Pronunciation The letters b, d, f, k, l, p, ss, t, v, w and y are all the standard sounds and are pronounced as expected (notethe ‘ss’

is the regular ‘s’sound).H is not pronounced. Consonants Portuguese Ca, co, cu Ce,ci,ça,ço,çu Ch Ga, go,gu,gue,gui Ge,gi, j Gu+vowel Lh (after vowel) !h "ua, #uo "ue, #ui r$rr s(when stletter) s %!etween " vowels) s %final letter or with# c, &t, &p' ((when stletter) ((otherwise) )(final letter) Phonetic sound $%$ $s$ $sh$ $g$ $&$ $gw$ $l'$ ( sound) nasal $ng$ $n'$ ( sound) $%w$ $%$ li%e (rench $r$ $s$ $)$ $sh$ $sh$ sh*%s*ss* ) $sh$ Example Ca*a Cinco Cha*pu Gal+(ia General Guarda Lhe Lati* ,onaldinho "ualificaç-o "uil.*etro ,+dio /ecret+ria /iso /eis,estar 0enophobia 0ero((shero%s) 1e)

+owels This is where the pronunciation gets difficult as the Portuguese li%e to leave out most of the vowels when the' spea%, The letters+, 2, 3, 4are %nown as the sort forms and ma%e the !asic sounds as in -sat* let* not.. The same letters with a circumflex #5, 6, . ma%e longer sounds as in -earl'* great* throw.. The - (a with tilde) ma%es a nasal soun.7elevis-o has the last sound made with the nose. The letters u and 8 are alwa's strong* therefore alwa's pronounced li%e -food* meet.. /trangel' enough*a, e, o are hardl' pronounced* especiall' the ‘e’* which is !asicall' silent. /tress This refers to the part of the word that has the emphasis (e.g. communi cation). 0n Portuguese* it is generall' on the penultimate s'lla!le if the word ends with a vowel and the last s'lla!le if it ends with a consonant. 1therwise* accented vowels show where the stress is. 2ere are some first phrases to practise the pronunciation. English 2ello$ good morning 3ood afternoon 3ood evening$ night 2i 3ood!'e /ee 'ou 4es Portuguese 9o* dia 9oa tarde 9oa noite :l+ ;deus ;t3 logo /i* !-o <st+ be* 2ow it sounds Bondeea Bwatard Bwanoit Ola ‘dayush ‘taylogo See (nasal) Now (nasal) Ta bay

5o 0t’s o.%. Please Than% 'ou 4ou’re welcome

Por favor$ /e fa) favor :brigado$:brigada= 1e nada

Se fash favor Obrigado/Obrigada Day nada

64ou sa' ‘o!rigado’ if 'ou’re male* ‘o!rigada’ if 'ou’re female. 5ote the apostrophe in the ‘how it sounds’ column means it’s either unheard or there is a ver' short ‘uh’ sound in its place (uhda'ush). /imilarl'* practise sa'ing the num!ers as indicated !elow. !u*bers to >? ? @ > A B C D E F G @? Hero I* 1ois$ duas 7r6s "uatro Cinco /eis /ete :ito !ove 1e) Zero Um Doysh/ doosh Traysh watr ’ Seen! Saysh Set Oyt Nov desh @@ @> @A @B @C @D @E @F @G >? :nce 1o)e 7re)e Cator)e "uin)e 1e)asseis 1esassete 1e)oito 1e)anove Jinte Ons Doh" Tray" #ator" een" De"asaysh De"aset De"oyt De"anov $eent

5ote # ‘dois’ is generall' used* !ut ‘duas’ is used when referring to two feminine things or females.


Note – Gostar needs to be followed by ‘de’ before you say what you like. It’s just a Portu uese thin ! "nd to finish this #a e$ here’s how to say ‘don’t or ‘doesn’t’. Put não before the %erb$ e. . Não falo português.Eles não falam inglês. Não comemos carne.Não recordo a palavra. &'the word( Questions )nlike in En lish$ where we say ‘do you ha%e'*’$ there is no se#arate word for ‘do’ or ‘does’. "ll you ha%e to do is +ake it sound like a ,uestion by raisin your intonation at the end of what you say. E. . Trabalhas em Portugal. Trabalhas em Portugal? Genders

