GUIDELINES FOR ACADEMIC ESSAYS

Different types of research projects:
Expository Analytic Argument Good essays generally combine the above elements and are not merely descriptive. What research writing is not:  A string of quotations.  A personal essay with no research basis.  Entirely theoretical with no research basis.  A paper which uses information which is not documented correctly, i.e. plagiarised. Choosing your topic: Thesis vs. topic Topic and Thesis: All good research writing has a clearly identifiable thesis. A topic provides you with something to talk about, a thesis makes a significant and specific statement about a subject. A topic therefore is general, whereas a thesis is specific. Thesis statement This is the backbone of your essay. You should be able to state your thesis precisely in 1 or 2 lines for any shorter essay. TS should be clear from your introduction. Should express an opinion or attitude toward the topic chosen.

Organisation
Introduction:  Should include your thesis statement and briefly mention the points you intend to cover.  Should catch the reader’s attention. Conclusion:  Should briefly reiterate your argument or main points.  Do not introduce new issues in the final paragraph.  Do not make apologies for what you haven’t done or simply state what you have achieved. Transitions: Make connections between paragraphs smoother by using suitable transition words. Format:  Title page—includes your name, the title of your paper, the course name, the lecturer’s name, date of submission and word count  Page number—pages should always be numbered  Line spacing—1.5 or double spacing should be followed throughout  Margins—Use reasonable margins, headers and footers, your work will be judged on the basis of what you have written not the number of pages you have filled.  Paragraphs—Clearly mark paragraph breaks by either indenting or leaving a line break. Every paragraph should have a topic sentence and be appropriately developed. Like the overall essay, paragraphs should consist of a beginning, some development and a conclusion or link to the next point you intend to make. Paragraphs consist of a minimum of three sentences. Proofreading Always proofread your work. Do not trust computer spelling and grammar checks absolutely.

Referencing
Plagiarism If you use material from another source you must cite it correctly, if you do not you will be guilty of plagiarism. Use of source material may involve direct quotation, paraphrasing or summary. Do not read about your topic, use other’s ideas and then claim you were ‘inspired.’ Keep account of the material you have used to learn about your chosen topic, take accurate notes or make photocopies so that you will be able to cite correctly. You will always need the following information about a source – a) author’s name b) full title of text c) publisher, place of publication and year of publication d) whether you have taken the author’s exact words or have paraphrased.

If you have any doubts or queries. is stylistically preferable to an abandoned quote or paraphrase. or. Pamela.  Block quotations – if you quote more than three lines of a text it is customary to format as follows: According to Frank Budgeon. 2001) 32. provide a footnote for the first reference and then include parenthetical page references within the main body of your essay for all future references. (Oxford: OUP. Please follow the guidelines outlined in this document precisely. fixed and examinable. Thomas Keymer. When citing the same work more than once. you are writing an essay on Pamela by Samuel Richardson. 2 . item 23). Do not use italics. In this case quotation marks are not used.  When referring to your primary text it is cumbersome to provide a footnote for every single quotation.. a chapter or an article from a book. Summary. 2. William. New York: Penguin. this final part of the citation is not required by the department. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx. Usually an introductory tag i. yet I know I wrote my Heart and that is not deceitful” (156). The latest MLA handbook requires that a footnote or bibliographic reference state whether the material appeared in print or on the web eg. confirming flatly. Print.  Use EITHER double OR single quotation marks for direct quotations . 3. 1 “I have only writ Truth. Lord of the Flies. indicate the line breaks by using a slash (/). even if it is only a shortened one. Here is an example from a student’s essay: By confining the flow and swirl of experience to letters. Do include the full URL of any reference to material accessed online even though current MLA guidelines say this is no longer required. 1 Samuel Richardson. the current trend is to use a short title or author's last name instead (see below. please approach your lecturer for clarification.. the exception to this would be when making repeated reference to a primary text (see the section headed NOTE below).  When using in the text of your essay the title of a book or the title of a text. The department bases its essay guidelines on those given by the MLA but there are some key differences: 1. All future page references will be to this edition and will be included in parentheses in the text. 2006. If.” or According to ….” With disarming honesty she argues. “tho’ I don’t remember all I wrote. ed.e Shakespeare states that “…. She sees words as directly related to truth.  Short quotations of poetry – when quoting a brief extract from a poem in the text of a paragraph. Footnotes The Modern Languages Association (MLA) provides one of the most accessible models of referencing. Direct Quotations – remember all these must be referenced. NOTE:  Detailed Footnotes are needed only for sources cited for the first time. the same rules regarding the use of italics or quotation marks apply as those for footnotes. The sincere heart as a measure of truth opens the way to the novel and heroine of sentiment. it is no longer fashionable to use ibid.  Context – avoid dropping in cited material without giving a context . or op cit. Use footnotes rather than in-text parenthetical citations.Citations  Paraphrase. Golding. Virtue Rewarded. for example. Pamela gives reported experience a truth which is tangible. As you will see from the guidelines below.

