes the impact plate through the lower part.6 KV Lubrication-by oil b) FD Fans: Designed to handle secondary air for boiler. 6) THE TURNIKET: It serves to transport pulverized coal from cyclone separators to pulverized coal bunker or to worm conveyors.4) CLASSIFIER: It is equipment which serves separation of fine pulverized coal particles medium from coarse medium. 2 in number and provide ignition of coal. The mixture of pulverized coal vapour caters the cyclone separators.

7A  Speed-980 rpm  Frequency-50 Hz  No-load current-15-16 A 4. NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT 1) WAGON TIPPLER: Motor Specification 60 .6 KV Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous 9) BOWL MILL: One of the most advanced designs of coal pulverisers presently manufactured.6 KV c) Primary Air Fans: Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius. Rating-440 KW  Voltage-6. And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing.      Type-Double suction radial Rating-300 KW Voltage-6. 2 in number. Motor Specification  Squirrel cage induction motor  Rating-340 KW  Voltage-6600KV  Current-41.

P. 3 phase  Speed -1480 rpm  Frequency -50 Hz 3) CONVEYORS:  10A. 18B 4) TRANSFER POINT 6 5) BREAKER HOUSE 6) REJECTION HOUSE 61 .102 A 2) COAL FEED TO PLANT:  Feeder motor specification  Horse power.     H. 3 phase Speed -1480 rpm Frequency. 15B  16A. 11B  12A. 17B  18A.15 HP  Voltage -415V.415. 13B  14A. 10B  11A. 12B  13A. 16B  17A.75 HP Voltage.50 Hz Current rating. 14B  15A.

Conveyor 17A. 62 . 14B to crusher house whose function is to render the size of coal to 20mm sq.18B to the rejection house. 13B. If coal is oversized (>400 mm sq.) then it is broken manually so that it passes the hopper mesh.7) RECLAIM HOUSE 8) TRANSFER POINT 7 9) CRUSHER HOUSE The coal arrives in wagons via railways and is tippled by the wagon tipplers into the hoppers. now the conveyor labourers are present whose function is to recognize and remove any stones moving in the conveyors in crusher before it enters the crusher. the stones which are not able to pass through the 100mm sq. from TP7 coal is taken by conveyors 14A. of hammer are rejected via conveyors 18A. 17B also supplies coal from reclaim hopper.12B which takes the coal to the breaker house . From breaker house coal is taken to the TP7 via Conveyor 13A. From the hopper mesh it is taken to the transfer point TP6 by conveyor 12A . After being crushed. which renders the coal size to be 100mm sq. Extra coal is too sent to the reclaim hopper via conveyor 16. if any metal is still present it is taken care of by metal detectors employed in conveyor 10.

Isolation is normally used in various ways for purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance. to avoid any accident happening due to induction on account of live adjoining 63 .5. Normally circuit breakers installed are accompanied by isolators 4) LOAD BREAK SWITCHES: These are those interrupting devices which can make or break circuits. This equipment is the most important and is heavy duty equipment mainly utilized for protection of various circuits and operations on load. which are backed by circuit breakers. These are normally on same circuit. 1) ISOLATOR: A device which breaks an electrical circuit when circuit is switched on to no load. SWITCH GEAR It makes or breaks an electrical circuit. The main application of switching isolation is in connection with transformer feeders as unit makes it possible to switch out one transformer while other is still on load. 3) CIRCUIT BREAKERS: One which can make or break the circuit on load and even on faults is referred to as circuit breakers. 5) EARTH SWITCHES: Devices which are used normally to earth a particular system. interrupting line charging current and even perform load transfer switching. 2) SWITCHING ISOLATION: It is capable of doing things like interrupting transformer magnetized current.

100A. 3) CONTRACTORS: AC Contractors are 3 poles suitable for D. 4) OVERLOAD RELAY: For overload protection. 63A. These equipment do not handle any appreciable current at all. which are used in switchgear. 800A and 1000A are used. Rotary switch up to 25A. LT SWITCHGEAR It is classified in following ways:1) MAIN SWITCH: Main switch is control equipment which controls or disconnects the main supply. switch fuses for 200A. 2) FUSES: With Avery high generating capacity of the modern power stations extremely heavy carnets would flow in the fault and the fuse clearing the fault would be required to withstand extremely heavy stress in process. The main switch for 3 phase supply is available for the range 32A. With fuses.O. They operate 64 . Apart from these equipment there are a number of relays etc. 200Q. thermal over relay are best suited for this purpose. 300A at 500V grade. quick make and double break switch fuses for 63A and 100A.circuits. 400A. 600A. It is used for supplying power to auxiliaries with backup fuse protection. quick break.L Starting of motors and protecting the connected motors.

