A DISSERTATION REPORT ON

Few Applications of Finite Element Analysis to the Problems of Biomechanics
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (CAD/CAM) BY SUDHAKAR NAKKA [P07CC062] SUPERVISED BY Dr. R.V. RAO Professor

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SURAT- 395007, GUJARAT, INDIA June 2009

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “FEW APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS TO THE PROBLEMS OF BIOMECHANICS” submitted by Mr. Sudhakar Nakka in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree in “MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (CAD/CAM)” of the Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat is a record of his own work carried out under my supervision and guidance. The matter embodied in the dissertation has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of any other degree or diploma.

(Dr. R. V. Rao) Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Supervisor
(Dr. A. A. Shaikh) Assistant professor Mechanical Engineering Department

(CAD/CAM) ) P.G. In Charge (CAD/CAM
(Dr. R. V. Rao) Head, Mechanical Engineering Department

Department of Mechanical Engineering Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat Gujarat (INDIA)

EXAMINERS’ CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

This is to certify that dissertation entitled “FEW APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS TO THE PROBLEMS OF BIOMECHANICS” submitted by

Mr. Sudhakar Nakka in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree in “MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

(CAD/CAM)” of the Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, is hereby
approved.

Examiners:

1.________________

2.________________

Hip prosthesis. Biomechanics is a science in which all the mechanisms related to human body are studied. one special and powerful tool is necessary to get exact and accurate solution. and stress analysis in leg bone while running condition. inclusion of muscular and ligamentous boundary conditions. To perform analysis particularly. bone-tissue engineering scaffolds. Biomechanics. we can calculate stress values for a particular loading condition. are some of the topics covered under this vast field i. For all the above four cases. different types of material have been used with different material properties. With the help of analysis tool ANSYS. ANSYS is developed and the base is on Finite Element Methods. For ANSYS another software tool is necessary. Suggestions for the best material which can loading conditions and have less stress values are made. A model is designed and import the same model into ANSYS environment and the analysis is carried out. Biomechanics type of typical fields. total ankle replacement. Knee implantation.e. Recent technology and qualified professionals are suggesting that ANSYS is the best suitable tool for analysis. CATIA and PRO/E are the two modeling tools. with-stand the . blood flow analysis in human heart. moment-rotation relationships for human cervical spine hip prosthesis etc. composite and metal bone-plate screw fixation. These are the four cases have been studied and analysis is carried out.ABSTRACT Now-a-days Biomechanics is one of the potential fields for research. biomechanical analysis of keratoconic cornea..

R. A.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I believe that ascent of each and every student lies. Especially to my wife. SHAIKH. I can be no exception and would like to express my deep gratitude from bottom of my heart towards all those who helped me in completion of this dissertation. N. His constant encouragement and perseverance was ceaseless sources of inspiration for me. my special thanks to my parents. Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering for providing good facilities for completion of this thesis. I also extend my thanks to our P. for her moral support and encouragement. Many thanks go to my fellow graduate students who made these years easier and more enjoyable in the atmosphere of fellowship and camaraderie. RAO ( Professor & Head). Date: _________________ Place: _________________ Sudhakar Nakka . V. A. in charge Dr. not only the relentless urge to work hard but. also the guidance and inspiration of their teachers. Mary Florence. SVNIT. Finally. Surat for providing me immense invaluable guidance and co-operation. Mechanical Engineering Department. I pay my deep sense of gratitude and profound thanks to Dr.G.

1 Few Applications Case 1: A Stress Analysis of the Femoral Stem in Total Hip Case 2: Composite and Metal Bone Plate .2 History of FEM & FEA CHAPTER 4: APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS TO THE SELECTED PROBLEMS OF BIOMECHANICS Case 1: Stress Analysis of the Femoral Stem in Total Hip Prosthesis Case 2: Bone-Screw Fixation Problem & Analysis (a) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment with Epoxy Material (b) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment with Steel Material (c) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment with Titanium Material 14 14 26 27 35 42 1 2 3 3 6 6 6 8 9 10 11 11 12 .1 Main themes in Biomechanics 1.CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO BIOMECHANICS 1.1 Description of FEA 3.3 Fields covered in Biomechanics CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.Screw Fixation Case 3: Biomechanical analysis of the Keratoconic Cornea Case 4: Stress Analysis in Leg Bone while running CHAPTER 3: FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSYS 3.2 Fundamentals of Biomechanics 1.

Case 3: Biomechanical Analysis of Keratoconic Cornea (a) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment of Normal Cornea (b) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment of Keratoconic Cornea with One Thinned region (c) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment of Keratoconic Cornea with Two Thinned regions Case 4: Stress Analysis in Leg Bone while running CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 51 52 60 66 74 84 85 .

2 Fig 2.0 Importing window in Ansys 10.1.0 The GUI in ANSYS 10.13 Before applying Mesh Properties to the Femur Model After Meshing of the Femur Model Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment Selection of Nodes for applying Force After applying the load (Force) of 65 N to the Femur model in –ve X-direction Fig 4.1.1.4 Fig 4.1.14 Fig 4.1 Fig 4.7 Fig 4.2 Fig 4.8 Hip Prosthesis of Femur Dimensional Sketch of Femoral Stem in CATIA V5 R14 Finished Model of the given Model Product launcher window in Ansys10.3 Femoral Stem in Hip Typical bone plates used in long bone fractures Schematic description of the distorted shape of the cornea in progressive Keratoconus Case 1 Fig 4.0 Material Properties window in Ansys 10.2 Fig 4.1.1. 7 8 9 .3 Solution Window in ANSYS 10.1.12 Fig 4.1.1.1.a.15:Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Femur Model Epoxy Material Screw Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment Selection of Element type window in Ansys 10.a.1. Fig 2.1.2.1.2.5 Fig 4.1.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 Fig 4.1.1.3 Fig 4.0 After application of element type to the Model Material Properties window in Ansys 10.9 Fig 4.0 Environment Femur Model in ANSYS 10.1 Fig 4.6 Fig 4.10 Fig 4.2.15 Case 2(a) Fig 4.a.1 Fig 2.11 Fig 4.0 27 28 28 24 24 21 22 22 23 23 16 17 17 18 19 20 20 21 Title Page No.LIST OF FIGURES Figure No.0 environment Fig 4.

2.a.7 Fig 4.a.6 Fig 4.b.5 Importing window in Ansys 10.2.b.1 Fig 4.13 Case 2(c) After Meshing of the Screw Model Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero Selection of Nodes for applying Force After applying Force (400 N) to the Screw Model in –ve X-direction Completed solution to the Screw Model Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Screw Model Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Screw Model Titanium Material 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 .2.b.9 Fig 4.2.2.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 Before Meshing of the Screw Model After Meshing of the Screw Model Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero Selection of Nodes for applying Force After applying Force (400 N) to the Screw Model in –ve X-direction Completed solution to the Screw Model Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Screw Model Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Screw Model Steel Material Screw Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment Selection of Element type window in Ansys 10.2.2.b.6 Fig 4.2.2.2.2.b.2.2.5 Fig 4.8 Fig 4.2.2.a.b.2.8 Fig 4.3 Fig 4.b.a.0 Environment Screw Model in ANSYS 10.0 Importing window in Ansys 10.12 Fig 4.2 Fig 4.2.a.10 Fig 4.11 Fig 4.2.4 Fig 4.7 Fig 4.2.12 Fig 4.a.14 Case 2(b) Fig 4.10 Fig 4.2.a.b.Fig 4.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 37 Fig 4.0 Material Properties window in Ansys 10.a.2.9 Fig 4.13 Fig 4.2.2.a.0 Environment Screw Model in ANSYS 10.b.11 Fig 4.b.b.b.a.a.2.b.4 Fig 4.

a.3.5 Fig 4.a.2.Fig 4.1 Fig 4.2.3.2.2.a.6 Fig 4.6 Fig 4.3.4 Fig 4.c.a.7 Fig 4.9 Fig 4.2.a.2.c.8 Fig 4.2.0 Material Properties window in Ansys 10.a.3.7 Fig 4.0 Environment Screw Model in ANSYS 10.2 Fig 4.c.c.5 Fig 4.c.2.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 After Meshing of the Screw Model Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero Selection of Nodes for applying Force After applying Force (400 N) to the Screw Model in –ve X-direction Completed solution to the Screw Model Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Screw Model Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Screw Model Nodal Solution results for all the respective materials Element Solution results for all the respective materials Normal Cornea Cornea Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment Material Properties window in Ansys 10.2 Fig 4.3 Fig 4.2.1 Fig 4.10 Fig 4.3 Fig 4.2.2.c.c.12 Fig 4.c.14 Fig 4.8 After Meshing of the Cornea Model Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero Selection of Area for applying Pressure 55 55 56 56 .3.c.2.c.0 Importing window in Ansys 10.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 49 49 52 53 54 54 Fig 4.3.15 Case 3(a) Fig 4.3.c.11 Fig 4.0 Environment Cornea Model in ANSYS 10.c.13 Fig 4.0 Importing window in Ansys 10.3.2.c.c.4 Screw Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment Selection of Element type window in Ansys 10.2.c.a.a.2.