4 Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. Hope and Laughter (Deerfield Beach. Make sure to include the words “My translation” at the end of the footnote. journal. Internet 20. 1998) 391. Book with two authors or editors: 2 R. Larsson." World Book Encyclopedia. Book. eds." Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life. Article in a collection by several authors. 3. (Toronto: Charlton. Article in a collection by several authors. et al. Pamphlet or brochure with no author stated 12. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated 8. Granatstein. 2000 ed. 1993) 95. Hogg and Michael G. Book that has been translated 6. Book with one author or editor: 1 Frank Feather. Audio recording 17. 2000) 152-3. Presley. 7. Book with no author or editor stated: 4 The 1990 Charlton Coin Guide. "DNA Fingerprinting. (Redmond. Moyaart-Doubleday (Toronto: Bantam. you may include your own translation in the main body of your essay. Martin's. 1998) 96-98. FL: Health Communications. with an editor 7. et al. Sources used more than once 1. Article from an encyclopedia with one author 9. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated: 7 "Malcolm X. trans. product. 8. Film or video recording 16. Reference from the Bible. Preparing Your Income Tax Returns: 2001 Edition for 2000 Returns (Toronto: CCH Canadian. Chicken Soup for the Kid's Soul:101 Stories of Courage. 1989) 39. Computer software or CD-ROM 19.. 1. Article from a magazine. Article from an encyclopedia with one author: 8 Lawrence A. You may also provide the original quotation in Czech in your footnote. 2 Andrew Cohen and J. Mallin. 2001) 235. Let's Go: Germany 1998 (New York: St. or Sacred Texts 22. 1998) 57-71. or newspaper with no author stated 10. journal. Book with three or more authors or editors: 3 Jack Canfield. Article from a magazine. 3 . Catechism. 29th ed. or newspaper with one or more authors or editors 11.. Trudeau's Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Toronto: Random. 3 Mans O. 6. M. Canada's Best Careers Guide 2000 (Los Angeles: Warwick. Book that has been translated: 5 Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl. eds. Book with one author or editor 2. Book with no author or editor stated 5. you may be writing on Shakespeare but want to cite a Czech secondary source in support of your argument. Jerry White (Los Angeles: Warwick. Book with two authors or editors 3. "Life Insurance as a Tool for Estate Planning. 4.L. with an editor: 6 Carmen DaSilva. 2001) 969. ed. Quoting from sources in other languages: You may sometimes wish to quote from a source in another language: for example. In this case. 1997 ed. Book with three or more authors or editors 4. Television or radio 18. 2. 5. Citations for a single work throughout essay 23. Government document 14. Reference to Shakespeare 21. WA: Perspection. Interview 15. 1998) 68. or software review 13." Encyclopedia of Social Issues.D.