The pressure may vary from 50-60 kg/cm² for high and medium capacity circuit breakers. 5) AIR CIRCUIT BREAKERS: It is seen that use of oil in circuit breaker may cause a fire. HT Switch Gear 1) MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER: These use oil as quenching medium. air at high pressure is used. which is maximum at the time of quick tripping of contacts. The moving contracts are carried on an iron arm lifted by a long insulating tension rod and are closed simultaneously pneumatic operating mechanism by means of tensions but throw off spring to be provided at mouth of the control the main current within the controlled device. This reduces the possibility of sparking.4+KA Symmetrical 3.due to the action of heat generated by passage of current through relay element.4+KA Asymmetrical 360 MVA Symmetrical Operating Coils-CC 220 V/DC FC 220V/DC 65 . So in all circuits breakers at large capacity. It comprises of simple dead tank row pursuing projection from it.          Type-HKH 12/1000c Rated Voltage-66 KV Normal Current-1250A Frequency-5Hz Breaking Capacity-3.

The breaker is closed by applying pressure at lower opening and opened by applying pressure at upper opening. the cold air rushes around the movable contacts and blown the arc. ii. Fire hazard due to oil are eliminated. 66 . It has the following advantages over OCB:i. When contacts operate. Operation takes place quickly. Motor Voltage-220 V/DC 2) AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER: In this the compressed air pressure around 15 kg per cm² is used for extinction of arc caused by flow of air around the moving circuit.

When it is broken down under an electrical stress. Facility for frequent operation since the cooling medium is replaced constantly.6 KV  Current-630 A  Auxiliary current-220 V/DC 3) SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER: This type of circuit breaker is of construction to dead tank bulk oil to circuit breaker but the principle of current interruption is similar to that of air blast circuit breaker.  Rated Voltage-6.       Circuit Breakers-HPA Standard-1 EC 56 Rated Voltage-12 KV Insulation Level-28/75 KV Rated Frequency-50 Hz Breaking Current-40 KA 67 . iv. The performance of gas. It will quickly reconstitute itself. There is less burning of contacts since the duration is short and consistent. It simply employs the arc extinguishing medium namely SF6.iii.

25 KG 4) VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER: It works on the principle that vacuum is used to save the purpose of insulation and it implies that pressure of gas at which breakdown voltage is independent of pressure.         Rated Current-1600 A Making Capacity-110 KA Rated Short Time Current 1/3s -40 A Mass Approximation-185 KG Auxiliary Voltage Closing Coil-220 V/DC Opening Coil-220 V/DC Motor-220 V/DC SF6 Pressure at 20 Degree Celsius-0. It regards of insulation and strength.  Rated frequency-50 Hz  Rated making Current-10 Peak KA · Rated Voltage12 KV 68 . vacuum is superior dielectric medium and is better that all other medium except air and sulphur which are generally used at high pressure.

      Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC Rated Current-1250 A Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC Insulation Level-IMP 75 KVP Rated Short Time Current-40 KA (3 SEC) Weight of Breaker-8 KG 69 .

The stator housed the armature windings.C.m. E = 4.f. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor.C.EMD-II (Electrical Maintenance Division II) This division is divided as follows: GENERATOR AND AUXILIARIES GENERATOR FUNDAMENTALS The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator. This induces an electromagnetic force (e. This section seeks to provide basic understanding about the working principles and development of Generator.f. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings. is given by the following expression.) in the stator windings. the lines of magnetic flux (viz. The rotor houses the field windings.m. WORKING PRINCIPLE The A. The magnitude of this e. When the rotor is rotated. D.44 /O*F*N volts 70 . magnetic field) cut through the stator windings.

From the expression it is clear that for the same frequency. ROTOR: The electrical rotor is the most difficult part of the generator to design. number of poles increases with decrease in speed and vice versa. its winding & balancing and stator. Therefore. The passage of the current through the windings generates heat but the temperature must not be 71 . core & windings. The problem of guaranteeing the dynamic strength and operating stability of such a rotor is complicated by the fact that a massive non-uniform shaft subjected to a multiplicity of differential stresses must operate in oil lubricated sleeve bearings supported by a structure mounted on foundations all of which possess complex dynamic behaviour peculiar to them. GENERATOR COMPONENT This deals with the two main components of the Generator viz. It is also an electromagnet and to give it the necessary magnetic strength the windings must carry a fairly high current.O = Strength of magnetic field in Weber‘s. low speed hydro turbine drives generators have 14 to 20 poles were as high speed steam turbine driven generators have generally 2 poles. It revolves in most modern generators at a speed of 3.000 revolutions per minute. Rotor. its frame. 1. F = Frequency in cycles per second or Hertz. N = Number of turns in a coil of stator winding F = Frequency = P*n/120 Where P = Number of poles n = revolutions per second of rotor.