3.8 Fig 4.b.b.3.c.b.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 After Meshing of the Cornea Model Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero Selection of Area for applying Pressure After applying Pressure (133.332 Pa) to the Cornea Model Completed solution to the Cornea model Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Cornea Model 57 57 58 59 59 60 61 62 62 63 63 64 64 65 66 67 68 68 6 69 70 70 71 .3.Fig 4.a.10 Fig 4.a.3.3.6 Fig 4.4 Fig 4.b.9 Fig 4.3.13 Case 3(b) Fig 4.c.c.3 Fig 4.11 Fig 4.a.9 Fig 4.b.1 Fig 4.3.3.3.10 Case 3(c) Fig 4.b.8 After applying Pressure (133.c.1 Fig 4.3.3.3.3.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 After Meshing of the Cornea Model Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment Selection of Area for applying Pressure After applying Pressure (133.c.3.3.5 Fig 4.3.3.332 Pa) to the Cornea Model Completed solution to the Cornea Model Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Cornea Model Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Cornea Model Displacement Vector Sum of Cornea Model One thinned region of Cornea Cornea Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment Cornea Model in ANSYS 10.3.3.3.b.2 Fig 4.3 Fig 4.3.2 Fig 4.7 Fig 4.12 Fig 4.332 Pa) to the Cornea Model Completed solution to the Cornea Model Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Cornea Model Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Cornea Model Two thinned regions of Cornea Cornea Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment Cornea Model in ANSYS 10.c.6 Fig 4.3.b.3.b.c.5 Fig 4.7 Fig 4.a.b.c.4 Fig 4.a.

10 Fig 4.c.8 Fig 4.7 Fig 4.4.9 Fig 4. After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero Selection of Nodes for applying Force After applying Force (4450 N) to the Bone Model in Z-Direction Complete Bone model Ready for the solution Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Bone Model Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Bone Model 72 72 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 82 .4.0 Material Properties window in Ansys 10.4.4.4 Fig 4.0 Environment Before Meshing of the Bone Model After Meshing of the Bone Model Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment.0 Importing window in Ansys 10.4.4.12 Fig 4.c.3 Fig 4.4.0 Environment Bone Model in ANSYS 10.2 Fig 4.4.13 Fig 4.11 Fig 4.10 Case 4 Fig 4.9 Fig 4.4.6 Fig 4.3.4.4.4.Fig 4.14 Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Cornea Model Vonmises Stresses for the three cases for Aliminium material Leg Bone Analysis Assumed Leg Bone model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment Selection of Element type window in Ansys 10.3.1 Fig 4.5 Fig 4.4.4.

exercise science. for example). medicine. Today thousands of biomechanics scientists are working in universities. Injury biomechanics then couples the knowledge of force and motion with a thorough understanding of functional human anatomy. Newtonian mechanics. moments and motions involved in moving biological systems. This can be human or animal bodies (where bones may be treated as rigid bodies with inertia and muscles as actuators) or on smaller scales for such things as protein folding. institutes and industries throughout the world. health sciences. Biomechanics is the study of forces. they bring the ability to effectively communicate the results of analysis in the courtroom. Finally. At Northstar Biokinetics. they add to the mix their analytical skill and broad-based life experiences. The discipline’s professional organization. the American Society of Biomechanics. biomechanics developed from a relatively obscure area of study to a widely recognized professional discipline. has a large membership made up of biomechanics researchers in such diverse areas as general biological science. engineering. and human factors/ergonomics. applied physics. The discipline of biomechanics integrates the laws of physics and the working concepts of engineering to describe the motion of various body segments and the forces acting on these segments. biomechanics is a professional area of study. with university graduate programs in over 85 universities in the United States and Canada.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMECHANICS During the 20th century. These important factors enable them to apply their education and expertise with biomechanics to a wide variety of situations where the relationship between human motion. external events (or objects) and human tissue damage are of interest. human physiology and injury biomechanics including a knowledge of human soft and hard tissue tolerances form the basis for the discipline. Inc. many more universities offer biomechanics courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels as a part of other degree. 1 . As we enter the 21st century. human biomechanics and human tissue mechanics to explore the possible relationships between external events and human tissue injury. Additionally.focus areas (exercise science and engineering. structural and functional human anatomy.

joint resurfacing and replacement. nerves. One example is for studying gait in order to determine walking techniques in disabled persons. as well as new work in tissue engineering. Through this. 2 . for example. Human biomechanics research addresses a broad range of topics related to human mechanics. moments/torques that produce movement are examined. A great deal of biomechanics currently focuses on the use of motion capture systems where data can be inferred from the motion of subjects tracked in 3D space with several high speed cameras detecting reflective markers placed on the subject's body. In forward simulation the operator inputs the data to see the resulting motion. skin. connective tissue. and internal organs. effectiveness and efficiency. Finally. physiological functioning and biochemical tissue properties are many times important considerations within the discipline of biomechanics. we will learn the underlying mechanical principles which govern the functioning of the human body. Studies include examining the mechanical function of muscles. 1. Further. biomechanics research also includes projects such as the mechanical heart. Biomechanics research also includes research that is focused on human movement and performance wherein the internal and external forces.1 Main Themes in Biomechanics: The main interest in this is the mechanical analysis of the human: its body and motion. in inverse simulations the operator is interested in determining what forces joint angles are required for a particular motion. However. joints. movement during an automobile accident. cartilage. and in the development of biomaterials. biomechanics also addresses internal and external loading and overloading which may sometimes lead to injury of biological tissue(s) or organs. Human biomechanics focuses on the mechanics of the human system rather than the physiological or biochemical function of humans.As in traditional mechanics one is generally interested in dynamics (where forces are determined for / from a particular motion) or kinematics (where motion of individual joints combines to locate the body in space). This will lead us to acquaint to three important themes of biomechanics: safety. Biomechanics is a scientific discipline which is concerned with biological functioning as well as the biological functioning of other species. bones.

This presents a clear. Biomechanics instructors. In elite sports. This research and analysis can be carried forth on multiple levels. The more efficient. and other professionals helping people to improve movement and decrease the risk of injury. all the way up to the tissue and organ level. Some simple applications of Newtonian mechanics can supply correct approximations on each level. the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms and the application of engineering principles to and from biological systems. Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles on living organisms. This includes bioengineering. in other words. to reduce the chance of injury. but precise details demand the use of continuum mechanics. from the molecular. Biomechanics is a central area of biology that enables scientists to understand the mechanical design of organisms. physics.3 Fields covered in Biomechanics: The application of biomechanical principles to plants and plant organs has developed into the sister field of Plant biomechanics. we will able to avoid doing harm to the body.2 Fundamentals of Biomechanics: Fundamentals of Biomechanics introduce the exciting world of how human movement is created and how it can be enhanced. By understanding the mechanical principles and the forces involved in human motion.Safety means free of injury. 1. The main interest here is to maximize the output. the less efforts you need to put into the task. but it is also increasingly important as it underpins many of the applied technologies such as biomaterials. effectiveness is the main target for training. The many strands of plant biomechanics are described in a 3 . as well as advanced students learning biomechanical principles in biomedical engineering. • Effectiveness is closely related to the level of the performance. and sports physiology will find Fundamentals in Biomechanics invaluable. kinesiology. wherein biomaterials such as collagen and elastin are considered. • Efficiency is related to the amount of efforts required to do certain mechanical task. 1. conceptual understanding of biomechanics and is designed to help students link their personal experience to biomechanical concepts. ergonomics. tissue engineering and sports science. researchers.