ontra. 2e 3 o &of the'( 2e 3 a 2e 3 os 2e 3 as de 1 e+ 3 ela 445 de 1 e+ 3 eles 445 de 1 e+ 3 elas 445 e+ 3 o &in the'( e+ 3 a e+ 3 este1 esse &in this'( e+ 3 isso e+ 3 a. The .uline-o. /as. 0e+inine nouns usually end with–a.neuter-umo "ontractions The Portu uese like +akin thin s shorter$ in.ludin fusin words to ether.uline nouns usually end with–o.ifi. !rticles These are the words ‘the’ and ‘a1 an’ in En lish.uline-um. ma. ta. In Portu uese$ ‘the’ is – /as.tions are . rou#$ whi. ista.There are three enders of nouns &thin s(.+as.h is shown below.fe+inine-uma.uele #o #a #os #as dela $ nela deles $ neles delas $ nelas no na neste$ nesse nisso na%uele .0e+inine-a 0or ‘a1 an’ – +as. tra.uline$ fe+inine and neuter.uite a s#e.

9' friends went to :rasil. Me*inine 1efinite . 6he’s fro+ the rou# that #lays a ainst the #eo#le in the other rou#.rticle . The contractions< translation when definite articles are used is on $ in $ at + the and when indefinite articles are used the contractions< translation is on $in$ at + a(singular) or = some (plural). These prepositions form contractions when used with definite articles.t & <* <*# this preposition indicates see$ when ‘e+’ or ‘de’ are followed by arti.o++only used$ so you need to et used to the+.les or de+onstrati%e #ronouns$ they be. . E. /tud' the chart !elow.e+ 3 outro &in another'( noutro 6o$ as you . deadline and to indicate goalsN <(a*plesO •9eus amigos foram para o :rasil.s !as : !o asculine 7ranslation :s !os on $ in $ at + the . Contractions agree in gender and num!er with the place the' refer to. forward. <* + Mor. These are %ery . .+ 7 . Prepositions $ PreposiçKes 7o L . to.hen used with definite or indefinite articles* a contraction is formed. The' are also used along with ver!s that indicate movement and in some idiomatic expressions. . (destin') :n $ 8n $ . by. through L Por !a ./aria da 7u8 is in the hall.k to ether. /tud' the charts !elow> Me*inine 1efinite . $ . * do grupo %ue +uga contra a gente noutro grupo.s These prepositions are used to indicate the final destiny. ti*e and direction.s 7s : 8o :s 8os 7o$ at$ for + the asculine 7ranslation 8n order to. &aria da 'u( est) na sala.recipient. for L Para This preposition is used to indicate the final destiny.o+e stu.rticle .

s far as & .rticle Me*inine . foi escrito por @an :rown. >e need to wash the handsbefore eatin .s : asculine 7ranslation :s Mro* $ of + the 1e+ da das do dos Qith and Qithout L Co* $ /e* Eu tra!alho co* ele.t3 N?s diri i+os at3 o @io de Aaneiro. I ha%en’t seen +y #arents sin. 1efinite .rticle Me*inine . <(a*plesO •9C?digo da +inci."fter the a+e we’re oin to eat out.s pelas : asculine 7ranslation :s pelo Mor $ by $ through + the por+ Mro* $ of L de pelo The preposition9dePis used to indicate possession. 9efore L .fterL .isa+os la%ar as +:os antes de .bout L /obre Eu falei +uito sobre %o. was written by @an :rown.>e dro%e as far as @io.o+er.<<<. .e .p4s . Asuall' the contractions are used to specif' the word the preposition is connected to and also to show the ownership of something. -@a +inci Code. 1efinite . origin. 0n some cases por is used with definite articles forming contractions (stud' the chart !elow). >hat Que >ho Quem >hy Por%uê >hen Quando >here . pela . 0n some cases de is used with definite articles forming contractions (see the chart !elow). I talked a lot about you. 0t is also used with some ver!s such as gostar de (to li%e)*precisar de(to need) and to indicate the %ind of transport used to reach a place. 0 wor% with him /inceL 1esde N:o %ejo +eus #ais desde .ntes Pre.nde . .p4s o jo o %a+os jantar fora. the way used to reach the final destiny * to express gratitude* in passive voice sentences indicating the doer (the active person) of an action and also in some idiomatic expressions.This preposition is used to indicate the duration of a period. and *aterial.<<<. Intil $ .=. .

ar( #a0s The days in Portu uese .. /ee 'ou soon C. "om -em Que Que %ueres? . /ee 'ou soon C.e &.h Quanto >hi. (inall'. /ee 'ou tomorrow.ause Er >ith >ithout That &the .an be hard to et used to as /onday is known as ‘se.lauses( to ether.t3 &C.h Qual >hose #e %uem >here to !onde >here fro+ #onde /o*e e(pressions using .t3 C. ma/ã o uma banana? "omo %ueres ir? "om o sem o carro?&the .Bow "omo Bow +u. domingo segunda feira ter/a feira %uarta feira %uinta feira se1ta feira s)bado .ond day’$ Tuesday as ‘third day’$ et. This list starts fro+ 6unday as the first day.t3 mais tarde.t3 logo. "on+unctions These are words like ‘and’$ ‘but’ ‘be.t3 Due enfim.t3 ‘that’ I want( E &as Por%uê . "nd Dut De.ause’. They join two #arts of a senten. /ee later. C.