ROTOR WINDING: Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as the insulation between conductors. To keep the temperature down. In order to make room for the large conductors. The two ends of windings are connected to slip rings. The end rings are secured to a turned recess in the rotor body.allowed to become so high. The rotor is a cast steel ingot. otherwise difficulties will be experienced with insulation. usually made of forged steel. and it is further forged and machined. 2. 72 . A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots. and mounted on insulated sleeves. Very often a hole is bored through the centre of the rotor axially from one end of the other for inspection. The problem is really to get the maximum amount of copper into the windings without reducing the mechanical strength. Slots are then machined for windings and ventilation. by shrinking or screwing and supported at the other end by fittings carried by the rotor body. When rotating at high speed. body and this would cause mechanical weakness. Centrifugal force tries to lift the windings out of the slots and they are contained by wedges. With good design and great care in construction this can be achieved. Later designs of windings for large rotor incorporate combination of hollow conductors with slots or holes arranged to provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors. the cross section of the conductor could not be increased but this would introduce another problems.

73 . The inner cage is usually fixed in to the yoke by an arrangement of springs to dampen the double frequency vibrations inherent in 2 pole generators. STATOR CORE: The stator core is built up from a large number of 'punching’ or sections of thin steel plates. 4. In large generators the frame is constructed as two separate parts. The ribs divide the yoke in the compartments through which hydrogen flows into radial ducts in the stator core and circulate through the gas coolers housed in the frame. The end shields of hydrogen cooled generators must be strong enough to carry shaft seals. STATOR FRAME: The stator is the heaviest load to be transported. Arrangements are therefore made in all designs to fix adjustable balance weights around the circumference at each end. This comprises an inner frame and outer frame. The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plates. ROTOR BALANCING: When completed the rotor must be tested for mechanical balance. The major part of this load is the stator core. which means that a check is made to see if it will run up to normal speed without vibration. within this shell is a fixed cage of girder built circular and axial ribs.3. The fabricated inner cage is inserted in the outer frame after the stator core has been constructed and the winding completed. To do this it would have to be uniform about its central axis and it is most unlikely that this will be so to the degree necessary for perfect balance. 5.

These bars are then place in the stator slots and held in with wedges to form the complete winding which is connected together at each end of the core forming the end turns. dried under vacuum and hot pressed to form a solid insulation bar. Windings for the stator are made up from copper strips wound with insulated tape which is impregnated with varnish. 6. The insulation must be sufficient to prevent leakage currents flowing between the phases to earth. These end turns are rigidly braced and packed with blocks of insulation material to withstand the heavy forces which might result from a short circuit or other fault conditions.The use of cold rolled grain-oriented steel can contribute to reduction in the weight of stator core for two main reasons: a) There is an increase in core stacking factor with improvement in lamination cold Rolling and in cold buildings techniques. The generator terminals are usually arranged below the stator. b) The advantage can be taken of the high magnetic permeance of grain-oriented steels of work the stator core at comparatively high magnetic saturation without fear or excessive iron loss of two heavy a demand for excitation ampere turns from the generator rotor. On recent generators (210 MW) the windings are made up from copper tubes instead of strips through 74 . STATOR WINDINGS: Each stator conductor must be capable of carrying the rated current without overheating.

This section deals with the rotorhydrogen cooling system and stator water cooling system along with the shaft sealing and bearing cooling systems. wherein the hydrogen gas in the air gap is sucked through the scoops on the rotor wedges and is directed to flow along the ventilating canals milled on the sides of the rotor coil. GENERATOR COOLING SYSTEM The 200/210 MW Generator is provided with an efficient cooling system to avoid excessive heating and consequent wear and tear of its main components during operation. The water is fed to the windings through plastic tubes. ROTOR COOLING SYSTEM The rotor is cooled by means of gap pick-up cooling. purging and 75 . 7. proper arrangement for filling. Also. to the bottom of the slot where it takes a turn and comes out on the similar canal milled on the other side of the rotor coil to the hot zone of the rotor. Due to the rotation of the rotor. But in view of it’s forming an explosive mixture with oxygen.which water is circulated for cooling purposes. HYDROGEN COOLING SYSTEM Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of its high heat carrying capacity and low density. This method of cooling gives uniform distribution of temperature. a positive suction as well as discharge is created due to which a certain quantity of gas flows and cools the rotor. this method has an inherent advantage of eliminating the deformation of copper due to varying temperatures.

