Weight stigma, also known as weightism, weight bias, and weight-based discrimination, is discrimination or stereotyping based on one

's weight, especially very large or thin people. The term is a misnomer as the stigma arises from the condition of being obese, or schadenfreude arising from the suffering from the disease, and not the body mass of the individual stigmatized in this manner. Weight stigma reflects internalized attitudes towards the obese that affects how those who are the targets of bias are treated. A person who is stigmatized possesses a weight that leads to a devalued social identity, and is often ascribed stereotypes or other labels denoting a perceived deviance which can lead to prejudice and discrimination. Common, ―weight-based‖, stereotypes are that obese persons are lazy, lack selfdiscipline, and have poor willpower, but also possess defects of intelligence and character. Common weightbased stereotypes of non-obese persons are that nonobese persons are unattractive, anorexic, unhealthy, diet and/or exercise excessively. Pervasive social portrayals of obesity create and reinforce biased attitudes. Ableism is a form of discrimination in which preference is shown to people who appear able-bodied. The language surrounding the definition of ableism is almost as charged as ableism itself, as many definitions rely on ideas like ―normal‖ people as opposed to those who are ―abnormal,‖ which raises the ire of activists. Some disabled activists even dislike the term ―ableism,‖ preferring to use ―disabilism,‖ which enforces the idea that this form of discrimination involves the targeting of people with obvious physical or mental disabilities. This term appears to have originated in the early 1980s, around the time that people with disabilities

but thanks to the protest movements of the 1960s and 1970s in which people of color and women started fighting for their rights. Historically. eventually leading to the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. the disabled community was inspired to follow suit. Many of these . Albeism also penetrates language and society. force students out of some universities and colleges. like medical conditions which cause chronic illhealth without an outward manifestation of disability. The rise of the AIDS virus in the West also created ample fodder for disabled activism. and people with hidden disabilities. Organizations designed to fight ableism can be found all over the world. a groundbreaking piece of legislation in the fight against ableism. working in a variety of ways to combat the various forms of ableism.‖ ableism can be insidious. create social barriers. people with use of their legs may not consider how difficult navigation can be in a wheelchair.‖ and ―retarded‖ are all ableist. active lifestyles. like amputees.‖ ―lame. For example. especially for disabled individuals who want to live independent. Ableism can make it hard for someone to get a job. disability had been a cause of shame and fear. Like other ―-isms. even by people who are sensitive to other forms of discrimination.became much more politically and socially active. terms like ―weak. and make basic life tasks very frustrating. and widely used. and so closely woven in society that people without obvious physical or mental disabilities might not even think about their ableist attitudes and the ableist structure of their society. This form of discrimination also highlights the difference between people with obvious physical disabilities.

the use of ableist terms could be avoided as carefully as people avoid racial epithets.groups fight for inclusive accessibility. abilities. A common theme to both religious and scientific tradition is nondisabled should behave compassionately toward disabled persons. In religious and scientific paradigms. often called a minority oppression model. Disabilities such as paraplegia and quadriplegia from spinal cord injury. and assumptions about the skills. medical intervention. Individuals can also fight ableism. The term ableism only arose during the civil rights movements in the United States and Britain during the 1960s and 1970s. They also perform outreach education to connect abled and disabled people. For example. encouraging mandates to make public spaces accessible to people of all levels of physical ability. Prejudice and discrimination against people with disabilities have existed all throughout history. disability is an individual characteristic. During this era disability activists transformed religious and scientific understandings of disability into a political paradigm. From the civil rights perspective. by reflecting on ableist attitudes which they may have and working to correct these attitudes. and they also fight against discriminatory practices in the workplace and in college admissions. society creates disability by . The disabled individual bears primary responsibility for enduring or remedying their disability through prayer in the religious or medical intervention in the scientific paradigm. and mental state of people with disabilities can be combated by interacting directly with the disabled community. acquired brain injuries and blindness to name a few leave little avenue for the latter.