"s said #re%iously$ with #eo#le in #lural for+$ if there are any +en$ the #ronoun will be +as. Fou . "omparatives$ -uperlatives These are words used when .ti%es are +ore strai htforward than in En lish$ where the three ty#es are shown abo%e. To say ‘on X4day’$ use na segunda..a#ital letter. menos inteligente " ain$ with adje. na ter/a..( These adje. menos bonita &ais inteligente. menos alto &tall( &ais bonita. et. /e Fou Bi+1 it &+as. Bere is so+e +ore day related %o.Note how they don’t start with a .ntem 2o+e !manhã day before yesterday yesterday today to+orrow Parts of the day !manhã Tarde Noite Noite +ornin afternoon e%enin ni ht #irect .ti%e. "#art fro+ a few .ti%es$ they will nor+ally o after the noun if you use one. .uline. ! Nos 3os .an also refer to the week days without the ‘feira’ #art.s$ as Bel# +e I see you I sell it I want it Bel# us I hear you &all( I see the+ !+uda me 3e+o te 3endo o Quero a !+uda nos .( Ber1 it &fe+. &ais alto.abulary.b+ect Pronouns These are words like ‘+e$ hi+$ her$ it$ us’.uvo vos 3e+o os$ as 6o you need to know the ender of ‘thin s’ so that you et the #ronoun ri ht.o++on ones$ you use the words for ‘+ore$ less$ +ost$ least’ before the standard adje.. They are fiGed to the end of the %erb that’s used with the #eo#le or thin s.o+#arin so+ethin to so+ethin else &bi er$ u lier$ +ore interestin 1 bi est$ u liest$ +ost interestin $ et.( )s Fou &#lural( The+ &e Te . @elati%e days !nteontem .

It just de#ends on the . .onteGt of the senten.o+e here! 7ala6 6#eak! Espera6 >ait! Dut to tell so+eone not to do so+ethin $ you use the subjun.e. Não esperes6 2on’t wait! &to a friend( Não espere6 &to so+eone you don’t know #ersonally( Não esperem6 &to +any #eo#le( To i%e affir+ati%e . Now$ all of the abo%e .t endin s of the se. homem mais inteligente. Espere6 7ale6 et. Fou si+#ly use the %erb in the Hrd #erson sin ular &the he1 she for+s(.h are .an +ean ‘+ore1 +ost’ or ‘less1 least’. meu carro 4 mais r)pido %ue um autocarro. "s we ha%en’t . Fou basi. &bus( There are a few irre ular ones$ thusDetter >orse Di er 6+aller &elhor Pior &aior &enor$ mais pe%ueno 5mperatives These are the . The past tense . Bowe%er$ to .uite si+#le to for+ in Portu uese.o++ands$ use the in...o+#are so+ethin to so+ethin else$ you add %ue.o++ands to #eo#le you don’t know$ you also use these subjun.ti%e endin s.ond and third #erson %erb for+s &4e for –a$ 4a for –e(. ! mulher 4 mais alta %ue o homem.ti%e %ersion.orre. Thus3em /a6 .o%ered this$ an easy way to look at it is like this.

"s for the others$ they follow #atterns that are easy enou h to et used to. :uildings . in$ on$ under$ towards$ around$ et.o+i . edif<cios . Bere’s a list of these two rou#s.t($ be tri. Pra.o+era+ 58 i iste iu imos iram #arti #artiste #artiu #arti+os #artira+ -E8 e 58 translate as the sa+e words in this tense.e and +o%e+ent &e. fui. fomos. .o+eu .In Portu uese$ it e.(.uates to both the #ast si+#le &I was( and the #resent #erfe. foste.o+este . "nd to finish this #a e$ here’s so+e %o. Deware of the Hrd #erson sin ular endin s as they .. In1 En "t )nder E%er NeGt to Near to 0ar fro+ Detween " ainst In front of 1 E##osite Dehind Em ! #ebai1o de !cima de !o lado de Perto de 'onge de Entre "ontra Em frente de !tr)s de Towards "way fro+ "round )# 2own ! 'onge de Em redor de$ em torno de Em cima de Por$ abai1o "s in En lish$ so+e ha%e the eGtra word ‘de9$ whi.t &I ha%e been( in En lish. foram There is another #ast tense &I+#erfe.h is ne.tise this one for now! Prepositions These are the words to talk about #la. !8 ei aste ou )mos aram falei falaste falou falI+os falara+ E8 i este eu emos eram .essary to use.h is related to the #re#ositions.o+e+os .ky to re+e+ber. foi.abulary whi.h we’ll look at later.