"Softwood Lumber: Let's Stop Blaming the U. review of China! The Grand Tour. 2000). 17 Abbey Lincoln Sings Her Career. 12. Internet: Publications on the Web present special challenges for documentation because of the fluidity of the online network. Newark. please see the Internet section below." Toronto Star 19 Feb. CD-ROM. Article from a magazine. 9 "Tobacco Companies to Anti-Smokers: Butt Out. in We Compute Feb. NJ. The following two examples illustrate correct footnote references for magazine and newspaper articles: 10 10 Chris Wood. 18. dir.. Film or video recording: 15 Eternal Earth. Television or radio: 17 Larry King Live." Maclean's 26 Aug. CA: Cambrix. 2002. 7 Mar. European Steel Industries. 28 min. 16 mm. 8 Sept. product or software review: 12 Henry Gordon. 2002: A19. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan (Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada. 2002. 4 .1 (1999): 139.'s Life and Legacy Celebrated across U. 13 United States. Woodland Hills. Rhombus Media. Personal interview. Nettwerk. Computer software or CD-ROM: 18 National Parks: The Multimedia Family Guide. Tim Gray. 1995. eg: 10 Nicholas Grene.. 2002. Jan. For guidance on how to cite from a scholarly journal you have accessed online (eg via JSTOR). CD-ROM by Hopkins Technology. 2000) 6. 2002: 12. Nassau.Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 . CD-ROM.S. 2002: 36-37. 4 Mar. 17. many texts do not provide page or paragraph numbers. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development." Maclean's 26 Aug. 11. "Gold Diggers of 2002. SPRO003. Article from a magazine. Martin Luther King Jr. 18 QuickTax: Tax Year 2001. 2002: 4+. 2002. you must take care to include the volume and issue number as well as the year of publication and page number. 1998: 15. during National Holiday. Government document: 13 Canada. National Council on Disability. prod. 1994. 18 Norton AntiVirus. students should aim for comprehensiveness and cite whatever information is available to them using the guidelines below.9. 19. 2000) 12-13. Bahamas. Pamphlet. PQ: Merck. Vancouver. Solid Ground.” Irish University Review 29. or newspaper with no author stated: 9 "Dr. 2000). WBGO. et al. Audio recording: 16 Ginger. 10. 2002: C5. CD-ROM. In the face of such difficulties." Jet 11 Feb. 2002." Globe and Mail [Toronto] 19 Feb. with no author stated: 11 2001 Chevy Tracker: Chevy Trucks (General Motors of Canada. Intuit Canada. Many sources do not provide all the desired information – for example.Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures (Washington: GPO. Carrying on the Good Fight . Symantec. journal. 16.S. 13. journal. Interview: 14 Hellmut Longin. 37 sec. or newspaper with one or more authors or editors: Please note than when citing from an article included in a scholarly journal. “Friel and Transparency. 14. 1987. Book. President. 11 Fosamax (Kirkland. 9 "New Chips Aimed at Wireless Market. Larry Weinstein. CNN. 15.

57) 21. or there are sources by two or more authors with the same last name. URL and access date. 2 King. and page number(s) with articles.1 (1999): 139. Atlantic Monthly Group. but always indicate your access date just after the URL. 20 Hamlet IV. When two or more books by the same author are used as reference material. Reference to Shakespeare: (Shakespeare's plays are cited with Roman capitals for the Act. Citations for a single work throughout essay: If the entire essay is about one book. Article 1.g. Citation of a different quote from the same book: 4 Catechism. Example of Footnote citation. followed by the name of the database. for 'from one ancestor [God] made all nations to inhabit the whole earth. Example in text: The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that "Because of its common origin the human race forms a 2 unity.com.” Irish University Review 29. Carrie did it. Chapter 1. 20. would be: 2 Catechism of the Catholic Church (New York: Doubleday. Page 103. Fire-Starter 279.'" Example of first Footnote or Endnote citation of the above quote taken from Catechism of the Catholic Church. e.uk/books/2007/aug/04/fiction. 19 Joshua Green. which means that you must include the full publication details. “Rereading Middlemarch: Wit and Wisdom. Reference Number: 360.” The Guardian. 1974) 40. All subsequent quotations are from this edition.asbyatt> 12 Sept 2012. and Arabic numerals for the Lines). 15-18. “Friel and Transparency. “The Rove Presidency." (198) 23. It 13." (III. If a source was footnoted earlier. In-text Footnotes or Endnotes are also appropriate in an essay on a single Shakespearean play: 20 Lear sums up his whole tragedy when he says. long form: 1 Matthew 12:1-8. ii. or Sacred Texts: Example in text: 1 An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath. Sept 2007 <URL> 29 19 Nov 2009. 1994) 360. 22. Paragraph 6I. Reference from the Bible. leave it out.guardian. If the Web page does not have a modification or creation date. Catechism. Carrie (New York: New American. such as: Nicholas Grene. 360.S Byatt. Sources used more than once: 1. 5 . i. you can use a shortened Footnote or Endnote providing only the author's surname and the reference page number: 1 King 197. "I am a man more sinned against than sinning. 2. Second date = the date you accessed the Web page. Section 2. Carrie only and there are no other sources used. Example of Footnote citation.co. Part I. it is only necessary to supply the page number of the text: Sheriff Otis Doyle testified that Miss Snell told him that "Carrie did it. After this.Standard web pages: Note: First date = Web page creation or modification date. a Footnote or Endnote is needed only for the first quotation as follows: Stephen King. 4 Aug 2007 <http://www. JSTOR <URL>. access date. JSTOR. short form: 1 Mt 12:1-8. EBSCO and similar databases of academic articles: Treat these resources as e-libraries. small Roman numerals for the Scene. A.uk.co. Subsequent citation of the same quote: 3 Catechism. 1499.” The Atlantic. Guardian News and Media Ltd. include the short title or an abbreviated form of the title: 2 King.