communities. Pity. They preferred to use my name. you’ve experienced ableism. With writing this article in mind I recently asked a group of associates if they ever described me as a cripple. normalization as beneficence. labeling and eugenics are common components of ableism. lowered expectations. that you don’t belong or fit in. Ableism may be direct or indirect. and institutions as well as from physical and social environments. Cripple being somewhat of a derogatory term in Australia like Spaz is in the US and UK. Stereotypes can prevent members of the majority ―nondisabled‖ group from ever seeing one from a minority ―disabled‖ group as an individual. then wheelie or quad in . Often overlooked or dismissed it’s important to expect that disabled people also act compassionately and respectfully toward nondisabled people. If you have ever been told your thoughts and feelings are not normal.creating physical and social environments hostile to persons different from the majority or ―normal‖ abled culture. rather than impairments in physical. scientific norms. Some believe it is ableism that prevents disabled people from full participation in the social fabric of their communities. been made feel excluded or less than. or false assumptions. Discriminatory attitudes and practices that promote unequal treatment of spinal cord injury wheelchair bound people are common being a visually obvious physical disability with many pre-conceived limitations. or emotional ability. limitations in self-determination. mental. Ableism emanates from attitudes and behaviors of individuals. based on common belief.

emotional. sport. 1975. labeling and pre-conceived notions are made of people with a disability before ever asking the disabled how they actually feel or would like to be referred to. 1990) provides protection from discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment. or one wheelchair user calling another cripple or spaz. activities of clubs. accommodation. provision of goods and services. the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA. not ―normal. buying or selling land. This small ―study group‖ felt it inappropriate for a ―normal‖ person to use the terms cripple or spaz. and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA. the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA. education. and intellectual development. The Disability Services Act (DSA. access to premises. commercial facilities.greater reference. A disabled person is automatically looked upon and treated as ―special‖ or different. not exclusive to spinal cord injury or wheelchair users but in general between any two people with a disability. administration of Commonwealth laws and programs. social. 1992) supports nondiscrimination in employment.‖ Ableism is alive and well. state and local government services. Quote: ―Like black American’s sometimes call each other nigger. but white people should never. and  . 1986) enables a person with a disability the right to achieve their individual capacity for physical. They had no problem with me calling myself a cripple. and facilities. public accommodations. 1997) requires schools to provide ―free and appropriate education‖ for all students.‖  In Australia. In the United States.

and allows the government to set minimum standards so that disabled people can use public transport easily.[2][full citation needed] and may include the belief that a person of one sex is intrinsically superior to a person of the other. 2005) requires public bodies to promote equal opportunities for disabled people.[3] A job applicant may face discriminatory hiring practices. access to goods.transportation. facilities and services including larger private clubs and land-based transport services. The inherent problem with any such acts of legislation is the inability to adequately protect the disabled from unspoken judgments and perceptions of inadequacy that can stigmatize and shadow a person throughout childhood and adulthood. functions of public bodies. buying or renting land or property including making it easier for disabled people to rent property and for tenants to make disability-related adaptations. education is the key. or (if hired) receive unequal . the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA. It also mandates the establishment of TDD/telephone relay services for qualifying persons with disability. Who enforces these acts in your average schoolyard or workplace? Certainly there is lag and faults implementing policy in any social environment.[1] Sexist attitudes may stem from traditional stereotypes of gender roles. It aims to end the discrimination that many disabled people face by giving disabled people rights in the areas of employment. Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex. education.  In the United Kingdom. 1995.

[5] Gender-specific pejorative terms intimidate or harm another person because of their gender. . however. maintain that the wage gap is a result of differences between the choices that men and women make in the workplace.compensation or treatment compared to that of their opposite-sex peers. Other examples include obscene language. Intentional misgendering (assigning the wrong gender to someone) and the pronoun "it" are also considered pejorative Wage gap Main article: Gender pay gap Gender pay gap in average gross hourly earnings according to Eurostat 2008[48] Several studies have found that women earn a smaller average wage than men. Many economists and feminist scholars have argued that this is the result of systemic gender-based discrimination in the workplace. rape and other forms of sexual violence. "she-male".[33] such as condescension. Sexism can be expressed in language with negative gender-oriented implications. Others. Some words are offensive to transgender people. such as more women than men choosing to be full-time parents or work fewer hours to be part-time parents.[4] Extreme sexism may foster sexual harassment. or "he-she". including "tranny".