ma esta/ão de autocarro . 3ou trabalhar.m hospital ! pol<cia . Fou use the #resent tense of ‘ir9 #lus the %erb in the infiniti%e &basi.e station . In Portu uese$ both of these e.larifyin ad%erb whi.afJ bar1 #ub restaurant hotel .ma discoteca$ um club . 3ai comer. 3ais estudiar.o train station bus station air#ort su#er+arket . Ever0$ -ome$ No E%ery "oisas &thin ( 'ugares &where( Pessoas &body1 one( tudo em toda parte toda a gente 6o+e algum$a em algum lugar algu4m No nada em nenhuma parte ningu4m .m restaurante . 5des partir. E. for+(. supermercado The 7uture Tense In En lish$ we use ‘will’ and ‘ oin to’ to talk about the future. 3ão saber. Nado amanhã. aeroporto .m hotel . I’+ swi++in to+orrow(.m bar .m caf4 .house flat sho# hos#ital #oli.lub1 use the #resent tense with a .ma lo+a .ma esta/ão de trem .m apartamento . .h denotes the future &e. .ma casa . 3amos dan/ar.uate to the future tense. "lternati%ely$ as in En lish$ you .

A uma e meia. As três e vinte.lo. #as três As %uarto.L to O .< to P ..sing =>ith9 This is irre ular$ when you say ‘with you’$ ‘with +e’$ et.( >ith the+ comigo contigo com ele$ ela connosco com v@ces com eles$ elas Time Que horas são? It’s K o’.ontra. #as cinco e meia As de(. o’.uarter to Q K< to K< L to KK +idni ht +idday * uma hora -ão duas horas Três e cinco Quarto e de( "inco e %uin(e -eis e meia 3inte e cinco para as sete 3inte para as oito Quin(e para as nove #e( para as de( "inco para as on(e &eia noite &eio dia To say ‘at’ or ‘to’ a ti+e$ you si+#ly use A or As$ de#endin on whether the hour is K or other hours &as they are refered to in Portu uese(. "om ets .k It’s . B uma hora. Bs duas e de(.ted with a few obje. com ? pessoa >ith +e >ith you >ith hi+1 her >ith us >ith you &#l.ted for+ as you’ll need it with A$ As.uarter #ast L half #ast N .t #ronouns$ as seen below.k L #ast H K< #ast M .. To say ‘fro+’ a ti+e$ use ‘de9 in its . As %uarto e vinte e cinco.lo. .ontra. A uma e %uin(e.

t. 58 verbs >ithout oin throu h a list a ain$ both of these ty#es of %erbs end with ia. . comia. <amos.$ you use ‘da9. 7!'!8 I was s#eakin you were s#eakin he1she was s#eakin 1 you &#olite( were s#eakin we were s#eakin you &#lural( were s#eakin 1 they were s#eakin falava falavas falava fal)vamos falavam 8egular . Bere are so+e .E8. iam. devia.ourse$ so+e %erbs are irre ular in the i+#erfe."nd finally$ to say ‘in the +ornin ’$ et. In the early +ornin In the +ornin In the afternoon In the e%enin 1 ni ht #a madrugada #a manhã #a tarde #a noite The 5mperfect Tense >e’%e seen one #ast tense$ but there are other ways of talkin about the #ast. ias.o++on ones. recebiam Dut of . ia. It is for+ed by usin another endin to the %erbs and it doesn’t need the few words that En lish uses to for+ it. bebias. corr<amos.t tense is used when you want to say 9I was Xin R$ 9I used to XR$ 9I re#eatedly XedR. The i+#erfe.