musical. Book with three authors or editors 4. Movie 23. A bibliography is a list of works cited not works read: in other words. Letter 26. periodical. Article in an encyclopedia with an author 11.Music CD. Booklet. e.Bibliography Sometimes for a longer piece of work a bibliography is also required. Radio 29. Entries should always be listed in alphabetically order according to the author’s surname. a collection by several authors. or newspaper with no author stated 12. opera. Book with one author or editor 2. magnetic tape 30. theatrical performance) 28. Book with more than three authors or editors 5. newsletter. translated by another 8. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series) 14. Book with two authors or editors 3. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated 10. Booklet. Film. you should only include works which you have referred to directly in your essay. CD-ROM 20. 21. journal. journal. Article in a magazine. Cassette Tape Recording 19. Computer software 22. MEAD. newsletter. Videocassette 32. Performance (ballet. with one or more editors and/or compilers 9. pamphlet. or newspaper with one or more authors 13. Map or Chart 27. Book with compilers and editors 6. Interview 25. Computer service. Television 31. pamphlet. Article in a magazine. Book with one author. etc. Recording . LP. Book review 17. play. Work in an anthology. or brochure with an author 16. Government publication 18. Advertisement 33. BRS.g. Definition from a dictionary 6 . DIALOG. Book with no author or editor stated 7. 1. Internet 24. periodical. concert. or brochure with no author stated 15.

Waller R. and Tony Koltz. New York: Barnes. newsletter. Blanchard. Midge. John B. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures. or newspaper with no author stated: "100 Years of Dust and Glory. IL: Publications International. newsletter. Ed. but paging is not consecutive. Melissa. Andrea. 1997 ed.. journal. 2002. meaning "and others" after the first author or editor named. New York: Norton. Kenneth H. with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox. City of Publication: Publisher. a collection by several authors. 8. et al. publisher and year of publication. 1998. New York: Harper. Tom. Toronto: Key Porter. 2000. If there are 4 or less letters in the month.. Barrett. translated by another: Muller. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy. Book with two authors or editors: Bolman. May. 2001. Kenneth H. New York: Putnam. New York: Metropolitan. 306-7. to the Present. ed.. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically. Lincolnwood. 4. place of publication. 1999.. name of editor or edition. you must give full publication information including author. periodical. 1994. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book. may be listed under the first named author: Blanchard. 2. Deal. Sheldon Bowles. New and Rev. 2000 ed. Note also that there is no period after the month." Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Hogan. contains more than one page. 2001. the months are not abbreviated. Translated by Rita and Robert Kimber. Lee G. Example: When numbering pages. 2002. 1997. and eds. title of article. periodical. Book with one author or editor: Author(s). Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions from 1256 A. Charles James. "Liberty Is Order. Article in a magazine. 2001. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous. eds. The period in "Mar. 3. Newell.L. and July. 7 . "Dyslexia. Matthews. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey of Spirit. or you may use "et al. et al. journal. et al. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces.D. D. 5. title of encyclopedia. Title of Book. and Terrence E. Liberty Is Strength. Birchfield." New Encyclopaedia Britannica. June. e. 2002.. Work in an anthology.. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean's Canada's Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events that Shaped Our Identity. 10. Book with one author. or newspaper with one or more authors: Use "+" for pages that are not consecutive. Ed. comps." from the Latin et alii. Use "A1+" if article begins on page A1. if the publication date is June 17. or et aliae. Anne Frank: The Biography.g. 6. Article in a magazine. number of volumes in the set. High Five! The Magic of Working Together. use "24-25" if page numbers are consecutive. and Wendy L." What Is a Man? 3.000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. David J. Year. Servants of the Map. New York: Marshall Cavendish. 2001: 70-75. Unusual. "Powwows. Carl Stiner. Michael W.1. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 11. Don Carew and Eunice Parisi-Carew. T. 9. 7. for example. A book written by Ken Blanchard.11 vols. New York: Harper." World Book Encyclopedia. Kibby." Popular Mechanics Sept." is for the abbreviation of March. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: "Nazi Party. Book with compilers and editors: McClay. 12. But if the encyclopedia is not well known. citation will be 17 June 2002. For instance. it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers.

