WCDMA Link Budget Link budget planning is part of the network planning process, which helps to dimension the

required coverage, capacity and quality of service requirement in the network. UMTS WCDMA macro cell coverage is uplink limited, because mobiles power level is limited to (voice terminal 125mW). Downlink direction limits the available capacity of the cell, as BTS transmission power (typically 20-40W) has to be divided to all users. In a network environment both coverage and capacity are interlinked by interference. So by improving one side of the equation would decrease the other side. System is loosely balanced by design. The object of the link budget design is to calculate maximum cell size under given criteria:
 Type of service (data type and speed)  Type of environment (terrain, building penetration)  Behavior and type of mobile (speed, max power level)  System configuration (BTS antennas, BTS power, cable losses, handover gain)  Required coverage probability  Financial and economical factors (use of more expensive and better quality equipment or not the cheapest installation method) and to match all of those to the required system coverage, capacity and quality needs with each area and service. In an urban area, capacity will be the limiting factor, so inner city cells will be dimensioned by required Erlangs/km² for voice and data. Even using 25dB as inbuilding penetration loss into the building core area, link budget would typically allow about 300m cell range, which is a way too much for a capacity purposes. In a rural area uplink power budget will determine the maximum cell range, when typically cells are less congested. A typical cell range in rural areas will be several kilometers depending on a terrain. Below is an example of how WCDMA voice call link budget can be done. Some of the values can be debated, including the propagation model, but it gives an idea of the calculation methods.

The link budget is used to calculate the maximum allowed path loss and the maximum range for cell. Cdma systems also have soft capacity. which complicates the network area capacity estimations. The link budget includes the interference margin. In cdma systems interference. accepted and planned quality and grade of service will determine the system capacity. cell coverage area becomes smaller. System capacity planning is divided to two parts: The first thing is to estimate a single transceiver and site capacity. So by increasing the cell load. which is the increased noise level caused by greater load in a cell. Calculations how the noise raises as the cell load increases is out of the scope . That's how cell coverage and capacity dimensioning are interlinked.UMTS Capacity Planning The number of installed transceivers limits the mobile network theoretical capacity.

planned transceiver capacity is typically from 400 kbits/s to 700 kbits/s per transceiver. air resources usage activity factor.20 kbits/s 3.06 kbits/s 0. Used kbits/s per user per busy hour downlink only are: Service Rate (10000 kbits / 3600 sec) x 1. coverage probability. each cell can be dimensioned for about 129 users.1 times because of network conditions.87 kbits/s / user / busy hour If a cell capacity is estimated to be 500 kbits/s. Once the cell capacity and subscriber traffic profiles are known. Depending on the parameter values.61 kbits/s 0. Each type of traffic has to be estimated for capacity calculations. number of subscribers and growth estimations. traffic / user / busy hour / geographic segment and required throughput including service mixes in geographic segments for example. A lot of data is required for comprehensive network dimensioning. Eb/No requirements.1*) (60sec x 12. target interference margin and processing gains are needed to approximate the transceiver and site capacity. Data has to be retransmitted 1. planned data rates. network area base station requirements can be calculated.1*) (2000 kbits / 3600 sec) x 1. but in-cell noise. Network vendor normally has simulation tools to test system parameters and verify rough estimations. The second part of the process is to estimate how many mobile users each cell can serve.2 kbits/s) / 3600 sec Total Average Rate 3. 2 Mbits with 144 kbits/s and makes one 60-second voice call. Here is a rough downlink capacity calculation example: During a busy hour an average user downloads 10 Mbits with 384 kbits/s. Estimations can be done in Erlangs per subscriber or kilobits per subscriber.of this page. .

normally the mobile networks are initially planned to meet the coverage objectives. Before UMTS networks are on air and customers start to use high speed services. partly because operators needed to present (over-) optimistic business plans to secure the funding and partly because nobody knew how much people would use their phone on certain price levels. that those are just estimations. and this tendency is likely to continue in 3G. In the early 1990s most of capacity requirements of new 2G networks were initially over-estimated. but please remember when you see capacity estimations with various traffic mixes. . network capacity calculations are anybody's guess! Even when the capacity calculations are done in a very beginning. once the real traffic load is known. Generally busy hour Erlangs per subscribers were not what was originally anticipated.This example was simplified. retransmit rate and estimated cell capacity values. Capacity sites and transceiver upgrades are installed later. Notice how sensitive the capacity is to variations ofdownload amount.