ated in En lish$ also +erely re#eat the %erb in the ne ati%esabes falar #ortu u=s$ não sabes? "nd to finish this .ase' sabes falar #ortu u=s$ não 4? ostas de nadar$ verdade? Er you .58 ia ias ias Sa+os ia+ 358 %inha %inhas %inha %Snha+os %inha+ TE8 tinha tinhas tinha tSnha+os tinha+ -E8 era eras era Jra+os era+ PC8 &#ut( #unha #unhas #unha #Tnha+os #unha+ The either just use these . Question Tags These are when you end a state+ent with a little .uestion ta s in e%ery . "lthou h they are %ery .o+#li.. !dverbs of time now soon later always so+eti+es ne%er already still &I’+ still here( !gora Em breve Tarde -empre Bs ve(es Nunca D) !inda !dverbs of amount +ore less lots &a lot( &ais &enos &uitos .uestion$ like ‘it’s o%er there$ isn’t it*’$ or ‘ha%en’t you*’$ ‘did he*’$ et.kily they aren’t in Portu uese! Fou . The one word for both is havia.ourse$ here are a few rou#s of ‘filler’ %o.abulary.t is also used to say ‘there was1 were’.

5Emeros NT+eros Co++ents < Uero 4 K )+ )+a for fe+inine nouns .ns$ umas .so+e a little .rticles asculine Me*inine 1efinite & singular $plural 7he 8ndefinite & singular $ plural . 2ois 2uas for fe+inine nouns H Tr=s 4 M Vuatro 4 L Cin.m pouco .h al+ost so that really1 really* neGt last Tamb4m Tampouco -E :astante #emasiado Quase Para %ue 8ealmente PrE1imo Fltimo .o 4 N 6eis 4 O 6ete 4 P Eito 4 Q No%e 4 K< 2e8 4 KK En8e 4 K. $ /o*e 1 $ 1s 8 $ 8s Am$ Ans Ama$ Amas Cardinal 5um!ers .e#ted KL Vuin8e 4 KN 2e8esseis 4 ..thers also1 too neither1 nor only enou h too +u. 2o8e 4 KH Tre8e 4 KM Vuator8e Cator8e is also a.

...h the ender of the thin bein .uatro 4 .<<<.<<< 2ois +il 2uas +il for fe+inine nouns H.H Winte e tr=s 4 . :rdinal !u*bers & !R*eros :rdinais Nu+ber 0irst 6e.< Winte 4 .$ you need to add‘e’between the nu+bers.entas for fe+inine nouns K.entos 6eis.KO 2e8essete 4 KP 2e8oito 4 KQ 2e8eno%e 4 .<< u# need to +at.<<< Tr=s +il 4 K.entas for fe+inine nouns Q<< No%e. Nu+bers fro+ . The hundreds after L<< are re ularly for+ed &as one word(. 4 H< Trinta 4 M< Vuarenta 4 L< Cin.<<<..entos Eito..<< 2u8entos 2u8entas for fe+inine nouns H<< Tre8entos Tre8entas for fe+inine nouns M<< Vuatro.<<< )+ +ilh:o 4 .ounted..entas for fe+inine nouns O<< 6ete.<<<.entas for fe+inine nouns L<< Vuinhentos Vuinhentas for fe+inine nouns N<< 6eis.<<< /il 4 .entas for fe+inine nouns P<< Eito.<<< 2ois +ilhYes 4 K.entos Vuatro.<<<. >ith K<<<3 you don’t use‘e9if the other #art of the nu+ber is in the tens or units.K Winte e u+ Winte e u+a for fe+inine nouns .ond 0e+inine Pri+eira 6e unda .L .entos 6ete.entos No%e.M Winte e . Winte e dois Winte e duas for fe+inine nouns .Xenta 4 N< 6essenta 4 O< 6etenta 4 P< Eitenta 4 Q< No%enta 4 K<< Ce+ 4 .<<< )+ bilh:o 4 Notes 4 To say thirty one$ et.