" Daily Telegraph [London] 25 Jan. 16. 1. 2001: 36. underlined. "Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite. or brochure with an author: Lee. 5. Carrying on the Good Fight . BC: LifeScan Canada. Book review: May use short forms: Rev. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. 5) Publisher. 1992: B1. Booklet. 1. Mississauga.Final Ed. United States. "date.0.: Landler. Author(s). 3 min. e. 1992). or Edited). 3. International Express. “Title of Article. Government publication: Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government. 1992. 20. Solid Ground." Ottawa Citizen 16 Feb. 3) Title of publication. Art. Example in MLA style: Bluestone. Eleanor Goldstein." Rev. DIALOG. 6 June 2000: 37. 14.e. I. Groskop.. 42. 20. 770. Susan and Cameron MacKeen. etc. 47 sec.” Magazine or Newspaper.S. and Irving Bluestone. "Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Article No. CDROM. 13.. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?" New York Times. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out. and Irving Bluestone. Hoffman.5" disk. New York: Simon. 1992: 30-40. or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. 18. 1992: 30-40. year" are required. month. National Council on Disability. 2000. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada. Ed. Work." Rev. federal government documents. Computer software: ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600. Ed. 2002: A1+. 30 min. DIALOG File 472. (Review). Canada. 1 hr.Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication. 6) Date. Late Ed.Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 . Cassette Tape Recording: Covey. 1986. Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington. Ginger. (Boca Raton. Washington: GPO. Editor. of The Binding Chair by Kathryn Harrison. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication. "Can U. 1994. 2001. In Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ed.Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures ./Dec. (Edition.g. pamphlet. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Boca Raton: SIRS. IBM. pamphlet. Square parentheses are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. New York: Chelsea. Vancouver: Nettwerk.g.S. "Chinese Torture . and 770E." Technology Review Nov. Canadian ed. Summer Institute. 15. Mark. Reprinted in WORK. Creating Your Own Web Site: A Crash Course for Beginners . Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication. item 03072065197653951002. Comp./Dec. Vol. Dan. Viv. Booklet. Compiler). MEAD. 2) Agency. Cassette tape recording read by author. Barry. "Huck's Ironic Circle. Stephen R. 20. Audio Div.at Five. Andrew. "Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle. 4) Place of publication. DC which publishes most of the U. Date: Pages. Art. 17. Computer service . 8 . of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. 4. add the city of publication between square parentheses. 1995. National Post [Toronto]. 21. SPRO003. CD-ROM: LeBlanc. 19. Vol. Cave. Michael J. Pelletier. IBM Vers. "'Justice' for Canadian Skaters: IOC Awards Second Gold to Canada's Salé. by Harold Bloom. only "month." Technology Review Nov. . 2 Oct. 31-44. "Racism and the Landfill. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Example from SIRS: Bluestone. Barnes. ON: Dufferin-Peel CDSB. year" are needed. Barry. Burnaby. (Compiled. 2000. FL: Social Issues Resource Series. 1997. 1995. 1998. BRS." Chronicle-Herald 7 Mar. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights.