4 . molecular biology. would be different. researchers are able to advance the field of tissue engineering. and cell biology have much to offer in the way of explaining the active and passive properties of living tissues. such as skin. as well as develop improved treatments for a wide array of pathologies. The study of biomaterials is of crucial importance to biomechanics. It has been shown that applied loads and deformations can affect the properties of living tissue. For example. and arteries each possess unique material properties. differential equations. For example. applies the laws of mechanics and physics to human performance in order to gain a greater understanding of performance in athletic events through modeling. and bones. play prominent roles in the study of biomechanics. have been widely regarded as instances in which living tissue is remodeled as a direct consequence of applied loads. Applied mechanics. Chemistry. stimulation. the effects of elevated blood pressure on the mechanics of the arterial wall.text book on the subject by Karl Niklas Plant Biomechanics: An Engineering Approach to Plant Form and Function. and mechanical engineering disciplines such as fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. By applying the laws and concepts of physics. Biomechanics as a sports science. and measurement. bone. to the mechanical properties of soft tissue. living cells. There is much research in the field of growth and remodeling as a response to applied loads. and the orientations of fibers within the tissue. kinesiology. if human skin were largely composed of a protein other than collagen. simulation. For example. The passive mechanical response of a particular tissue can be attributed to characteristics of the various proteins. The study of biomechanics ranges from the inner workings of a cell to the movement and development of limbs. the binding of myosin to actin is based on a biochemical reaction involving calcium ions and ATP. As we develop a greater understanding of the physiological behavior of living tissues. gesticulation. Relevant mathematical tools include linear algebra. vector and tensor calculus. such as elastin and collagen. and bone growth in response to exercise. biomechanical mechanisms and structures can be simulated and studied. in muscle contractions. most notably thermodynamics and continuum mechanics. For example. numerics and computational techniques such as the finite element method. such as its elastic modulus. the various tissues within the body's organs. many of its mechanical properties. and the acclimative growth of plants in response to wind movement. mastication. the behavior of cardiomyocytes within a heart with a cardiac infarct. ground substances such as proteoglycans.

5 .The next chapter explains about few applications of finite element analysis to the problems of Biomechanics and the literature survey for Biomechanics.

Thus.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The following is the literature survey on few applications of finite element analysis to the problems of Biomechanics. all failures occurred in the middle one-third of the stem. and 6 . These variables included: (1) The angles of application of the force at the hip joint. The average site of the failure was 68. four to six months). fifty-six to eighty millimeters) from the proximal lateral shoulder measured along the lateral surface of the stem of the prosthesis. was the cause of the metal failure in all previous cases.1 Few Applications: Case 1: Stress Analysis of the Femoral Stem in Total Hip Prosthesis Recent reports have indicated that mechanical failure of the femoral stem of total hip-replacement prosthesis occurs not infrequently. (2) Excessive patient weight. probably as a result of cyclic stresses above the endurance limit of the implant material. (3) Variations in the amount of stem support and (4) Variations in femoral-stem design. It was the purpose of this investigation to analyze quantitatively the effects of a series of variables on stresses in the femoral stem. Fatigue failure. (2) The orientation of the femoral component. occurring at an average of thirty-five months after implantation (range. These features were described in all cases either as individual findings or in combination: (1) Loosening or malpositioning of the device.4 millimeters (range. and the prosthetic materials appear to be interrelated. prosthetic design. 2. The effects of the surgical mechanics of implantation.

metal. it is well to bear in mind that there are essentially two basic assumptions in the development of our analysis. The validity of the first assumption hinges mainly on the fact that the results are based on comparisons which are not sensitive to material parameters. In addition.1: Femoral Stem in Hip In attempting to interpret the results of this study.(3) Presence of abnormalities in the metal capable of lowering its fatigue life. and cortical and trabecular bone. The second one is the simplification of the three-dimensional geometry of the system. As to the second assumption. 7 . The implications of the findings reported ere should remain valid regardless of variations in the elastic properties of bone or cement of as much as 20 or 30 per cent. the findings reported here are consistent with clinical experience. Fig 2. For that reason. An understanding of all the additional factors that affect the stress levels in the femoral stem appears to be a necessary first step toward interpreting the significance of any one of these three features. the reasonable agreement between analytical and experimental results confirms the appropriateness of this model. [2]. we chose the method of finite element analysis [1]. The first one is the conceptualization of the implanted femoral stem as a passive system with material properties based on cadaver studies. The complexity of the mechanical situation precludes rigorous analysis by classic methods. A femoral stem implanted in the femur is a three dimensional solid composed of cement.

However.Screw Fixation Orthopaedic surgeons have been using metallic bone plates commonly [3] especially for the fixation of long bone (dia physial) fractures. and delay in fracture healing (callus formation. it seems like these upcoming events will be of great importance in the development of orthopedics. Due to insufficient bone growth. which are generally made of stainless steel and titanium alloys. and also decrease in bone mass (osteopenia). which are less rigid than metals and may have properties closer to bone mechanical properties. Fig 2. anode-cathode reactions. It’s also found that the difference in elasticity of a metallic implant and bone may cause loosening of the implant [7]. are compared theoretically. which are thought to be their alternatives. increase in bone porosity (osteoporosis). corrosion.2. It was found that they help to avoid stress shielding and increase bone remodeling [8]. which are thought to reduce operations and consequently hospital queues. [5] & [6]. in which the metallic bone plates and composites.. magnetism effect. ossification) as almost all loads are transferred through these rigid plates (stress shielding effect / stress protection atrophy) [4]. these researches led to the development of new alternative biomaterials known as biodegradable implants. Composite materials. according to their effects 8 .Case 2: Composite and Metal Bone Plate . These new developments in alternative biomaterials.2: Typical bone plates used in long bone fractures Researches for seeking alternative implant materials have been widely carried out especially during the last decade in order to increase bone remodeling. Fig 2. it is obvious that metallic prostheses. have been considered as alternatives. Finally. Also in composite plates the screw at the area of maximum bending moment was found to back out of the bone while it is rare in metal plates. refractures after the removal of the prostheses are also widely reported. Therefore. led us to this study. [9]. etc. cause some problems like metal incompatibility.

3). Normally. Thus. owing to bulging of the tissue at the abnormally thin regions (Fig 2. As one moves from the central cornea toward the periphery (limbus). mainly in the form of localized loss. while composite plates were thought to be of graphite/epoxy. even slight variations in the shape of the cornea can significantly diminish visual performance. of up to 75% thickness. a transparent tissue that covers the front of the eye. The finite element analysis tool ANSYS was used for the solution. of corneal tissue [11]. Keratoconus is a disease of the cornea characterized by non-inflammatory deterioration of the corneal structure. which is caused while the patient stands up. A series of finite element analyses were performed to solve the problem.on the bone and the fracture site. In the case of metallic plates.3: Schematic description of the distorted shape of the cornea in progressive keratoconus 9 . from a normal spherical shape to a more conic shape. discretizing the geometric model with the use of three dimensional finite elements. Case 3: Biomechanical analysis of the Keratoconic Cornea The cornea. Fig 2. Static compression. performs approximately 2/3 of the optical refraction and focuses light towards the lens and the retina. This leads to deformation of the cornea. the implants were assumed to be of stainless steel and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. the effects of the plate material on the screws used for the plate fixation are also investigated. collagen fibers in the central cornea are dominantly arranged in the medial-lateral and inferiorsuperior directions. was considered as the loading condition. Additionally. a circumferential orientation is also noticeable [10].