Por favor* Due horas sBoH (Please* what time is itH) . People use the word -primeiro./Bo vinte para as cinco. CTo answer the minutes 'ou must add-eP!etween the hour and minutes (dialogue nu*ber >). (0t’s five o’cloc%$ it’s I>JJ am sharp) >' . <(a*plesO •dateO @@$?@$>??DO Primeiro de novem!ro de dois mil e seis.Por favor* Due horas sBoH (Please* what time is itH) .i+a 0n Portuguese the ordinal num!ers are not used to express the da's of the month. 1!serve the sentences !elow> .Por favor* Due horas sBo H (Please* what time is itH) ./Bo cinco horas $/Bo cinco horase* ponto.(literal translation> (irst of 5ovem!er of two thousand six) 7i*e $ Horas :bserve B dialogues belowO @'.except when referring to >JJ or to the word Lmeio-diaL or Lmeia-noiteL N0n these cases -3P %is' is the appropriate ver!. CTo answer the minutes after the first KJ minutes* 'ou can use the minutes to the next hour followed !'-para asP and the next hour (dialogue nu*ber A).Por favor* Due horas sBoH (Please* what time is itH) . (0t’s four fort'$ it’s twent' to five) B' ./Bo cinco e*eia(0t’sfive thirt') CThe expression-"ue horas s-oSPis used to as% time.hen referring to all hours*s-o %are) is the adeDuate con&ugation of the ver! ser that must !e used . &ust for the first da' and cardinal num!ers (dois* trFs* Duatro* cinco* seisG) for the other da's. CThe expression-e* pontoPmeans -sharp.(dialogue nu*ber@).eira Vuarta Vuinta 6eGta 6Jti+a Eita%a Nona 2J. Thus* !etween hours and minutes 'ou’ll use or-eP or Tpara asPN CThe word *eia means half(dialogue nu*ber B) . (0t’s five twent') A' .Third 0ourth 0ifth 6iGth 6e%enth Ei hth Ninth Tenth 1ays of the *onth Ter./Bo cinco e vinte.

. or -pm. reuni-o ser+ das GO?? 2s @@O??N The meeting will !e from nine to ten. -This.hen 'ou &ust want to refer to the period of the da' an event occurs* use the following expressions> de *anh-(in the morning)*2 tarde(in the afternoon)*2 noite(in the evening or at night) <(a*plesO •Estudo portuguFs e *anh.hen 'ou want to express the time that an event !egins and ends use the formula> from (hour) to (hour) R das %horas' 2s %horas' or the formula das %horas' at3 as %horas' <(a*pleO . This-este$esta theseSestes$estas These demonstrative pronouns are used when something is far from the spea%er !ut close to the listener. reuni-o ser+ das GO?? at3 as @@O??N The meeting will !e from nine till ten. thatSesse$essas thoseSesses$essas . O>JJpm $ P>JJ # /Bo sete horas (da noite) $/Bo de)enove horas.* use the expressions-da *anh-P. means este $esta and -these./Bo cinco e Duarenta e cinco $/Bo Duin)e para as seis COC – /Bo cinco e cinDuenta $ /Bo de) ara a eis @emonstrative Pronouns $ Pronomes @emonstrativos Ased when something is close to the spea%er./Bo duas horas (da manhB) >JJpm $ K>JJ # M uma hora (da tarde) $ /Bo tre)e horas. Tda tardePor-da noitePNThose expressions are used with specific time. . ">JJpm $ N>JJ #/Bo duas horas (da tarde) $ /Bo cator)e horas.L stud' Portuguesein the *orningN CO??# /Bo cinco horas CO?C– /Bo cinco e cinco CO@C– /Bo cinco e Duin)e CO>?– /Bo cinco e vinte CO>C– /Bo cinco e vinte e cinco COA?– /Bo cinco e treinta $ /Bo cinco e *eia COB?. means estes $ estas./Bo cinco e Duarenta $ /Bo vinte para as seis COBC. .@O?? L U u*a hora ">JJ . 0n Portuguese* when referring to -am. Q>JJpm $ "J>JJ /Bo oito horas (da noite) $ /Bo vinte horas.

thatZa.ny and !one L . These demonstrative pronouns do not identif' o!&ects (the' don’t accompan' a noun) and the' are used &ust in the singular form.lgu*a $ .0n Portuguese 'ou’ll find demonstrative pronouns to refer to things that are further away in space or ti*e fro* both spea%er and listener. 4ou can also use them to point something* without sa'ing the name of the thing.hat is thatH C1 Due T a#uiloH. <verything & 7udo !othing $ .nything& !ada ore. This1this thin 4444isto that1that thin 444isso that thin 444a.ueles1a.uela thoseZa. Qhole $ <ntire L 7odo $ 7oda . This is not good. /tud' the examples> <(a*plesO CEu tenho v+rios amigos na Europa.J+riosPis used along with plural $ masculine words and-v+riasPwith plural $ feminine words. /he li%es severeal different songs. *enos /o*ebody$.lgu*as and !enhu*a%fe*inine' /o *uch and so *any & 7anto $ tantaand tantos $ tantas Mew and *any L poucos $ poucasand *uitos $ *uitas Little and *uch L pouco $ poucaand *uito $ *uita /everal L J+rias e J+rios These pronouns are used in the plural form and the' must agree in gender with the noun the' refer to.uilo <(a*plesO C1 Due T issoH .lgu*$ .lgu3* $ and !ingu3* /o*e$. 0ndefinite Pronouns $ Pronomes 0ndefinidos Qhat is a indefinite pronounS 0ndefinite pronouns are words that replace nounsU the' refer to an identifia!le !ut not specified person or thing* expressing the idea of all* none* an' or some. less L ais .#uilo that thing) # to express your opinion or ideas.ny and !one L .nybody and !obody$!o one L .hat is that thing over thereH C8sto nBo T !om. CEla gosta de v+rias canVWes diferentes.lgunsand !enhu*%*asculine' /o*e$.. 0 have several friends in Europe.uele1a.uelas 4ou can use 8sto(this thing* this)*8sso(that thing* that) and .