<http://www. 1. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. Victoria C.” Encyclopadeia Britannica Online. 23. Perf. 2001 <http://www. Cable News Network.html> 20 Nov. Windsor. Greenberger.” Title of Web Site.history. Internet citation of a software download: Note: It is not absolutely essential to include the file size. Anthony Hopkins and Julianne Moore. ed." 18 Mar. 2000. (narrated by). writ. map. Film. “Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines.22.thedailybeast. State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Mark. Association of Austrian Industrialists. 26.pcworld.04. Daschle. Chart. Interview: Longin. MGM and Universal. 2001 <http://us. 25 June 2002. Map or Chart: Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. <URL> Date of Access. Movie: Short forms may be used.atlapedia. Letter to the author. 2007. Music Hans Zimmer. 11 Sep 2012. 2012.com/2007/WORLD/meast/03/15/search. Vice-President.com/EBchecked/topic/153632/Willem-de-Kooning> 11 Sep. Jim Zwick.html?id=b4ZOip6AqK8C&redir_esc=y> 29 Feb. Newsweek.g. Internet: Web: basic Author(s) or Editor(s). "Banned in Concord.htm>. 2009. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. 2000.14 Oct. dir.. painting. Alex.html>. 2 Sept. Encyclopedia Britannica.g Google Books. 12 Nov. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount. (written by). 27 Nov. Jeanne M.google. 1997. prod. 27 Nov.cz/books/about/Critical. cite what is available. Internet citation for a cartoon. Prod. Jon Landau. distributor. Hannibal. Martha De Laurentiis. 24. Date of Publication. Twain. James Cameron. 25. “Title of Page. and year of release.com/twaintexts/letters/letter850318. John. 2007.britannica. 19 Mar. Tom. and Ridley Scott. Tyre." American History 102 Photo Gallery. 2000 <http://www. 1995-2001. photo. EBSCO) For a database article. etc. 2001.” Cnn. If you cannot find some of the information. use the normal citation for a similar print source (or as much of it as you can find). <http://www. 2008. Critical: What We Can Do About the HealthCare Crisis. <http://edition.boondocksnet. “Friel and Transparency. 2001 Andex Chart for Canadian Investors. Quade.asp?fid=7605>. Dino De Laurentiis. Article or eBook from an Online Database (e. Blue Dice Software.com/online/maps/political/Afghan_etc.com/newsweek/2008/09/07/struggling-school-age-boys. and Scott S. (performers). A minimal entry should include title. e. “Standardised Tests in College?” Newsweek. Nicholas. Titanic.edu/hist102/photos/html/1023.: "Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.1 (1999): 136-44. Martin’s Press.rescue/index. Screenplay David Mamet and Steven Zaillian. Letter: Published letter in a collection." Map. (directed by). < http://books. but the knowledge is helpful. RAMeSize. Grene. Ed. Webster.html> 27 Apr. Prod. New York: St. 1885.com.html>. <URL> Date of Access. ON: Andex Associates Inc. perf. (produced by). “de Kooning. 2001. Industry Union of Austria. Vers. 1997. Smith. 1993-2001. President. 24 Sept. narr.” Irish University Review 29. th 9 . Ridley Scott.. Lambrew. 2008. A letter you received from John Smith. Atlapedia Online. sculpture. writ. JSTOR <URL>. sound clip. Letter to Charles L. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain..cnn. JSTOR. Dir. 2007.. Willem. Telephone interview. director. Dir. 2001 <http://www. Publisher or sponsor of site. chart. "Woodhull.wisc. 15K. 2012. then add the following information: …Database Name. Helmut. clipart. Peg. prod. 16 Nov.com/downloads/file_download. Google Books.

" Def. Herbie Barnes. etc.R. Exec. composer. theatrical performance) The Hobbit. Host. 28. 1996." Microsoft. Sterling Sound. add the abbreviation Def. 1996. Prod. singer. see Item 23 above. musical. 17 June 2002: 24-25. Edition. Tolkien. By J. 29. Color. CA. Prod. "Now the Left Hand Knows What the Right Hands Are Doing. LP. 1998. 33. state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. Advertisement. concert. Videocassette: Jane Austen's Emma. Vancouver. opera.27. Canadian ed. If the word has several different definitions. 8 Feb. NY. Arthur Black. with Universal Television. Mastered by Tom Coyne.). or editor. If citing from Internet. Michael Simpson. Wolf Film in assoc. magnetic tape: Basic components: Name of author. "Mug. 31. Rochester. 107 min. Radio: Basic Black. ON. Title of song (in quotation marks). 1999. Living Arts Centre. Zomba. New York: New Video Group. 10 . 25 Feb. magnetic tape. after the word. Los Angeles. Chris Straw. see Item 23 above. NYC. play. Place of publication: Publisher. NBC Television Network. Mississauga. 2002. Television: Law and Order. Larger than Life. Backstreet Boys. and Chris Heyerdahl. 20 Apr. release. Recording .Music CD. 32. WHEC. The New Lexicon Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language. Title of recording (underlined). Date of publication. or version. Definition from a dictionary: When citing a definition from a dictionary. To cite an advertisement found on the Internet. Exclusive Management by The Firm. Perf. Meridian Broadcasting. Videocassette. eWeek. 2. 1988. CD. Dir. Publication medium (LP.R. Millennium. CBC. 30. Kim Selody. Advertisement: Put in square parentheses [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Performance: (ballet. CD.