or whether the localized non-inflammatory thinning of the cornea is the trigger. the corneal tissue is a heterogeneous structure with strongly anisotropic mechanical properties. It is assumed that the bottom end of the bone fixed [12]. Case 4: Stress Analysis in Leg Bone while running In this particular case we intend to do stress analysis on the human bone tibia while running position at certain load. The change of shape causes optical aberrations that may be correctable by means of glasses or hard contact lenses at mild conditions. We will perform the same operation for the titanium with same geometry apart from the young’s modulus to compare its results with stress analysis of human bone. • • The stress analysis here on human bone is being done by using Ansys and Catia. considered separately or together in the models. In the present study we developed more accurate biomechanical models of normal and Keratoconic Corneas by employing a more realistic representation of the corneal geometry and anisotropic mechanical properties. Keratoconus modeling studies whether changes in corneal mechanical properties are sufficient to cause a conical appearance of the cornea. Since Keratoconus was associated with connective tissue disorders. The human bone tibia is at 30 degree angle and the load experienced by the bone is approximately 4500 N. 10 . and collagen metabolism disorders in particular [14]. which induce a flattening response in the limbus region when the cornea is subjected to physiological intraocular pressure (IOP) [13]. in order to determine their relative individual/combined influences on the shape of the cornea. Cases of Keratoconous were simulated by global or localized tissue weakening as well as localized asymmetric thinning distortions of the cornea.Accordingly. Identification of the primary mechanical cause for the conical corneal shape is critical for understanding the aetiology of keratoconus. or require corneal transplantation in more severe cases.

the programmer can insert numerous algorithms (functions) which may make the system behave linearly or non-linearly. Linear systems are far less complex and generally ignore many subtleties of model loading & behavior. element stresses and strains can be calculated. As a result. the structure to be analyzed is subdivided into a mesh of finite sized elements of simple shape. the variation of displacement is assumed to be determined by simple polynomial shape functions and nodal displacements. After applying the appropriate boundary conditions.1 Description of FEA: Finite element analysis was first developed for use in the aerospace and nuclear industries where the safety of structures is critical. It is used in new product design. In case of structural failure. but for a wide range of phenomena such as steady state and dynamic temperature distributions. not just in structural analysis. the nodal displacements are found by solving the matrix stiffness equation. and existing product refinement. Mathematically. fluid flow and manufacturing processes such as injection molding and metal forming.FEA consists of a computer model of a material or design that is loaded and analyzed for specific results. A company is able to verify that a proposed design will be able to perform to the client's specifications prior to manufacturing or construction. Within each of these modeling schemes. FEA may be used to help determine the design modifications to meet the new condition.CHAPTER 3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. Within each element. Once the nodal displacements are known. Today. Modifying an existing product or structure is utilized to qualify the product or structure for a new service condition. the equations of equilibrium are assembled in a matrix form which can be easily be programmed and solved on a computer. commercial finite element packages exist that are capable of solving the most sophisticated problems. From this. 11 . the growth in usage of the method is directly attributable to the rapid advances in computer technology in recent years. Equations for the strains and stresses are developed in terms of the unknown nodal displacements.

the end result is a technology that is so advanced that it is almost indinguishable from magic. Finite Element technology was further enhanced during the 70's by such people as Zeinkiewicz & Cheung. Commercial generators have the capability of meshing all but the most difficult geometry. considerable research was carried out into the modelling & solution of non-linear problems. The finite element method now has it's roots in many disciplines. carrying out kinematic & assembly analysis. Only then can an appropriate & accurate analysis model be selected. changing loads etc. the Galerkin. as well as being used for finite element modeling. Due to the rapid decline in the cost of computers and the phenomenal increase in computing power. when they applied the technology to general problems described by Laplace & Poisson's equations. Hinton & Crisfield being major contributors. correctly defined and subsequently interpreted. it is not unusual to have a single CAD model for producing engineering drawings. and nuclear industries. Very powerful mesh generation algorithms have been developed. and the scope of analyses were considerably limited.2 History of FEM & FEA: By the early 70's.Non-linear systems can account for more realistic behavior such as plastic deformation. but in order to harness it's true power. CAE is here to stay. an incapable of testing a component all the way to failure. automotive. FEA was limited to expensive mainframe computers generally owned by the aeronautics. defense. While considerable strides were made in the development of the finite element method. Despite the proliferation and power of commercial software packages available. 3. other areas did not remain static. Superior CAE concepts have also emerged. Ritz & Rayleigh-Ritz methods emerged as the optimum solutions for certain categories of general type problems. it is essential to have an understanding of the technique & physical processes involved in the analysis. present day desktop computers are capable of producing accurate results for all kinds of parameters (standard PC's are over 10 times more powerful than the best supercomputers of the early90's). the user must be 12 . Later. Mathematicians were developing better solution algorithms. The vast catalog of capability that comprises FEA will no doubt grow considerably larger in the future.

FEA reduces the problem to that of a finite number of unknowns by dividing the domain into elements and by expressing the unknown field variable in terms of the assumed approximating functions within each element. Nodes are usually located along the element boundaries. and eigenvalue problems arising in various engineering disciplines. Since its inception. Within the scope of this book. careful planning. many technical papers and books have appeared on the development and application of FEA. In effect. initial.familiar with many concepts. a continuum with a known boundary is called a domain. The field variables vary from point to point. These functions (also called interpolation functions) are defined in terms of the values of the field variables at specific points. including the mechanics of the problem being modeled. The basis of FEA relies on the decomposition of the domain into a finite number of sub domains (elements) for which the systematic approximate solution is constructed by applying the variational or weighted residual methods. liquid. and they connect adjacent elements. The ability to discretize the irregular domains with finite elements makes the method a valuable and practical analysis tool for the solution of boundary. or gas) involving several field variables. FEA has become an essential step in the design or modeling of a physical phenomenon in various engineering disciplines. experience & most importantly. A physical phenomenon usually occurs in a continuum of matter (solid. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method is a powerful computational technique for approximate solutions to a variety of "real-world" engineering problems having complex domains subjected to general boundary conditions. All analyses require time. 13 . referred to as nodes. thus possessing an infinite number of solutions in the domain.

since the 1960s. is a surgical procedure to replace a damaged hip with prosthesis (an artificial joint). a degenerative joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults. However. The goal of hip replacement surgery is to replace the parts of the hip joint that have been damaged and to relieve hip pain that cannot be controlled by other treatments. arthritis due to injury. Traumatic arthritis. in general. based on that individual's situation. Hip replacement. may cause the breakdown of joint cartilage and adjacent bone in the hips. typically. The physician will determine the best procedure for a person. may cause damage to the articular cartilage of the hip. Osteoarthritis. also called arthroplasty. extremely effective in pain relief and improved physical function in. which causes inflammation of the synovial membrane and results in excessive synovial fluid. patients aged 60 years or more who are suffering from osteoarthritis. It is. the minimally invasive procedure is not suited for all candidates for hip replacement. called minimal incision hip replacement or minimally invasive hip replacement. This surgery may be considered following a hip fracture (breaking of the bone) or for someone who has severe arthritis. THR performs very favorably in cost–utility studies that compare it with other surgical procedures. 14 . Rheumatoid arthritis. Newer approaches are being developed that use one or two smaller incisions to perform the procedure. Various types of arthritis may affect the hip joint. become one of the most frequent orthopedic procedures undertaken. A traditional hip replacement involves an incision (cut) about 10 to 12 inches long over the hip joint. may lead to pain and stiffness.CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS TO THE SELECTED PROBLEMS OF BIOMECHANICS Case 1: Stress Analysis of the Femoral Stem in Total Hip Prosthesis Description of the Problem: Total hip replacement (THR) has.

arthroscopy. computed tomography (CT scan). magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other forms of arthritis.Other related procedures that may be used to help diagnose joint disorders include x-ray. Damage to the cartilage and bones limits movement and may cause pain. hip replacement is one method of treating a hip fracture. joint aspiration. If medical treatments are not satisfactory. Reasons for the Hip Prosthesis: Hip replacement surgery is a treatment for pain and disability in the hip. and arthrography. The most common condition that results in the need for hip replacement surgery is osteoarthritis. Pain from a fracture is severe and walking or even moving the leg is difficult. Osteoarthritis is characterized by the breakdown of joint cartilage and adjacent bone in the hip. such as walking or sitting. Also. because they are painful. such as rheumatoid arthritis and arthritis that results from a hip injury. bone scan. hip replacement surgery may be an effective treatment. Persons with severe degenerative joint disease may be unable to do normal activities that involve bending at the hip. 15 . can also lead to degeneration of the hip joint. A fracture is a traumatic event that may result from a fall.