along with plural $ feminine words <(a*plesO C7odos os dias telefono para ela. Ever' da' 0 call her. Possessive Pronouns $ Prono*es Possessivos En lish /y 1 +ine Four 1 yours Bis 1 Ber1 hers 1 its Eur 1 ours Their 1 theirs /as.ll L 7odos$ 7odas These pronouns are alwa's used with article. <(a*plesO CEu estava fora todo o dia. C7odas as pessoas precisam de amor.their$theirs * !ut for feminine group& delasNThese pronouns agree in gender and num!er with the person who owns the thing* !ecause these possessive pronouns alwa's refer to the person and not to the o!&ect. -Todos. Ever' da' 0 call her. !ote 8 The possessive pronouns seu $seus $sua $ suas can !e used to refer to your %yours'. . 4ours is red. 4our house is green. her %hers' and their %theirs'causing am!iguities* !ecause 'ou don’t %now if the pronoun is referring to 'ou or to other person. 8ll people need love. 5ote that in the examples !elow the possessive pronouns are used with definite articles • inha casa T verde.. <very $ . 0 was out the entire da' C7odo dia telefono para not necessar' to use a definite article.hen-todoPand-todaPmean-eachPor-allP. .uline /eu 1 /eus 6eu 1 6eus 2ele Nosso1 Nossos 2eles 0e+inine /inha1 /inhas 6ua 1 6uas 2ela Nossa 1 Nossas 2elas 5ote that in the examples !elow the possessive pronouns are used without article* !ecause the' co*e after verb to be •1 carro 3 *eu. their$theirs & deles. •/ua casa T verde. /tud' the examples !elow and o!serve that the' agree in gender with the noun the' accompan'. 9ine is red. Each person needs love. :ut when the' mean-entireP'ou do have to use the definite article !efore the noun. /tud' the examples !elow and o!serve that the' agree in gender with the noun the' accompan'. 9' house is green. *inha T vermelha. his.. C7oda pessoa precisa de amor. is used along with plural $ masculine words and -todas. The car is mine •1 carro 3 seuNThe car is 'ours.her$hers & dela. sua T vermelha. 0n some cases to avoid am!iguit' of the noun’s ownership* the possessive pronouns dele $ deles $ dela $delasare used to refer to his & dele.

-Yuien. 0n other words the' have the same meaning as LYueL and LYuemL do. is plural. means who* whom* which and that* thus it can !e used to refer to !oth people and things. means that* which* whom* whom. is singular and -Duais. /tud' the examples !elow> <(a*plesO 1 ator so!re o Dual falei T muito talentoso. can !e used with or without a preposition even when it refers to people. 8nd in this case* the' also agree in gender and num!er with the thing possessed. 0f the preposition that proceed the pronoun has more than " s'lla!les* 'ou have to use LDualL. "ue 9Yue. is plural. Co*pareO •This is the !oo%. 0 edited the !oo% •This is the !oo% that 0 edited.elative Pronouns & Prono*es .!ote 88 The possessive pronouns teu $teus $tua $ tuas can also !e used to refer to your and yours. This relative pronoun is used &ust to refer to people. -Yual. -Yue. (The door that is !ro%en) "ue* 9Yuem. (The actor who 0 tal%ed a!out is ver' talented. /tud' the examples !elow> <(a*ples •8 pessoa a #ue* ele dedicou o trofTu tam!Tm foi um vencedor. <(a*plesO 8 menina #ue estava no parDue T Zaura. !ote 888 Asuall' Portuguese grammar !oo%s recommend that it is not necessar' to use possessive pronouns !efore !od' parts* especiall' when the' are used to complement the ver!.elativos . 8 preposition must precede this pronoun.elative Pronouns 8 relative pronoun is a word that connects or com!ines two elements in a sentence standing in a place of a noun. (The person to whom he dedicated the troph' was also a winner) "ual $ "uais 9Yual $ Duais. @efinite articles must precede and agree with these relative pronouns. <(a*plesO .) Cujo $ cujos $ cuja $ cujas 9Cu&o $ cu&os $ cu&a $ cu&as. is singular and -Duienes. . The' are used to refer to !oth people and things. mean who or whom. (The girl who was in the par% is Zaura) 8 porta #ue estC Due!rada. These relative pronouns agree in gender and num!er with the possessed thing (and not the owner). :ut colloDuiall' is ver' common to use possessive pronouns along with !od' parts. mean whose. Xelative pronouns alwa's refer to the antecedent word.

