IGCSE GEOGRAPHY P6 What are the safety precautions to take note?

Check the depth of water / do not work if river is in flood / storm Check current / velocity of river / don’t work if river is fast-flowing / rapids Work in pairs / groups of three / don’t work alone / don’t wander off / work under adult supervision Let people know where you are going / take mobile phone Wear waterproof clothing / wellingtons / protective clothing / shoes / Sunblock / insect repellent Look out for dangerous animals / thorny vegetation / mosquitoes Do not do fieldwork if river is polluted / Weil’s disease / water bottle / do not drink river water Work in daylight / not in dark Beware of slippery rocks / sharp stones

How to measure the river channel? Stretch measuring tape / rope across channel from one bank to the other Measure every 20cm or 0.2m across river Rest rule / ruler on river bed / floor Take reading at water surface / wetted length of string or pole Record measurement in metres / centimetres

Speed flow meter(to measure the speed of the water) Advantage: accuracy of reading / digital reading / quicker / simple to read Disadvantage: less accurate in low velocity / battery may go flat / expensive / cannot use in shallow water

Suggest three improvements to make readings more reliable? Repeat experiment on different days / month / season to compare results Do experiments at more sites along river Investigate another river Use flowmeter Another student checks to make sure measurements are accurate Ensure that depth measurement is to the bed not an isolated rock on bed

Suggest three pieces of advice their teacher gave them about using a questionnaire? Work in pairs, not alone Do not block pavement / entrance to shops Be polite to interviewees / thank them Accept that some people won’t want to answer questions / check if people are willing to talk Ask a range of people / get a representative sample of age / gender / get a random sample / ask every 10th person

- Choose a time when there are plenty of people shopping Explain what survey is about Advantages of doing a Trial Study? Check that the questions can be understood / test questionnaire / find out if any problems/ check sample size Opportunity to change questions / alternative answers / make improvements Gain confidence in asking questions / practice / gain experience Describe how a barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure? Examples: look for two points Index pointer shows previous recorded value / align both pointers Arrow / pointer /needle moves on dial Difference between index pointer and arrow/ pointer needle / shows change Read value/pressure on dial Units for pressure – Millibars(mb) Explain how an anemometer is used to measure wind speed? Cones / cups revolve / spin / turn / rotate /moves (1) Read speed off meter (1) Shows reading as km per hour (1) Improvements in the experiments May not have carried out pilot study Data only collected for short periods These days may not be typical conditions Data collection only done twice a year How accurate were readings /student errors Unable to check the results from other school / confidence in other school Time zone/communication/language difficulties/issues Should have taken more than just 1 reading Improvement in fieldwork investigations Surveys done more frequently during the day Surveys done on >two working days More survey points to give greater coverage Comparison with survey done on a non-work day such as weekend At least three people doing survey so more checking Ensure each group has watch / stopwatch Use of counters / ‘clickers’ Carry out pilot study .

Clear of buildings / away from shelter / open ground Clear of trees / away from interception Clear of people or animals / away from interference On grass not concrete / non-splash surface On flat land How to use a rain gauge? Container stood firmly in ground / above ground / on ground Rainfall / water collects in measuring cylinder / rains into cylinder Read water level in measuring cylinder / read at eye level / read off the scale / read off the gauge Reading taken at same time every day / specific time period Empty water out of container Add any water collected in overflow cylinder .Suggest two factors which the student should have considered when deciding where to put the rain gauge.