Neck outer radius = 60 mm. Neck inner radius = 50 mm.1.1: Dimensional Sketch of Femoral Stem 16 .Modelling environiment in CATIA V5 R14: Dimensions of the Hip Prosthesis Femur model: Femur length = 85 mm. Fig 4. Total length of Femur with Neck =180 mm.

0 17 .Fig 4.1.2: Finished Model of the given model PRODUCT LAUNCHER ENVIRONMENT IN ANSYS 10.3: Product launcher window in Ansys10.0 Product Launcher Window in the beginning of analysis for every Problem.0: This is the ANSYS 10.1. Fig 4.

MAIN WORKING WINDOW IN ANSYS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF HIP PROSTHESIS: The very next window will be Graphic User Interface or GUI window in ANSYS10.0 Fig 4.1.4: The GUI in ANSYS 10.0 Taking Preferences for Hip Prosthesis: 18 .

2.5: After application of element type to the model. Fig 4. For this particular case. The above figure describes the procedure. Applying Material Properties to the designed Femur Model: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Material Properties>>Material Model>> Structural>> Linear>> Elastic>>I sotropic>> 19 . type of the element is SOLID Tet 10 node 187. Step by Step Procedure: 1. we have to select the type of material to the femur model.0: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Element type>> Add/edit/delete>> Solid>> Tet 10node 187>> ok>> Close.The femur will be given structural preferences for the analysis at the beginning of the analysis in ANSYS10. After taking the preferences.0.1.Selection of element type in ANSYS 10.

0: Fig 4.6: Material Properties window in Ansys 10. Importing Bone Model from CATIA V5 R14 into ANSYS 10.0 Environment 20 .32>>Ok.7: Importing window in Ansys 10.1.5 GPa Poissions Ratio= 0. Fig 4.Young’s Modulus= 11.1.0 3.

0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 4.1.Fig 4.8: Femur Model in ANSYS 10.9: Before applying Mesh Properties to the Femur Model 21 .1. Applying Mesh to the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Preprocess>>Meshing>>Mesh>>Volumes>>Free>>Select the model>>ok Fig 4.

1.Fig 4.1.11: Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment 22 . Fig4. Applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Displacement>>On Areas>>All DOF=0(zero).10: After Meshing of the Femur Model 5.

6.1. Applying Force Boundary Conditions to the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Force/Moment>>On Nodes>>65N>> ok.13: After applying the load (Force) of 65 N to the Femur model in –ve X-direction 23 .12: Selection of Nodes for applying Force Fig 4. Fig 4.1.

1.14: Solution Window in ANSYS 10. Solution to the Femur model: Fig 4.15:Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Femur Model 24 . Fig 4.7. Nodal Solution for the Femur Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Nodal Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.1.0 environment 8.

377 839 25. It should he emphasized that the highest stress conditions computed for this study and may only result in vivo following lack of proximal support at the level of the calcar femorale and failure at the cement-bone interface.3688 749 -32. Body weight. is also an important parameter on the fatigue life of the femoral stem.345 470 0.021 1406 2.234 Conclusions of the above case: These results indicate the importance of the effects of the range of stress fluctuations on fatigue life. The Maximum stress value at nodes for present model is 25.9677 Maximum Values NODE VALUE 1406 20. Given the constraints of the current stem designs.41870E-02 VALUE -1. since it is proportional to the magnitude of the maximum tensile stress.Nodal results are of Hip Prostheses: Minimum Values NODE 749 751 -8. The maintenance of low stresses in the fernoral stem is dependent on maintaining a stiff medium supporting the proximal medial portion of the stem. Since an equal volume of cortical bone is stiffer than either cement or trabecular bone.4386 749 30. a stem supported by cortical bone will sustain lower maximum tensile stresses than one supported by either cement or trabecular bone. A sixty five-kilogram subject with the same stem conditions will not sustain fatigue failure until thirty years of service. A stem in a ninetykilogram subject for the stress conditions R=0 would experience fatigue failure at one year. 2 25 .8441 6 1.234 N/mm for Aluminium material.47568E-02 470 0.

e. The geometric model: The following were assumed while forming the geometric model of the problem: • Bone (tibia) and the fracture site were defined as smooth. and their mechanical properties may be closer to that of bone. i. This is because the bone marrow is thought not to carry any load. although the reference plate was 3. The results obtained for the fracture site showed that in the case of composite plates. it seems possible to avoid these problems with their usage as alternative implant materials. i. the plates were assumed to have a curvature to surround the outer surface of the bone. Thus. but the holes were drilled as in neutralization bone plates. and their behaviors under the condition of compression. thirty-two 0. • Plate was dimensioned using a four-hole narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP). Also. bone remodeling can be faster. plate thickness in the model was taken as 4 mm. hollow cylindrical geometric shapes having a definite tube thickness. A 3D finite element model was developed to analyse the problem. The aim of this study was to compare theoretically the metallic and composite bone plates used in the healing of tibial fractures according to their effects on the bone and the fracture site.125 mm thick laminae were easily configured symmetrically to form the composite plates. This is because better results were obtained with the use of them in human cases.5 mm in thickness. • Screws were taken as 4. in order to ease the composite plate configurations.5 mm cortical screws and modeled as completely fixed to the bone. which is caused while the patient stands up. screws used in metallic plate cases were found to be more critical in failure. Additionally.Case 2: Bone-Screw Fixation Problem & Analysis Description of the Problem: As composites are less rigid. an increase in bone density is obvious.e. they were screwed to both of the cortical sections in the bone cross-section 26 . Also. Results of the analyses were evaluated and the calculated stress values.

0 – 67.Selection of element type in ANSYS 10.0 – 12.0 / 25.0 for analysis.a.0 – 1. it will be import in ANSYS 10.0 [mm] Plate: Length – width – thickness: 68.0 [mm] Fracture site: Inner / outer diameter – length: 10. Step by Step Procedure: 1.0 – 4.(a) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment with Epoxy Material: Dimensions of the geometric model used in the analyses are as follows (for one side of the symmetry axis): Bone: Inner / outer diameter – length: 10. 27 .1: Screw Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment After finishing the design of the model in CATIA Environment.0 / 25.0 [mm] Fig 4.0: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Element type>> Add/edit/delete>> Solid>>10 node 92>> ok>> Close.

0 28 .0 2.2: Selection of Element type window in Ansys 10.3: Material Properties window in Ansys 10. Applying Material Properties to the designed Screw Model: Ansys main menu>>Preprocessor>>Material Properties>>Material Model>>Structural>>Linear>>Elastic>>Isotropic>> Young’s Modulus = 132400 MPa Poissions Ratio = 0.a. Fig 4.3>>ok.a.Fig 4.

0: Fig 4.4: Importing window in Ansys 10. Applying Mesh to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Preprocess>>Meshing>>Mesh>>Volumes>>Free>>Select the model>>ok 29 .0 Environment 4.5: Screw Model in ANSYS 10.3.a.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 5.a. Importing Screw Model from CATIA V5 R14 into ANSYS 10.0 from CATIA V5 R14: Fig 4. After Importing Screw Model into ANSYS 10.

a.6: Before Meshing of the Screw Model Fig 4.Fig 4.a. 30 . Applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Displacement>>On Areas>>All DOF=0(zero).7: After Meshing of the Screw Model 6.

Fig 4. 7.8: Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment Fig4. 9: After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero.a.a. Applying Force Boundary Conditions to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Force/Moment>>On Nodes>>-400 N>>ok. 31 .

11: After applying Force (400 N) to the Screw Model in –ve X-direction 32 .a.10: Selection of Nodes for applying Force Fig 4.a.Fig 4.

a. Nodal Solution for the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Nodal Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok. Fig 4. 33 .a.13: Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Screw Model.Fig 4.12: Completed solution to the Screw model RESULTS: 8.

Nodal results are for Screw for Epoxy material: Minimum Values
NODE 8 8 105 430 430

VALUE

- 3701.9

-4034.7

-10608.

47.451

42.217

Maximum Values
NODE 2 19 19 402 402

VALUE 4846.7

1757.6

1702.1

9557.6

10219

9. Element Solution for the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Element Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.

Fig 4.a.14: Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Screw Model

34

(b) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment with Steel Material:

Fig 4.b.1: Screw Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment Step by Step Procedure: 1.Selection of element type in ANSYS 10.0: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Element type>> Add/edit/delete>> Solid>> 10node 92>> ok>> Close.