here are 'ou from QhoS "ue*S "ue* 3 voc6S..) :nde L1ndeL also means Lem DueL and alwa's refer to places.hat do 'ou doH QhenS "uandoS "uando voc6 vai viajarS.= N?s W?s Eles 1Elas 1 Wo. 9aria 3 !onita (9aria is !eautiful) # 9aria is reall' !eautiful* ma'!e since she was !orn.=s sou Js J so+os sois s:o Jerb TserP 6in ular Eu sou .hen do 'ou pla' soccerH QhyNNNNbecause & Por #ueNNNNNNNpor#ue Carlos & Por #ue voc6 est+ e* casaS .sking #uestions in Portuguese QhereS :ndeS 1e onde voc6 3S. H Eu Tu Ele 1 Ela 1 Wo. 9aria est+ !onita (9aria is !eautiful) # 0n that moment 9aria is !eautiful* !ut ma'!e she doesn’t loo% !eautiful all the time.hen are 'ou going to travelH "uando voc6 joga futebolS. (The !o' whose sister is sic%* studies in another school.ho is sheH QhatS : #ueS : #ue 3 issoS. H K .hat is thisH : #ue voc6 fa)S.h' are 'ou at homeH How *any$*uchS "uantoS $"uantos$ "uantas 7o 9e & /er $ <star The ver! ser is used for conditions or characteristics that are permanent and the ver! estar is used for transitor' or not permanent conditions or characteristics.ho are 'ouH 0n this case the ver! ser # to !e . (the cit' where 0 was !orn is small) . <(a*plesO •8 cidade onde nasci T peDuena.must agree with the person voc6sN "ue* 3 elaS.ho are 'ouH "ue* s-o voc6sS. 6in ular Plural K .•1 menino cuja irmB estC doente* estuda em outra escola.

) C<u sou !rasileira. Bere’s how the three ty#es of %erbs .=1 Isso 1 Isto 1 " ente 1 6in ular words N?s Eles 1 Elas 1 Wo. (0’m in /Bo Paulo.( 0irstly$ there are three %erbs for ‘to be’$ whi.=s estão 7icar &lo..han e if they are re ular. er.=1 Isso 1 Isto 1 " ente 1 6in ular words N?s Eles 1 Elas 1 Wo. -er& eneral$ #er+anent( Eu sou Tu 4s Ele1ela1%o.1!serve that in this example the ver! ser was used 8*portant !otes ".) There are three ty#es of %erbs.Plural Ele 1 Ela 1 Wo. Co*pareO C<u estou em /Bo Paulo.estarP must !e used* and when referring to a place that a person is from* the ver! -serP is used.=s são Estar &te+#orary situations( Eu estou Tu est)s Ele1ela1%o. (0’m from /Bo Paulo..ation( 7ico 7icas 7ica 7icamos 7icais 7icam Estar and see how the endin s of the words . Those endin in –ar.=s 1 Plural words estou estI esta+os est:o 8*portant !ote .h de#end on why you are usin the+. ir in the infiniti%e &like ‘to be’$ ‘to o’$ et. . (0’m !ra)ilian.uite re ular$ so you .hen referring to a place that a person is located* the ver! .) .han e.).ar and .1!serve that in this example the ver! estar was used C<u sou de /Bo Paulo.(or nationalities and professions use also ver! ser Co*pareO C<u sou dentista.= est) N?s estamos W?s estais Eles1elas1%o.= 4 N?s somos W?s sois Eles1elas1%o. (0’m dentist.=s 1 Plural words Jerb TestarP J so+os s:o 6in ular Plural Eu Ele 1 Ela 1 Wo.

o+em 58 GPartirH&to lea%e( Eu #arto Tu #artes Ele #arte N?s #artimos W?s #artis Eles #artem .!8 G"antarH&to sin ( Eu .anto Tu .o+eis Eles .antam E8 G"omerH&to eat( Eu .antamos W?s .o+es Ele .o+o Tu .antas Ele .o+e N?s .anta N?s .o+emos W?s.antais Eles .