9 percent as much as male full-time workers.5 percent in the 27 EU member states in 2008. female full-time. Women's earnings relative to men's fell from 1960 to 1980 (60. rose rapidly from 1980 to 1990 (60.[36][37] In the United States.6 to 73.[48] Similarly. the female-to-male earnings ratio was 0.7 percent) and rose from 2000 to 2009 (73.2 to 71.7 to 77. hours worked and occupation). female full-time workers earned 58. studies generally find that a portion of the gender pay gap remains unexplained after accounting for factors assumed to influence earnings. Women interrupt their careers to take on child-rearing responsibilities more frequently than men.2 percent).[49][50] When the first Equal Pay Act was passed in 1963. leveled off from 1990 to 2000 (71. The OECD estimated that approximately 30% of the gender pay gap across OECD countries is due to .6 percent).7 percent to 60. innate behavioral and biological differences between men and women and discrimination in the labor market (such as gender stereotypes and customer and employer bias). average gender pay gap of 17.[52] However.[49] The gender pay gap has been attributed to differences in personal and workplace characteristics between women and men (such as education.77 in 2009. suggesting that pay inequality may be partly a result of behavioral differences between the sexes. the unexplained portion of the wage gap is attributed to gender discrimination. the OECD found that female full-time employees earned 17 percent less than their male counterparts in OECD countries in 2009. year-round (FTYR) workers earned 77 percent as much as male FTYR workers.Eurostat found a persistent.0 percent).[53] Estimates of the discriminatory component of the gender pay gap vary.[51] A study by professor Linda Babcock in her book Women Don't Ask shows that men are eight times more likely to ask for a pay raise.

labor) is in demand and has value it will find its price in the market. it would lower its costs and enjoy a competitive advantage. if hired. If a worker offered equal value for less pay.[40] Fathers earn $7.[56][57][58][59] A study by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) found that women graduates are paid less than men doing the same work and majoring in the same field.[36] Australian research shows that discrimination accounts for approximately 60 percent of the wage differential between women and men.[62][63][64][65][66][67] The OECD found that "a significant impact of children on women’s pay is generally found in the United Kingdom and the United States". if women offered equal value demand (and wages) should rise since they offer a better price (lower wages) for their service than men do. on average. supply and demand would indicate a greater demand for lower-paid workers.500 more. According to supply and demand. after controlling for factors affecting pay. If a business hired lower-wage workers for the same work.[68] . than men without children do.[61] Research at Cornell University and elsewhere indicates that mothers are less likely to be hired than equally-qualified fathers and.[60] Wage discrimination is theorized as contradicting the economic concept of supply and demand. One study of college graduates found that the portion of the pay gap unexplained after all other factors are taken into account is five percent one year after graduating and twelve percent a decade after graduation. which states that if a good or service (in this case.discrimination. receive a lower salary than male applicants with children.[54][55] Studies examining the gender pay gap in the United States show that a large portion of the wage differential remains unexplained.

Glass ceiling Main article: Glass ceiling The term "glass ceiling" is used to describe a barrier to advancement based on gender discrimination. However. and many are within a couple of points".[70] of Forbes Global 2000 companies."[71] . women earn more than men. She found that among adults working between one and thirty-five hours a week and part-time workers who have never been married. The United Nations asserts that "progress in bringing women into leadership and decision making positions around the world remains far too slow. Venable also found that among people aged 27 to 33 who have never had a child. improvements have been made.[69] Venable concluded that women and men with equal skills and opportunities in the same positions face little or no wage discrimination: "Claims of unequal pay almost always involve comparing apples and oranges". women's earnings approach 98% of men's and "women who hold positions and have skills and experience similar to those of men face wage disparities of less than 10 percent.Possible causes According to Denise Venable at the National Center for Policy Analysis. In academic achievement. the "wage gap" is not the result of discrimination but of differences in lifestyle choices. Venable's report found that women are less likely than men to sacrifice personal happiness for increases in income or to choose full-time work. as of 1995 in the United States women received about half of all master's degrees but 95–97% of the senior managers of Fortune 1000 and Fortune 500 companies were male. 5% of senior managers were women.

Sexist jokes can be a form of sexual objectification. They not only objectify women or men."[88] . trivializes sex discrimination under the veil of benign amusement.g.[88] According to the study. "Disparagement of women through humor 'freed' sexist participants from having to conform to the more general and more restrictive norms regarding discrimination against women. but can also condone violence or prejudice against men or women. which reduces the subject of the joke to an object (e."[88] A study of 73 male undergraduate students by Ford (2007) found that "sexist humor can promote the behavioral expression of prejudice against women amongst sexist men". "What do you do when your dishwasher is broken?" Answer: "You hit her").[citation needed] "Sexist humor—the denigration of women through humor—for instance. thus precluding challenges or opposition that nonhumorous sexist communication would likely incur. when sexism is presented in a humorous manner it is viewed as tolerable and socially acceptable..