Fig 4.b.2: Selection of Element type window in Ansys 10.0
35

2. Applying Material Properties to the designed Screw Model: Ansys main menu>>Preprocessor>>Material Model>>Structural>>Linear>>Elastic>>Isotropic>> Young’s Modulus= 200000 MPa Poissions Ratio= 0.3>>Ok. Properties>>Material

Fig 4.b.3: Material Properties window in Ansys 10.0

3. Importing Screw Model file from CATIA V5 R14 into ANSYS 10.0:

Fig 4.b.4: Importing window in Ansys 10.0 Environment
36

4.0 from CATIA V5 R14: Fig 4.b.5: Screw Model in ANSYS 10.6: After Meshing of the Screw Model 37 . After Importing Screw Model into ANSYS 10. Applying Mesh to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Preprocess>>Meshing>>Mesh>>Volumes>>Free>>Select the model>>ok Fig 4.b.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 5.

Applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Displacement>>On Areas>>All DOF=0(zero).b.7: Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment Fig4.6. 38 . Fig 4. b.8: After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero.

9: Selection of Nodes for applying Force Fig 4. Applying Force Boundary Conditions to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Force/Moment>>On Nodes>>-400 N>>ok. Fig 4.10: After applying Force (400 N) to the Screw Model in –ve X-direction 39 .7.b.b.

12: Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Screw Model 40 . Nodal Solution for the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Nodal Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.b.b. Fig 4.11: Completed solution to the Screw model RESULTS: 8.Fig 4.

9 19 1118.5 105 -9344. Fig 4.Nodal results are for Screw for Steel material: Minimum Values NODE VALUE 8 -3260 8 -3595.5 19 1108. Element Solution for the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Element Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.6 402 8458.485 Maximum Values NODE VALUE 98 3343.8 535 32.247 535 29.13: Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Screw Model 41 .0 402 9035 9.b.

it will be import in ANSYS 10.c.2: Selection of Element type window in Ansys 10.c.Selection of element type in ANSYS 10.0: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Element type>> Add/edit/delete>> Solid>>10 node 92>> ok>> Close.0 42 .1: Screw Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment After finishing the design of the model in CATIA Environment.0 for analysis.(c) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment with Titanium Material: Fig 4. Fig 4. Step by Step Procedure: 1.

0: Fig 4.c. Importing Screw Model from CATIA V5 R14 into ANSYS 10.2.0 3.4: Importing window in Ansys 10.0 Environment 43 . Properties>>Material Fig 4.3: Material Properties window in Ansys 10.c. Applying Material Properties to the designed Screw Model: Ansys main menu>>Preprocessor>>Material Model>>Structural>>Linear>>Elastic>>Isotropic>> Young’s Modulus = 117240 MPa Poissions Ratio = 0.3>>ok.

c.0 from CATIA V5 R14: Fig 4. After Importing Screw Model into ANSYS 10.5: Screw Model in ANSYS 10.c.4.6: After Meshing of the Screw Model 44 .0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 5. Applying Mesh to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Preprocess>>Meshing>>Mesh>>Volumes>>Free>>Select the model>>ok Fig 4.

c.c.6. Applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Displacement>>On Areas>>All DOF=0(zero).7: Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment Fig4.8: After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero 45 . Fig 4.

7. Applying Force Boundary Conditions to the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Force/Moment>>On Nodes>>-400 N>>ok.9: Selection of Nodes for applying Force Fig 4.c. Fig 4.c.10: After applying Force (400 N) to the Screw Model in –ve X-direction 46 .

c.c. Fig 4.12: Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Screw Model 47 .11: Completed solution to the Screw model RESULTS: 8. Nodal Solution for the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Nodal Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.Fig 4.

7 402 8513.4 535 34.3278.6 17 1044. Element Solution for the Screw Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Element Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.6 8 -3617. Fig 4.2 402 8967 9.520 Maximum Values NODE VALUE 98 2945.7 17 1044.8 8 -9283.217 535 30.13: Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Screw Model 48 .c.Nodal results are for Screw for Titanium material: Minimum Values NODE VALUE 8 .

15: Element Solution results for all the respective materials 49 .14: Nodal Solution results for all the respective materials Bone-Screw Results at Elements: Fig 4.c.c.Bone-Screw Results at Nodes: Fig 4.

the bone growth. Figure 4.c.c. Therefore. 50 .c. Additionally. Thus.14 and Figure 4. in other words. fracture healing could be faster with the composite bone plates.15 show that Vonmises (Peak) Stress values of Epoxy increase in the critical region of the fractured bone where the Peak Stress values are low for other cases.14).Conclusions of above case: Finite element analyses of bone plate-long bone assembly were conducted for above mentioned implant materials. The results were implemented in peak stresses at nodes and elements. it is expected that the adverse bone remodelling will slow down. The comparison of results showed that in the fracture area the load in the bone is distributed evenly for composite bone and there are decreases in the local Vonmises (Peak) Stress values (Fig 4.

We conducted three-dimensional finite element (FE) simulations to analyze the biomechanical factors contributing to the distorted shape of a keratoconic cornea. and simulated localized tissue thinning (reduction from 0. geometry and IOP. half-sphere shaped at the central region. We analyzed tissue deformations. ( ii ) Corneal tissue deformations under the IOP values considered in this case (1mmHg) are relatively small compared with the corneas radius of curvature. The assumption of linear elasticity is consistent with the previous assumption of small deformations. We assumed orthotropic linear elastic tissue mechanical properties. The assumption of orthotropic material behavior is a progress over previous work. nearly incompressible material with threedimensional (3D) orthotropic mechanical properties. ( iii ) Corneal tissue behaves as a linear elastic. The following general assumptions were made: ( i ) The normal unloaded cornea is assumed to be symmetric.35 or 0.5 mm to 0.2 mm). for intraocular pressure (IOP) of 1 mmHg. and clamped at the sclera. stresses by the models. 51 . which is a reasonable approximation of the shape of the real healthy cornea. and has been used in previous models. which results in distortion of the corneal surface that causes blurred vision. and is taken to explore the possibility that softening of the cornea at certain material directions contributes to keratoconus.Case 3: Biomechanical Analysis of Keratoconic Cornea Description of the Problem: Keratoconus is a non-inflammatory disease characterized by irregular thinning and gradual bulging of the cornea. that has been adopted in several previous corneal models. Computational modeling of the cornea based on the FE method is used herein to predict the mechanical performance of normal and keratoconic human corneas and to provide a detailed account of their response to various changes in tissue mechanical properties.

3 mm For the Normal Cornea.6 mm towards the Limbus. 52 .1: Cornea Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment After finishing the design of the model in CATIA Environment. it will be import in ANSYS 10.6 mm The horizontal diameter of the central region = 11 mm The base diameter of the cornea = 15. Fig 4.(a) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment of Normal Cornea: The Outer radius of curvature of the central corneal region = 7.8 mm The Inner radius of curvature of the central corneal region = 6.0 for analysis.5 mm. the thickness in the central region as 0. and as 0.3.a.

a.3.0: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Element type>> Add/edit/delete>> Solid>>10 node 92>> ok>> Close. 2. Applying Material Properties to the designed Screw Model: Ansys main menu>>Preprocessor>>Material Properties>>Material Model>>Structural>>Linear>>Elastic>>Isotropic>> Young’s Modulus = 2 MPa Poissions Ratio = 0.Selection of element type in ANSYS 10. Fig 4.Step by Step Procedure: 1.45>>Ok.0 53 .2: Material Properties window in Ansys 10.

After Importing Cornea Model into ANSYS 10.a.3: Importing window in Ansys 10. Importing Cornea Model from CATIA V5 R14 into ANSYS 10.3.0 Environment 4.3.3.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 54 .4: Cornea Model in ANSYS 10.0 from CATIA V5 R14: Fig 4.0: Fig 4.a.

3. Fig 4.3.5. Applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Displacement>>On Areas>>All DOF=0(zero). Applying Mesh to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Preprocess>>Meshing>>Mesh>>Volumes>>Free>>Select the model>>ok Fig 4.5: After Meshing of the Cornea Model 6.6: Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment 55 .a.a.