e. its pressure. Provide indication to the operator about the condition of the gas inside the machine i. STATOR COOLING SYSTEM The stator winding is cooled by distillate. a liquid level indicator. Generator is 76 . Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely without bringing in contact with air. shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing. hydrogen control panel. iii. iv. a drier. The cooling water used for cooling stator winding calls for the use of very high quality of cooling water. v. Indication of liquid level in the generator and alarm in case of high level. The stator winding is cooled in this system by circulating demineralised water (DM water) through hollow conductors. Also. The hydrogen cooling system mainly comprises of a gas control stand. The system is capable of performing the following functions: i. Continuous circulation of gas inside the machine through a drier in order to remove any water vapour that may be present in it. Maintaining the gas pressure inside the machine at the desired value at all the times. gas purity measuring and indicating instruments. in order to prevent escape of hydrogen from the generator casing. ii. temperature and purity. Turbo generators require water cooling arrangement over and above the usual hydrogen cooling arrangement.maintaining its purity inside the generator have to be made. For this purpose DM water of proper specific resistance is selected.

2.15750 V  Current (stator) .2600 V  Speed .to be loaded within a very short period if the specific resistance of the cooling DM water goes beyond certain preset values.3000 rpm  Hydrogen .9050 A  Voltage (rotor) .310 V  Current (rotor) .3000 rpm  Power factor .3 phase Rating of 210 MW GeneratorManufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL)  Capacity .5 Kg/cm2 77 . The system is designed to maintain a constant rate of cooling water flow to the stator winding at a nominal inlet water temperature of 40 degrees Celsius.117500 KVA  Voltage .5 Kg/cm2  Power factor .10500V  Speed .85 (lagging)  Stator current .247000 KVA  Voltage (stator) .50 Hz  Stator winding connection .6475 A  Frequency .0.85  Frequency .3. Rating of 95 MW GeneratorManufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL)  Capacity .50 Hz  Hydrogen .0.

Varying the 78 . An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. Stator winding connection . which includes a voltage in the other windings. It usually comprises two or more coupled windings. and in most cases. a core to concentrate magnetic flux.3 phase star connection  Insulation class -B TRANSFORMER A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling without requiring relative motion between its parts.

low-current form and back again. BASIC PRINCIPLES The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero resistance around a core of negligible reluctance. which develops a magneto motive force (MMF) in 79 . All but a fraction of the world‘s electrical power has passed through a series of transformer by the time it reaches the consumer. the transformer greatly reduces energy losses and so enables the economic transmission of power over long distances. permitting generation to be located remotely from point of demand. A voltage applied to the primary winding causes a current. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage. thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits. It has thus shape the electricity supply industry.relative number of turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages.

meaning that even an idle 80 . The current required to create the MMF is termed the magnetizing current. A small transformer such as plug-in ―power brick‖ used for low-power consumer electronics may be less than 85% efficient. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 95%.85%. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage.the core. The primary EMF. energy is dissipated in the windings. An electromotive force (MMF) is induced across each winding. Despite the transformer being amongst the most efficient of electrical machines with ex the most efficient of electrical machines with experimental models using superconducting windings achieving efficiency of 99. and surrounding structures. Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses and would have no energy losses. Winding resistance dominates load losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss can be significant. sometimes termed iron loss. Transformer losses are attributable to several causes and may be differentiated between those originated in the windings. the EMFs are proportional to the rate of change of flux. core. in the ideal transformer it is considered to be negligible. although its presence is still required to drive flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. The losses vary with load current. and may furthermore be expressed as ―no load‖ or ―full load loss. an effect known as mutual inductance. is sometimes termed the back EMF. or at an intermediate loading. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. sometimes termed copper loss. and would therefore be 100% efficient. and those arising from the magnetic circuit. In accordance with faraday‘s law of induction.

causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field. Eddy currents therefore circulate with in a core in a plane normal to the flux. and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material. the loss is proportional to the frequency.transformer constitutes a drain on an electrical supply. Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction. and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected. These incite 81 . and in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible cores. an effect known as magnetostriction. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic field between primary and secondary windings. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. and lending impetus to development of low-loss transformers. Eddy current Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors. For a given core material. Hysteresis losses each time the magnetic field is reversed. At higher frequencies. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. such as the core. and a solid core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length.

adding to the buzzing noise. oil pumps or water-cooler heat exchangers design to remove heat. since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. Large Transformer with Cooling System 82 . Power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. and consuming a small amount of power. However. Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself loss less.vibration within nearby metal work. Cooling System Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive material such as the transformers support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat.

5 KV  Line current (HV) -315.45 Celsius Oil quantity .Rating of transformer Manufactured by Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited  No load voltage (HV) .84325 Kg  Phase -3  Frequency .2 A  Line current (LV) .147725 Kg  Core & winding .34985 Kg  Total weight .229 KV  No load Voltage (LV) -10.50 Hz 83 .40180 lit  Weight of oil .2 A  Temp rise .873.