Fig4. Applying Force Boundary Conditions to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Pressure>>On Area>>133.7: After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero 7. Fig 4.a.332 Pa>>Ok.8: Selection of Area for applying Pressure 56 .3.a.3.

3.Fig 4.10: Completed solution to the Cornea model 57 .a.9: After applying Pressure (133.3.a.332 Pa) to the Cornea Model Fig 4.

1 4 4175. Nodal Solution for the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>> General Postprocessor>> Plot Results>> Solution>> Stress>> Vonmises Stress>> Ok.a.1 874 2996.11: Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Cornea Model Nodal results for Normal Cornea: NODE S1 S2 S3 SINT SEQV Minimum Values NODE 258 VALUE -276.0 250 3036.86 9.1 4 3767. Element Solution for the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Element Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.3.21 528 165.RESULTS: 8.60 Maximum Values NODE VALUE 1 5483. 58 .1 524 -410. Contour Plot>> Nodal Fig 4.23 528 150.18 387 -639.

Fig 4.a.13: Displacement Vector Sum of Cornea Model Nodal Solution>> Displacement Vector Sum Maximum Values: NODE 599 VALUE 0.3.38981E-01 59 .3.a.38978E-01 -0.93504E-03 426 0.12: Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Cornea Model Fig 4.79466E-02 426 294 -0.

We included one thinning regions with minimal thickness of 0.6 mm The horizontal diameter of the central region = 11 mm The base diameter of the cornea = 15. 60 . and as 0.5 mm. it will be import in ANSYS 10.b.6 mm towards the Limbus.0 for analysis.2 mm at locations eccentric to the corneal apex.(b) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment of Keratoconic Cornea with One Thinned region: The Outer radius of curvature of the central corneal region = 7. Fig 4.8 mm The Inner radius of curvature of the central corneal region = 6.3.3 mm For the Normal Cornea. we determined the thickness in the central region as 0.1: Cornea Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment After finishing the design of the model in CATIA Environment.

3.45>>Ok.2: Cornea Model in ANSYS 10.0 from CATIA V5 R14: Fig 4.0: 4. Importing Cornea Model from CATIA V5 R14 into ANSYS 10. Applying Material Properties to the designed Screw Model: Ansys main menu>>Preprocessor>>Material Properties>>Material Model>>Structural>>Linear>>Elastic>>Isotropic>> Young’s Modulus = 2 MPa Poissions Ratio = 0.Step by Step Procedure: 1. 3.b.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 61 .0: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Element type>> Add/edit/delete>> Solid>>10 node 92>> ok>> Close. After Importing Cornea Model into ANSYS 10.Selection of element type in ANSYS 10. 2.

Applying Mesh to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Preprocess>>Meshing>>Mesh>>Volumes>>Free>>Select the model>>ok Fig 4.3.4: Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment 62 .5. Fig 4.3.b. Applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Displacement>>On Areas>>All DOF=0(zero).b.3: After Meshing of the Cornea Model 6.

b.5: After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero 7.Fig4. Applying Force Boundary Conditions to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Pressure>>On Area>>133.332 Pa>>Ok. Fig 4.3.b.3.6: Selection of Area for applying Pressure 63 .

8: Completed solution to the Cornea model 64 .b.7: After applying Pressure (133.b.3.Fig 4.332 Pa) to the Cornea Model Fig 4.3.

3.4 99 6766.b.6 603 -3111.66 921 257.4 Maximum Values NODE VALUE 4 12851 4 9698.7 921 292.5 99 7296.RESULTS: 8. Contour Plot>> Nodal Fig 4.46 65 .0 603 -2284.9: Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Cornea Model Nodal results of Keratoconic Cornea with One Thinned region: Minimum Values NODE 603 VALUE -1965. Nodal Solution for the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>> General Postprocessor>> Plot Results>> Solution>> Stress>> Vonmises Stress>> Ok.2 489 8793.

6 mm The horizontal diameter of the central region = 11 mm The base diameter of the cornea = 15. Fig 4.6 mm towards the Limbus.10: Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Cornea Model (c) Model for Analysis in CATIA environiment of Keratoconic Cornea with Two Thinned regions: The Outer radius of curvature of the central corneal region = 7. and as 0.9.5 mm. Element Solution for the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Element Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.8 mm The Inner radius of curvature of the central corneal region = 6.3 mm For the Normal Cornea.3. we determined the thickness in the central region as 0.35 mm and 0. 66 .b.35 mm at locations eccentric to the corneal apex. We included two thinning regions with minimal thickness of 0.

Fig 4.0 for analysis.0: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Element type>> Add/edit/delete>> Solid>>10 node 92>> ok>> Close.1: Cornea Model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment After finishing the design of the model in CATIA Environment.Selection of element type in ANSYS 10.3.c. 67 . it will be import in ANSYS 10. 2.45>>Ok. Applying Material Properties to the designed Screw Model: Ansys main menu>>Preprocessor>>Material Properties>>Material Model>>Structural>>Linear>>Elastic>>Isotropic>> Young’s Modulus = 2 MPa Poissions Ratio = 0. Step by Step Procedure: 1.

2: Cornea Model in ANSYS 10.0: 4.0 Environment after importing from CATIA V5 R 14 5. Applying Mesh to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Preprocess>>Meshing>>Mesh>>Volumes>>Free>>Select the model>>Ok.0 from CATIA V5 R14: Fig 4.c.3.3.c. Fig 4. After Importing Cornea Model into ANSYS 10.3: After Meshing of the Cornea Model 68 .3. Importing Cornea Model from CATIA V5 R14 into ANSYS 10.

Fig 4.3. Applying Force Boundary Conditions to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Pressure>>On Area>>133.5: Selection of Area for applying Pressure 69 .c.c.6.4: Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment 7.3.332 Pa>>Ok. Applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Displacement>>On Areas>>All DOF=0(zero). Fig 4.

c.3.Fig 4.3.332 Pa) to the Cornea Model Fig 4.6: After applying Pressure (133.7: Completed solution to the Cornea model 70 .c.

95 874 -562.9 538 3506.1 869 3709.14 1215 105.3. Contour Plot>> Nodal Fig 4.c.300 708 -448. Nodal Solution for the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>> General Postprocessor>> Plot Results>> Solution>> Stress>> Vonmises Stress>> Ok. Element Solution for the Cornea Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Element Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.6 869 3415.RESULTS: 8.835 Maximum Values NODE VALUE 108 4820.72 1215 93.8 526 3395 9.8: Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Cornea Model Nodal results of Keratoconic Cornea with two thinned regions: Minimum Values NODE 516 VALUE -56. 71 .

9: Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Cornea Model Keratoconic Cornea results: Fig 4.c.c.Fig 4.3.3.10: Vonmises Stresses for the three cases for Aliminium material 72 .

The present FE studies allowed characterization of the biomechanical interactions in keratoconus. a disease or disorder. (ii) Reduction in the tissues meridian elastic modulus and (iii) Reduction in the shear modulus perpendicular to the corneal surface.e. Maximal stress levels occurred at the centers of the bulged regions. Whereas thinning showed the most predominant effect. at the thinnest points. toward understanding the aetiology of this poorly studied malady i.Conclusions of the above case: The analyses revealed that three factors affect the shape distortion of keratoconic corneas: (i) Localized thinning.. 73 .

The deformation (change in length per original length) resulting from internal force is called strain. Strength is related to the amount of load a material can withstand before it fails. The modulus is a measure of the amount of elastic deformation an object undergoes when subjected to a load. the direction. Because bone is weaker in tension than compression the fracture plane usually begins on the convex (tension) side of the bone and proceeds transversely to the concave (compression) side. The internal force intensity (force per unit area) at any given point and plane within the bone is called stress. and the rate of application of the force to the bone. Low modulus materials deform more than high-modulus materials when subjected to the same load. Five fracture forces are described. The application of force to bone results in deformation of the bone and the generation of internal forces within the bone. tension.Case 4: Stress Analysis in Leg Bone while running Description of the Problem: The effect of force on bone is dependent on three characteristics .the magnitude. shear. 74 . Fracture of bone occurs along lines of maximal shear stress. these are compression. and torsion. Biomechanical Considerations the mechanical behavior of bone and of the implants and devices used for fracture stabilization are related to its stiffness or modulus and its strength. The different loads applied to bone will result in characteristic fractures. bending. In clinical practice most fractures are the result of a combination of these forces.

75 .Selection of element type in ANSYS 10.1: Assumed Leg Bone model in CATIA V5 R14 Environment After finishing the design of the model in CATIA Environment. it will be import in ANSYS 10.4.0 for analysis.Model for analysis in CATIA environiment with Titanum Material: Dimensions of the Bone Model: Inner Diameter of Bone: 10mm Outer Diameter of Bone: 20mm Extruded length: 200mm Fig 4.0: Ansys main menu>> Preprocessor>> Element type>> Add/edit/delete>> Pipe>> Elastic Straight 16>> ok>> Close. Step by Step Procedure: 1.

Fig 4.3>>ok.4.0 76 .3: Material Properties window in Ansys 10. Fig 4. Applying Material Properties for the designed Bone Model: Ansys main menu>>Preprocessor>>Material Properties>>Material Model>>Structural>>Linear>>Elastic>>Isotropic>> Young’s Modulus= 14 GPa Poissions Ratio= 0.4.0 2.2: Selection of Element type window in Ansys 10.

5: Bone Model in ANSYS 10. After Importing Bone Model into ANSYS 10.0 from CATIA V5 R14: Fig 4.0 Environment 77 .3.4: Importing window in Ansys 10.0 Environment 4.4. Importing Bone Model from CATIA V5 R14 into ANSYS 10.0: Fig 4.4.

4.4.7: After Meshing of the Bone Model 78 . Applying Mesh to the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Preprocess>>Meshing>>Mesh>>Volumes>>Free>>Select the model>>ok Fig 4.6: Before Meshing of the Bone Model Fig 4.5.

79 .6. Applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Displacement>>On Areas>>All DOF=0(zero).9: After applying Displacement Boundary Conditions to zero 7.8: Displacement fixation in Ansys Environment Fig 4. Fig 4.4.4. Applying Force Boundary Conditions to the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>Loads>>Define Loads>>Apply Loads>>Structural>>Force/Moment>>On Nodes>>4450 N>>ok.

4.Fig 4.4.10: Selection of Nodes for applying Force Fig 4.11: After applying Force (4450 N) to the Bone Model in Z-Direction 80 .

Fig 4.13: Vonmises Stresses at Nodes for the Bone Model 81 .Fig 4. Nodal Solution for the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Nodal Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>ok.4.12: Complete Bone model Ready for the solution RESULTS: 8.4.

Nodal results are for material Titanium:
Minimum Values NODE 660 660 -60.723 660 -165.02 1501 0.78321 1501 0.67991

VALUE -44.965

Maximum Values

NODE VALUE

671 117.02

671 54.221

671 40.342

1953 139.67

1953 141.125

9. Element Solution for the Bone Model: Ansys Main Menu>>General Postprocessor>>Plot Results>> Contour Plot>>Element Solution>>Stress>>Vonmises Stress>>Ok.

Fig 4.4.14: Vonmises Stresses at Elements for the Bone Model

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Conclusions of the above case:

The maximum value of stress of previous studies was 173.993 Pa and maximum value of the deformation 0.742e-5 m. For Present analysis the maximum value of Stress is 141.125 Pa and the maximum value of the deformation 0.662e-5m The red color indicates the maximum value of stress and displacement being experienced at specific place. The maximum stress is experienced where the edge of the bone is fixed as per the expectation. The maximum deformation is experience at the tip of the bone where the force is being applied as per the expectation.

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS

Biomechanics is the study of all the mechanical implications on human bodies. It relies on an understanding of mechanics and applies the fundamentals of mechanics to the structure and function of the human body. Knowledge of biomechanics is used in a diverse range of disciplines including biology, ergonomics, engineering, physiology, medicine, and mechanical physics. Finite element analysis (FEA) has become commonplace in recent years, and is now the basis of a multibillion dollar per year industry. FEA method is so important that even

introductory treatments of Mechanics of Materials, such as these modules, should outline its principal features. It is well to bear in mind that there are essentially two basic assumptions in the development of hip prosthesis analysis. The first one is the conceptualization of the implanted femoral stem as a passive system with material properties based on cadaver studies. The second one is the simplification of the three-dimensional geometry of the system. Results of the screwbone analyses shows that the bone growth, in other words, fracture healing could be faster with the composite bone plates, and that the screws in case of composite plates are more advantageous as the stresses for metals are higher. Therefore, screw necks are much critical in failure in case of metal plates. The analyses revealed that three factors affect the shape distortion of keratoconic corneas: (i) localized tissue thinning, (ii) reduction in the tissues meridian elastic modulus E'', and (iii) reduction in the shear modulus perpendicular to the corneal surface Gr'. Maximal stress levels also occurred at the center of the bulged region, where the tissue is thinnest, and this may be the mechanism responsible for the progressive nature of the disease.From the above results it is concluded that the stress experienced by the tibia bone and titanium rod of same geometry is same in the running position. We get very similar value of stress for both bone and the titanium by using ANSYS. So we can replace the bone with titanium material if and when necessary. Though the main objective of the project is stress analysis for bone and titanium there is significant difference in the values of deformation for bone and titanium.

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[5] H. Blazewicz. J. Yildiz. R. Quan jin. http://www. 78. The Design and Analysis of a Laminated Partially Degradable Composite Bone Plate for Fracture Fixation. 1997. [Br]. Cracow. Parsons. Biomaterials. Biomech. 345-361. 1974. 21(A3). Boote. University of Technology. The organization of collagen in the corneal stroma. Journal of Biomedical Material Research. Evaluation and Early Clinical Experience. Cracow. Yildiz.com [4] M.S. JR. Stanford University.REFERENCES [1] Belytschko. [9] Baixauli. 345-361. 77-B (2). Zimmerman and J. C. E. University of Mining and Metallurgy. eromski Municipal Hospital. F. [2] Rybicki. 72-B. [Br]. Simonen. St. 7: 277-285. Experimental Study of Mechanical Properties of Composite Carbon Screws. An Advanced Structural Design For Bone Plate. Bone & Joint Surg.. Kulak. A. 1972. ISB 2001. Biomech. B. Poland and E. Zimmerman. J. J. Ph. B and Gaiante. Poland. 1987. Parsons.. and Weis. 2004. S. Bone & Joint Surg. [10] Meek. Erden and H. Staszków.D Thesis. Composite Hip Prosthesis Design.R.. 1990. 437-439. S.R. Eye Res. F. K. [8] M. Litak. Carbon Fibre Composite Bone Plates for Fixation of Forearm Fractures. 1993 [6] BME 698 Introduction to Computational Biomechanics a project report by Ankit Vashi (21631047) and Instructed by Prof. [3] Sushrut Surgicals Pvt Ltd & Adler Mediequip Pvt Ltd. 503. Schultz. Blazewicz. Cracow. J. Exp.0: Finite Element Stress Analysis of an Intervertebral Disc. Chlopek.M. J. 85 . Journal of Biomedical Material Research21(A3) (1987). [7] S. A. J. E. and J. 1995.sushrut. M. Zurich. 5: 203-215. Poland.. 586-91. 227. F. A. Ali. Wajler.512. The Design and Analysis of a Laminated Partially Degradable Composite Bone Plate for Fracture Fixation. 18.: On the Mathematical Analysis of Stress in the Human Femur. Carbon Fibre Composite Bone Plates: Development. C.. S. Blazewicz.

).html [13] Shin..36. J. T.. 1988. 497-503. Keratoconus.cadcam. [12] K.J.nus. 30. A methodological study concerning the pathogenesis of keratoconus. R.[11] Bron.E. 1. McCarey.. L. Edmund. Cornea 7. C.P..169. Acta Ophthalmologica 193 (Suppl. B. 1989. Design of carbon / epoxy braided composite bone plate. Corneal topography and elasticity in normal and keratoconic eyes.edu. Survey Ophthalmology 42.. 1997. Vito.. The distribution of strain in the human cornea.sg/p81313a/phdwork. http://iris14.Y. Johnson. Biomech. 163. 86 . Keratoconus. Fujihara.W.J. A. National University of Singapore. [14] Rabinowitz. 1998. 297-319..